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Become a Hazard Knocker

ACHIEVE ZERO

Educate, Enforce, Excel


Educate for diligence
Enforce for compliance
Ensure Safety Excellence

LRK Hareekirishnan
Become a Hazard Knocker
From the Author’s Desk
ACHIEVE ZERO by Education and Enforcement to Excel is a synopsis of my
2-decade journey in managing workplace safety using A to Z of safety
management techniques in practice, presented in combination with theory
intended to be shared with colleagues & fellow peers in the industry to
drum up and back them in their journey to develop Hazard Knockers to
ACHIEVE ZERO.

Hazard knockers are personnel who chip in with positive ideas to improve
safety performance like proactive ideas to knockout, reduce its risk making
it acceptable and take action to prevent incidents.

I thank all the researchers, columnists, universities, training institutes, associations for being kind to permit to
quote, use part of their work & research results in this free book aimed to be an eyeopener to serve mankind from
the grave sufferings they could possibly go through due to incidents. Most of the photographs presented are from
activities from the workplace managed by me.

I thank all my managers and colleagues for their active support in my journey to ACHIEVE ZERO mainly

Mr. K Lakshamanan, L&T-ECC, India


Mr. N. Ravi, L&T-ECC, India
Mr. T. Alaguvel, L&T-ECC, India
Late Mr. Alawi Shubber, OSHO, Bahrain
Mr. Hussam Aweis, CANAR Constructions, Kuwait
Mr. Awni Farah, KEO, Kuwait

Safety as a habit makes you a Hazard Knocker.

LRK Hareekirishnan
Author
Preface ..........................................................................................................................................................5
1. Capture Attention for Loss Prevention ..........................................................................................8
1.1 What constitutes accident costs? ...............................................................................................9
1.2 Safety saves a Crash..............................................................................................................10
1.3 Utility of Safety .......................................................................................................................11
1.4 6 M’s of Safety .........................................................................................................................12
1.5 Using Cost of accidents for inciting interest towards safety .............................................18
2. Controlling Accidents ....................................................................................................................21
2.1 Unsafe acts .............................................................................................................................21
2.2 Unsafe condition ....................................................................................................................22
2.3 Hazard Knocking to ACHIEVE ZERO: The real challenge ...................................................25
2.4 Case study...............................................................................................................................28
3. Safety Culture & Safety Climate ...................................................................................................30
3.1 Safety Management...............................................................................................................31
3.2 Safety culture & Safety climate ............................................................................................32
3.3 Elements of a safety culture .................................................................................................34
3.4 Achieving excellence.............................................................................................................36
3.5 Assessing the safety culture.................................................................................................38
3.6 Sustaining the safety culture ................................................................................................39
3.7 Maintaining a Positive safety climate ..................................................................................44
4. HAZARD CONTROL .........................................................................................................................47
4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................47
4.2 Injury Rates in construction ..................................................................................................47
4.3 Hazard Classification ............................................................................................................49
4.3.1 Types of Hazards ....................................................................................................................49
4.3.2 Hazard Classification ........................................................................................................49
4.3.3 Hazard Exposure ...............................................................................................................50
4.3.4 Safety Hazard’s ..................................................................................................................51
4.4 Hazard Identification and Assessment ................................................................................54
4.5 Risk Assessment ....................................................................................................................55
4.6 Job Safety Analysis ................................................................................................................56
4.7 HAZARD CONTROL ................................................................................................................59
4.8 OSHA HAZARD AWARENESS ADVISOR ..............................................................................62
4.9 HAZARD KNOCKING ..............................................................................................................63

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4.10 Be aware of false protection .................................................................................................66
4.11 Exercise: Identify the hazards to be knocked out from the scaffold .................................67
5. Safe Working Procedures .............................................................................................................68
5.1 Guidance Notes ......................................................................................................................69
5.2 Code of Practices (COP) ........................................................................................................69
5.3 Regulations – The requirements of regulations are mandatory.......................................69
6. Safety Induction..............................................................................................................................71
6.1 Who should we focus and the importance of orientating them? .......................................71
6.2 Advantages of Induction training .........................................................................................73
6.3 Induction training ...................................................................................................................73
6.4 Safety Induction Room ..........................................................................................................75
6.5 Induction Language ...............................................................................................................75
6.6 Show how to identify a hazard ..............................................................................................76
6.7 Site Induction Record ............................................................................................................77
7. Safety Education & Training Program (SET Program) ...............................................................79
7.1 Philosophy of SET Program ..................................................................................................79
7.2 Types of Training ....................................................................................................................80
7.3 Training Plan...........................................................................................................................81
7.4 Tips for Effective Safety Training..........................................................................................81
7.5 Documentation of Training....................................................................................................82
7.6 Measuring the effectiveness of training ..............................................................................82
7.7 Training Evaluation ................................................................................................................82
8. Safety Inspections ..........................................................................................................................83
8.1 Planning and Conducting Periodic Inspections ..................................................................85
8.2 Types of Inspection ................................................................................................................86
8.3 Inspection Principles .............................................................................................................87
8.4 Common reasons for failures in inspections ......................................................................87
8.5 Inspection reports .................................................................................................................87
8.6 Observations ..........................................................................................................................87
8.7 Action after inspections ........................................................................................................87
9. Housekeeping – a tool for Accident Prevention ..........................................................................88
9.1 Accidents ................................................................................................................................88
9.2 Housekeeping advantages ...................................................................................................89
9.3 Applying the 5S concept to Housekeeping ..........................................................................89

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9.4 Examples of good housekeeping initiatives & practices ....................................................91
10. Work Permit System ..................................................................................................................91
11. Ergonomics .....................................................................................................................................92
11.1 Ergonomics will improve Health & Safety at work .............................................................94
11.2 Benefits of Ergonomics .........................................................................................................95
11.3 Identify Ergonomic Problems ...............................................................................................95
11.4 Ergonomic principles for reducing the risk factors ...........................................................97
11.5 Work with smart techniques .................................................................................................99
11.6 Effective Lifting Techniques..................................................................................................99
11.7 Mechanical aids Reduce fatigue ...........................................................................................99
12. Behavior Based Safety (BBS) .................................................................................................101
12.1 Behavior Based Safety Process .........................................................................................101
12.2 Production governs the Safety attitudes ...........................................................................103
12.3 Overcome the Brain Barrier resistance to change to Safety ..........................................103
12.4 Changing attitudes ...............................................................................................................104
12.5 Encourage Safe behaviors ..................................................................................................107
12.6 CONTROL OF WORKING CONDITIONS................................................................................109
13. Safety observations, Pareto Analysis for Accident prevention ..........................................112
13.1 Purpose of Safety Observations .........................................................................................112
13.2 Inspection Principles & Areas to Focus .............................................................................113
14. Positive Performance Indicators ...........................................................................................114
15. Accident Prevention – Sharing Experience ..........................................................................117
15.1 Developing SWP for Operating Overlapping Multiple Tower Cranes .............................118
15.2 Checking the Supports required for formwork ................................................................122
15.3 Fall protection - Safety Net required during construction ..............................................123
15.4 Housekeeping – Sorting & Storing of Gas cylinders.........................................................125
15.5 Ergonomics, Fatigue reduction tool for Accident Prevention .........................................126
15.6 Regular review of work procedures ..................................................................................127
15.7 Root cause analysis, an Accident Prevention tool ............................................................129
15.8 Encouraging safe behaviors – BBS in action.....................................................................130
15.8.1 My experience in promoting safe behaviour at work ...................................................131
15.9 Pareto Analysis, Analyze the trend in violations ..............................................................133

Wanna’ reach the penner, send an email to - haree74@gmail.com Font used: Bahnschrift

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Preface

Why choosing the path of education and enforcement can give excellence in safety?

Experts emphasize substantial loss control will also be achieved by applying Health & Safety systematically
in addition to saving lives and injuries. Organizations with fewer resources are flouting work safety
regulations largely as they don't invest in improving them, especially small & medium scale companies in the
contracting sector and the solution is to instil safety knowledge by education and enforce to practice it.

Researches done by Heinrich, DuPont, Bird Lukens, Bird Insurance Company and many others has
established the fact that around 88-95% of the accident causatives are unsafe acts due to ignorance and poor
understanding of the safe work practices. It’s difficult to recognize and correct them as they involve human
factors and all our actions is not be related to our skill level. Studies has proved that some of the most skilled
employees might actually display some of the most dangerous behaviours. In fact, more skilled a worker
becomes, the more likely they are to develop unsafe behaviour patterns due to lack of safety knowledge.

Safety education plays an important role to spin the prevailing attitudes for safety and a tendency to integrate
safety in all activities leads to a revolution from production to safe production. Unsafe acts will be better
understood and avoided as preventive attitude is successfully instilled through safety education and training.
According to Mr. Alawi Shubber, OSHO, Bahrain a pioneer in safety training, having a good safety policy
cannot stop ill-health or accidents but educating & empowering people who implement the policy with
training, motivation and recognition can stop it as risks will be identified and reduced probably to zero such
that it can be forgotten forever by adopting appropriate high-quality control measures. National Irish Safety
Organization (NISO) has recognized that no amount of legislation or penalties will be effective unless people
can be convinced of the need to avoid hazards and risks in the workplace. As hazards and risks coexist, a good
health and safety performance is achieved only when they are effectively managed.

The strategy to improve must always start from the top management and not created in the middle such that
it has to fight its way in both the directions. When it starts from the top, then and only then it will percolate
down everywhere and practiced in such a way that even after proper planning, if production comes down
(sometimes it will), we will forgo production to do the work safely as per the safe work procedure, as a job
that is done sacrificing safety is a bad job, no matter how quickly done or how much money is saved. Unless
they lead by example with visible commitment no amount of effort will take the safety culture forward. Safe
behaviours are contagious and reinforcing one safe behaviour with recognition will certainly lead to another
uplifting the work culture.

Supervisory staff can transform the safety culture positively with focus on training that develops attitude and
competency of the employees to plug the huge losses that are caused by wilfully bypassing safety to increase
productivity.

Effectively combining the two elements - Education and Enforcement, educating to give proper knowledge
and enforcing corrective action when men fail to follow rules will reduce accidents. Training is vital to make
people act and behave safely even when no one is looking and this book will guide to understand hazards and
efficient ways to manage them. With proper training positive behaviours will be displayed by men certainly
leading others to display, with all hands becoming effective Hazard Knockers.

LRK Hareekirishnan
Hazard Knocker

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TEAMWORK ensures safety excellence – Few feats achieved in my 2-decade career

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1. Capture Attention for Loss Prevention
The main motive of the management is to run a business profitably. Accidents and ineffective use
of resources can turn a profitable business into loss. Hence, it is of utmost important to control
these types of losses. Controlling accidents is very simple, just do the job in the way it should be
done as required by safety management systems.

Safe way is the best way – is a well-known safety slogan. Often, we can find lot of violations, some
causing serious accidents and losses. The alarming costs of accidents make it necessary to
control them to make business profitable. Proactive efforts to estimate the accident costs prior
hand, will essentially capture management’s attention for loss prevention.

1.1 What constitutes accident costs?


The humanitarian and economic issues resulting from accidents demand that accident
prevention be given importance in every phase of activities. The objective is to prevent accidents
by reducing or eliminating the unsafe acts or conditions that cause accidents.

The Loss “Berg” - Peter Drucker, a management consultant states “The first duty of business is
to survive and the guiding principle of business economics is not the maximization of profit – it is
avoidance of loss.”

In addition to loss of lives and production, there are various costs associated with an accident
that are unrecoverable can affecting the financial stability of the company. Profits can increase
by preventing accidents as the cost of accidents is much higher than what most think. It’s like an
Iceberg most part of it is hidden than what appears on the surface, on an average 80% is hidden
underwater. Similarly, 80% of accident costs are also hidden. An accident can contribute to huge
losses other than loss of life, pain and suffering. Accident costs can be grouped as direct and
indirect costs. Of the total accident costs, direct costs
account for 10 to 20 %. The balance costs are hidden,
classified as the indirect costs. Direct costs’ being small
is like the tip of an iceberg when compared with the huge
indirect costs that account for the balance accident costs
which is normally overlooked.

1.1.1 Direct Costs


• Loss or damage to equipment & assets
• Loss of production
• Medical cost
• Compensation
• Legal costs
Cost of accident prevention
• Insurance cost
• Loss of life and limbs is far less than the
• Man-days lost for injured employees Cost of an accident as
1.1.2 Indirect Costs Businesses without profits
• Production loss of linked departments Don’t last long
• Loss in earning power of injured
To prolong
• Economic loss to injured’s family
• Lost time by fellow workers ACHIEVE ZERO
• Cost of bringing in new worker

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• Spoiled work
• Failures and delays to fulfil orders
• Overhead cost
• Lowered employee morale
• Increased labour conflict
• Cost of Investigations
• Unfavourable public relations
• Cost of processing reports
• Time lost from work by Managers, Engineers and supervisors.
• Product spoiled by accident
• Man-hours spent in cleaning up spoiled area
• Loss of functions and of operations income
• Loss of prestige
• Loss of bonuses, payment of forfeits
• Expenditure of emergency equipment
• Cost of time spent on the case by the first aid attendant and Occupational Health Services.
• Recovery and salvage of damaged equipment and vehicles
• Corrective actions to prevent recurrence of an accident
• Obsolescence of parts and equipment destroyed
• Loss of public confidence and therefore of revenue
• Slowdown/ stopping operations while accident causes are determined and corrective action taken
• Loss of skilled manpower
• Funeral expenses
• Social costs and liabilities
• Degradation of efficiency of operations because of loss of experienced and trained personnel
• Cost to employer under employee’s welfare and benefit scheme
• Cost of employer of continuing to pay the wages of the injured employee in full, after his return, even
though the services of the accidentee may be worth only half of their normal value for a time
• Penalties for failure to take actions to correct hazards or defects or conditions that violate statues
• Cost of meetings with statuary authorities
• Cost of training a new employee for the position falling vacant
• Time spent on repairs
• Punitive damages
• Rehabilitation of the injured employees
• Settlement of dependents
• Transport costs

1.2 Safety saves a Crash


Corporates do business amidst stiff competition with narrow Profit margins. To improve the
profit margin, lot of cost restrictions are applied to produce products at the lowest possible cost
as the basic question of survival rises.
Companies devise new work methods; buy better machines to control downtime to improve
production and profits.
Implementing safe working practices controls costs and maximize profits by avoiding
unnecessary expenses. Neglecting or evading spending a mearge amount for safety, companies
lose, they do not gain.

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1.3 Utility of Safety
Safety's utility can be comparable with any other section like Quality, Production Planning or
Internal Audit in an organisation. Without Internal Audit/Quality control an organisation can run
but with these it runs better. That's the difference between having safety and not having it. A
management that can do away with quality control, internal audit can also ignore safety. It’s their
choice.
Once we practice safety at par with other functions the desired results can be achieved by
optimum use of the 6 main elements involved in every business. The six elements that govern
business are Men, Machine, Materials, Methods, Money and Market. Aligning the characteristics
of these 6 elements with safety principles will bring positive results to the business & will be one
of the best guiding principles for avoidance of loss and maximizing profit.

Limiting resource leads to safety neglects,

Worthy resource leads to ACHIEVE ZERO

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1.4 6 M’s of Safety
1.4.1 Men

You are at most risk in your


first days at site.

Think and plan ahead to


ACHIEVE ZERO.
Pep Talks

Men are the most valuable asset a company needs to preserve as they can plan & achieve the
product production programme. With experience they can devise work methods with a safer
technique most suited to ACHIEVE ZERO.
Right MAN for the right job is the criterion that becomes a limiting factor on which they are
selected based on competence, skill and availability. Total Loss Control principles emphasize
men selected must be both physically and mentally fit to work.
Men must be made aware of the hazards through orientation and safe work training making
them alert at work. Once aware about the hazards they will establish a positive safety climate.

Every task must be performed with a concern


for safety for ourselves, our fellow
employees, our contractors, our visitors, our
customers and the committees in which we
operate

Right men

Ensure HSE is right

Alert are they to

Avoid accidents to

ACHIEVE ZERO
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1.4.2 Machine

Piling Rig Distribution Board

Periodical inspection & maintenance helps in reducing the machine’s down time & improves the
output. The machine will be operating in its maximum efficiency all the time while preventing
accidents. Machines must be handled/ used in the right way with dangerous, exposed parts
guarded. Proper guarding and control must be present as many catastrophic accidents, losses
can be attributed to equipment failure to one type (or) other.
ACHIEVE ZERO requires selection of equipment must be done on the basis of its suitability,
capacity and the availability of protective devices like operator safeguards, rollover protection,
noise mufflers, operator protection from emissions like heat/ dust, ease of operation.
ACHIEVE ZERO depends on the adequateness of the control over the modifications and redesign
of equipment for special purposes, a common practice in the industry.

Collapse of the boom of a Mobile


crane due to Improper lifting
procedure

Put safety on the top of your list

Work safely all the while

ACHIEVE ZERO

Go home with a smile.

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1.4.3 Methods

Safe work procedures ensure we ACHIEVE ZERO by simplifying and eliminating unnecessary
steps resulting in reducing the probability of incidents and improving quality of work. The most
important factor is it can reduce the effort involved.

Facilitates Effortless working

(Or)

Facilitates Effort, less working strain


It means that the effort applied in doing a work will be reduced if not completely eliminated.
Take the case of bicycles, with new design improvements like fitting gears with easy
changeability the effort required for biking has been considerably reduced making it -
“Effortless Biking”.

Biking can be done in all terrains effortlessly with ease and the ergonomic design of the cycle
ensures body positions are normal reducing chances of pain.

“If you don’t know what is going to happen, there is no way to stop it”

The broadly used method of hazard analysis is


JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS. This method breaks
down the job into steps & helps us in analyzing the
job and arrives at the easiest, safest, economical
& the most efficient way of doing the job.

It also eliminates the unnecessary steps in doing


the job.

Job of any kind

Assess risk

Plan with JSA

Perform safely every time

ACHIEVE ZERO

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1.4.4 Materials

Proper storage and handling of materials ensures we ACHIEVE ZERO losses & damages due to
fire & explosion, collapses, contaminations or a slip, trip or a fall events.
Material loss will be a costly issue as it accounts for 35 to 40% of the project cost and with proper
storage of chemicals, gas cylinders in the right environmental condition, serious fire and
explosion incidents can be avoided.

Proper storage and handling

Works best in joint action

Prevents incidents with a good intention to

Achieve Zero

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1.4.5 Money

Observing Safety improves the value of the organisations assets and equipment’s in good
working condition reducing maintenance costs and maintaining efficiency.
Consider a drilling machine with a lifetime of 10 years. With regular Inspection and maintenance
its efficient working time can be extended beyond its normal lifetime reducing the investment
cost in purchasing a new machine or costly spare parts.

ACHIEVE ZERO costs in reinvestment for purchase and maintenance of assets and machinery
is adding to the profit (i.e.) earning more with same/ lesser investment.

Invest in safety as

Safety Pays &

Losses Achieve Zero

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1.4.6 Market

Safe working methods in the production process guarantees quality products are available at a
lower cost with improved sales and profits shooting sky high.

Safety performance plays a big role in an organizations reputation in the market, a deciding role
in winning projects while earning a good reputation.

The characteristic of the product like 100% protection will add value to the product; improve its
market capitalization like Dettol soap - offers 100% protection against germs.

Safety in production process

Gives quality products

Guarantees Loss markets

Achieve Zero
TOTAL LOSS CONTROL is achieved when safety is in action

Total Loss control in any organization is achieved through commitments of all personnel to
support and provide resources in implementing safety procedures and practices, training and
monitoring like
• Implementation of loss control policy
• Audits and inspections
• Accident reporting and investigation
• Communications Development and review of emergency and contingency plans
• Housekeeping
• Process controls to avoid rework and reduce wastage
• Preventive maintenance

The benefits are:


• Protects assets while minimizing loss to equipment and property
• Minimize frequency and severity of accidents
• Reduces expenditures of insurance claims
• Provides a safe environment for employees

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1.5 Using Cost of accidents for inciting interest towards safety
After every accident, the cost involved i.e. lost must be calculated to turn out more interest &
involvement in safety. Highlighting the money and resources lost in an accident will support in
accident prevention. A damage report along with accident report will help to implement safety
with involvement and prevent it from recurring.

