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Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Red Hat Enterprise Linux(RHEL) is a Linux distribution developed


Red Hat Enterprise Linux
by Red Hat and targeted toward the commercial market. Red Hat
Enterprise Linux is released in server versions for x86, x86-64,
Itanium, PowerPC and IBM System z, and desktop versions for x86
and x86-64. All of the Red Hat's official support and training, together
with the Red Hat Certification Program, focuses on the Red Hat
Enterprise Linux platform. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is often
abbreviated to RHEL, although this is not an official designation.[5]

The first version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to bear the name
originally came onto the market as "Red Hat Linux Advanced Server".
In 2003 Red Hat rebranded Red Hat Linux Advanced Server to "Red
Hat Enterprise Linux AS", and added two more variants, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux ES and Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS.

Red Hat uses strict trademark rules to restrict free re-distribution of


their officially supported versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux,[6] but
still freely provides its source code. Third-party derivatives can be
GNOME 3 on RHEL 7
built and redistributed by stripping away non-free components like
Developer Red Hat, Inc.
Red Hat's trademarks. Examples include community-supported
distributions like CentOS and Scientific Linux, and commercial forks OS family Linux
like Oracle Linux, which does not offer 100% binary compatibility Working state Current
with Red Hat Enterprise Linux, because Oracle uses a non-standard Source model Open source (with
process to clear the Red Hat brand. exceptions)[1]
Initial release February 22, 2000[2]
Latest release 7.5, 6.9, 5.11 / April 10,
Contents 2018, March 21, 2017,
September 16, 2014
Variants
Marketing target Commercial market
Relationship with Fedora
(including for
Rebuilds mainframes, servers,
Related products and add-ons supercomputers)
Version history
Available in Multilingual
RHEL 2.1
RHEL 3 Update method Long-term support
RHEL 4 Package manager
RHEL 5 Yum (command-
RHEL 6 line front-end),
RHEL 7 yumex (graphical
Product life cycle front-end)
Kernel backporting PackageKit
Extended Update Support (EUS) / Z Tree (graphical front-
Note ends)
RHEL 6
RPM (package
RHEL 7
format)
References Platforms ARM64,[3] x86-32, x86-
Further reading 64; Power Architecture;
External links S/390; z/Architecture[4]
Kernel type Monolithic (Linux)
Userland GNU
Variants Default user interface GNOME
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server subscription is available at no cost License Various free software
for development purposes.[7] Developers need to register for the Red licenses, plus
Hat Developer Program and agree to licensing terms forbidding proprietary binary
production use. This free developer subscription was announced on blobs[1]
March 31, 2016.
Preceded by Red Hat Linux
There are also "Academic" editions of the Desktop and Server Official website www.redhat.com/rhel
variants. They are offered to schools and students, are less expensive,
and are provided with Red Hat technical support as an optional extra. Web support based on number of customer contacts can be
purchased separately.[8]

It is often assumed the branding ES, AS, and WS stand for "Entry-level Server", "Advanced Server" and "Work Station",
respectively. The reason for this is that the ES product is indeed the company's base enterprise server product, while AS is the more
advanced product. However, nowhere on its site or in its literature does Red Hat say what AS, ESnd
a WS stand for.

[9][10]
In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 there are new editions that substitute former Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS/ES/WS/Desktop:

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Advanced Platform (former AS)


Red Hat Enterprise Linux (former ES) (limited to two CPUs)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop with Workstation and Multi-OS option
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop with Workstation option (former WS)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop with Multi-OS option
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop (former Desktop)
emerging markets".[11]
Red Hat had also announced its Red Hat Global Desktop Linux edition "for

RHEL 4, 3, and prior releases had four variants:

Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS for mission-critical/enterprisecomputer systems.


Red Hat Enterprise Linux ES for supported network servers
Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS for technicalpower user enterprise desktops for high-performance computing
Red Hat Desktop for multiple deployments of single-user desktops for enterprises.

Relationship with Fedora


Originally, Red Hat sold support for versions of Red Hat Linux (Red Hat Linux Enterprise Edition 6.2E was essentially a version of
Red Hat Linux 6.2/7 with different support levels.)[12] Starting with RHEL 2.1 AS in 2002, Red Hat sold their first version of RHEL.
It was based on Red Hat Linux, but used a much more conservative release cycle. Later versions included technologies from the Red
Hat–sponsored Fedora community distribution project. Red Hat Enterprise Linux release schedules do not follow that of Fedora
(around 6 months per release) but are more conservative (2 years or more).

