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Biology

Introduction: The scientific study of life and living Organism is called Biology. The world biology
is derived from Greek words: Bios means “life” and logos “study of”. It is a natural science and
can explain concept of our daily lives. It deals with the study of living beings both plants and
animals. Biology identifies the cell as the basic unit of life, Genes as the basic unit of heredity
and evolution as the engine that moves the synthesis and creation of new species. Aristotle
considered as father of biology.

In Biology, all aspects of life and every type of living organism are discussed. The Biologists
study constant detail of the human brain, the composition of genes and the functioning of our
reproductive system. An organism is a living body consisting of one cell. Example: animals,
plants and fungi. Biology includes the study of evolutionary relationship and it surrounded by
organism. It also includes the study of life on earth.

Life arose more than 3.5 million years ago. First organisms were single celled and organisms
changed over time. Today, there are millions of species and inhabit almost every regions of the
earth

There are two branches of biology:- 1) Botany 2) Zoology

Botany is the study of plants and father of botany is Theophrastus.

Zoology is the study of animals and father of zoology is Aristotle.

Characteristics of life: Living things share the seven characteristics:-

• Organization and cells

• Response to stimuli

• Homeostasis

• Metabolism

• Growth and development

• Reproduction

• Evolution

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Organization and cells: It is the high degree of order within an organism’s internal and external
parts. A cell is the smallest unit of organism. It can perform all process of life.

Response to stimuli: The organisms respond to various stimuli.

Example of stimuli: Plants that can grow toward a source of light or respond to touch and tiny
bacteria move toward or away from chemicals

Homeostasis: The tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its internal conditions. In


response to environmental changes homeostasis is the ability to maintain a constant internal
environment.

The nervous system and endocrine system control homeostasis in the body.

Example of homeostasis in the body:-

• Temperature control, pH balance

• Water and electrolyte balance

• Blood pressure

• Respiration

Gene theory: Molecular unit of heredity is a gene. This theory was developed by Gregor
Mendel. His experiment was based on breeding plants. The theory of gene is one of the basic
principles of biology.

The main concept of gene theory is that:-

Through gene transmission traits are passed from parents to offspring and are located on
chromosomes. It consists of DNA and through reproduction it is passed from parents to
offspring. The principles that govern heredity are now called Mendel’s law of segregation and
law o independent assortment.

Metabolism: It is the sum of chemical reaction that takes place within each cell of living
organism. It provides energy for vita process.

Metabolisms are divided into 2 categories:-

• Catabolism

• Anabolism

Catabolism: It breaks down organic matter. By way of cellular respiration it harvests energy

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Anabolism: It uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids.

Branches of Biology:-

 Zoology is the study of animals.

 Botany is the study of plants

 Ecology is the study of the interactions of living things and the non living environment.

 Entomology is the study of insects.

 Microbiology is the study bacteria and their affect on humans.

 Paleontology is the study of fossils.

 Morphology: The study of form and structure of living organism. It can divided into 2
parts:-

i) External Biology

ii) Internal Biology

The study of external parts of living organism is called external morphology.

The study of internal parts of living organism is called internal morphology.

 Histology is the study of cells and tissues with the help of the microscope.

 Cell biology is the study of structure and functions of cells and their organelles.

 Taxonomy: On the basis of similarities and differences living organism are classified into
groups and subgroups and is called classification.

Taxonomy is branch of biology in which organisms are classified and given scientific
names.

 Embryology: The study of development of an organism from Zygote (fertilized


egg). The stage between zygote and newly born baby is called embryo.

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 Biotechnology: It deals with the practical application of organism and their
components for the human beings welfare.

Basic principle of Biology:-

There are five basic principles:-

 Cell theory

 Gene theory

 Evolution

 Homeostasis

 Thermodynamics.

Cell: On earth all living organism are divided in pieces called cells. Smaller pieces to cells include
proteins and organelles and there are larger pieces called tissues and systems. It is simple or
easier for an organism to grow and survive when cells are present.