1.5.1 Knowing the accident costs before an accident

Creating awareness about the cost likely to be incurred in an accident i.e. lost will grab
everyone’s attention towards accident prevention.
The simple way of estimating the accident costs prior hand is by using the Safety Pays Program
from OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). Using this money lost in various
types of accidents can be calculated and used to educate employees during induction, tool box
talks. Knowledge of what will be lost will alert employees to work with involvement, making
safety an everyday habit. Understanding of the accident costs can change attitudes for safety.
OSHA’s Software “Safety Pays “can do it.

Safety Pays Program


OSHA's "SAFETY PAYS" program is interactive software developed by OSHA to assist employers in
assessing the impact of occupational injuries and illnesses (with Lost Work Days) on their
profitability. It uses a company's profit margin, the AVERAGE costs of an injury or illness and an
indirect cost multiplier to project the amount of sales a company would need to generate in order
to cover those costs.
The System:
* prompts users for information to do the analysis,
* offers choices from a set of Lost Work Day injuries and illnesses,
* links to definitions of those injuries and illnesses,
* writes a report of the costs and the sales needed to cover those costs,
* pulls up Notepad, so users can view and print their reports, and
* runs on monitors set for 640x480, or 800x600 with Small Font.

A fall through a scaffold, crane collapse


etc. are accidents with huge losses that
cost your life and huge property damage.

Chance only favours the prepared mind to ACHIEVE ZERO


Always prepare to ACHIEVE ZERO.

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1.5.2 A Sample Report
====================================================
$AFETY PAYS
====================================================
Estimated Costs of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses and Estimated Impact on Profitability
Report for Year: 2003-04
Employer: XYZ Company
Prepared by: Mr. ABC on November 20, 2003
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The injury or illness selected: Fracture.
Average Direct Cost: $12383
Average Indirect Cost: $13621
Estimated Total Cost: $26004
The net profit margin for this company is 5.00 %.
The ADDITIONAL sales necessary
- To cover Indirect Costs are: $272420
- To cover Total Costs are: $520080

• The extent to which the employer ultimately pays the direct costs depends on the nature of
the employer's workers' compensation insurance policy.
• The employer always pays the indirect costs.

This report is produced by OSHA's Safety Pays software, downloaded from www.osha.gov

1.5.3 Investigate Damages from the Accident: The Economic Impact

Focusing on property damages from an accident will make employees realize that much can be
lost than that judged by us. In reality, what appears to be lost is just like the tip of an iceberg and
actually what is lost is never felt as damages in an accident are hardly analyzed. Losses of skilled
manpower, ability are some losses which cannot be recovered. Machines getting damaged,
rework, medical, compensation etc. are the other main losses.

Research done by safety specialist, Frank bird, determined the accident ratio - For every 600
near misses, there will be 30 property damage incidents, 10 minor injuries, and one major injury.
Investigating property damages in an accident will make all safety conscious and for sure
develops a positive safety climate nullifying the chances of an accident from occurring/
recurring.

Dr. Scott Geller says, removing the individual blame from an accident investigation, makes people
proactive in reporting a near miss case or minor accident. Reporting near misses help to identify
the accident causes and take suitable precautions to nullify the chances of an accident. Also
focusing on property damage highlights the seriousness of an incident, though nobody is injured in
the accident. Dissemination of knowledge regarding the property damages from an accident alerts
and instils energy to get involved in safety to all. Take the case of a fire, it can spread & destroy
adjoining areas and displaying a poster as below near a fuel storage area will ALERT everyone the
impact of the fire incident and spread the safety message - Follow fire safety procedures).

Even a small fire can make everything zero

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Fire in this workshop Calculating the accident
costs likely to be incurred in
can cost the company the event of an accident
shall promote a positive
$ 50000. safety climate.

Dream with a Vision to ACHIEVE ZERO

ACHIEVING ZERO is our Dream Vision

This Vision with a HSE Mission

Transforms workplace into a New Version

With Safety observation

For Hazard Elimination

To ACHIEVE ZERO.

The American speaker Napoleon Hill says that

Man alone,

“has the power to transform his thoughts into physical reality

can dream and make his dreams come true”

can ACHIEVE ZERO

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2. Controlling Accidents
Accidents happen as preventing accidents is extremely difficult in the absence of an
understanding of accident causes. Most accidents can be prevented by paying attention to your
surroundings, remembering safe working habits and practicing all that you’ve learned. Still
accidents happen, accidents do not just happen, they are caused as a result of
a. Unsafe acts
b. Unsafe conditions
c. By chance occurrences i.e. unknown causes at the workplace.
Sometimes a combination of the above causes like unsafe acts and conditions.

2.1 Unsafe acts


Unsafe acts are wilful violations of the standard safe work practices. It is something an
employee does or fails to do that contributes to the accident also termed undesirable behaviour.

An unsafe act does not necessarily result in an injury or


accident every time. Safety experts have analysed the
accidents that occurred over a period of years and have
worked out the ratio of the causes for an accident.
Heinrich analysed the accidents and formulated that
there are 300 unsafe acts committed for each one that
results in an injury. There are many researches done and
the ratios are mentioned below.

This does not mean that you are safe the first 299 times
that you commit an unsafe act. The probability that you
will be hurt is the same every time. Some common unsafe Work groups who focus on
acts are: eliminating unsafe acts have
a. Not wearing the required PPE, better safety records than
b. Operating equipment without authority/ training, work groups who focus on
c. Disabling safety devices,
d. Trying to service moving machinery,
eliminating unsafe
e. Working unsafely such as throwing materials or tools, at conditions.
another worker,
f. Jumping from vehicles and platforms, or unnecessary Even in the safest of
haste. conditions an unsafe act can
lead to a tragedy.

Educate to ACHIEVE ZERO wilful violations

Just because you always did it that way,


doesn't make it right. Living with your
mistakes is harder than you think....
wear your safety gear.

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2.2 Unsafe condition
Unsafe condition is absence of the protective tools that leaves the actual physical working
condition/ equipment unsafe, by which an accident can happen. The common ones are:

a. Using defective tools


b. Lack of guards
c. Ineffective warning and alarm systems
d. Unsafe clothing
e. Disabling limit switches/ ineffective protective devices
f. Slippery walking surfaces

The commonly accepted result of the analysis of accident cause is surprising -


• Unsafe acts – 88%
• Unsafe conditions - 12%
• Unknown causes - 2%.
and the results of various analyses done by experts on accident causes are

a. Heinrich analysis - 300: 29: 1


(Near miss: Minor: Major)

b. DuPont’s concept - 30,000: 3,000: 300: 30: 1


(Unsafe acts/conditions: Near-Misses/first aid:
Recordable injuries (Medical Treatment): Lost
Time Injuries (Majors): Fatal

c. Bird Lukens analysis - 500: 100: 1


(Property damage: Minor: Major)

d. Bird Insurance Co - 600: 30: 10: 1


(Near miss: property damage: Minor: Major)
Achieving Zero is the ultimate goal in workplace safety management. However, there are many
barriers for achieving this goal, human attitude being the worst one as lots of chances are taken
based on the belief that “it won’t happen to me” or “it won’t happen here” and humans continue to
work unsafe taking chances. In the last 3 decades, safety is catching up with all industries and
“Accident free workplaces” has become a reality and this has been achieved by many
organizations with continuous development of their safety management systems through
audits, reviews, adding experience to update work methods managing the hazards arising from
activities at work.

Accident free means work place had no accidents but not hazards and there is always a chance
for an accident with dare consequences. Developing Safe systems of work has made accident
free a reality in many organizations and to ACHIEVE ZERO a paradigm shift in efforts must be
religiously put to educate and enforce safety at work and reduce the risk of an incident or
dangerous occurrence as it involves property damages that are huge losses draining profits.
The term “ACHIEVE ZERO” can be often misunderstood. Many say that it is unreasonable to
expect workers to go uninjured, therefore it is a misnomer. In this sense it might be but like all
words there is frequently more than one meaning.

22
Properly defined as now used, the term “ACHIEVE ZERO” represents a position taken by the
management in the interest of the workers - Any injury/ hazard is unacceptable on its face and
management is committed to “eliminate injury/ hazard from the workplace” demonstrated with
visible involvement by the managers in the safety arena.

This “ACHIEVE ZERO” concept does not mean another incident or injury will never occur. It is a
commitment to work as many hours as you possibly can without another injury/ hazard. In the
event of an injury/ hazard, it is unacceptable and people act accordingly. Safety of workers
becomes primary. When all understand this, it is then when a “ZERO” incident, injury or illness
can be achieved and cost of worker injury can be reduced.

23
Paradigm Progress in the safety goal

Safety culture varies from one workplace to another and is directly related to the depth of safety
in practice, total safety training provided to develop competence, conditions of the work
environment, work procedures and the equipment’s used. While other factors determining the
impact on safety culture are worker’s perception on first day at work, schedule delays and short
notice before work to be performed.

Requirements to ACHIEVE ZERO:


• A safety policy
• A review and improvement in the Safety culture
• A safety induction programme
• A systematic training programmes
• A workplace Inspection and monitoring programme
• A scheme for promoting safety with the use of positive performance indicators
• An attitude to learn from experience
• A proper use of behavioural safety methods to promote safety

24
2.3 Hazard Knocking to ACHIEVE ZERO: The real challenge
Accepting accidents as a part of doing business is mismanagement and eliminating the direct
(or) indirect cause work place accidents are zero’ d. It appears that Zero hazard is practically
impossible and can only be on paper but putting on a persistent approach with consistent efforts
it can be made possible. Workplaces are made inherently safer while setting up a good safety
system with training to educate and enforce HSE.

Accidents have a far-flung chance of occurring when the workplace is made hazard free i.e.
Zero hazards. This can be possible by eliminating the direct and indirect causes of an accident –
Unsafe acts and Unsafe conditions. The best way of eliminating accidents is to eliminate unsafe
conditions and zeroing on unsafe acts made effective by developing a positive safety culture and
climate.

“A Successful individual typically sets his next goal somewhat but not too much above
his last achievement. In this way he steadily raises his level of aspiration.”
KURT LEWIN

Hazards
All Accidents are avoidable, avoid it.
Develop attitude, Follow HSE
ACHIEVE ZERO

25
2.3.1 Unsafe Condition – Eliminate it
At work, an unsafe
Eliminating unsafe conditions is the first line of defence from
the hazards at the workplace and the most effective way to condition is the result of a
prevent incidents. This can be made effective by integrating previous unsafe act.
safety in each work activity and implementing safety
precautions as recommended in the risk assessments,
manufacturer’s data sheets etc. An unsafe condition does
not cause accidents by
Create sufficient safety awareness about what causes an
accident and what is needed to remove exposure to such themselves. It is the
hazards. It must be identified before starting an activity and inaccurate perception of
eliminated before they cause work interruption and injury.
the risk involved
2.3.2 Unsafe Acts – Reduce it provokes workmen to
Safety is based on the fundamental truth that elimination of cause unsafe acts
unsafe acts will eliminate 90% of all injuries. These unsafe acts resulting in an accident.
are associated with behavior and actions – Human errors on
the job. Regardless of the degree of safety built into a job,
unsafe actions on part of human beings will also cause Even in the safest
accidents. conditions an unsafe act
Overlooking a safety precaution is the most common unsafe act. can cause an accident.
Workmen must be trained to stay focused on the job in hand and
avoid taking shortcuts. They must be made to understand that
Accidents never happen
Safety and accident prevention programs are designed to
protect them. by themselves but are
caused by people.
Accident studies, demonstrate that workers often engage in unsafe acts due to the following
reasons:
a. Heavy workloads.
b. Taking shortcuts to save time and money.
c. Inaccurate perception of risk & feelings of invulnerability “it won’t happen to me”.

Unsafe acts can be reduced by


a. Improving attitudes towards safety by conducting behavioral programs. People often behave
unsafely because they have never been hurt before while doing their job in an unsafe way.
b. Developing safety knowledge and skills.
c. Effective supervision and supervisor training.

Develop your Skill


Strengthen your Will
Achieve Zero

26
2.3.3 Managing Accidents
Zero accidents can be achieved by managing the causes by
a. Total Elimination (i.e.) 100% Elimination of unsafe conditions.
b. Reducing the number of unsafe acts to zero by safety education & training programs to promote
safe behavior. Moving labor especially in construction is the biggest challenge for this. Unsafe
acts can be reduced by tuning the minds of workmen to have a safe attitude through safety
training programmes. These programs aim at reduction by refining the risk-taking attitude and
promoting safe behavior at work for accident reduction. Many behavioral safety programs have
resulted in reduced accident rates like STOP work programme of DuPont. Putting persistent
effort in training employees can improve their competency.
Accident causes can be effectively controlled with
• Education
• Enforcement
Accidents can be prevented with education & training. However, there are some people who fail
to comply with accepted safety standards. It becomes a passion for them to violate the safety
standards. A strict reinforcement of safety practices is necessary, backed by prompt corrective
action to discipline the violators. This enforcement will be required to make an accident program
successful because in most cases violation of the safety rules will be the direct causes for an
accident.

Our attitudes control our lives. Attitudes are a secret power working 24 hrs a day, for good
(or) bad. It is of paramount importance that we know how to harness and control this great
force.
Tom Blandi, French Author

27
2.4 Case study
A study done by US insurance companies to identify the causative factor for the increase in
unsafe acts and unsafe conditions causing accidents in the construction industry are

2.4.1 High Unskilled Labour Turnover rate (unsafe acts increase)

High turnover of unskilled labour is routine in this industry. Especially for achieving the
construction schedule there will be a sudden increase of labour within a short period of time. In
this situation the normally followed safety practices are by passed. As a result, the accident rate
is higher for employees who have less than one year of service. When an accident occurs that is
severe enough to cause a lost time injury, the worker is generally out less than a month.
Research done by the insurance companies reveal the fact that lesser age group (i.e.) the 20 to
34-year-old group yield nearly half of the construction industry’s injuries. These problems can
be controlled by

a. Safety Orientation Programs for Workmen


Prior to employment workmen must be given safety induction elaborating the site safety
rules and procedures followed in the site.
b. Screening of Workmen
c. Workmen must be screened to judge their skills on the job and assess their suitability by their
supervisor for job skills and safety engineer for safety awareness.
2.4.2 Lack of Effective Supervision: (unsafe acts increase)

Well-trained supervisors will manage the jobs as planned, produce safe & profitable
projects. Research indicates many are promoted into supervisory positions because of their
technical ability or productivity. This does not mean that he or she is ready for the human
relation’s challenges of getting people to work safely and productively.
a. Regular training programmes
Engineers and Supervisors must be trained well before they take higher positions. It is
necessary to break the belief “Safety Measures are a barrier to completing a task quickly”.
b. Make employees accountable for working safely.
Just as productivity is valued, so should safe work environments. Make safety a part of every
supervisor’s performance appraisal. Training of new joiner’s is a must for creating safety
awareness. It makes them more disciplined at work and aware of the company’s rules leading
to a positive safety climate.
2.4.3 Slips/ Trips/ fall: (Unsafe acts & unsafe conditions)

46% of the injuries that occur in the construction industry are due to slips/ trips/ falls
accidents, almost half the injuries are caused this way. Engineers, Supervisors and Workmen
must be educated not to underestimate hazards, how much minor it may be.
A slip and fall at the ground level may not be hurting much and the consequences does not
matter much in majority of the cases, but a slip and fall from height makes it memorable, if not
for you atleast for others.

The Shock after a fall from height, takes time to recover

28
a. Housekeeping hazards effectively managed will significantly reduce these types of
accidents.
b. Maintain proper access at work areas through careful and routine maintenance of access
equipment such as ladders, scaffolds, and walkways. The use of proper tools and equipment
are all important in significantly reducing injuries.
c. An Enforceable fall protection policy must be at place. Anyone who is in a position to fall 6 feet
or more should use fall protection equipment 100 percent of time.
2.4.4 Inadequate personnel protective equipment (unsafe act)

Injuries to construction laborers account for 26% of all industry injuries. In 90% of these cases
it was observed that personnel protective equipment (PPE) was not in use (or) was
improperly used (or) workmen men improperly trained to use PPE for limiting exposure to
hazard (or) PPE were not available, the last reason causing the most.
This last-minute decision to increase the manpower abruptly for maintaining construction
schedules and lack of communication is the main cause for shortage in PPE. Also, this sudden
increase barely gives time for training and safety orientation.
2.4.5 Improper Material handling (unsafe act)

Many workers are injured during loading and unloading process. Items are sometimes too
heavy or too bulky for safe lifting. Too often customer loading/ unloading sites are not safe, or
proper machinery is not available. Dedicated drivers sometimes feel an obligation to
complete the job and will load or unload without proper assistance. To avoid potential
injuries, employers should require workers to
a. Use material handling equipment’s like cranes, forklifts etc.
b. Use appropriate body positioning and follow ergonomic guidelines during manual handling.
c. Not lift heavy or bulky objects.

Even in the safest working conditions, an


unsafe act causes an incident.

Allowing an unsafe condition to exist is an


act of negligence.

With regular training, superman syndrome


vanishes to reduce unsafe acts to ACHIEVE
ZERO. 29
3. Safety Culture & Safety Climate
The concept of safety culture has fundamentally developed a lot after the major disasters in the
nuclear industry like the Chernobyl disaster in Soviet Union. Accident Investigations exposed
the poor safety systems existing in the plant with lots of errors and violations of operating
procedures. Also, there was no indication of the work procedures being reviewed and updated
to correct the faults experienced during operation.

In the last 2 decades, considerable research has been done on this subject and numerous
definitions for safety culture and safety climate has been formulated based on the industry.

For ease of understanding let us state it as “safety culture of an organisation is the existence of
a formal and well documented HSE management system and procedures covering all aspects
of work that are reviewed & updated periodically to suit the changes in the operational
requirements and legislations”.

Safety climate can be defined as the conditions prevailing in the workplace at a particular time
that is determined by the attitude of the workforce and the level of control one has towards
implementation of the occupational health and safety management system.

Depending on the depth of the safety culture, a suitable safety climate shapes up in the
workplace. Developing a safety culture needs contribution from all levels in the organisation
where as a safety climate develops in the way an individual is tuned to have control on adopting
the safety precautions. Safety climate depends on individual actions and is very important to
reduce to unsafe acts.

In 2003, the Bureau of Labour Statistics reported that no industry has more deaths than
construction. It’s a fact that, it is part of the working culture that safety rules and work
procedures affecting the progress of work is disliked. It becomes a practice to overlook the
safety procedures and work violating the safety procedures, as the consequences of a mistake
(in many cases) are small relative to the benefit of violating the safe work procedures, leaving
lots of room for innovation.

To find out how effective is the safety culture at your workplace, just enter the workplace and
ask anyone – “who is responsible for safety?”

You may get a wide range of answers. The rightest answer is – “I”. The person who tells ‘I’ am
responsible for safety has the right attitude. Yes, everyone working in the workplace is
responsible for safety. This is the direction everyone must be oriented and trained to follow. It
is important to develop a positive safety culture as it forms the context within which individual
safety attitudes develop and safe behaviours are promoted.

The brink of implementation of safety culture in effect shapes the safety climate existing in the
workplace.

This is not true safety as none of us wants to live with (or be hurt by) the marks of an accident that
could have been avoided.

The huge cost of accidents has a direct impact on the profits.


The Longer the employee is away from work, the more money it costs.

30
Positive management commitment is the vital ingredient for developing an effective safety
culture. Management has to make public a high level of commitment with involvement for the
smooth percolation of the safety principles down through the entire organization. This
involvement sends in a positive signal to the workforce for adopting safety.

It’s obvious that Safe and healthy workplaces are A good safety culture is created
good for workers and employers as it is more when the managers are
profitable and competitive. The importance of the
safety culture in preventing accidents should be proactive rather than being
realized and a positive safety culture must be reactive, in their approach to
developed. safety issues at the workplace.
For achieving continuous improvement, we require to build a culture that encourages setting
and maintaining high standards of safety, identifying and resolving problems and deficiencies
etc. Culture changes do not happen overnight. It improves each
Lifeday
andwith theare
limb persistence efforts than
more precious
put in by the management to implement the safety policy and effectively
anything managing the safety
else.
system.