Fedora serves as upstream for future versions of RHEL. RHEL trees are forked off the Fedora repository, and released after a
substantial stabilization and quality assurance effort.[13] For example, RHEL 6 was forked from Fedora at the end of 2009
(approximately at the time of the Fedora 12 release) and released more or less together with Fedora 14. By the time RHEL 6 was
released, many features from Fedora 13 and 14 had already been backported into it. The Fedora Project lists the following lineages
for older Red Hat Enterprise releases:[13]
Red Hat Linux 6.2/7 → Red Hat Linux Enterprise Edition 6.2E
Red Hat Linux 7.2 → Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1
Red Hat Linux 10 beta 1 → Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3
Fedora Core 3 → Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
Fedora Core 6 → Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
Fedora 12, 13 → Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6[13]
Fedora 19, 20 → Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7[14]
(Note about Fedora Core 1 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3: Red Hat released Red Hat Linux 10 beta 1, then took two forks from that
codebase to seed both Fedora Core 1 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 beta releases. There was some cross-pollination between the
two up until shortly before the first production RHEL 3 release. Therefore, both FC1 and RHEL3 came from a common fork of
RHL10beta1.)

In addition, the Fedora project includes Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL), a community-provided set of packages for
RHEL going beyond the ones that Red Hat selected for inclusion in its supported distribution. The Fedora project provides the
following explanation:[15]

Both Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux are open source. Fedora is a free distribution and community project and
upstream for Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Fedora is a general purpose system that gives Red Hat and the rest of its
contributor community the chance to innovate rapidly with new technologies. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is a
commercial enterprise operating system and has its own set of test phases including alpha and beta releases which are
separate and distinct from Fedora development.

Rebuilds
Originally, Red Hat's enterprise product, then known as Red Hat Linux, was made freely available to anybody who wished to
download it, while Red Hat made money from support. Red Hat then moved towards splitting its product line into Red Hat
Enterprise Linux which was designed to be stable and with long-term support for enterprise users and Fedora as the community
distribution and project sponsored by Red Hat. The use of trademarks prevents verbatim copying of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

Since Red Hat Enterprise Linux is based completely on free and open source software, Red Hat makes available the complete source
code to its enterprise distribution through its FTP site to anybody who wants it. Accordingly, several groups have taken this source
code and compiled their own versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, typically with the only changes being the removal of any
references to Red Hat's trademarks and pointing the update systems to non-Red Hat servers. Groups which have undertaken this
include CentOS (the 8th most popular Linux distribution as of November 2011),[16] Oracle Linux, Scientific Linux, White Box
Enterprise Linux, StartCom Enterprise Linux, Pie Box Enterprise Linux, X/OS, Lineox, and Bull's XBAS for high-performance
computing.[17] All provide a free mechanism for applying updates without paying a service fee to the distributor
.

Rebuilds of Red Hat Enterprise Linux are free but do not get any commercial support or consulting services from Red Hat and lack
any software, hardware or security certifications. Also, the rebuilds do not get access to Red Hat services like
Red Hat Network.

Unusually, Red Hat took steps toobfuscate their changes to the Linux kernel for 6.0 by not publicly providing the patch files for their
changes in the source tarball, and only releasing the finished product in source form. Speculation suggested that the move was made
to affect Oracle's competing rebuild and support services, which further modifies the distribution. This practice however, still
complies with the GNU GPL since source code is defined as "[the] preferred form of the work for making modifications to it", and
the distribution still complies with this definition.[18] Red Hat's CTO Brian Stevens later confirmed the change, stating that certain
information (such as patch information) would now only be provided to paying customers to make the Red Hat product more
competitive against the growing number of companies offering support for products based on RHEL. CentOS developers had no
objections to the change since they do not make any changes to the kernel beyond what is provided by Red Hat.[19] Their competitor
Oracle announced in November 2012 that they were releasing a RedPatch service, which allows public view of the RHEL kernel
changes, broken down by patch.[20][21]
Related products and add-ons
A number of commercial vendors use Red Hat Enterprise Linux as a base for the operating system in their products. Two of the best
known are the Console Operating System inVMware ESX Server and Oracle Linux respin.