Cell theory:

Robert Hooke first discovered the cell in 1665.Cell is the basic unit of structure and functions
and all the organisms are made of one or more cells i.e. Unicellular or Multi cellular. It is the
chemical system and is the fundamental units of life. All cells arise from other cells through cell
division. A Cell shows plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm. Plasma membrane covers the
cell and is made of protein and lipids. It is thin permeable membrane. Cell theories consist of 3
principles:

All living things are composed of one or more cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and
come from reproduction of existing cells. All the plant and animals are made up of cells and is
capable of performing life function. In plants and animals cell nucleus, cytoplasm, cell
membrane, mitochondria and ribosome are common. Plant cell have cell wall, chloroplasts and
permanent vacuole

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In many pathological processes the cell is considered as the basic unit. The phenomenon of
energy flow occurs in cell and cell contains hereditary information (DNA) which is passed from
cell to cell during cell division.

There are 2 types of cell:

i) Prokaryotic cell

ii) Eukaryotic cell

Characteristics of Prokaryotic cell: A prokaryotic cell is a group of organism. They do have


structures surrounded by membranes. The cell contains a few internal structures and one celled
organism Bacteria. It has no nucleus. In this cell some use flagellum for locomotion threadlike
structure. Prokaryotes cell are the smallest forms of life that can live independently. The most
familiar prokaryotes are bacteria.

Characteristics of Eukaryotic cell: The Eukaryotic cells contain organelles. Organelles are
surrounded by membranes It is larger and more complex than prokaryotes. These cells are
found in the kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia. Eukaryotic cell have nucleus and
are 10 times greater than prokaryotic cell. It possesses a plasma membrane and has an internal
cytoskeleton.

Cell organelles: Cell contains variety of internal structure called organelles. These are tiny parts
that make a cell.

Eukaryotic cells is of 2 types:-

i) Animal Cell

ii) Plant cell

There are different organelles of animal cell:-

 Nucleus controls the cells and contain hereditary material i.e. Chromosomes, genes,
DNA

 Cytoplasm: These are fluid in the cell and help to the transport material.

 Ribosome’s make proteins from amino acids.

 Vacuole stores food, water and waste.

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 Chloroplast carries out photosynthesis

 Cell wall gives shape, structure and protection to cell and never found in cell.

 Mitochondria

Cell membrane separates cell interior from environment. It controls the enters and leaves the
cell using transport proteins

Evolution: According to concept of biology life changes and develops through evolution.

Impact of biological study of human life or significance of biology

The study of biology is very important in our life as described below:-

Food has basic important in our life. There are great achievements in agriculture due to
researches in biology. The primary objective of agriculture is to produce food. To increase the
food production many technologies are generated. The best varieties seeds were selected for
the production cereal crops. Today the man has succeeded in dealing with the problems of
balanced diet, food storage and famine.

Control on disease: Health is essential of life and because of researches in biology the discovery
of new antibiotics for much infectious disease i.e. plagues, cholera, pneumonia, tuberculosis
and typhoid has made the easy life. Due to discovery of vaccines for fatal disease like small fox,
polio, tetanus, and diphtheria the infant mortality has reduced. The germs of this disease
destroy the natural resistance. So many drugs have been discovered for the cancer treatment
and a medicine called AZT essential for AIDS. Penicillin and streptomycin are the useful drugs
that have controlled much infectious disease.

Interdependence of organism:

Ecology: study of the interaction of organism with each other and their environment.

Energy from sun passed from one organism to another

First to the producers (plants) to herbivore (plant eater) to carnivore (meat eater) to
decomposers.

Microorganism: The people who study the microbes are called microbiologists.

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Biology of plants: Just like people and animals plants are alive. They grow and die, need energy,
nutrients, air, water; Produce young, and made up of cells

Nutrition: It is taking in nutrients which are organic substance and mineral ions. It is the
characteristics of living organism of living organism.

There are seven types of nutrients:-

• Carbohydrates

• Proteins

• Fats

• Vitamins

• Minerals

• Roughages

• Water

Carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins are organic substances. They are made by living
organism. It contains carbon atoms in their structures.

Carbohydrates composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Function of carbohydrates: It is used as an energy resource and in creating the cellulose.