3.1 Safety Management


a. First Part – is to form the necessary HSE structure within an organization. A well-documented
and certified Health and Safety Management system is the foundation for this. This is formed and
certified to confirm with Standards. This forms the framework over which a Safety culture
develops.

b. Second part – is to promote safety by developing the attitude & competency of the entire work
team in responding to the requirements of the health and safety management system. This is the
most active and essential element for deriving the benefits of implementing the HSE system. E.g.:
Organizing behaviour-based safety training program. This helps in creating an atmosphere for
forming a Good Safety climate and to sustain it.

A good gauge of safety culture is "how we do things here." The way work
is done around the workplace pinpoints the on-hand Safety Culture.

When management walks their safety talk with a visible involvement in safety activities, an
attitude to sustain the positive safety culture & climate developed after considerable efforts
silently walks into the minds of the entire workforce, effortlessly. Employees will start owning
the responsibility for safety.

When management’s action speaks louder than their words they will
ACHIEVE ZERO

31
3.2 Safety culture & Safety climate

Safety culture and safety climate are often used but puzzling terms. So, what exactly is it?

The conceptual aspects of these two areas should be clearly understood to differentiate and
bring them together to improve safety performance.

The top management lays the foundation of the safety culture by developing policies and goals.
Work procedures and method statements are developed and streamlined by their guidance to
substantiate the safety culture.

Safety climate is the pop up of the safety culture in place. It is the condition of the safety culture
at a particular point of time created by the attitudes of employees towards safety. An employee’s
attitude towards safety is in turn governed by their perception of the importance given by the
management to safety and risk of a particular place at a particular time. It can be simply
described as “how people think and feel about safety issues”.

The most striking example is the impact on


safety immediately following after an accident
with serious injury or fatality. Every time after
such an incident everyone is conscious about
safety. This triggers a strengthening of the
safety climate. Safety is given lot of attention
and safe work practices get implemented
without much persuasion. But in practice, the
changes that were made in the aftermath of an
accident do not last long and the old culture Climate changes more often than the culture,
creeps up with other pressures like depending on the situations prevailing at the
production. workplace.

Superiors play a vital role in setting up safety climate in the working area. If the supervisor never
says anything about safety, never asks about it, doesn’t sit on training classes, the employee will
quickly come to a conclusion that safety isn’t important to the supervisor. The employee picks up
the lack of emphasis in safety and starts neglecting safety and concentrates only on production.
Gradually he concludes, on achieving the production targets he gets the required growth and
rewards. In these situations, it is usual to expect him to side-line the safety requirements.
Everyone in an organization has an immediate superior to report and monitor his work.

A questioning attitude must be developed with all in the organization to improve the safety
culture and climate. This questioning attitude develops the safety consciousness and
awareness influencing the attitudes for a positive safety climate. Communication is an
important driver of safety climate.

Learn, Teach and Practice Safety


The existing safety climate has an influence on the interest i.e. will power of the employee in
responding to the safety requirements. If the workplace is unorganized, it affects the attitude of
the workmen. “Who wants to be an odd man in the group?”

32
Swami Vivekananda in his book “Will Power and its development” states that will power is that
power of mind which enables us to do what we know to be right and not to do what we know to
be wrong, under all circumstances favourable (or) unfavourable, known (or) unknown. We
should realize that our actions shape the safety climate in our workplace. By doing things safely
once, we can break the barrier between safe and unsafe working and decidedly do things in a
Safeway thereafter.

Keep in mind – Do the right thing, right now


Instead of doing the job hurriedly in a wrong way and repenting after accidents/ major damages,
is it not better to do the right thing promptly and enjoy the fruits later. Understanding and
managing both climate and culture is critical to achieving and maintaining excellence in safety
performance. A positive safety climate is the outcome of the positive safety culture.

Developing the safety culture is a proven way of enhancing the workplace


safety to improve safety performance, as done by companies like DuPont.

The efforts made to enhance their safety culture have immensely benefited
their plant, engineering and work process.

Creating a safety culture is a long and challenging journey, something that cannot be done
overnight but can be done over a period of time. In an expert opinion given by Rosanne Danner,
vice president – development, DuPont Safety Resources, 3 to 5 years is a good rule of thumb for
instituting a safety culture change. Higher management forms the Safety culture while the
lower management plays a major role in developing the safety climate. It can change
frequently, almost every shift depending on the attitude of persons as every individual has
control over the Safety climate around him.

A positive safety climate is the outcome of the positive safety culture


developed to ACHIEVE ZERO. It takes a long time to earn a mishap free
milestone and only seconds to lose

“Individual actions determine the Safety climate; It’s difficult to change the
safety culture and still more difficult to stop the changes in safety climate”
- Anonymous

33
3.3 Elements of a safety culture A company’s commitment to
safety & health is reflected in its
3.3.1 Make a Safety Policy with Management commitment & Involvement decisions about capital,
Creating a safety culture begins with a written safety policy. manpower, organizational
A well-developed HSE policy forms the base over which a structure and employee
safety culture develops. empowerment.
The policy must be clear, meaningful and practicable to Alan C. Mc Millan
achieve. It should express the concern of the management President and CEO - NSC
for the health, safety and wellbeing of all its employees.
Further, it should mention that this concern shall be Employees will follow your safety
demonstrated by eliminating hazards by training employees leadership. However, you should
in safe working practices. Management’s actions must be felt lead by example.
by them, making it obvious that safety is important. Top
management personnel must become "safety VIPs" (visible – Mr. Dudley Daniel, Senior VP,
involved – participative). Saudi Arabian Chevron

This visible participation of management will change for Source: 3rd Annual Contractor safety
forum of JO, Kuwait
certain, the employee perceptions of management’s
commitment to safety and shall be the key driver to
determine the safety climate in the workplace. These policies
must be reviewed from time to time to suit the working
environment. Effective leadership is more than
just words.
3.3.2 Role Clarity & Accountability
Clearly define the roles and responsibilities. Ensure that
everyone is made aware that they are responsible for their
Whatever be your position you
safety and for the safety of others. Accountability is a useful
have got a role to play for safety.
tool to improve safety performance.

3.3.3 Training & Education


Impart necessary knowledge and develop competent An integral part of safety culture
personnel through Effective Safety Training and Instruction, planning is to ensure that people
Safety Induction, Tool Box Meetings etc. who hold critical positions have
3.3.4 Inspection the knowledge & understanding
to develop an environment that
Supervise the work of individuals through regular safety
supports safety.
inspections, audits to review work practices. Assess the
readiness of the individuals to respond to the requirements
of the HSE management system. Working together we can make
hazards disappear.
3.3.5 Encourage Participation
Everyone must be made aware of the importance of safety. Safety activities managed by a
Promote safety to improve the level of safety participation. It safety team give a good culture.
can be defined as the voluntary involvement in identification
Safety activities managed by
and correction of unsafe situations that do not directly
everyone give a safety conscious
contribute to an individual’s safety, but to keep the working
safety climate.
environment safely. Motivate personnel to actively
participate in safety related issues. Getting safety culture concepts
across to frontline supervisor’s
needs continuous assessment and
reinforcement. 34
Planning for a positive safety
culture needs reducing the
obstacles & providing an
3.3.6 Measuring and improving the safety culture
environment that rewards
After setting down the necessary framework for forming a
positive behaviour’s and more
positive safety culture, the progress and direction of
importantly, offers no excuse for
implementation shall be monitored to bring in the benefits of
not undertaking appropriate
the newly formed safety culture.
actions.
“When an organizations commitment to safety is going beyond just
compliance, the road to a positive safety climate has already been laid”

35
3.4 Achieving excellence
By making safety a core value, safety excellence can be achieved with continual improvement
as its easy to manage HSE when it is established as a core value. Safety perspectives will get
integrated into our systems easily and employees perform safely as they believe safety is
important to the success of the business.

When “safety is first”, at times Safety first (or) Safety is our top priority may sound good
but in practice it is difficult to maintain. Priorities keep
managers condone unsafe
changing from time to time. At times to meet production
acts, sending conflicting
schedules it becomes tough to give safety the number 1
messages to employees about priority and it becomes second priority or next time first
the management commitment and safe working procedures are bypassed increasing the
for safety. risk factor.

By integrating safety into all Instead safe production is our policy (or) Safety always is
operations, it is “Safety our policy will stress the need to follow safety always,
always, anytime, every time” underlining the idea - it’s fine to produce as fast as
leaving no room for unsafe possible as long as it can be done safely without shortcuts.
acts. Safety must be built into everything in such a way that it
cannot be compromised at any time.

A statement from the CEO of DuPont:


“We will never compromise our core values – Safety and Environmental excellence, integrity,
high ethical standards and treating people with fairness and respect.”

- Charles O. Holiday Jr., Chairman & CEO, DuPont

When Safety is a part of every management decision, safety will develop into a core value,
easily. When selecting to purchase a machine various factors like efficiency, maintenance cost,
lifetime, production capacity, cost of training etc. Considering safety aspects during purchase
will confirm safety is building into a core value in your organisation.

"Understand that what we believe precedes policy, procedure and practice."


–Max DePree, past CEO, Herman Miller Co. Inc.

Abeytunga, a safety analyst studied the perceptions of 70 worksite supervisors of the hazards
present on the worksite. Abeytunga did not project himself as a safety person, to avoid
supervisors projecting a false impression on Safety. Site safety inspections were conducted
along with the supervisors and they were asked to point out the hazards as they walked around.
When Abeytunga saw a hazard which the supervisor has not pointed out, he pointed out himself,
asking whether the supervisor thought it was a hazard. If not, why it was not a hazard? From
these Abeytunga identified some common factors. They are
1. Limited resources to remove the hazard.
2. Beyond supervisory duties (limited & attributed to others, undefined)
3. Incompatible demands (Production, quality, cost etc. vs. Safety)
4. Accepting the hazards as inevitable (this acceptance makes people to take more risk)
5. Social climatic influences (Work force Pressure & Low efficiency supervision)

36
6. Industrial tradition (accept certain hazards, changes needed to remove hazards would not be
acceptable)
7. Lack of technical competence to remove the hazard
8. Dependence upon individual worker (skill of others, hazards seen to be under specialists
control)
9. Lack of authority to do anything (Authority surrendered to others achievement of work goals,
unclear authority structure)
10. Contingency situations (Rapid planning required, unexpected breakdown of equipment, delay
in arrival of material and personnel, risk taken to cope).

The major causes of accidents and production troubles are same.

Production trouble Accident trouble (Cause)

This is lost because materials are not stored properly Slip and Fall type accidents

This is lost because components are not readily


Fall from heights
available.

This is lost because aisles are blocked with materials. Improper Housekeeping

This is lost because wrong tools are used. Struck by/ Hit by a flying object

This is lost because wrong methods are adopted No hazard analysis

Accidents due to improper


This is lost because rework is necessary.
lighting

If the supervisor’s concern is only elimination of accidents that result in personnel injuries, it
must be changed, as accidents can also result in damage to equipment, machinery and
products, loss of time and interference with planned procedures. Making safety as a core value
can change the concerns of all. The supervisor must be properly oriented and educated about
the safety principles. Therefore, we can tell that the essentiality of the supervisor in a site is to
get the people do the jobs in the way that should be done.

It should be understood that the safe working procedure insists on the proper working
procedure without shortcuts. A supervisor must work hard to set safety as a core value, making
safety as a habit. If he succeeds in setting the safe habits then
1. Job is made easier – less job interruption
2. Production increases – by using proper and efficient methods
3. Injury, human suffering and death are prevented.
4. Money is saved.
5. High morale and discipline are maintained.

“Success in Safety depends on will and the ability to hold on to the will.”

- Author

37
3.5 Assessing the safety culture

Now we have seen the tangibles involved in setting up a Improving safety culture is something
safety culture. After we set up the culture it needs to be which should be seen as a long term
assessed continuously for developing the culture. Safety and systematic process. It starts with
questionnaires and surveys are very useful tools to assess an initial assessment of the existing
the safety culture and safety climates. When they are used in culture and then determines the action
conjunction with Positive performance indicators for safety necessary to effect the change. Actions
performance, an accurate assessment can be done and will be based on the Safety policy or the
areas with room for improvement can be identified. Goals set the management.
Surveys are the quickest way to gain the most information about employee’s perceptions of the
current culture. It is a means of measuring and comparing improvements or decrements in
safety culture. These perception surveys are very useful tools in determining the effectiveness
of the safety efforts and identify the strengths and weaknesses of the safety elements.
By assessing its safety culture, an organisation can determine where the efforts need to be
focused for developing safety. The main elements of the questionnaire used for a safety survey
are
1. Safety awareness 6. Leadership
2. Teamwork 7. Training
3. Commitment 8. Compliance
4. Excellence 9. Facilities
5. Communications

38
3.6 Sustaining the safety culture
The requirements to preserve the safety culture developed is

3.6.1 Continuous commitment of Management


Top management sets the tone to the development of the entire safety program. However, in
most cases we can find a decrease in commitment with time with the obstacles faced during
implementation. Gradually, safety shifts from a value to a priority. To stop this, management
must review their level of commitment from time to time such that everyone feels their
commitment driving the implementation of the safety program.

Let me present a case study on how a company plagued with accidents has established itself as
a leader in safety by developing its safety culture and preserving it. To promote safety, National
safety council has instituted a “Green Cross Award” since 1999. This award is to recognize
corporations that has made safety a central part of its value system. Presented annually, year
2006 saw the global Giant DuPont presented this award in recognition of their emphasis on
safety.

DuPont’s emphasis on safety goes back to its roots. DuPont was founded in 1802 in the
Brandywine Valley in Delaware and was the first manufacturers of gun powder, a highly volatile
substance. The operations were plagued with explosions that killed lot of people and causing
huge damages. On average 3 persons were killed in each explosion that occurred in an interval
of 14 months. This made the company take safety practices very seriously.

As a result, the founder of the company, Eleuthere Irenee DuPont (E.I. DuPont) redesigned his
gunpowder plants to improve the quality of gunpowder and devised measures to enhance
safety.

E.I. DuPont studied explosive production techniques along with the famous chemist Antoine
Lavoisier. He located a site to suit the new design and purchased it to build his new gun powder
mill. It was very close to the Brandywine River. The falling water on the lower Brandywine could
drive the machinery of a large mill and ensure year-round production. The redesign of the
gunpowder plant was with significant changes than other contemporary plants. Rather than
building one large structure to house the entire manufacturing process, he built many small
buildings suitably spaced apart that contained different phases of the process, thereby reducing
the risk of total destruction of the facility in the event of an explosion. The smaller buildings were
built with three heavy, reinforced stone walls, while the fourth wall was of comparatively flimsy
wood construction. The fourth wall faced the river so that, in the event of an explosion, the
wooden wall would be blown out and the energy released from the blast would be directed over
the river, rather than at the other adjacent buildings. This represented a substantial safety
advance, unless of course you happened to be boating on the river at the wrong moment.

Safety measures were adapted to eliminate the chance of a spark being produced that can
trigger an explosion. All tools were made out of wood, workers wore clothing with brass buttons
and shoes with soles that had brass tacks, and horses were fitted with rubber-like boots that
were placed over their horseshoes. Even then explosions occurred.

The industry continued to be plagued with explosions and worker deaths. This redesign of the
plants was sought to reduce the effects of an explosion. Something more was needed to prevent
an explosion. That is an organizational and individual commitment. Organizational commitment

39
is required to develop a safety culture and individual commitment to follow the safety culture
for a positive Safety climate.

While these initiatives limited costly damage and minimized injuries, they also helped DuPont
to retain its more experienced and safety-conscious workers – men better able to recognize
tell-tale signs of danger and prevent disaster. According to legend, the major design change
when redesigning the gun powder plants in the early 1800’s was that the manager’s offices were
located just above the rooms where the gun powder was made. If true, this would have been an
early example of a corporate decision to ensure management’s total commitment to safety.

Further, in 1805, DuPont was one of a few companies to hire a physician for employees. In 1935,
it established one of the world’s first industrial medicine facilities. The message from the CEO &
Chairman Charles O. Holiday Jr. is

“Safety is more than a priority – that is a value. Priorities change. To have a good strong safety
culture, you have to have safety as a value, not a priority. We try to weave safety into everything
– performance evaluations, pay progression and career promotions.”

Further, to achieve their safety targets, the STOP program was developed. This STOP program
addresses both the safe and unsafe behaviours of people in the workplace. This continued
commitment of management to safety saw a drastic fall in the injury rates and environmental
incidents. This won them the “Green Cross Award” for the year 2006 given by the National Safety
Council. This is a perfect example of “Achieving Safety excellence” through culture change and
sustaining it. We can learn that – “Safety culture change is hard but rewarding work”.

3.6.2 Felt Leadership is critical in achieving a safety culture

Safety is first and foremost about leadership. This means department leaders should educate
officers and set the example by applying the proven elements of leadership. Felt leadership is
all about people communicating safety to their lower line. Leadership is felt only when leaders
in the organization act according to the values of the company.

Who is your leader?

The Chairman or CEO is the ultimate leader but not the immediate leader for everyone. They are
highly visible leaders and must maintain a positive attitude toward safety to inspire this attitude
in Managers, who in turn inspire the attitudes of the Engineers and supervisors. Everyone has
an immediate boss whom you are reporting to. His attitude is going to control your actions.

A worker’s attitude is usually controlled by his supervisor.


The 12-point checklist of DuPont helps its leaders put their beliefs into action:

1. Set a good example


a. Observe all safety rules.
b. Always wear personal protective equipment (PPE) where required.
c. Discuss some aspect of safety with employees every day.
2. Know the operation
a. Understand the entire process or operation for which you are responsible.
b. Process data to find and track trends.
c. Understand how and why the safety rules apply to the work you supervise.

40
3. Anticipate risks

4. Discuss hazards
a. Encourage your employees to discuss work hazards.
b. No job should proceed where a question of safety remains unanswered.
c. Encourage and be receptive to the ideas of your workers.

5. Be alert for unsafe conditions


a. Every walkthrough should be an impromptu inspection tour.
b. Correct hazards on the spot.

6. Follow up
7. Inspect often and inspect intelligently
a. Detect unsafe acts.
b. Eliminate unsafe practices.
c. Audit often, involve the entire organization.
d. Observe people and inspect conditions.
e. Track your performance.

8. Take effective corrective actions


a. Correct the deficiencies and poor practices you see.
b. Correct; don’t reprimand.
c. Make corrections promptly.
d. Address unsafe actions immediately.

9. Investigate accidents
a. Investigate all injuries and accidents.
b. Identify key factors.
c. Hold line management accountable.
d. Present investigation findings as opportunities to learn.
e. Encourage employees to report all events.

10. Maintain discipline


a. Discipline as necessary.
b. Apply discipline consistently and equitably.
c. Make the main objective of discipline to improve performance.

11. Know your employees


a. Mentor employees.
b. Be aware that employees’ ability depends upon their education, training and experience.
c. Take employee capabilities into account when planning a job.
d. Communicate extensively and foster involvement through auditing and teaming.

12. Make safety a part of your operation.


a. Always incorporate safety into your meetings.
b. Remember that accident prevention leads to better operations.
c. Make safety a prime obligation; let it be felt.
d. Demonstrate your level of safety as a leader.

DuPont Safety Resources:


Further to assist all the operating units and customers in safety, DuPont has set up a safety
consulting division. DuPont Safety resources are the safety consulting division of the global
DuPont Corporation. It was founded 30 years ago to build on the world class safety principles

41
and best practices employed throughout DuPont, and to assist client organizations in their
efforts in achieving similarly excellent safety performance.

There are many organizations that have benefited from DuPont Safety Resources. One of them
is Aggregate Industries. Aggregate industries had set a goal of – Zero Incidents and engaged
professionals from DuPont Safety Resources to develop and implement new initiatives. As their
safety culture continues to strengthen, the goal of Zero incidents becomes achievable.

This case study of DuPont demonstrates the successful transformation of a company plagued
with accidents to become a safety leader will substantiate the need for a continuum
development of safety culture.

To will is to select a goal, determine the course of action that will bring
one to that goal, and then hold to that action till the goal is reached.
The key is action.