Version history

RHEL 2.1
( ensacola), March 26, 2002, uses Linux kernel 2.4.9-e.3[22]
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 AS P

Update 1, February 14, 2003(kernel 2.4.9-e.12)


Update 2, May 29, 2003(kernel 2.4.9-e.24)
Update 3, December 19, 2003(kernel 2.4.9-e.34)
Update 4, April 21, 2004(kernel 2.4.9-e.40)
Update 5, August 18, 2004(kernel 2.4.9-e.49)
Update 6, December 13, 2004(kernel 2.4.9-e.57)
Update 7, April 28, 2005[23]
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 ES P
( anama), May 2003

RHEL 3
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 (Taroon), October 22, 2003, uses Linux kernel 2.4.21-4[22]

Update 1, January 16, 2004(kernel 2.4.21-9)


Update 2, May 12, 2004(kernel 2.4.21-15)
Update 3, September 3, 2004(kernel 2.4.21-20)
Update 4, December 12, 2004(kernel 2.4.21-27)
Update 5, May 18, 2005(kernel 2.4.21-32)
Update 6, September 28, 2005(kernel 2.4.21-37)
Update 7, March 17, 2006(kernel 2.4.21-40)
Update 8, July 20, 2006(kernel 2.4.21-47)
Update 9, June 15, 2007(kernel 2.4.21-50)
RHEL 4
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 (Nahant), February 15, 2005, uses Linux kernel 2.6.9-5[22]

4.1, also termed Update 1, June 8, 2005(kernel 2.6.9-11)


4.2, also termed Update 2, October 5, 2005(kernel 2.6.9-22)
4.3, also termed Update 3, March 12, 2006(kernel 2.6.9-34)
4.4, also termed Update 4, August 10, 2006(kernel 2.6.9-42)
4.5, also termed Update 5, May 1, 2007(kernel 2.6.9-55)
4.6, also termed Update 6, November 15, 2007(kernel 2.6.9-67)
4.7, also termed Update 7, July 29, 2008(kernel 2.6.9-78)
4.8, also termed Update 8, May 19, 2009(kernel 2.6.9-89)
4.9, also termed Update 9, February 16, 2011(kernel 2.6.9-100)

RHEL 5
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 (Tikanga), 2007, uses Linux kernel 2.6.18-8[22]

5.1, also termed Update 1, November 7, 2007(kernel 2.6.18-53)


5.2, also termed Update 2, May 21, 2008(kernel 2.6.18-92)
5.3, also termed Update 3, January 20, 2009(kernel 2.6.18-128)
5.4, also termed Update 4, September 2, 2009(kernel 2.6.18-164)
5.5, also termed Update 5, March 30, 2010(kernel 2.6.18-194)
5.6, also termed Update 6, January 13, 2011(kernel 2.6.18-238)
5.7, also termed Update 7, July 21, 2011(kernel 2.6.18-274)
5.8, also termed Update 8, February 20, 2012(kernel 2.6.18-308)
5.9, also termed Update 9, January 7, 2013(kernel 2.6.18-348)
5.10, also termed Update 10, October 1, 2013(kernel 2.6.18-371)
5.11, also termed Update 11, September 16, 2014(kernel 2.6.18-398)
5.11+, Extended Life-cycle Support(ELS) Start Date March 31, 2017

aka added ELS entitlement until ELS end Date November 30, 2020

RHEL 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 was forked fromFedora 12 and contains many backported features from Fedora 13 and 14.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (Santiago), November 10, 2010, uses Linux kernel 2.6.32-71[22]

6.1, also termed Update 1, May 19, 2011(kernel 2.6.32-131)