There are three types of Carbohydrates:-

i) Monosaccharide’s

ii) Disaccharides

iii) Polysaccharides

Monosaccharide and disaccharides are sugars

Polysaccharides are not considered as sugars and not have sweet taste.

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Fats are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. One fat molecule is made of a glycerol unit
and three molecules of fatty acids.

Fats are important in a diet they are needed to release high amounts of energy, make cell
membrane and storing energy.

Proteins are organic compounds and contain the carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen and Nitrogen

Protein makes new body cells, growth and repair, build up hormones, making antibodies.

Vitamins are organic compound which are needed in small quantities to help life. Vitamins are
essential to keep the body healthy and the mind alert. A lack of vitamin can lead to fatigue,
poor skin, teeth and bones. In some cases, deficiency of vitamin leads to serious illness.

There are 13 different vitamin divided into 2 categories:-

Fat soluble vitamin: Vitamin A, D, E AND K.

Water soluble Vitamin need to be consumed from foods every day.

 Vitamin A : Retinol

Function: Important for healthy bones, teeth, mucous membranes and skin, aids vision.

Carotenoids are other forms of vitamin A are powerful antioxidants.

Sources: Meat, eggs, oily fish, liver, milk, cheese, kidney.

Symptoms:

 Poor night vision

 Eye problems

 Weakened immune system.

Vitamin B1( Thiamin)

Function: Protect the heart and the nervous system and is needed to convert carbohydrates
and fats into energy.

Sources: fortified bread and cereals, whole gains, dried beans, potatoes, spinach, nuts, peas,

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Symptoms:

Tiredness and fatigue

 Muscle weakness

 Nerve damage

 Enlarged heart

 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Function: Vital for growth, the production of red blood cells (RBCs) and releasing energy from
food.

Sources: Fish, egg, milk, lean meat, poultry, soy beans, legumes, almonds, leafy vegetables and
cereals.

Symptoms:

 Skin disorders

 Blood shot eyes and sore throat

 Dry and cracked lips.

 Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Function: Maintains a healthy skin, keeps digestive system working well

Sources : Milk, egg, liver, heart, Poultry, lean meat, peanuts, broccoli, carrots, avocados,
tomatoes, dates, sweet potatoes, whole grains, mushrooms.

Symptoms:

 Skin disorders

 Fatigue

 Depression and diarrhea.

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 Vitamin B5( Pantothenic acid):

Function: It is needed for the metabolism and synthesis of all foods.

Sources: whole grain cereals, fish, dried fruit, meat, liver, eggs, pulses.

Symptoms: In this case deficiency is rare, tiredness and a loss of feelings in the toes.

 Vitamin B6( Pyridoxine)

It helps to maintain nerve function, a healthy immune system and healthy antibodies.

Sources: chicken, liver, eggs, lean meat, nuts, whole grains and cereals, bananas

Symptoms:

• Skin disorders

• Mouth sores

• Confusion

• Depression and anemia

 Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

Biotin helps to regulate blood sugar levels. It promotes healthy skin, hair, and nails. It is
important in the metabolism. It is essential in the synthesis of fatty acids, carbohydrates and
fats.

Sources: Vitamin B7 found in all types of food, brewer’s yeast, cauliflower, egg yolk, kidney,
liver, milk. Mushrooms, peanuts and spinach.

Symptoms:

 Brittle nails
 Conjunctivitis
 Depression
 Dermatitis
 Fatigue
 Hair loss
 Loss of appetite

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 Muscle pain
 Nausea and weakness

 Vitamin B9 (Folic acid):

Symptoms:

• Fatigue, tiredness
• Feeling weak
• Forgetfulness
• Being irritable , easy irritated
• Loss of appetite
• Weight loss

 Vitamin C: (Absorbic Acid)

Function: It helps prevent cell damage and reduce risk for certain cancer, heart disease and
other disease. It protects you from infectious by keeping your immune system healthy.

Sources: citrus fruit such as oranges, grapefruits and their juices, kiwi, strawberries, mangoes,
papaya, Red, yellow and green peppers, broccoli, tomatoes, raw dark leafy vegetables.