Michael Hanson
3.6.3 Measuring safety performance
Traditionally safety has been measured by the number of accidents and the days lost due to
injuries sustained from them. Accidents are a measure of the number of times the safety
systems fail. A common belief exists that when there are no accidents are happening, the safety
system is perfectly functioning.

In the chapter on controlling accidents, we have mentioned the various accident ratios
developed by safety leaders based on their research. For every major accident happening there
are a number of incidents/ dangerous occurrences happening where the outcome is nil i.e. no
injuries/ losses. This may be due to sheer luck & goes unnoted. It can be easily understood, the
best, easiest way to prevent accidents is to prevent them from happening.

Measuring the number of times, the system has “If we are in the business
failed will hold-up the development process as this of promoting OHS, why
gives a false impression on the actual scenario. We do we use failures as the
will identify the areas for improvement only after an measure of our
accident occurs. When the dangerous occurrences success?”
go unreported/ unnoticed we are deprived of the
Rose.
chance to learn a lesson on accident prevention.
Keeping on mind, the fact that every unsafe act/ You can’t manage what
unsafe condition does not result in an accident, we you can’t measure.
need to work out a method to improve the
implementation of the safety system. Drucker

This technique of measuring the safety performance through the number of times an accident
has happened is called as lagging indicators. These lagging indicators do not measure the
effective implementation of the safety programs, proactive action plans and preventive
activities in place. It gives no clue about the actual safety activities done. On the long run it can
make people complacent about their safety functions.

42
We will have to measure the frequency & effectiveness of the activities that help to develop
safety, measures of success called as leading indicators. They are used to drive and measure
activities carried out to prevent and control injury. When measured and monitored effectively,
the data from the leading indicators enables effective intervention to address or reverse a
negative trend before it results in an injury.

The main advantage of this leading indicator is it helps in developing a positive safety climate.
Everyone likes to be perfect i.e. 100%. This leading indicator hints at where your activities are
now and what is required to achieve 100%. People will take initiative to fulfil the requirements
and a positive safety climate surfaces up automatically. Commonly used indicators are

A. Lagging Indicators
i. Accident rate
ii. Frequency rate
iii. Severity rate
iv. Restricted work cases

B. Leading Indicators
i. Degree of commitment to health and safety.
ii. Percentage of JSA done.
iii. Percentage of hazards rectified.
iv. Percentage of incidents reported and investigated.
v. Percentage of actions implemented as suggested in Safety reports.
vi. Number of safety communications
vii. Implementation of site safety action plan.
viii. Quality of observations during safety audits and inspections.
ix. Percentage of training given
x. Project walk-through conducted by executive management and supervisors.
xi. Percentage attendance in safety committee meetings.

These PPI’s can be used as a tool to reduce accidents. Indicators chosen must represent the
area/ item which is of concern for developing a positive safety culture and climate. It can vary
based on the industry type. They are an effective tool to correct unsafe behaviours and promote
safe practices like % times work permits are taken before work.

Commitment of managers towards safety will also improve for safety related activities like
workmen nominated for training; attendance of managers in safety meetings, tool box talks etc.
Using the activities that promote a safety culture and climate as Positive performance
indicators is a perfect and powerful tool to ACHIEVE ZERO.

Indicators selected must measure safety related activity.

To ACHIEVE ZERO, Always, measure what leads to improvement.

43
3.6.4 Safety Professionals in high numbers
Safety professionals are specialists in safety. They have the required education and training to
decide on the safe way of working. These safety professionals play a main role in forming a work
culture that is Safety conscious. In addition to their regular duties, some of the prominent
features to promote a safety-conscious culture are:
a. Monetary incentives and Recognition for employees showing exemplary safety awareness.
b. Conducting regular safety celebrations and lunches when safety milestones are achieved.
c. Conducting Safety Pauses or Safety Stand downs (i.e. discussion forums) when a hazardous
situation is identified that requires a strong emphasis.
d. An Unusual Job plan identifies and mitigates hazards before unusual jobs are performed.
e. Anonymous feedback is solicited so that employees can express concerns without fear of
reprisal.
f. Conduct training programs focussing largely on personal attitudes towards safety to obtain
“Employee ownership of Safety culture”.

3.7 Maintaining a Positive safety climate


Safe behaviours are the consequences of the existing Safety climate, which has many
determinants. Various researches done during the 1990’s identifies the main constructs that
determine the safety climate is
a. Management Commitment
b. Communication
c. Rules and Procedures
d. Supportive and Supervisory environments
e. Worker’s involvement
f. Personal appreciation of risk
g. Appraisal of work environment, work pressure and competence

44
Myth on Management Commitment by Larry Hansen, CSP, ARM

Myth: Management “commitment” is the key to safety success.

Reality: Management “action” is the sole requisite for safety success.

Only active involvement can overcome the corporate inertia which


impedes an organization from attaining higher levels of safe performance.
Commitment without action only produces “cynicism”. “They watch your
feet not your lips” says Tom Peters.

Top Management of India’s largest construction company ensuring positive action from
PROJECT MANAGEMENT in HSE BREAKING THE MYTH ON MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT

L&T-ECC

Office of
President (Operations) & Deputy Managing Director
Chennai
January 17, 2004
Zonal Heads
BU Heads RMs
Culture of "Safety First"

At the outset I would like to appreciate the good work being done by our Construction
Managers, Site engineers, safety engineers and workers which has improved our safety
performance over the last one decade. There has been continuous reduction in frequency rate
of reportable accidents (i.e. number of accidents per million man-hours worked) as shown
below.

Year Frequency Rate


1995 – 1996 3.79
2002 – 2003 0.80

However, fatalities continue to be a serious concern for Management.


In order to benchmark our safety performance with the best in the world and to raise our safety
performance to the level of MNCs we need to improve further in the area of safety. Also, with
more and more high-risk jobs like high rise buildings, hydel projects, LPG Cavern, Power
Plants, Cement Plants, Refineries, Harbours/Jetties, etc., it is essential to establish the culture
of "Safety First" at our sites. In our journey to be a global player the culture of “Safety First” is
an important requirement. I feel the following steps will help in bringing about the change.

45
➢ During weekly co-ordination meeting at sites, monthly co-ordination meeting in
Regions and in operations committee meeting at HQ, safety should be
discussed/reviewed first.
➢ When Zonal Heads / RMs / SPMs / RPMs visit site, they will review safety performance
of site first, followed by other discussions.
➢ Similarly, when senior executives/BU heads from HQ visit site, they should make it a
point to review safety first.
➢ During all above reviews, emphasis should be on all proactive measures and
implementation of safety systems & procedures.
➢ Any unsafe act/condition observed during site visit by executives, inspection by safety
engineer/site engineer, internal/external audits must be attended to promptly.
➢ It shall be the responsibility of PMs/CMs/REs to enforce safety at site and they will be
held accountable for the same.
➢ All required support should be provided to site by Zonal Heads/BU
Heads/RMs/SPMs/RPMs/RPLMs and Safety Engineering Department.
➢ In case of fatality the concerned PM/CM/RE shall be called to Regional Office and will
have to explain to Zonal Heads, RM, SPM and RPM as to why such an accident took place.
The accident investigation report will be discussed threadbare during this meeting and
action plan prepared which will be implemented to ensure that similar incidents do not
reoccur.
➢ No compromise shall be made on safety under any circumstances.

I am sure the above steps will translate our goal of establishing the Culture of “Safety First" and
achieving world-class safety performance into reality.
There is no doubt and you will agree with me that we have all the skill, knowledge, competence
and resource to achieve world class safety performance and I do not see any reason why this
cannot be achieved. Each one of us needs to contribute to achieve this goal.
Let us start the New Year with the resolution that we shall soon establish the Culture of “Safety
First” at our sites.

With best wishes & regards,


(A. RAMAKRISHNA)
cc: EVPs VPs
GMs JGMs
RPS

It’s difficult to change the safety culture and still more difficult to stop the
changes in safety climate.

- Author

46
4. HAZARD CONTROL

"Accidents don't happen by accident; In fact, they tell us that our


operations are out of Control”
Dr. Earl Blair
4.1 Introduction
Even with best efforts, things do go wrong. This satisfies the Murphy’s Law – whatever can
possibly go wrong, will go wrong at least 1 time”

With rapidly changing technologies, industry faces the challenge of demonstrating by action its
desire and ability to improve the safety record. Proof for the technology development should
be in the form of decreasing accident rates and subsequent reduction in losses.

Undesirable events like accidents are something that occurs unexpectedly but the belief that
accidents occur due to misfortune is misleading as in most cases the accidentee knows he is
taking chance neglecting safe practices, he took his chance and failed like when using a ladder,
he reaches out too far and falls instead of taking time to reposition the ladder? he took his
chance and failed. Construction work involves a series of occupational risks, such as work at
heights (use of scaffoldings, gangways and ladders; work on roofs); excavation work (use of
explosives, earthmoving machines); lifting of materials (use of cranes, hoists) and so on, which
are specific to the sector.

The Construction Industry employs more than 8.5 million workers, majority of them being
illiterate (In India, 2003). A specific approach to occupational safety and health in this industry is
required as a result of its temporary character of workplace and everyday workmen take more
and more chances at worksite.

Yes, the construction industry is one of the most dangerous occupations in the world and no
construction is 100% safe, but accidents and fatalities can be avoided if Project engineers,
supervisors and workers are provided training. Zero accident rates can be attained by
implementing proper safety systems.

4.2 Injury Rates in construction


The working conditions of equipment’s, machines, tools, materials and working methods in the
construction industry continually cause injuries, diseases, fatalities and damage. This industry
is responsible for about 10.1% of the total occupational accidents, 9.6% of fatalities, 12.2% of
partial disabilities and about 7.4% of temporary disability.

The building and construction industry is second among the risky trades, with an injury rate of
9.9(per 1000 workers). It is second only after mining/quarrying, which has the highest injury rate
of 17.7(per 1000 workers). (2003)

Even after 2 decades in 2017 the construction industry still ranks second with an injury rate of
417 for every 100,000 employed personnel. (WSH bulletin, February, 2018)

47
According to OSHA, the top 10 most violated standards in the Construction Industry in 2003 are

Standard Violations

Scaffolding 9476

Fall Protection 5870

Excavations, General Requirement 2121

Ladders 2063

Electrical Wiring Methods, Equipment 1529


Excavations, Requirements for Protective
1505
systems
Head Protection 1474

Health and General Safety Provisions 1454

Mobile ladders & scaffolds 1420

Fall Protection, Training Requirements 1356

Scaffolding, 35%

Scaffolding Fall Protection


Excavations, General Requirement Ladders
Electrical Wiring Methods, Equipment Excavations, Requirements for Protective systems
Head Protection Health and General Safety Provisions
Mobile ladders & scaffolds

Horseplay – intent is innocent, results extremely serious

48
4.3 Hazard Classification
Before listing the hazards at the workplace, let’s define hazard:

“A danger, which threatens physical harm to employees, workmen”

4.3.1 Types of Hazards

Safety

Ergonomic
Hazards

Chemical

Physical

Psychological

Biological

4.3.2 Hazard Classification

Safety Ergonomic Chemical Physical Psychological Biological

Repetitive Injestion /
Falls motion
Radiation Stress Animals
absorption
(toxicity)
Slips & Trips Postural Magnetic Field Behaviour Birds
(leading to a
fall) Working Environment Extremes of Violence Insects
- light, air, pressure,
temperature temperature
Struck Plant
(by a moving
object)
Bacteria
Caught (inside of/ between
two different objects)
Virus
Hit
(by flying objects/
against a stationery
object)

Collapse
(of temporary structures)

Fire

Electrocution

49
4.3.3 Hazard Exposure
Accidents are a result of the employees exposed to these hazards at work. The exposure may
be Direct or Indirect, based on the condition being exposed or the position relating to the hazard.

Exposure

Direct Indirect

i. Direct Exposure is the case when the person is normally at an arm’s length to the hazard and
usually involved in the job. If any part can be injured as a result of the proximity to a danger zone,
then direct exposure exists.
Removing guards during maintenance (or) passing by the work area are typical direct
exposures.

ii. Indirect Exposure is the case when the person exposed to the hazard is far away (or) no involved
in doing the job.
Persons exposed to flying objects while working with concrete breakers, exposed to radiation
during X-ray (NDT) testing of weld joints are typical indirect exposures.

To ACHIEVE ZERO,
a written safety plan is just a good idea.
It must be put into practice to protect
employees & machines giving it the foundation
to ACHIEVE ZERO.

50
4.3.4 Safety Hazard’s
In construction industry, it is quite essential to understand the nature of the hazards classified
under this category. The severity of injuries sustained depends on the type of exposure and other
characteristics. It is essential to understand the nature of the hazard to take corrective
measures to prevent losses.

a. Fall of Persons (or) Materials


This hazard accounts for almost 50% of the
fatalities in the construction industry. This is a
very critical hazard as a fall from around 2 meters
has resulted in a fatality. The type and severity of
injuries depends on the height of fall and safety
measures in place.
Fall of materials is another leading cause for
severe injuries from accidents in construction
sites. The items that fall can range from small
objects like spanners to objects weighing
hundreds of tons during erection. Severity is
determined by its mass and height from which it
falls.

Heavier the object, the risk and consequences are more severe.

b. Slip, Trip and fall


According to OSHA, slip & trips resulting in falls is
the second leading cause of deaths in the general
industry and is the major cause for temporary
disabilities. Slip, Trip and fall may be on the same
level or onto a lower level and can happen almost
anywhere.
Slips result in falls when there is not enough
friction between the walking surface & the
person’s foot, causing a loss of balance. Falls
from trips occur when the motion encounters an
unexpected obstacle causing a loss of balance.
A broken bone is the most common outcome of a
fall due to slip/trip incident.

MEN SLIP OVER PEBBLES,


NEVER OVER MOUNTAINS
Emile Cady

51
c. Hit by (a Moving Object)
Probably the most unpredictable type of accident
is being hit by a moving object, because it is
usually out of routine. Sometimes workers carry
objects that obscure their vision and are a real
threat to them and their co-workers.
A typical situation observed is when workers
carry objects too long for them to handle, a slight
change of direction by the carrier can cause the
object to swing into someone else.

d. Struck by (against a stationery object)


A struck by injury is caused by a forcible contact
(or) impact between the injured person and an
object (or) piece of equipment.
This hazard roots from poor design practices,
lack of concentration at work (or) lack of warning
signs. The severity of the injury depends on the
speed at which the impact has occurred.

e. Caught in (or between)


Caught in hazards occur when a worker (or) part
of his body could be caught inside of (or) in
between different objects. This hazard is more
prominent when working with machinery like
being pulled into (or) caught in machinery,
equipment (or) being compressed (or) crushed
between rolling, sliding (or) shifting objects like
side collapse of trench/excavation,
A crush injury is the effect of getting caught
between two objects.

52
f. Collapse (of temporary Structures)
Failure of temporary structures used in the
construction process like scaffolding, shoring,
false work, formwork due to poor design,
overlooking/ ignoring to provide proper supports
is common.
The outcome of an accident due to this hazard is
always catastrophic with severe loss of lives and
property.
Scaffolding (or) crane collapse during operation/
erection is due to violation of the safe working
procedures and has huge property damage
associated with it.

g. Electrocution
This is silent killer hazard that is neither visible
nor audible, travels very fast and can be lethal
making it a very critical one. The damage to the
body caused by electrical hazard can vary
depending on the amount of current and how long
the current flows inside the body. Injuries can be
serious, from severe from burns to death. Also,
electricity has been the root cause for a
significant number of fire accidents.

h. Fire
“Fire easy to start but difficult to control” is a
commonly used slogan to stress the nature of fire
hazard. Fire mainly depends on fuel, temperature
and ignition source. Once started and if not
controlled in the early stages, fire often proves to
be a catastrophic hazard. It can result in
conflagration (uncontrolled burning) which has
the capacity to cause lot of physical damage,
weakening of the structure leading to its collapse
and loss of life.

53
4.4 Hazard Identification and Assessment
Constructive change and improvement starts with an examination of where we are and where
we want to go. “Are we prepared to face the hazards at our workplaces? In workplaces, hazards
are rampant, making it very unsafe to work. Given this reality we need a list of Safety procedures
being pursed simultaneously to ensure the safety, health and wellbeing of employees.
Sometimes people are also required to work alone with no supervision.

“Hazard Identification” is the process of recognizing the existing hazards and defining its
characteristics. Every hazard identified must be assessed for the consequences in case it causes
an accident at work. The most commonly used method for hazard identification and assessment
is the “Job Safety Analysis”. This method is proved to be the best for planning the safest way to
perform any task (Holt 2001). This method identifies the hazards existing in the workplace and
the results can be used to develop safe work practices to eliminate injuries & illnesses and
accident related losses. It also eliminates unnecessary steps and activities, making the job
easier.

This is a simple tool that allows the staff to logically examine a job so that all hazards associated
with that job can be identified, assessed and documented. This also allows us to determine the
appropriate control measures based on the risk rating. All hazards are important. Some are
more likely than others to cause an accident. Also, the degree of harm/ damage varies with the
hazard. The magnitude of the impact of the hazard at a particular instance must be evaluated to
develop the best way to control the risk. In case of a fall hazard – The impact of falling from a
height of 2 feet is less considered to the impact of falling from a height of 20 feet or 200 feet.

If I had 8 hours to chop down a tree, I will spend 6 sharpening my axe.

Abraham Lincoln

Hazard Find Assess Manage

Accident prevention is based on Risk information, which can


be got from Risk Assessment & Real Accident data.

Analyse & Use accident data to prevent accidents. It should


concern the whole organization.

54
4.5 Risk Assessment

HSE defines risk assessment as “simply a careful examination of what, in your work, could cause
harm to people, so that you can weigh up whether you have taken enough precautions or should
do more to prevent harm”.

This method identifies the hazard existing in the workplace and the results can be used to
develop safe work practices. It also eliminates unnecessary steps and activities, making the job
easier.
Risk assessment is the overall
This is a simple tool that allows the staff to process of identifying & assessing
logically examine a job so that all hazards
associated with that job can be identified,
the potential impact of all the risks to
assessed and documented. This also allows us to & from an activity.
determine the appropriate control measures
based on the risk rating. All hazards are Risk mitigation measures are
important. Some are more likely to cause an developed to keep the residual risk
accident. Also, the degree of harm, damage
varies with the hazard. The magnitude of the
as low as reasonably practicable. The
impact of the hazard at a particular instance must mitigation measures are selected
be evaluated to develop the best way to control based on the ease of application, cost
the risk. The impact of falling from a height of 2
feet is less considered to the impact of falling
involved. The result of risk
from a height of 20 feet or 200 feet. assessment shall be used in the JSA.
After identifying the hazards, determine the level of risk i.e. magnitude using the risk matrix
provided. Magnitude of a hazard is determined by the product of its frequency and severity
ratings. Assessing the risk assists in selection of suitable solutions to manage the hazards
identified.

For hazards with a magnitude above 10, severity above 4, additional risk assessments must be
undertaken to understand the risks better and determine the most practicable control that could
be implemented. Risk ranking of hazards let’s companies prioritize the hazard and focus on the
action required to manage it. This prioritization will determine where controls are needed first
and level of resources. Hazards with highest rating must be completely eliminated to prevent
catastrophic losses.

Risk management is necessary before incidents occur. Good safety


precautions reduce employers’ risk, reduce damage and loss, and can
increase net profits.

55
Severity Rating: Degree of the injury or illness that could occur
1 Negligible
2 Minor
3 Major
4 Fatality

Frequency Rating: how likely is the injury or illness will occur.


1 Remotely possible
2 Known to have happened in the past
3 Strong possibility of it happening
4 Has happened before within the company
5 Happens all the time

Risk Assessment Chart:


Severity
4 3 2 1
Frequency

5 20 15 10 5

4 16 12 8 4

3 12 9 6 3

2 8 6 4 2

1 4 3 2 1

Risk = Frequency X Severity


4.6 Job Safety Analysis
Job safety analysis is a practical method for identifying, evaluating and control risks in
industrial process. According to Chao and Henshaw 2002, JSA includes three main stages –
Identification, Assessment and Action.