6.2, also termed Update 2, December 6, 2011(kernel 2.6.32-220)
6.3, also termed Update 3, June 20, 2012(kernel 2.6.32-279)
6.4, also termed Update 4, February 21, 2013(kernel 2.6.32-358)
6.5, also termed Update 5, November 21, 2013(kernel 2.6.32-431)
6.6, also termed Update 6, October 13, 2014(kernel 2.6.32-504)
6.7, also termed Update 7, July 22, 2015(kernel 2.6.32-573)
6.8, also termed Update 8, May 10, 2016(kernel 2.6.32-642)
6.9, also termed Update 9, March 21, 2017(kernel 2.6.32-696)
6 ELS +, Extended Life-cycle Support(ELS) Start Date November 30, 2020

aka added ELS entitlement until ELS end Date June 30, 2024

RHEL 7
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 (Maipo) is based on Fedora 19, upstream Linux kernel 3.10, systemd 208, and GNOME 3.8 (rebased to
GNOME 3.26 in RHEL 7.5).[24] The first beta was announced on 11 December 2013,[14][25] and a release candidate was made
available on 15 April 2014.[26] On June 10, 2014 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 was officially released.[27]

( aipo), June 10, 2014, uses Linux kernel 3.10.0-123[22]


Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 M

7.1, also termed Update 1, March 5, 2015(kernel 3.10.0-229)[28]


7.2, also termed Update 2, November 19, 2015(kernel 3.10.0-327)[29]
7.3, also termed Update 3, November 3, 2016(kernel 3.10.0-514)[30]
7.4, also termed Update 4, August 1, 2017(kernel 3.10.0-693)[31]
7.5, also termed Update 5, April 10, 2018(kernel 3.10.0-862)[32]

Product life cycle


The life cycle of Red Hat Enterprise Linux is at least seven years for versions 3 and 4, while it spans at least 10 years for more recent
versions 5, 6 and 7. The life cycle comprises several phases of varying length with different degrees of support. During the first phase
("Production 1"), Red Hat provides full support and updates software and hardware drivers. In later phases ("Production 2" and
[33]
"Production 3") only security and other important fixes are provided and support for new hardware is gradually reduced.

In the last years of the support lifecycle (after seven years for the version 4 and earlier, or after 10 years for the version 5 and later),
critical and security-related fixes are only provided to customers who pay an additional subscription ("Extended Lifecycle Support
[34]
Add-On") that is available for versions 3, 4 and 5, and covers a limited number of packages.

End of
End of End of End of
RHEL Extended Last Minor
Release date Production 1 Production 2 Production 3
Version Lifecycle Release
phase phase phase
Support
26 March
2002 (AS) 30 November 31 May
2.1 31 May 2005 N/A
1 May 2003 2004 2009[35]
(ES)

23 October 31 October 30 January


3 20 July 2006 30 June 2007
2003 2010[36] 2014

14 February 16 February 29 February 31 March


4 31 March 2009 4.9
2005 2011 2012 2017
15 March 31 January 30 November
5 8 January 2013 31 March 2017 5.11
2007 2014 2020
10 November 30 November
6 10 May 2016 10 May 2017 30 June 2024
2010 2020
10 June
7 Q4 2019 Q4 2020 30 June 2024 N/A
2014[37]
Legend: Old version Older version, still supported Latest version

Kernel backporting
To maintain a stable application binary interface (ABI), Red Hat does not update the kernel version, but instead backports new
features to the same kernel version with which a particular version of RHEL has been released. New features are backported
throughout the Production 1 phase of the RHEL lifecycle.[38] Consequently, RHEL may use a Linux kernel with a dated version
number, yet the kernel is up-to-date regarding not only security fixes, but also certain features.[39] One specific example is the
SO_REUSEPORT socket option which was added to Linux kernel 3.9, and was subsequently backported and became available since
[40][41][42]
RHEL 6.5, which uses version 2.6.32 of the Linux kernel.
Extended Update Support (EUS) / Z Tree
The Extended Update Support (EUS) allows an organization / company to choose when they change to a new minor version. For the
first 6 months of the EUS channel / yum repo, features may be added, but then the channel is locked down so that only bug and
security fixes are patched. The organization / company then has 24 months to move to a new EUS branch. EUS allows the
organization / company to stay on a minor version if required by a third party application which is only tested with a particular minor
version of RHEL, such as Oracle Database, IBM DB2, IBM Cloud Orchestrator, etc. There may also be extra costs associated with
using the EUS repos/channels depending on the agreement the organization / company has with Red Hat.[43] For more information
on what is Included/Excluded from the EUS see.[44]

Note
The EUS update mechanism for using older minor version branches is not available to CentOS, Oracle Linux and
Scientific Linux, as Red Hat do not publish source packages for rebuilding. As such, projects clearly state to ensure
[45]
users run on the latest available minor version within a supported major release

RHEL 6
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 was forked fromFedora 12 and contains many backported features from Fedora 13 and 14.