Deficiency:

 Digestive disorders
 Periodontal disease
 Joint ache
 Bruises
 Fractures
 Slow healing of wounds
 General weakness
 Loss of appetite.


 Vitamin D ( Cholecalciferol)

Functions: Required for bone and teeth formation, improves absorption and utilization of
phosphorous and calcium, maintains stable nervous system.

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Sources: egg yolk, Fatty fish, milk, cereals, liver

Deficiency symptoms:

• Bone pain and tenderness and muscle weakness


• In children Rickets may occur in which bones lose calcium.
• Sleeplessness
• Weak bones

Deficiency occur in

More common in strict vegetarians, Dark skinned alcoholics, people with liver or kidney
disease.

Vitamin E (AlphaTocopherol)

Function: It maintains healthy cholesterol levels.

• They protect the body of free radicals and prevent infections


• Alleviates fatigue by supplying oxygen
• Prevents and dissolves blood clots
• Helps in preventing sterility

Sources: Vegetable oil, wheat germ, nuts, dark green vegetables, whole grains, beans, almonds,
sunflower seeds, green leafy vegetable, mangoes, corn, butter, fortified cereals, walnuts

Deficiency symptoms

• Infant’s irritability
• Fluid Retention and Anemia
• Adult symptoms include Lethargy, loss of balance and anemia
• Increased risk of heart disease, cancer
• Cardiac problems
• Problems of reproductive system

Vitamin K(Phytonadione)

Functions: It keeps coronary artery disease.

• Prevents formation of kidney stones


• Regulate calcium levels in the body

Sources:

Leafy green vegetables, soybeans, dairy products, meats, legumes and vegetables

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Deficiency symptoms:

It is generally occurred in people with improper digestive health easily prone to injury and bruises

Introduction to plants: Plants contain chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis.

Classification of plants:

Plant kingom : Non flowering plants and Flowering plants

Non flowering plants have 3 groups: Mosses, Ferns and Gymnosperms. They are not produce
flowers.

Plant can divide into three parts: stem. Leave and root

Flowering plants are divided into 2 groups:-Angiosperm are flowering plants. These are of
two types:-

• Dicotyledons:

Aceraceae (Maple family)

Asteraceae (Daisy family)

Fabaceae (Pea family)

Dicotyledons are two seed leaves, leaves have vein in network. Eg:
trees, sunflower, rose

• Monocotyledons

Liliaceae (Lily family)

Orchidaceae ( Orchid family)

Poaceae (Grass family)

Monocotyledons are one seed leaf, have parallel veins . eg:grass , maize

Whittakers Five kingdoms classification

 Monera

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 Fungi
 Animalia
 Plantae
 Protista

Angiosperms: Angiosperms is a vascular flowering plant in which seeds are surround


inside of protective ovaries.

Gymnosperm: A vascular non flowering plant in which seeds are not protected by an
ovary.

Chorophyll : Cholorophyll found in the chloroplasts of plants, It is a green pigment


imporant for photosynthesis.

Dicot: During embroyonic development, when flowering plant possesses two cotyledon
is called dicotyledons.

Monocot: During embroyonic development when a flowering plant possesses one


cotyledon is called monocotyledons.

Photosynthesis: The process by which plants and other autotrophic organism convert
light energy into organic material are called Photosynthesis.

Pollen Grain is the male gametophyte of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

Fathers in Biology:-

• Father of Medicine - Hippocrates


• Father of Biology and Zoology - Aristotle
• Father of Botany and Ecology - Theophrastus
• Father of Anatomy - Andreas Versalius
• Father of Microscopy - Antony Van Leeuwenhoek
• Father of Cytology - Robert Hooke
• Father of Taxonomy - Carolus Linnaeus
• Founder of Embroyology - C.F. Wolf
• Father of Immunology - Edward Jenner
• Father of Antiobiotic - Alexander Fleming
• Father of Blood Circulation - Willium Harvey
• Father of Blood groups - Lansteiner
• Father of Green revolution - Norman E. Borlaug
• Father of Genetics - Gregor Johann Mendel
• Father of Ayurveda - Charaka

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