Identification involves choosing a specific job, breaking it into a JSA is proved to be the
sequence of stages and then identifying all possible hazards
best for planning the
that arise during work.
safest way to perform
Assessment involves evaluating the level of risk involved with any task (Holt 2001).
the hazards identified in the previous step.

56
Action involves application of the best suitable method to control the hazard such that the effect
of the risk is eliminated or minimized.

JSA is a four-step process, done by a team of engineers/ foreman along with the safety
personnel. It is also called as Job Hazard Analysis (JHA).

Step 1: Select the Job


Select & Break the Job down into basic steps. Too many steps make the JSA too complicated
and too few steps make the analysis too complicated.
Care should be taken when breaking the job into steps. It is important to keep the jobs in
proper sequence. The steps must not be too general or too detailed. The jobs should be broken
down into a minimum of 5 steps and a maximum of 10 steps. If further breaking down is
required, then break the job into 2 parts and then do JSA for each part separately. In this stage
the following questions may be raised:
• What is the purpose of the job, could it be avoided?
• Who is going to execute the job, are people involved capable and skilled?
• Where is the job executed, could it be on a safer place?
• When is the job executed, could it be done at a better time?
• Is it covered by a procedure or a job instruction?
• Is there any safety related concurrency with other jobs?
• Are different parties involved simultaneously?
• What specific tasks can be identified?

Step 2: Identify the potential hazards:


Look at each step carefully and identify all of the hazards that are present in each of the job step.
The success of the JSA depends on the ability of the staff to identify all the hazards present. In
this stage the following questions may be raised:
• Are there any incidents known on similar activities?
• Are the workmen doing the job the first time?
• What materials are we dealing with? (Chemicals, combustibles, etc.)
• What tools and equipment will be used?
• Under what circumstances will the job be performed? (Day/ night time, climate...)
• Are there any location related hazards? (at height, confined spaces, noise, hot surfaces,
obstruction of sight, dust, obstruction of escape routes, high voltage…)
• Are there any health-related hazards? (Chemicals, H2S, mercury, toxics...)
• Are there any activity related hazards? (Heavy lifting, grinding, sparks, hot work...)
• Are there any safety systems by-passed? (Disconnect Tripping and warning systems,
Inhibit F&G detection, protection frame removed…)
• Are there any installation related hazards? (Vessels containing hydrocarbon...)
• Are there any environmental related hazards? (Spillage, pollution…)
• Will the job affect other people in adjacent areas?
• Will other activity in adjacent areas affect the job?

Step 3: Document the control measures


For each assessed and described risk, document the most practicable, preferred, control
measures required to eliminate or minimize those risks. This should be based on the hierarchy
of control measures. While considering preventive action consider the following 4 main areas:

57
a. MEN
• What are the needs for rules, job instruction and training?
• What are the needs for specific supervision?
• What are the communication means / protocol? Is positive confirmation applied?
• Are other people at risk and is protection needed?
• Can presence of people in the area be reduced / eliminated?
• Is the safety status of the area communicated to the next shift?

b. MACHINE
• What are the potential hazards?
• Can the hazard potential be reduced?
• Is back-up of equipment required?

c. MATERIALS
• Is elimination or substitution possible?
• Are the (potential) hazards understood by everyone?
• Can the hazard potential be reduced?

d. METHOD & THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT


• Is there a threat by adverse weather conditions?
• Is good housekeeping possible during the job?
• Is interaction with other jobs possible?
• Is the area properly cordoned off?
• Are emergency response measures available? (Escape routes, Firefighting, breathing
apparatus, …)

Step4: Monitor and review


Ensure supervision of the job to confirm the documented process is followed. Review the JSA if
there are any changes to the job, process and personnel or after a particular period of time say
12 months. Ideally, we would like to eliminate every hazard. However, that isn’t always possible.
When we can’t eliminate a hazard, we try to control it and reduce the risk to an acceptable level.

An ant can carry many times


its own load is a proven fact,
what ever be the path, terrain
it does carry to its destination
safely.
We use cranes to carry
loads. Also we manually
carry loads that are less than
half of our body weight, we
tend to meet with accidents.
When an ant can do,
Why not we?

58
4.7 HAZARD CONTROL
The last step is to control them. Assessing and controlling risk i.e. hazards must begin
during the initial planning stages itself, when planning for a new site/ modifying the existing
site. Various hazard control methods are adopted to safeguard from the hazards and
accidents - Elimination, Substitution/ Engineering the risk out, Isolation, Administrative
controls & Use of PPE. At critical times a combination of these methods may be required to
control the hazards.

Before work

Hazard's must be During work


managed
After work

4.9.1 Principle in selecting the Hierarchy of Control

It is always better to create a Safe place than to rely on people wearing protective clothing
or "behaving safely". Machines, Structures, workplace etc. does not change by itself, they
do not change on their own i.e. they do not think of alternative options, it’s we who decide
how to do the job, be it safe/ unsafe.
For certain situations all methods can give a common solution. Some control options are
better than others. Ultimately the control options selected must aim at making the site a
safer place and the assessment of risk must be carried out with care if it has to be effective.

Hazards anticipated and identified are easy to manage as it prepares our mind and
preparation is the key to success.

59
Hazard A danger which threatens physical harm to employees, workmen.

Risk The Chance i.e. the probability that the hazard results in an accident.

Elimination involves changing or modifying the procedure of working which


1 Elimination exposes us to the hazard. Elimination of hazards must be the top priority
simply because this is the most effective way of making the workplace safe.

Substitution / Engineering the risk means changing the work procedure i.e.
Substitution/
2 replacing a method/ equipment with more hazards with a one having lesser
Engineering the risk out
hazard potential.

Isolation involves separating the hazardous job from the people or work
3 Isolation
area either by distance or using barriers to prevent exposure.

60
These are safe work practices which help to reduce employee exposure to
the hazard like restricting access i.e. Controlled Access Zones, job rotation,
4 Administrative Controls housekeeping, changing purchase process etc. This relies on full
cooperation of employees and depends on adequate supervision and
training.

This is the least effective way to control the risk like use of Helmet, goggles,
5 Use of PPE
gloves, Safety shoes, Fall arrestor, etc. (Use of PPE is compulsory)

Silly people take chances

Sensible people take precautions

Risk perception is very important to effectively manage it and characterize the risk both quantitatively & qualitatively
before tolerating (or) accepting them.

Hazards must be prioritised based on the severity of the consequence.

Corrective action rectifies the hazardous situation

Preventive action prevents it from recurring.

61
4.8 OSHA HAZARD AWARENESS ADVISOR

This Software introduced by OSHA can be downloaded and installed in our computer. This
software when run asks a series of questions about the site characteristics and it briefly
describes OSHA regulations that may apply to your situation to make the site safe.

OSHA's Hazard awareness advisor is powerful, interactive and an expert software. It helps us
to identify and understand common occupational safety and health hazards in the workplace. It
will ask a series of questions about the activities, practices, materials, equipment, policies etc.
and follow up questions depending on the previous answers. This Hazard awareness advisor
uses the answers to determine the hazards that are likely to be present. Then, it prepares a
unique, customized report that briefly describes the likely hazards and the OSHA standards
which address those hazards. This advisor is an introduction to hazard recognition but it is not
able to identify all the hazards. It is mainly for beginners. The Hazard Awareness Advisor

• Asks questions about workplace activities, equipment, materials etc.


• Analyses the answers with expert decision-logic.
• Alerts people in general industry to common occupational hazards
• Explains briefly the nature of those hazards
• Points out applicable OSHA standards
This software can be downloaded from OSHA website: www.osha-slc.gov/

Every time a Hazard is predictable, its’ preventable

Remember:
One hazard can initiate
another hazard

62
4.9 HAZARD KNOCKING

Hazard knocking is the application of hazard control procedures to manage the hazard by either
eliminating them or reducing their risk to an acceptable level as described in the chapter for
Hazard Control.
The best way to manage the hazard is by knocking them out i.e. eliminating them from the
workplace. Let us explain Hazard Knocking through examples - in short, all the situations
appear to be safe as such i.e. no immediate hazard is foreseen but there is always a hidden
hazard that needs to be identified and knocked out.

Scaffolding with damaged parts (bent coupler)


has been used. Somehow this has been
erected but when dismantling the scaffold, it
can cause problems. Application of excess
force or cutting the pipe may be required to
dismantle it.
When applying excess force during
dismantling, the scaffolder can lose his
balance and fall. He may be saved by the safety
belt, but the fall needs to be prevented. This is
what exactly hazard knocking requires,
eliminate the possibility of a fall, one hazard
leads to another. Use of proper scaffolding
materials is a must for safe working.

In this basic frame, the damaged structural


members were removed and rebar's welded to
complete the scaffold.
It is dangerous to use these scaffolds as missing
parts and unauthorized design changes alter
the load bearing capacity. A collapse cost us
lives and money.
The scaffolding must be repaired as per the
manufacturer’s recommendations and by
competent persons.
By avoiding use of these types of scaffolds, we
knock out the hazard – collapse of scaffolding.

Missing and Damaged parts in a scaffold make it a menace.

63
This wooden staircase has been built with pipes
and wooden planks. The tread, width, height of
the access stair is as per standards and was in
full use. The planks were individually tied by
binding wires with the pipe supports (refer
photo below)
The stair is not integrated to make single unit.
Even if one binding wire gets cut, the
corresponding plank becomes unstable as
there is no binding and probably gets displaced
or falls down. Connecting all the planks as
shown will integrate it, ruling out the hazard of
the planks getting displaced/ misaligned which
increases the potential and frequency of fall of
men & material from height, injuring him and
the workers below.
Stability of the structure is best when it is
combined into a single unit rather every part
being independent.

Here we can observe a partly dismantled


access tower placed near the base of the tower
crane, after use.
This is adjacent to the roadway and loading/
unloading bay where incoming materials are
handled by the tower crane. Can this not be
brought down by a reversing vehicle or by a
swinging load on the crane (human error is
always there).
Access towers or scaffolds must not be left
lying in the workplace. These must be
dismantled immediately after use knocking out
the hazard of collapse when struck by a vehicle
or material handled.

Express your commitment to safety through participation.

You get the level of safety that you are prepared to walk past.

64
Provide handrail as
shown (dotted line)

Existing handrail
0.94 m

In the above access ramp, handrails are not provided. The horizontal members of scaffold
structure are used as handrails. The prime requirement of a hand rail is it must be provided
at a height of 3 feet and parallel to the ramp throughout its length. The height of the handrail
keeps varying i.e. handrail is not available within the immediate reach at every instant, as
its height is varying with every step we take. Providing a handrail parallel to the angle of
the ramp i.e. at a height of 0.94 m fulfils the requirement of a handrail (dotted line), thus
reducing the risk of a fall.

65
4.10 Be aware of false protection

These are protective system that offers no protection (or) increases the risk of an incident.
These systems are well below the standards and cannot prevent or protect in the event of an
incident. In fact, it poses the risk of a situation with greater damage is case the incident occurs.
This kind of protective systems are called as Sub-Standard Protection.

The Site sub-DB is placed behind a


Porto-cabin and exposed to all weather
conditions. More over a tarpaulin sheet
is used to cover the sub-DB. These
tarpaulin sheets are combustible and
cannot prevent rainwater from causing
short circuits.
The DB has been placed unsafely, in a
wrong place & it appears that it is
protected but what is the quality of
protection provided. In fact, this
increases the risk of an accident.
Hence this is a Sub-Standard Protection
provided in the workplace.

Fig. 1

The sub-DB as shown in fig 2 is best


suited as it offers real protection
against all hazards in all weather
conditions. This will minimize the
risk of an incident from occurring.

Fig 2

Hazards
All Accidents are avoidable.

66
4.11 Exercise: Identify the hazards to be knocked out from the scaffold

67
5. Safe Working Procedures
Safe working procedures (SWP) are a set of written instructions that identifies the health and
safety issues that may arise from the jobs and tasks that make up a system of work. They are
written documents used to train and guide workers in performing their jobs safely. It assist’s in
understanding and implementing a systematic risk management approach to workplace health
and safety. A safe working procedure should be written when
• Designing a new job or task
• Changing the existing working method of a job or task
• Introducing new equipment or substances etc. Working Unsafe

“Once you get used to working in


The practices and procedures that are developed for safe
an environment that is unsafe
working must include the hazards involved in the job and
and you get used to working
possibly list the others that can arise when executing a job.
unsafe, then being unsafe is not
They provide the tools for teaching how to work consistently
unsafe to you anymore. It’s just
with a maximum degree of efficiency and safety. It must be the norm.”
written with hands that have good experience in doing the job
safely. Falls in Residential Carpentry
and drywall installation:
A job safety analysis can be used to ensure that potential Findings from active injury
hazards are identified and are included in the safe working surveillance with union
procedures. Use of equipment and machinery that involve carpenters by
potential risk provides a focus for developing safe work
procedures for operating the equipment or machinery. Ideas Lipscomb HJ, Dement JM, Nolan
for developing the SWP’s can often be obtained from equipment J, Patterson D, Li L, Cameron –
Journal of Occupational and
manufacturers. It is also recommended to consult with
Environmental Medicine.
employees and use their experience and ideas to develop safe
working practices.

SWP’s are written for the complete job or for a particular hazard/ situation encountered when
doing the job. SWP’s written for particular situations are also known as Safe working practices.
These procedures shall be periodically reviewed and updated regularly particularly in situations
where new machines are introduced, work methods are changed etc. The SWP’s written and
developed shall comply with the Local Labour Law, Factories act, Regulations and acts governing
the health and safety at work in that country/ state. The SWP’s must be compulsorily reviewed
and updated when an accident or dangerous occurrence occurs. The written safe working
procedure should identify:
• The responsible person for the task. Supervisor for the task or job and the employees who will
undertake the task. It should also mention the training requirements and the competence level
required to perform the task.
• The tasks that pose risks
• The 4 M’s - Men, Machine, Materials and Methods that are used in these tasks
• The control measures that have been built into these tasks
• The personal protective equipment to be worn

Health and Safety Executive, UK (HSE) suggests three references for writing health and safety
procedures to work and ACHIEVE ZERO by
1. Guidance Notes
2. Code of Practices
3. Regulations.

68
5.1 Guidance Notes
Guidance notes are specific to the health and safety problems of an industry
or of a particular process used in number of industries. Guidance provides
additional useful information to assist in complying with the law. The
language used is more accessible and the advice easier to understand and
follow. The main purposes of guidance notes are

• To interpret – helping people to understand what the law says


• To give technical advice that complies with the law.
These guidance notes do not have a legal status and employers are free to take other action.

5.2 Code of Practices (COP)


Code of practice gives practical guidance on how to achieve a certain standard of safety and
comply with legal requirements of specific regulations for a particular area of work.

COP states ways to manage exposure to risks. It contains explanatory information and the
preventive strategies outlined do not represent the only acceptable means of achieving a
standard. It should always be followed unless there is another solution that achieves the same or
a better standard of health and safety in your workplace.

The main aim of a code of practice is to provide practical guidance and to improve the level of
safety implementation in the work place. These are also called as Advisory standards. They give
advice on how to comply with the law, by providing a practical guidance to achieve what is
“reasonably practicable” ways of complying with the regulations. For example, if regulations use
words like “suitable and sufficient”, a COP can illustrate what this requires in a particular
situation.
Representatives from Trade Unions, Commissions for Occupational Safety and Health, Industry
groups, Advisory Committees etc. form groups and develop these codes of practice in
consultation with the representatives from industry, workers and employers, special interest
groups, Safety Organizations, Safety Associations and government agencies. When the Minister
or the Local regulatory authority for Occupational Safety and Health (like Labour Law; Factories
act) approves the COP, they attain semi-legal status and are called as Approved Code of
Practices. It is best recommended to follow the ACOP’s unless there is an alternative action that
achieves the same or better results. Some advantages are
a. Greater knowledge about how to optimize the efficiency & performance of work.
b. Reduced losses due to accidents & injury costs.
c. Fewer absences from work and less disruption.
d. Safer work practices, which is better for everyone.

COP gives Practical ways of reducing injury and illness at work

5.3 Regulations – The requirements of regulations are mandatory


Regulations are law, approved by the parliament. These are usually made under the Health and
Safety at work Act/ Labor Law/ Factories rules etc. by the government. The act places certain
duties on employers, employees, manufacturers, designers, suppliers etc. It also lays emphasis
on prevention of injuries and illness.
The guidance notes and Code of practices give course of action for controlling hazards in the
workplace. It is not mandatory to follow them. Employer is free to follow an alternative action

69
that achieves the same or better results. Employers usually go for the actions that cost them
less.
As experienced in the past with some major industry disasters where some risks are so great, it
would not be appropriate to leave it to the employer’s discretion in deciding what to do about
them. Some proper control measures will be very costly and there is always a chance that these
control measures are bypassed and replaced with alternative control measures that claim to
provide the same control. Regulations identify these risks and set out specific action that must
be taken to control these hazards. E.g.: Bhopal gas disaster, Employment of Juveniles for
hazardous jobs. Factory Inspectors & Ministry officials are empowered to take legal action
against employer’s when the regulations are violated. Everything in the Regulations is law and
must be followed.

To ACHIEVE ZERO,
Knowing SWP’s is not enough,
we must apply

Willing to follow SWP’s is not enough,


we must do it safely
To ACHIEVE ZERO

Cutting down safety costs is like Robbing Peter to Pay Paul.


Always tell yes to safety procedures.

70
6. Safety Induction
SI is the first step in framing the minds of employees, to follow safe working procedures for
knocking out the hazards. Working conditions has improved a lot, with an improvement in
technology. These have reduced the accident rates drastically over the last few decades. A
worker’s experience in the first few days on the job will play a main role in shaping their attitudes
to their work. The new workmen joining a construction site must be given Safety induction and
thoroughly oriented on the requirements and practices adopted in the site fire safety.
Safety Induction is a planned, systematic process. It is important so that individuals gain the
necessary knowledge to allow them to perform their role with confidence. It is not enough to
send a new member of staff/ worker into the workplace and hope that in time they will have
absorbed the main components of the job and come to terms with the complexities of the job.
Induction should be seen as an important part of any line management responsibility.

Safety induction is a good investment of time as it is effective in increasing the belongingness


and commitment of employees at work.

Real induction allows the new member of staff to settle down into the job quickly and respond
effectively to its demands. New employees will be made aware of the requirements and become
familiar with procedures, risks, rules associated with their job.

Effective induction will also increase the chances of staff and workmen feeling a sense of
belonging and commitment for the Safety performance of the organisation and is a tool for
encouraging to follow organisational values for achieving their goals. Therefore, inducting staff
tends to be a good investment of time.

Statistics indicate that there are two danger periods for a worker. They are the first three months
and the second six months. A research done in the year 1996/97 in Australia, shows that over
3,000 new workers were injured in the first Three months on the job, and a further 4,000 new
workers suffered an injury in their second six months. We can observe that the injuries are more
in the next six months; the prime reason being that in the first few months supervisors and co-
workers are more likely to watch over and assist a new worker, but after the initial period they
assume the new worker is competent and no longer in need of close supervision. It may also be
that the workers become over confident and pay less attention to the hazards around them.

Another research indicates that approximately 40% of fatalities on construction worksites occur
to workers that have been on the job for less than 3 months. As a Rule of thumb, a new worker is
three times more likely to be injured or become ill at work than other workers.

Technology can reduce accident rates and changing attitudes to safety can eliminate them

6.1 Who should we focus and the importance of orientating them?


Everybody needs safety orientation. Employers have the responsibility, to ensure that the
people working for them are informed of worksite hazards. When we think of safety orientation,
we think immediately of only new workers. Statistically, workers who have been in the
workplace for up to two years are at higher risk for injury and illness than experienced workers.
But they are not the only people at risk. Experienced hands also have accidents and everyone is
at increased risk in times of change. Re-orientation of workmen is required from time to time
irrespective of their experience, trade and category. Cases where a reorientation is a must are

71
• New equipment is commissioned
• New materials or chemicals are introduced
• Change in the production process
• New or revised safety rules are imposed

As a new entrant to a place of work, irrespective of their qualification & experience,


everyone needs safety orientation any time . . .