[22]
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (Santiago), 10 November 2010, uses Linux kernel 2.6.32-71

6.7, also termed Update 7, July 22, 2015(kernel 2.6.32-573)

1st Day of EUS Window July 22, 2015


Last Day of EUS Window July 31, 2018
6.8, also termed Update 8, May 10, 2016(kernel 2.6.32-642)

1st Day of EUS Window May 10, 2016


Last Day of EUS Window May 30, 2018[46]

RHEL 7
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 (Maipo) is based on Fedora 19, upstream Linux kernel 3.10, 10 June 2014, uses Linux kernel 3.10.0-
123[22]

7.1, also termed Update 1, March 5, 2015(kernel 3.10.0-229)[28]

1st Day of EUS Window March 5, 2015


Last Day of EUS Window March 31, 2017
7.2, also termed Update 2, November 19, 2015(kernel 3.10.0-327)[29]

1st Day of EUS Window November 19, 2015


Last Day of EUS Window November 30, 2017
7.3, also termed Update 3, November 3, 2016(kernel 3.10.0-514)[30]

1st Day of EUS Window November 3, 2016


Last Day of EUS Window November 30, 2018
Features may be updated[46]
7.4, also termed Update 4, August 1, 2017(kernel 3.10.0-693)[31]

1st Day of EUS Window August 1, 2017


Last Day of EUS Window August 31, 2019
7.5, also termed Update 5, April 10, 2018(kernel 3.10.0-862)[32]

1st Day of EUS Window April 10, 2018


Last Day of EUS Window April 30, 2020
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41. "Backport SO_REUSEPORT patch from kernel 3.9+ to help support haproxy graceful restart"(https://bugzilla.redhat.
com/show_bug.cgi?id=991600). Retrieved 12 May 2016. (Subscription required (help)).
42. "Which RHEL version supports the SO_REUSEPOR T socket option?" (https://access.redhat.com/solutions/123318
3). Red Hat. (Subscription required (help)).
43. "Extended Update Support (EUS) Standard Operating Environment (SOE) Guide"
(https://access.redhat.com/article
s/rhel-eus).
44. "Extended Update Support (EUS) Standard Operating Environment (SOE) Guide:What Is Included/Excluded from
EUS" (https://access.redhat.com/articles/rhel-eus#c6)
.
45. CentOS FAQ | https://wiki.centos.org/FAQ/General#head-fe8a0be91ee3e7dea812e8694491e1dde5b75e6d
46. "Red Hat Enterprise Linux Life Cycle:Extended Update Support"(https://access.redhat.com/support/policy/updates/e
rrata/#Extended_Update_Support).
Further reading
Jang, Michael H. (2007).RHCE Red Hat Certified Engineer Linux Study Guide (RHEL 5) . New York: McGraw-Hill.
ISBN 978-0-07-226454-8.
Ghori, Asghar (2009). Red Hat Certified Technician & Engineer (RHEL 5). Reston: Global Village Publishing.
ISBN 978-1-61584-430-2.
Fox, Tammy (2007). Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Administration Unleashed . Indianapolis, Ind.: Sams.ISBN 978-0-
672-32892-3. OCLC 137291425.
McCarty, Bill (2004). Learning Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Fedora. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly. ISBN 978-0-596-
00589-4. OCLC 55130915.
Negus, Christopher (2008).Fedora 9 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux Bible. Indianapolis, Ind.: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-
37362-0. OCLC 222155845.
Sobell, Mark G. (2008).Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-714295-8. OCLC 216616647.
Collings, Terry (2005). Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 For Dummies. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-7645-7713-0.
OCLC 58973830.
Petersen, Richard (2005).Red Hat Enterprise Linux & Fedora Core 4: The Complete Reference . London: McGraw-
Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-226154-7. OCLC 62293551.

External links
Official website
Brian Stevens, CTO and vice president of engineering, Red Hat on why Red Hat Enterprise Linux is "The Business
OS for Flexibility and Value"
Red Hat Enterprise Linuxat DistroWatch

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