6.1.1. New Workers between the age group 18-24 and starting their first job.

When a new employee comes to work, he Everyone’s concern for


immediately begins to learn things and form safety impresses new
attitudes about the job, his boss, and fellow
employees. If his department head, supervisor, and
employees.
fellow employees appear to be unconcerned about
accident prevention, he will most probably believe
that safety is unimportant.
To form good safety attitudes, the new employee
must be impressed by everyone's concern with the
prevention of accidents at the time he starts to
work. Workers must be told that unsafe workers
will not be tolerated and that he will be required to
obey safety rules and instructions, wear protective
equipment whenever required, and attend safety
Safety is a Frame of
meetings in order to continue as an employee of the
company. Mind, Get the Picture
right.
6.1.2. Workers re-entering after an absence.
It will never be taken for granted that previous experience and apparent qualifications mean
that the new employee has work experience and he is "somewhere along the way". This does not
automatically exempt him to start the operations right away e.g.: a newly hired vehicle operator
from being thoroughly instructed in safe driving practices.
He must be made aware of what is expected of him by the new company or site management in
his capacity of operating a heavy construction machinery (or) company vehicle, and he must be
checked to assure that he understands, what is expected from him.

6.1.3. Workers changing jobs and employers within the same worklocation,site are also to be
considered as new workers
The safety supervisor will review safety rules and procedures with the new employee to the
company/ site, pointing out the possible hazards involved in doing the job. If possible, the new
employee should be assigned to work with a safety minded employee during the first few weeks.
The new employee should be checked at frequent intervals, asked about any problems that may
have arisen, and reminded of safe practices. Any tendency to overlook safety procedures should
bring a prompt and vigorous warning or other appropriate action. (Workers changing jobs must
be treated as new employees to their present organization and must be oriented).

Induction training help’s new recruits or employees who change jobs or


locations to fit in quickly and easily onto their present job.

72
6.2 Advantages of Induction training
a. Makes the employee aware of the health and safety hazards of the job and how violations of
these affected the safety of others.
b. Reduces the high-risk potential of injuries to young employees, new or temporary on the job.
c. Helps to make the employees more efficient.

6.3 Induction training


6.3.1 General Orientation
A basic industry safety orientation program should be supplemented with any information that
would be company-specific, such as its health, safety and environment policy statement, specific
site hazards, process guiding principles and safe work practices.

a. Introduction
Project Details & Safety Policy of the Owners, Clients & Contractor

b. Behavioural Safety in brief to Mould their Attitude


Accidents at work are not inevitable. The Staff and workmen must be explained this and the
cause of majority of the accidents is Human Error. Accidents occur because of the lapse in the
attitude to adhere to Safety Rules and Work Procedures. Drive away the false belief’s prevailing
among workmen regarding implementing safety.

Myths Facts

I am lot experienced. Hazards are present everywhere. Unsafe acts


Nothing will ever happen to me. are a recurring problem.
Things can go wrong. Follow safe practices.

I am strong, I will not get injured. Hazards may appear small, but they can strike
big.

Following procedures are a hurdle for By following safe work procedures, we can
the job progress. ensure the job is completed in time, with
minimum wastages and without accidents.

The following themes can be used to shape the attitude of the workmen.
i.Your Family is waiting for you.
ii.You should go back the same way as you came for the Job.
iii.Your unsafe act may kill your friend.
iv. Accidents cause delays that are losses and completing a job as early as possible will develop
the nation and living condition. Take the case of power plant under construction. Completing
the project fast will develop the nation and improve the living condition by reduced power cuts
in the surroundings. This will have a good impact as any project employs the local labour to the
maximum.
v. Profits in safety.
vi. Any job done without safety is a bad job.

73
c. General Safety Rules Working Unsafe
i. Gates pass for entering the site and hours of work.
ii. Work within defined boundaries. This is very much important “Once you get used to working in an
when working in large projects with multiple contractors. environment that is unsafe, and you
iii. Workmen should not carry any arms. get used to working unsafe, then
iv. Smoke only in designated areas. being unsafe is not unsafe to you
v. Explain the Employee Welfare Facilities available in the site and
anymore. It's just the norm.”
Carpenter’s apprentice quoted in:
their locations - namely Drinking water, Rest Rooms, Dining Lipscomb HJ, Dement JM, Nolan J,
Room, Toilets and washing rooms, Smoking areas, First aid Patterson D, Li L, Cameron W. Falls in
facilities etc. residential carpentry and drywall
vi. Discipline to be maintained in the site – No fighting in the site and installation: findings from active injury
misbehaviour with female coolies. surveillance with union carpenters.

vii. Procedure for reporting: Journal of Occupational and


viii. Hazards Environmental Medicine
ix. Employee Concerns
x. Off the job accidents.
xi. General Hazards – Loose clothing, Jewellery etc.
xii. General Housekeeping.
xiii. Unauthorized operation of P&M.
xiv. Fire and Emergency Procedures.
xv. Explain the types of Safety signs, its colour and what they mean. (Red: Imminent danger; Green:
Safety instruction to be followed; Yellow: Caution required.)
xvi. Safety Awards.
xvii. Do’s and Don’ts:
xviii. Self-medication is not safe for any injury.

6.3.2 Job Specific Orientation


Principles of hazard recognition, evaluation and control must be introduced. While it might not
be possible to cover all the hazards that could be encountered, the most common ones should
be introduced (e.g.: fall from height, slip, trip and fall, electrocution etc.)
• Use of Correct hand tools.
• Basics of Manual Material Handling.
• Labelling systems/ warning signs/ MSDS
• Housekeeping procedures
• Safe stacking of materials.
• Main Hazards associated with common jobs in Civil, Mechanical, Electrical etc.: Fall, slip &
fall, Electricity, fire, hit against/ by etc.
• Maintenance of Access and egress.
• What to do in an emergency.

i. Worker’s Responsibilities
• To follow the safe systems of work and site rules.
• To work safely – both for yourself and other people.
• To follow the site rules.
• To wear the correct PPE.
• Not to interfere with safety equipment.

74
ii. Demonstrate & Show
• How to carry a person in case of emergency.
• Safety Poster’s and what they mean.
• How to extinguish a fire.
• Defective or inappropriate tools.
• Examples of Hazardous situations.
• Display all Personnel Protective equipment and explain how to use them.
• Display Map showing:
✓ Location of first aid facilities and related personnel such as first aid box, eye wash,
emergency shower and first aider. A brief description on the usage of facilities is
recommended.
✓ Location of emergency facilities such as Emergency assembly point, fire extinguishers,
fire buckets, fire alarms, emergency telephones etc.
✓ DG room, compressed gas storage areas, Welding yard, store, fuel depot and refilling
where fire risk is more.
• When to stop work: Stop Work If …
✓ You face unsafe conditions, dangers threatening life
✓ You face an imminent danger situation
✓ The scope of work changes from the safety briefing
✓ You find bodies or body parts
✓ You find unknown chemicals or potentially hazardous objects or materials lying around
near your work area
Vital to the continued success of the orientation is a 30-60-day follow-up. Go out and ask
employees how the orientation met their needs. Make modifications based on their
suggestions, and keep the training alive and pertinent.

6.4 Safety Induction Room


Minimum requirements are:

a. The Preferred size of the Safety Induction Room:


i. 1 - 500 workers: 8m x 8m
ii. More than 500 workers: 12 m x 12 m
(With seating arrangement for 50 persons at a time)

b. A Colour Television with a video player.


c. Blackboard
d. Boards on the walls of the Safety induction room for displaying safety posters, Safe way and
unsafe way of working etc.
e. Table/ Rack with all the Personnel Protective equipment displayed.
f. Proper ventilation and sufficient Lighting.

6.5 Induction Language


Construction industry employs migrant workforce with a majority A safety message in
from developing and underdeveloped countries. Safety Induction
must be given mainly in the local language and the language the a local language is
majority of the workforce understands. Workmen must be grouped in an attempt to
teams and inducted. The inductor must be well conversant with the improve safety
induction language.
awareness of the
workforce.
75
Thorough, but easy to understand induction is vital for workmen to stay safe and healthy at work.
Workmen receive the safety message well, if communicated with their local language (possibly
their mother tongue). When fatalities and serious injuries are occurring at work, it indicates that
the safety messages are going over worker’s head and they do not understand the safety
messages. Language must not be allowed to be a barrier for safety implementation at work.

6.6 Show how to identify a hazard

Encourage workmen to ask


questions as to ACHIEVE ZERO
No Question is Too Small When
It Concerns Health and Safety

Workmen learn better when


they see what they are told,
Display hazard poster’s
showing the right way and
wrong way of doing a job.

Safety orientation is for


everyone to make working
safely a habit but habits
change neither those new
to the job nor veterans are
immune from the
consequences of an unsafe
act.

Hazard Knockers always do the do's


not the don’ts,
think safety before you start work to
Achieve Zero

76
6.7 Site Induction Record

Company/ Sub Contractor:

Name of Employee: Trade:

Card No.: Date Commenced:

Inducted by:

Name: Signature:

The above employee has been inducted on the Health, Safety and Environmental requirements
prior to commencing work on the project. He/ she has been issued with the appropriate personnel
protective equipment and been made aware of his/ her safety obligations to him/ herself, his/ her
colleagues and the company. Detailed below are the topics that have been conveyed.

1. Safety performance is the responsibility of all. Implementation of Safety measures is a


collective responsibility.
2. Personal Protective Equipment – To be worn at all times in the workplace.
3. Housekeeping – Keep access clear – dispose rubbish carefully – keep canteens and toilets
clean.
4. Electrical Equipment – Do not interfere with cables, boxes etc. call an electrician.
5. Machinery & Tools – Use guards at all times – Use the right tool for the job – Do not
improvise.
6. Abrasive Wheels – Wear goggles at all times – wheels to be changed only by trained
personnel.
7. Cranes & Lifting appliances – To be operated and controlled by trained banks men only.
8. Scaffolds & Working at height – Ladders – Edge Protection – Safety nets – Housekeeping.
9. Fire Prevention & Protection – Do not mess with extinguishers – know their location.
10. Accident reporting – Report all accidents to safety officer no matter how small.
11. Location of First aid facilities – know where facilities are and who the first aiders are.
12. Strictly No Smoking at Site.
13. Alcohol and Drugs – Not allowed in the site – A danger to all – Instant Dismissal and
Complained to police.
14. Horseplay – A danger to all – Instant Dismissal

I acknowledge that I have been instructed in the H S E requirements of BFCC and I agree to conduct
myself in a compliant with these requirements.

Signed: Date:

Your attitude affects everyone. Everyone in your


workplace and at home is affected by your
attitude toward safety. It just makes sense to
have a good safety attitude.

77
Overall message

Orientation program should stress

that all employees & workmen must

take responsibility for their personal

safety as well as the safety of those

with whom they work.

Learn from the accidents of the past, do not create history as failure to
learn from Near misses & Accidents will cause more accidents as
experience is a good school but the fees are very high…

HAZARD KNOCKERS ACHIEVE ZERO by learning from history of incidents


and near misses not by being part in that history.

Interactive induction sessions give better understanding to employees to


be active in the way to ACHIEVE ZERO.

78
7. Safety Education & Training Program (SET Program)

How do we make workplaces safer, healthier and more productive?

Today’s industry, with changing technology and complexity,


requires people with a high degree of skills spanning all aspects
of their trade which can be recognized and transferable
throughout the industry. At work, 100’s killed and Millions
injured every year. Preventing accidents and ill health caused by
work is a key priority for everyone at work.

7.1 Philosophy of SET Program


Safety Education and Training program is one of the most positive ways by which a company can
change the attitudes of their employees toward health and safety. It is the key for making
workplaces safer, healthier and more productive. Every organization forms HSE programs to
improve their job performance. Providing the required SET to the workforce is the main key
element for getting prompt and positive results from the HSE programs.

SET program at the workplace is the most critical element Safety Education and Training
for effective implementation of the HSE programs, to programmes must be aimed to make
improve the job performance. According to the research
everyone understand the LOGIC
done by the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for safety,
when supervisors are trained to properly respond to,
behind safety precautions as it can
communicate with, and solve employees’ work-related make the difference between life and
health & safety concerns, new disability injuries and claims death and empowers men to
got reduced by 47% and active lost time incidents & claims ACHIEVE ZERO.
were reduced by 18%.

Safety Education and Safety Training are similar terms which are used interchangeably, but
they are different.

Safety education is about gaining knowledge rather than practicing a skill & can be
accomplished in a classroom sitting. It imparts high level knowledge and skills, transferable to
different situations. This is considered to be successful even if the learners cannot do anything
new or different at the end of the program.

Safety training is about mastering skills such as performing a task, operating a piece of
equipment (or) using a tool. Training should be given by live demonstrations and by people with
hands on practice. After the training programme the learners will be able to do something new
or better than before.

Safety education deals with who, what, where, when, why and the consequences that result from
a particular job. On the other hand, Safety training deals with ‘How’ of a particular job. Most
managers, engineers, supervisors need safety education on safety policies, standards and
safety training in specific areas like wearing a PPE.

Combine SAFETY EDUCATION AND TRAINING to eliminate dangers of


improvisations to ACHIEVE ZERO. In practice, Safety education and
Safety training are commonly referred by the phrase - Safety training.

79
The best results are obtained when both safety education and safety training are combined
together. Safety education gives an understanding of the job; Safety training demonstrates how
to do the job. When both are done simultaneously it reduces the chances the workforce takes by
doing improvisations on the job.
Training guarantees the development
The advantages of training the workforce are of necessary skills required for the job,
i.Reduced accidents, injuries and illness.
benefiting both the employer and
ii.It motivates and improves production and profits. employee. It is one of the keys to
iii.It develops the safety culture of the organization. control costs and improving
iv. Well-trained employees are more efficient and profitability by learning why accidents
productive. and crashes occur and how we prevent
v. Teaching people the facts and causes of accident them. Demonstrating the technique
causes also improves the safety performance. shows the worker how to perform it
better than anything else.
7.2 Types of Training
a. Classroom Training – These classes typically involve an instructor using a stand-up lecture
format, often with interactive discussions, demonstrations, videotapes and exercises.

b. Tool Box Meetings – These are usually conducted with groups of workmen (trade based) at the
workplace with a short lecture by the foreman or the safety officer.

c. Hands on training – some courses require two sessions. One class room session and then a
demonstration of the skills developed during the classroom session known as ’practical’s’. These
are required for workers who perform certain jobs like Scaffolders, Equipment Operators,
riggers, welders, electricians etc.

d. On-the-job Training – This is done for workers who are new to an area/ task. These workers may
have a thorough technical/ theoretical background of the operation but require additional
training to ensure that they understand the specific details of an operation. It shall be supervised
by a competent person to avoid errors.

e. Conferences – This is done by calling employees from different branches and discussing the best
practices adopted to improve the performance throughout the organization.
Determining which method to use is based upon the type of industry and the hazards faced on
day to day basis. The training must be tailored for the specific hazards that exist in the workplace.

Each and every type has got their own pros and cons. They are
selected based on level of participants, place and time available,
periodicity, requirement of specialists etc. Each and every Safety training is needed by both new
training programme must have an objective. The participants and old employees because it serves
must be made aware of what they will learn at the end of the as a reminder that dangers always
training programme. The training plan must cover the health exist and accidents can occur no
and safety training needs of workers and supervisors. Many matter how experienced the workers
safety professionals conduct training to meet regulatory are at their jobs while targeting to
requirement or create cultural change. In today’s world, ACHIEVE ZERO.
training must provide value and benefit both to the learner and
to the organization.

80
7.3 Training Plan
Everyone in the organization must get trained & attend periodic refresher courses to get
exposed to the Law Changes, Technology Change, hazard change etc. A yearly training plan can
be made to train the entire workforce. Everyone needs to be trained in the following topics:
• Role and responsibilities at work
• trade based/ occupation
• the common type of hazards identified during an inspection of your workplace
• The various types of accidents that can happen and preventive measures
• Health problems that can occur
Training of supervisors and foremen is the key for any Safety program. They in turn train their
group of workmen for implementing the safe work practices. They are vital for implementing
safe work practices. Their act in turn motivates their team of workmen and it’s essential to
motivate them to follow the safe work practices. Depending on their education, experience and
background we are bound to find various levels of commitment from them. It is quite essential
that they are trained from time to time to maintain their competency and level of motivation.

7.4 Tips for Effective Safety Training

a. Know the audience – the skill and level of the participants and prepare training aids like course
material, practical demonstrations. The training is much more effective if supplemented with
safety videos and pictures.
“Training is the most vital contributor to health & safety. Proper training influences human behaviour”

b. First, define the goal or problem - purpose and need of the training programme. The training
should be directed at a defined problem. Employees may not want to know the solution until they
know and understand the problem. The first part of the training should explain the problem or
issue in a manner where the employee will perceive his or her personal benefit. Make it clear –
What they will learn at the end of the training programme.
“Knowing how to work safely is just as critical as coming to work on time or selecting the right
equipment”

c. Suffice your course material with case studies of accidents in the past, papers presented in
technical forums, research reports from various Safety organizations especially with facts. This
helps the trainees to grasp the message better. Employees should be able to immediately
practice, apply new knowledge and skills.
“It is very important to provide safety training at the basic level to all employees. Neglecting the
so called minor safety issues account for more accidents than major causes”

d. Use attention grabbing statistics, stories, immediately and throughout the session.
“Training involves two-way communication between the trainer and the person learning – one
of you will listen, perform, think, ask questions, explain”

e. Interact with the trainees. Make them get involved both physically and mentally. Ask them to
come forward and explain the team with their experiences. This increases their attention and
retention of what they learn.
“Training does not mean sitting in a room listening to a person talk or simply watching a video.”

f. Keep the presentation simple, easy for the common man to understand.

81
7.5 Documentation of Training
The person performing the training shall ensure that appropriate records are completed and
stored to document that such training has been provided.

7.6 Measuring the effectiveness of training


After attending a training programme, the trainees learn how to carry out a task/ procedure or
practice. These trainees are required to demonstrate the use of the knowledge gained and skills
in the working environment. The trainees must be assessed to find the
a. Effectiveness of training programme in terms of knowledge gained and skills developed.
b. Identify the room for improvement of the training programme.

7.7 Training Evaluation


a. Assessments i.e. Tests – written exam after training.
b. Practical demonstration of skill - after you explain the right way to perform a job, get the worker
to show you how to perform it. With a practical demonstration, trainees can’t hide what they had
absorbed and didn’t. This also helps the trainer to find ways to improve his training technique
such that better results are got. Many times, the trainees tell they have understood what is being
told even if they didn’t just to avoid embarrassment. These failures can be eliminated by practical
demonstration of skills learnt.
c. Oral questions or a Post-Training quiz.
d. Changes in behaviour
e. Observations during routine inspections and audits – employees should be able to demonstrate
skills learned, perform their job functions safely and competently. The only sure way to
determine the effectiveness of training is to observe what the trainees do when they get back to
work. A week after training electricians in Lockout tag out procedures if it is followed it’s a sign
of them remembering the lessons learnt in the training program. If the same is followed
continuously thereafter the training program is considered to be Effective as noted by safety
consultant Mr Barry Weissman.
f. Feedback from employees for suggestions to improve the training programme.

Evaluation also analyzes the quality of the training program, trainer and training materials. The
evaluation should offer an opportunity for the trainees to tell the trainer how to revise and
improve the program. Also, by analyzing the injury statistics we can determine whether the
purpose of the training program has been achieved.

ACHIEVE ZERO by enhancing competency with a SET program as


people cause unsafe acts and incidents can kill people – Change minds,
reduce incidents to ACHIEVE ZERO.

82
83
8. Safety Inspections

A workplace safety inspection consists of a series of safety-related checks for various systems
and areas of the work place. These inspections are done periodically as per the approved
guidelines/ checklists; to ensure the safety factors in the workplace are adopted and followed
correctly. These Health and Safety Inspections are needed to critically examine all factors
(equipment, processes, materials, buildings, procedures) that have the potential to cause injury
or illness, and to identify where action is necessary to control hazards. It plays an important role
in developing a safe and proactive attitude in the workplace. It also forms the core of a
comprehensive safety and health program. During an inspection, the workplace is examined to:

• Identify existing and potential hazards in the workplace, it’s underlying causes
• Identify existing and potential hazards associated with buildings, equipment, environment,
processes, and practices
• Monitor the existing hazard controls are functioning adequately and recommend new
hazard controls based on the performance of the previous assessments;
• Where appropriate, recommend corrective action
The person inspecting the workplace must have a good
Inspections
knowledge about the hazards associated with the are
workplace and the equipment. Supervisors must be
actively involved in inspections as they are familiar with Preventions
the work equipment and the environment. This familiarity
can sometimes lead to objections and complacency
during inspections. All members of the inspection team
must understand that the inspections are done for fact
finding and not fault finding. They must have a good
knowledge of the impact of the hazards, the
consequences of an accident and rate them. Based on the
rating they must specify the time required for correcting
the hazards and follow up for correction.

After the inspection, corrective actions must be recommended to correct the hazards identified.
Follow up shall be done to ensure the corrective actions are in place. If performed correctly, and
with sufficient frequency, these inspections will reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
Conducting an inspection before the work begins is the best way of preventing accidents. An
inspection can save the time and money wasted e.g.: avoiding breakdown of equipment’s,
wastages, spare parts, maintenance and accident damage costs. Regular Inspections even
saves lives.

Inspections are an effective way of identifying potential workplace hazards


before they cause a health and safety problem as Inspections measure,
examine, test and verify the characteristic of the workplace and compares
findings with specified requirements to determine conformity. Planning
will increase the effectiveness of the inspection.

84
8.1 Planning and Conducting Periodic Inspections

A schedule of planned inspections is an essential element of a health and safety program in


which standards are established and compliances are monitored. Planning and conducting
workplace inspections periodically ascertain that every safety factor and possible hazards in
the work area are given due attention and corrections made as suggested.

Plan inspections with the following safety documents for it to be effective.


• The unsafe conditions and acts that are found in previous inspection reports, accident
investigations, maintenance reports.
• Safety committee minutes serve as a guideline for safety inspections.

During the actual inspection, both conditions and work practices should be observed. If an unsafe
condition, which poses an immediate threat, is discovered, preventative measures must be
initiated right away. If unsafe work practices are observed, find out if there is an established safe
work procedure that should have been followed.
Assign a priority level to the hazards observed to indicate the urgency of the corrective action
required. For example:
1 = immediately dangerous to life & health --requires immediate action
2 = High --requires action in a day
3 = Medium --requires action within 2-3 days
4 = Low – requires action within a week

Sl.
Day Type of Inspection
No

1 Saturday 1. Housekeeping
2. Scaffold

2 Sunday 1. Portable Power tools


2. PPE
Regular
3 Monday 1. Work at height
2. Weekly site safety inspection inspections
4 Tuesday 1. Electrical
reduce costs &
2. Welding & Gas Cutting saves time
5 Wednesday 1. Fire safety
2. Plant & Machinery

1. Tower Cranes
6 Thursday
2. Mobile cranes
3. Weekly hoist Inspection

The primary role of a checklist is to assist in recognizing the ‘expected’


hazards in the workplace, preventing mistakes.

ACHIEVE ZERO with regular inspections using checklists and manage


observations effectively to ACHIEVE ZERO.

85
8.2 Types of Inspection
a. Basic Inspections
i. In general, these inspections are carried out by a team either weekly (or) monthly.
ii. Identify the hazards that are immediately visible to the eye during inspection.
iii. Preferably, all members of the survey team must have the minimum basic knowledge in safety
and must be able to identify the common hazards associated with the workplaces. E.g.: Walk
down Survey’s/ Safety surveys

b. Standard Inspections
i. These are done by safety personnel/ inspectors accompanied by the site engineers/ equipment
operators etc.
ii. These are rigours inspections done with the help of standard checklists, listing the common
safety features associated with the workplace, equipments to find out the hazards associated
with the workplace, equipment, chemical storage etc.
iii. This is done by trained and competent person consisting of the safety professional
accompanied by the engineer/ supervisor for doing the inspection.
iv. Depending on the item being inspected periodicity can vary from daily to monthly.
Daily Weekly
Equipment guards and shields Scaffolds
Use of PPE Portable power tools
Hand tools Heavy machinery
Hoists and Lifting cradles etc. Fuel storage etc.
Access
c. Through Inspection
i. Safety engineers and specialists do these inspections. These inspections are almost similar to
Standard Inspections.
ii. These are done with the help of detailed checklists covering all aspects related to safety in the
workplace.
iii. Done yearly or half yearly, by Safety practitioners (or) specialists. E.g.: Safety Audits

86
8.3 Inspection Principles
i. Draw attention to the presence of immediate danger.
ii. Never ignore any item because you do not have the knowledge to make an accurate judgment.
Ask the accompanying supervisor or the operator to demonstrate how to operate the
equipment.
iii. Look up, down, around and inside. Be methodological and thorough. Do not spoil the inspection
by having a light approach.
iv. Ask questions, but do not unnecessarily disrupt the work activities.
v. When inspecting the machines, consider the static (stop position) and dynamic (in motion)
conditions of the part you are inspecting.
vi. Take a photograph if you are unable to clearly describe or sketch a particular situation, for
future reference.

8.4 Common reasons for failures in inspections


i. Complacency
ii. People over familiar with the workplace, tend to miss a variety of key safety issues.
iii. People chosen to inspect are not trained properly.

8.5 Inspection reports


The observations - unsafe conditions, unsafe acts, poor working practices, unhealthy
conditions, areas for improvement etc. identified during inspections must be communicated in
the right way such that the exact characteristic of the hazard/ violation is understood by the
engineers. This helps them to take prompt action.
The engineers must be verbally informed and an inspection report with recommendations must
be made for corrective action. An example of the report form is given and distributed as
mentioned.

8.6 Observations
The observations must be noted such that the exact characteristic of the hazard is expressed.
These observations can be either qualitative or quantitative. It depends on the item/ hazard
being observed. Quantity combined with quality gives the exact picture & helps in maintaining
safety to the highest standards like
i. Limit Switches - Available, working – (Qualitative observations)
ii. Reverse horns - Available/ working & audible, say at 7 m radius –
(Qualitative and Quantitative characteristic of hazard)
iii. Floor Openings - 80% Covered – indicates 20% balance to be covered –
(Quantitative observation)

8.7 Action after inspections


If during the course of an inspection a condition is noted that may result in serious personal injury
the condition must be rectified immediately. All other unsatisfactory conditions should be
rectified as soon as is reasonably practicable. Follow-ups are required to confirm the corrective
action taken on the hazards identified and preventive measures suggested in the inspection
reports. Careful notes specifying details of the hazard, including the location, should be made.
When completing the inspection report, specify who is to complete the corrective action and by
what date. Follow-up action on that date is important. If remedial action cannot be taken within
a reasonable period of time the reason should be stated. If remedial action is not considered
appropriate this should be stated on the form along with the reasons.

87
9. Housekeeping – a tool for Accident Prevention
Good housekeeping will form a strong foundation for accident prevention as the relationship
between accidents & poor housekeeping is very close as poor housekeeping creates hazards for
everyone. In a common workers parlance, housekeeping is just clear the clutter and rubbish
from the workplace and after removing them it is considered that housekeeping has been
accomplished. Removing of clutter and brooming to remove the rubbish makes the workplace
“Clean”.

Cleaning is a part of Housekeeping. Good housekeeping


is more than the practice of general cleanliness. The best
way to define housekeeping is – “ORDER”. Yes, Housekeeping
housekeeping means promoting order in the workplace,
which is commonly called as a “Place for Everything and
Everything at its place”. Cleaning Order
A work area is in ORDER when there are no unnecessary objects in the area and when all
necessary items are in their proper places. Even if one unnecessary item is lying in an area or if
it’s not in its proper place, then we don’t have order. ORDER, once achieved must be maintained
by putting continuous effort all the time. In short, Orderliness is arranging everything in such a
way that it can be readily accessed.

9.1 Accidents
A variety of accidents can result from poor housekeeping
A study done by Hong Kong’s
practices, ranging from mild to very serious. Good Labor commissioner Mr.
housekeeping practices can prevent many accidents and Matthew Cheung Kin Chung
also greatly reduce the potential injury & loss for many
types of accidents like slip, trip & fall, fire, fall of materials
shows that 70% of site
etc. A study done by Hong Kong’s Labor commissioner Mr. accidents are related to poor
Matthew Cheung Kin Chung shows that 70% of site housekeeping.
accidents are related to poor housekeeping. The number
of accidents could be effectively reduced by adopting Effective housekeeping in the
good housekeeping practices. When addressing a
presentation ceremony on Safety award scheme on
workplace can eliminate
“Good Housekeeping for the construction Industry”, he majority of the hazards (or)
points to the downward trend in the accident figures of the reduce their potential in case
construction industry is down by 11% in one year. (1999 was
19% compared to 30% in 1998).
of an incident.

Many accidents and injuries charged to other causes are actually caused by unsafe conditions
due to poor housekeeping. Poor housekeeping creates all types of hazards. Some of the
common ones are
i. Tripping over the objects haphazardly placed on floor, stairways & platforms
ii. Being hit by falling objects
iii. Striking against projecting and poorly placed or piled materials
iv. Injuries due to nails or sharp objects lying on floors
v. Slip’s from spilled oil, grease
vi. Increased risk of fire – many industrial fires are the direct results of the accumulation of oil
soaked, paint saturated clothing or rags.

88
vii. Struck by or Collisions (hit against a stationery object) against poorly stored materials,
overhanging or protruding objects
viii. Air borne dust like wood causing respiratory and eye irritation hazards
ix. Cutting, Puncturing or tearing the skin of hands or other parts of the body on projecting nails,
wire or steel strapping.

9.2 Housekeeping advantages


i. Fewer tripping & slipping accidents in clutter-free and spill free work areas.
ii. Decreased fire hazards
iii. Better Hygienic conditions for working – no dust, vapors from chemical spills
iv. Better control of tools and materials, including inventory & supplies.
v. Reduced handling to ease flow of materials
vi. More efficient equipment cleanup & maintenance
vii. More effective use of space
viii. Less Janitorial work
ix. Improved morale encourages better working habits.
x. Reduced property damage by improving preventive maintenance
xi. Improved Productivity
xii. Reduces the motion required by employees, thus aligning with ergonomics and lowering the risk
of musculo-skeletal disorders or cumulative trauma disorders.

9.3 Applying the 5S concept to Housekeeping


5S was started by the Japanese, to formulate the way in which their workplace was organized to
improve morale and efficiency. 5S involves the principle of waste elimination through
workplace organization. They are derived from the 5 Japanese words – Seiri (Sort), Seiton
(Systemize – set in order), Seiso (Sweep or Clean), Seiketsu (Standardize) & Shitsuke (Sustain).
The first 3 are shop floor actions, while the last 2 are sustaining & progressive actions.

5S is an effective tool to enhance the level of housekeeping in the workplace. As previously


stated housekeeping involves organizing & organizing. The first two S of the 5S is sorting and
Setting in order which relates to the first part of Housekeeping (i.e.) organizing the workplace.
The third S is Sweep/ Clean which relates to the next part of housekeeping (i.e.) cleaning.

ORDER workplace to ACHIEVE ZERO


9.3.1 Seiri – Sort – Sort all the materials/ items in the workplace

Sort materials based on their time of requirement like immediately required; This involves
required within a week, month and so on. This type of sorting will guide us to
remove all the unnecessary materials from the workplace which are not identifying &
needed for current operations leaving only the bare essentials. Also, this shows eliminating all
where to store and how to store the materials. Unnecessary items can be tagged unnecessary
“Red”. In this step clearly distinguish required materials from unneeded items
and eliminate the latter. Though some items may have a future value, storing items
these materials away in a separate area will facilitate productivity.

89
Sorting Action required

No value Throw away


immediately

Unnecessary
items Some value Relocate, donate or sell at
a good price

Items requiring special Look for an inexpensive


disposal safe way for disposal

9.3.2 SEITON – Systematize – Set in order This involves


This relates to arranging the necessary items in a neat, proper manner for easy
putting in order
retrieval to promote work flow like constructing a spaghetti diagram. all necessary
items from step 1

Sorting Action required

Used Constantly Must be placed nearby

Necessary items
Used Occasionally
Can be placed further
away

Items not used


Must be stored separately
frequently but still
in a designated place
needed

9.3.3 SEISO – Cleaning the workplace


This involves
This relates to cleaning the floors in the workplace from trash/ clutter (i.e.) removing
scrap, dust & wiping the machinery, tools & equipment from dust and shoveling
out unused material on a daily basis.
dust & clutter

9.3.4 SEIKETSU – Standardize

In this step Checklists, job cycle cards etc. are made such that a work structure Making
is formulated & housekeeping is a part of daily work. This is intended to generate
housekeeping
a maintenance system for the first three “S” such that everyone does the things
in the same way to maintain a high standard of housekeeping and a uniform a continuous
pattern in the workplace. All actions are focused on prevention, so that it never practice.
happens.

90
9.3.5 SHITSUKE - Sustain Training for
a committed
This conveys the need to train & educate people to ingrain the above 4 steps into
everyone for maintaining impeccable standards of safe and efficient effort to
housekeeping from day to day & year to year, by developing commitment. ACHIEVE
ZERO
Source: www.lean.state.mn.us

9.4 Examples of good housekeeping initiatives & practices


i. Zoning of the work area & setting up teams to carry out housekeeping on daily basis
ii. Providing sufficient facilities
iii. Storing materials & storing-stacked in a neat, orderly way on racks, demarcations
iv. Mass housekeeping exercise is organized & conducted regularly
v. Promotional activities & awareness to instill a good housekeeping culture among staff &
workers to make them aware of what is required.

91
10. Work Permit System

A work permit system is a formal written procedure used to plan and control work. This makes a
formal control system for prevention of accidents and property damage incidents where a
foreseeable hazardous work is carried out. WPS ensures the work is done in accordance with
safe working practices.

According to BIS, Safe work permit is essentially a document that categorically spells out the
task, equipment involved, its location, personnel involved, time limitations, precautionary
measures before the work starts, during the work and after completion of the work to be taken
together with likely hazards to be encountered, if any. It ensures adequate communication with
all concerned personnel e.g. the employer, employees and the contractor and assign
responsibilities. It helps to see that proper considerations are given to the job, its hazards and
precautions.

The work permit system clearly identifies the person responsible for work and increases
accountability. This when integrated with safe working practices forms an excellent system to
mitigate the hazards and improve the safety performance of the system.

The Permit-to-Work requires the following details and supporting documents -


• Details the work to be done.
• Details the precautions to take through safe operating procedures.
• Identifies all the foreseeable hazards through a job safety analysis.
• States the control measures to be implemented.
• When to stop/ Cancel work.

Permits systems along with safe working practices help in eliminating the hazards identified
during risk assessment and requires coordination from a competent person. Competent
Persons is a prime requirement of the Permit-to-Work system. Competent person as defined by
“The Health and Safety at Work Regulations” – is that when a person “Has sufficient training and
experience or knowledge as to enable him to assist in securing compliance, on the part of the
employer, with the necessary safety legislation and maintenance procedures”. WPS provides a
mechanism to document, that personnel carrying out the work clearly understand the nature of
job, the hazards involve, any limitation on the work and the time allowed for it.

Hazardous activities that have a probability of causing a serious/ major (or) fatal accident every
time the work is done requires to adopt a permit system, to ensure safe operation. Routine
production and process activities like operation start-up, changing the operation mode, shutting
down, and periodic maintenance activities do not require a permit to work.

11. Ergonomics
We spend almost half of the day at work and the work activities pose innumerable chances of
getting injured from accidents & damaging the body parts with loss of blood. These accidents are
sometimes with permanent or temporary disability and shall prove to be very devastating. These
are visible injuries due to an accident.

Even doing light manual tasks in the wrong way can cause injuries due to stress in the associated
body parts. By continuously performing our daily work even with little deviation from the body’s

92
natural posture will cause stress to the associated body parts. These injuries are invisible and
gets accumulated to a certain level when start realizing the effects of the injury. In these types of
injuries there is no blood loss but less blood circulation will be there in the affected organs
restricting i.e. impairing their ability to work. The main symptoms of this type of injury are pain,
swelling, loss in body capacity, tiredness, numbness etc.

Muscles are built in our body to perform work. They do great when they are able to meet the
energy demands of the job, given enough time to rest and to recuperate. They protest in the form
of pain when they stay contracted too long or too often without time to heal and recuperate. Also,
performing a job continuously in postures that do not congregate with the body anthropometry
causes pain. Stress & strain start building up in the body silently. In medical terms, our muscles
constantly elongate & shrink to perform a task. During this process lactic acid is secreted by the
muscles. In normal cases this lactic acid gets drained from the muscles during rest. In situations
like continuous work, over work etc. excess lactic acid is secreted. When the body does not get
sufficient pauses to drain this excess lactic acid from the muscles producing them it causes pain
in the respective muscle and gives a feeling of tiredness, exhausted etc. This exhausted feeling
in called as fatigue, the cause of many accidents related to manual tasks like manual material
handling. Many times, production pressures take over and workmen are pressurized to achieve
the targets. Workers exert themselves beyond their capacity and work continuously without
adequate breaks to achieve the production targets. Again, and again work is completed
successfully without any accident. Rarely, we feel pain in the body. After some time, the energy
in the body comes down & we start feeling exhausted. Depending on the nature of work this
exhaustion causes fatigue either mental or physical.
Fatigue a condition that
Fatigue has been defined as the failure to maintain a required force
or output of power during sustained or repeated muscle contraction
results when he body
(Stokes, Cooper & Edwards, 1988) (or) as the time-related cannot provide enough
deterioration in the ability to perform certain mental tasks energy for the muscles
(Broadbent, 1971).
The 2 most common cause of fatigue are medical illness and work.
to perform a task.
Normal fatigue is a normal response to physical & mental exertion,
emotional stress, boredom (or) lack of sleep & can become
Physically exhausted
abnormal with extreme exposure. The other ways of describing by hard work &
fatigue are weary, tired, exhausted, malaise, listless, lack of energy mentally exhausted by
etc.
stress.
Manual tasks consume lot of energy thus resulting in muscle fatigue. Manual tasks when
performed continuously especially without maintaining the correct body posture causes fatigue
and in the long run gives way to musculoskeletal injuries (MSD), also known as Repetitive
Fatigue stress
deteriorates the
concentration
injuries (RSI). These injuries do not happen overnight. They are a series of at work,
physical stresses thatto cause
accidents.
add up over time resulting in fatigue, stress and pain. The most common injuries due to physical
stress are back pain, strains, disk injuries, neck & shoulder injuries. For the unfortunate it can
cause even life altering injuries.

The best way to imagine the occurrence of fatigue is to think of our body as a Fatigue bucket. The
stress from our job keeps accumulating inside the bucket. The bucket has a healing valve that
drains the stress from the body (The healing valve is the Rest period required to overcome the
stress) If the rate of stress buildup and the amount of rest period matches, then our body will be

93
free of fatigue. But if the rate of stress buildup is more than the rest period available, then stress
starts accumulating in our body till it overflows i.e. results in the form of impaired movement or
a disabling injury in the worst case. Of course, the best solution is to prevent this physical stress
from occurring & accumulating in the body. Lack of knowledge and training on basic things at
work causes physical stresses that unknown to the employees, insidiously accumulate
overtime. They continue to accumulate until one day when they are not even able to perform a
simple routine task.

The best way to prevent fatigue is to design the work in a way that it simplifies the movements,
reduces the energy requirements. Less energy means lesser fatigue and production will be
more without accidents. Ergonomics is the science of designing machines and work
environments to suit human needs. It’s mainly concerned with fitting the task to the man. Man
has his own limitations and capabilities and the way we work must be modified to suit the men at
work. It goes beyond considering your comfort.

11.1 Ergonomics will improve Health & Safety at work


All tasks demand energy & can often cause muscle (or) mental fatigue, especially if it is done
manually. This fatigue builds up in the body and makes workmen lose concentration on the job,
commit errors by taking risks and end up with accidents. Using ergonomics to simplify the work
methodology can reduce the potential for accidents, injury & ill health improving productivity
and performance.

Stress Stress

Stress accumulates &


over flows in the form
No of injuries after a
Stress certain period of time
Injury

Rest Rest

Stress = Rest (Recovery time) Stress > Rest (Recovery time)

Ergonomics is the Science of fatigue reduction in the workplace to


maximize productivity.

ACHIEVE ZERO by preventing accumulation of ergonomic risk factors


that cause internal injuries or disorders.

94
Stages of an
ergonomic injury

Fatigue
Output remains constant over years
Performance

Performance
Discomfort

Output Pain
decreases
over time
Injury

Time Time
Without ergonomic design of tasks With ergonomic design of tasks
output decreases over time output remains constant over time

Proper application of ergonomics creates better working conditions by reducing the stress &
strain (i.e.) effort required to work. This is referred to as Working smart. When the task
methodology suits men, they commit lesser errors and waste.

11.2 Benefits of Ergonomics Application of ergonomics in


Good ergonomics sense makes good economic industries like workshops,
sense. Ergonomics input does not necessarily
manufacturing plants to improve
involve high costs and can save money in the long
term by reducing injuries and absence from health, safety and productivity is
work. called Industrial Ergonomics.

Many researchers have attempted to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal


disorders and productivity. In a study by Conway & Svenson (2001) for the period 1992-99, across
all industries for which data were available, lower MSD rates were significantly correlated with
higher productivity increases (p53). This increase is because of the workers becoming more
efficient because of lack of injuries and working without danger of physically breaking down
from awkward movement, repetitive stress injuries (or) violent impacts on the body (p.29). The
main benefits of ergonomic interventions are
i. Higher productivity
ii. Less wastage, reduced maintenance downtime
iii. Reduced absenteeism
iv. Improved morale of workers
v. Improved efficiency – better posture, less exertion, fewer motions
vi. Less fatigue

11.3 Identify Ergonomic Problems


Ergonomic problems at work can be identified through work observations, risk assessments,
ergonomic checklists, repeated errors at work and recurring complaints of discomfort for
employees. The main ergonomic risk factors are the actions at work & workplace environmental
conditions that may cause (or) aggravate an MSD. They are

11.3.1 Forceful exertions - force is the amount of muscular work spent to perform work. Exerting large
amounts of force can result in fatigue & physical damage to the body.

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11.3.2 Body Postures – Awkward & prolonged static postures. Posture is defined as position of a body
part, in relation to nearby body parts during an activity. The working posture determines which
muscle groups are active during a physical activity. During wrong postures, smaller muscles
may take more load that its capacity, causing fatigue.

11.3.3 Repetitive exertion – same type of motions is performed over & over again using the same
muscles, tendons (or) joints. Pace of work, the recovery time (i.e. number & length of breaks) &
the amount of variety in work tasks are the main risk factors involved in repetitive stress
injuries.
A job is considered to be repetitive when the duration of a task (or) group of tasks (a cycle) is less than 30 seconds.
When cycles are longer than 30 seconds the task is considered repetitive when the worker is performing the
same motion for more than 50% of the cycle. (Source: OSACH)

11.3.4 Twisting the wrists & other joints beyond the natural limits can cause undue stress and injure
them. Tingling, Pain & Swelling are the main symptoms of injury.

11.3.5 Exposures to environmental risk factors like Light, Extreme temperatures – Heat & cold,
Humidity & Vibration can significantly contribute to ergonomic injuries. Lighting in the
workplace may be too dark or too bright for work/ task. This may result in employees assuming
awkward postures to accomplish work/ tasks & can result in a loss of product quality. Heat &
Cold can cause stress resulting in fatigue due to fluid loss or making the muscles tighten i.e.
less flexible.
Vibration is the mechanical oscillations of an object around an equilibrium point. Vibration is the
byproduct of transmitting energy after converting it from one form to another form. Vibration
poses a bigger threat as can restrict blood supply to the hands and fingers reducing their load
carrying capacity to work. Hence, exposures to excessive vibration cause pain to muscles, joints
& internal organs. Numbness, loss of color, tingling are the starting symptoms of vibration
disorders. Vibration can affect the whole body or the exposed parts.

Vibration affecting the whole-body results in the Whole-Body Vibration Syndrome. When a
vibration that enters the body (through a seat (or) floor) affects the entire body (or) a number of
organs in the body it is a called as a whole-body vibration syndrome. Operators and drivers of
heavy machinery like excavators, wheel loaders, forklifts, dump trucks; Operators standing
close to conveyors, vibrating floors are exposed to whole body vibration as their whole body is
inside (or) very close to the operating machinery.

Segmental Vibration in where the vibration affects only the exposed or holding part it is a
segmental vibration syndrome like Hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). This occurs when
using power tools like pneumatic hammers, pneumatic chippers, chain saws, nibblers,
pneumatic wrenches, grinders, routers, chain saws etc.

11.3.6 Personnel risk factors like size, certain syndromes

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11.4 Ergonomic principles for reducing the risk factors
11.4.1 Always maintain the body in neutral posture
As early as the 18th century, doctors noticed that workers whose jobs Neutral posture results
required them to maintain certain body positions for long periods of in good productivity as
time developed musculoskeletal problems. Neutral posture is the
posture body assumes to achieve a natural stress-free position with production time lost due
proper alignment of muscles, tendons & ligaments. In this position to errors and injuries
body will be able maintain its natural curves and is perfectly ACHIEVE ZERO.
balanced such that no pain is felt.
In this position muscles maintain its length and neither stretch nor flex with least tension in them.
In this length muscles can develop maximum force to work either in sitting or standing position.
Sitting, standing, twisting, bending, rotating, holding, reaching, crouching, kneeling are some
common actions at work. When these actions are performed for long time muscles can tire out
throughout the body and tighten. Tight muscles can pull the body out of correct posture, leading
to different types of pain.

At work, body parts can deviate from the neutral zone. Crossing the limits of the neutral zone will
cause pain & weaken the muscles due to stress. Anyone with weak muscles may struggle to
perform manual tasks or may not be able to perform them at all. Workers with restricted
movement cannot complete tasks or can complete them only by putting their bodies in awkward
positions increasing the risk of musculoskeletal injury and the probability of accidents. The
following limits are the allowable deviations from the neutral zone to work stress free.
• Body turned not more than 30 degrees in either side (left/ right).
• Body tilted not more than 15 degrees either forward or backward.
• Natural curves of the spines are maintained.
• Torso bend not more than 10 to 20 degrees.
• Pelvis, shoulders face straight ahead to avoid twisting the torso.
• Shoulders are relaxed neither up nor down and not forward or back.
• Knees are bent.
• Arms hang normally at the side, with elbows close to the body.
• Elbows are not bent more than 90 degrees.
• Palms face in towards each other on the centerline of the body.
• Fingers are gently curved, in natural resting position. They are not spread apart, neither fully
extended nor tightly curled.
• Wrists in line with the forearm. It is neither bent up nor bent down.
• Neck is balanced on the spinal column. It is not tilted forward, back or to either side. It is not
rotated to the left or right.
• Back normally assumes an ‘S’ curve. Spine must not be rotated to the left or right, and it is not
bent to the left or right.

11.4.2 Avoid physical exertion on the Job


Carrying, Pushing, Pulling, Striking, Lifting/ Lowering, Holding, Stretching, Bending are normal
ways of doing tasks manually. The manual effort applied to do the job depends on the size &
weight of the job. When lifting heavy items, we overexert, subsequently reducing the blood flow
to the exerted parts & placing higher loads on the muscles, tendons, ligaments & joints.
Increasing force means increasing the body demands for greater force. This drains the energy
from the body. Prolonged or recurrent exposure will aggravate the fatigue factor and give rise
to musculoskeletal injuries, accidents. This kind of muscle over exertion can be reduced by

97
• Choosing the right way of doing the job
• Limiting the size and weight of load lifted manually
• Frequent rest pauses & breaks
• Using the whole hand to increase the grip
• Keeping the load as close to the body.
• Job rotation

11.4.3 Reduce Repetitive Motions


Working with repetitive motions for an entire 8-hour shift can strain the muscles with
accumulation of fatigue.

Work that involves repeated movements can be very tiring because the worker
cannot fully recover in the short periods of time between the movements.
Eventually, due to fatigue, it takes more effort to perform the same repetitive
movements. When work activities continue in spite of this fatigue, injuries can
occur.

(Source: OSACH)
Repetition alone poses a risk but this can be aggravated by body position & force exerted
during the repetitive movements.

When sufficient time is allowed in between exertions, muscles can recover. Repetitive motions
at awkward postures increase the chance of muscle disorders i.e. repetitive stress injuries.

11.4.4 Get proper grip before doing any task manually


Proper grip must be applied during a manual task to prevent them from falling. The grip we apply
depends on the size & surface nature of the object (or) hand holds, handles provided.

Handholds of proper size will make the lifting task easier. When the handles fit the palm, proper
grip can be applied. If they are larger than the palm grip will be insufficient and if they are smaller
that will not fit the palm and it must be held tight causing stress to the human body.

11.4.5 Reduce Static posture


Staying too long in a position is referred to as Static posture. In this position exertion is there and
the force on muscles, tendons and ligaments gives them fatigue. This is due to the reduced blood
flow due to lack of movement. This constricted blood flow reduces the supply of nutrients and
removing the acids produced by the tissues (as explained earlier). Use of ergonomic equipment
eliminates these stressful postures.

11.4.6 Reduce the effect of environment and maintain ambient conditions


The amount of vibration passing into the body can be significantly reduced by
• Using anti-vibration gloves
• Using suitable attachments
• Providing anti-vibration handles
• Use low vibration tools (or) machines having a balancing system – Auto balancing (angle
grinders) or Mass balancers (jig saws, reciprocating saws)
• Hold tools with correct grip – do not hold too tight or too loose.
• Avoid extended use of vibrating machinery.

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11.5 Work with smart techniques
A worker in pain
Working smart means modifying (or) adopting techniques which require
lesser effort and reduces the stress absorbed in the human body. loses the ability
to concentrate
Working smart involves positioning the body, equipment and the load to
ensure a comfortable & healthy interaction is in place when the job is carried and both quality
out. & productivity
Smart ways of doing manual tasks are: are reduced.

i. Eliminate twisting as twisting while lifting is bad for your back, try to position Reduce effort,
yourself so that after you pick up the object you can move straight to that Work Smart
location. If this isn’t possible, then move in the direction you’re headed by
changing the position of the feet instead of twisting your back. ACHIEVE ZERO
ii. Place objects off the floor as it is easier and safer to lift objects from an elevated surface. When
you know an object will be lifted later, put it down on a table or other elevated surface instead of
on the floor.
iii. Lower or raise shelves to store objects between waist and shoulder height. The heaviest objects
must be stored at the waist level.
iv. Use trolleys or carts to move objects, instead of carrying them. This will reduce the effort. Always
remember that it is better to push trolleys and carts than to pull them.
v. Stretch first and stretch often to relax your muscles before lifting and stretch frequently
throughout the day.
vi. Slow down when doing a lot of heavy, repetitive lifting. Allow recovery time between lifts. “Don’t
overdo it.”
vii. Get in shape to strengthen your muscles, lose weight if you are overweight, and increase your
flexibility. All of these activities can help reduce the probability of a back injury.
viii. Listen to your body - Feeling discomfort or pain is an indication that something is wrong!
Combinations of awkward posture, force, repetitions, and insufficient rest periods are a set up
for injury. Take more frequent “mini-breaks” before you become fatigued. Become aware of
mounting stresses, aches and pains.

11.6 Effective Lifting Techniques


i. Lift with your legs
ii. Do not exceed your physical ability
iii. Provide adequate recovery time for tasks that require frequent lifting
iv. Provide easy access so the load is in front of the person lifting
v. Eliminate twisting by changing the start or end point of the lift
vi. Put items to be lifted between waist and shoulder height
vii. Lift items close to your body to reduce the stress on your lower back.

11.7 Mechanical aids Reduce fatigue


Invention of wheel is probably the most important invention of all times. The invention of wheel
brought many changes in human lives. Without this wheel life would not have been as fast as it is
right now. Utilizing the circular motion of wheel, man began to spin clothes, make clay pots and
to fetch water through pulleys. Later on, he learnt to make carts to travel and transport goods
from one place to another on land. He was able to develop round steering to navigate the ships
into the sea. Similar changes were seen when auto mobiles were invented.

99
Push, Pull & Carry is the common methods used in transporting items manually at work. The
amount of fatigue associated with all these ways is not the same. To improve productivity and
safety choose the method which results in lesser fatigue.

When carrying an item, the total load is on the person doing Ergonomics in everyday life
the job. The effort required to do the job depends on the size
& weight of the item handled. Larger the size/ weight, more Wheels at work, is a major
effort is required do the job resulting in getting fatigued very ergonomic breakthrough. It can
soon. Pushing and pulling of loads placed on a trolley is a reduce fatigue. Workmen can be
better way to avoid manual lifting and carrying of objects. It more active throughout the day
requires less effort when compared with the previous bettering their production rates,
method, carrying loads and involves lesser fatigue levels. without injuries and accidents.

Pushing loads is preferable to pulling because it involves MAN HAS A GREATER CAPACITY TO
less work by the muscles of the lower back, more no of PUSH THAN TO PULL.
muscles are involved and generally allows better visibility.
The best example is the use of 4
Normally, the method we choose depends on the type of
wheeled trolleys while shopping.
path available to the work location. In fabrication
Imagine using a two-wheeled
workshops, shifting of gas cylinders is a must do task. Now,
trolley during shopping.
let us compare these methods with regard to safety &
productivity with a case study on Converting 2 wheeled gas
cylinder trolleys to 3 wheeled trolleys to reduce the
fatigue in push/pull tasks is discussed in section 15.5.

Application of ergonomics at work prevents fatigue & accidents due to


human error. Also it adds great value, to your job and improves

• Comfort

• Health

• Productivity in a job

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12. Behavior Based Safety (BBS)
Apart from technical and administrative controls, Occupational safety is also widely influenced
by the behavior of employees within their workplace. Accidents and incidents at workplace are
the endpoints of a chain of events. The root causes of these can be technical or human error.
Research shows that human error (i.e.) behaviour is the cause for almost 95% of the accidents
and can make a substantial difference to the occurrence and severity of accidents or incidents.
This is due to the risk-taking attitude of few workmen who overlook the hazards mainly due to
production pressures at the workplace.

Behaviours, defined as the actions or reactions exhibited by humans usually in relation to


the present environment.

It is well known that the accident causatives - unsafe acts and conditions do not occur by
themselves but are the created by man. These hazards at work can be well managed to make
them ineffective by applying the principles of hierarchy of Hazard Control. Managing hazards by
this way reduces the chance of an accident. Often, even after taking suitable action to control the
hazards accidents do occur in the workplace, mainly due to the deviation from the
recommendations to manage the hazards.

This deviation from the normal action is an unsafe act that originated due to unsafe behaviors.
Unsafe-Behaviors are the actions we take or not take that increase the chance of injury or illness.
A Behavioral safety program deals in identifying & controlling the behaviors that directly causes
an accident and encourages safe behaviors. Research indicates that unsafe behaviors are the
direct cause of 95% to 98% of the accidents. This decision to deviate is taken by the human (mind)
after weighing the outcomes.
Further, unsafe behaviors can be split into two categories – errors and violations. Errors are
unintended actions deviating from an accepted standard whereas violations are deliberate
deviations from rules and procedures. It is these violations that are more of concern to be
prevented in work activities.

Researchers Abdelhamid and Everett (2000) listed the 3 primary causes of occupational
accidents are

i. Failing to identify an unsafe condition that existed before an activity was started or that
developed after an activity was started.
ii. Deciding to proceed with a work activity after the worker identifies an existing unsafe
condition, and
iii. Deciding to act unsafe regardless of initial conditions of the work environment.

12.1 Behavior Based Safety Process

Behaviors are actions we can see and measure. BBS is a safety management technique that
specifies exactly which behaviors are required from each employee. These behaviors are
geared towards creating a safe work environment and must have controls in place which can
measure the behaviors.

In general behaviour safety methods focus on analyzing the work processes to identify the
critical behaviors possible at work that can lead to an accident. This is a six-step process which
involves hazard identification, training, observation and action.

101
Identify the work process

Identify the critical behaviour’s that can cause an accident

Train workgroup and select observers

Observe the involved workgroups for their behaviours at


work

Get feedback from observers

Identify corrective actions and take action for reducing at


risk behaviour’s

➢ Encourage and reward safe behaviour’s


➢ Take disciplinary action and punish violators for
reducing unsafe behaviour’s

Behaviour safety issues when dealt promptly have a significant reduction in accidents. People
behave unsafely as they have never been hurt before when doing it the same way. The most
common answer for questioning unsafe behaviour is – I have been doing this way for all these
years and nothing has happened to me. Heinrich’s triangle states that for every 330 unsafe acts,
29 will result in minor injuries and 1 will result in a major injury. It is this absence of injuries that
refrains workmen from following safe work practices. Over a period of time, this becomes the
standard for working. These kinds of unsafe behaviors must be identified and promptly
corrected.

Hence, it is very much required to make workmen understand that the potential of the accident
remains the same every time a similar unsafe act is performed. It is this understanding that
interacts with the attitude to determine the final behaviour.

Observations are critical for a behaviour-based safety process as these identify the desirable
behaviors in workers, correcting undesirable ones and providing data for further analysis.
Observers must be selected and trained in making observations. The feedback from observers
must be used to determine ways to encourage safe behaviors. Once unsafe behaviors are
identified safety education must be imparted to all concerned. The recurrence of unsafe
behaviors depends on the need like taking shortcuts saves time. Actions with positive results
tend to be repeated and with negative results tend to be avoided.
Unsafe behaviours get repeated because the potential consequences of an
accident occur rarely, not every time we meet with an accident.
Educate & Enforce to ACHIEVE ZERO repetition. 102
Common unsafe behaviors (violations) are:
i. Breaking rules
ii. Using unsafe methods
iii. Taking shortcuts BBS programs helps in creating a
iv. Horseplay positive safety climate by overcoming
v. Failing to report hazards brain barrier resistance to safety as
vi. Allowing unsafe behaviours
something must change to prevent an
vii. Failing to supervise
viii. Failing to correct accident and ACHIEVE ZERO.
ix. Scheduling too much work
x. Ignoring worker stress

12.2 Production governs the Safety attitudes


Production is always the main concern in any industry. To improve production, processes are
modified based on experience and advancement in technology.

Productivity does not mean more production. The essence of


productivity is producing more with proportionately
i. Less input The path to ACHIEVE ZERO
ii. Minimize waste
iii. Eliminate rework in all forms ensures best Productivity.
iv. Eliminate down time due to accidents Follow it.
v. Optimum utilization of available resources.
Almost all the accidents occur when safety precautions are overlooked to save time for
improving production. Accident costs and related compensations paid form a major chunk of the
overheads. It can be always observed that after major accident, a safety conscious work
environment develops making people reasonably aware of the need for Safety. However,
various factors like apathy on the part of the employers, lack of trained manpower, lack of
legislative enforcements hinder the continuous practice of safety. With the build-up of
production pressures, a resistance to practice safety develops. In due course, this resistance
shapes to turn into a ‘brain barrier’ as accidents do not happen every time an unsafe act or
condition is carried out and it is a common inbuilt characteristic of human to resist changes.
Overcoming this ‘brain barrier’ resistance to safety is the key to prevent unsafe acts and unsafe
conditions and will be the aim of a behavior safety programme. Every behavior safety
programme will be designed to persuade everyone to follow safety by positive or negative
reinforcement techniques.

12.3 Overcome the Brain Barrier resistance to change to Safety


Safety education and training is the best way for improving awareness towards safety. The
emphasis on educational training program has become evident to overcome this barrier. These
training programmes must be designed to influence, reinforce individual’s behaviour & attitude
towards a desired goal.

Consider the fact that every occupation is associated with some risk factors and there is no
occupation devoid of risk. A new workers attitude shall be based on his upbringing and social

103
background. A young workers attitude is derived from his parents and family members as a part
of the growing process and with the people whom he associates at community.

It is the prime duty of the employer to educate employees on hazards & mould the attitudes for
the workplace. Arguably behaviour of the workforce is one of the greatest determinants of
workplace safety and injury prevention. Creating awareness is the first step in shaping attitudes
to reduce unsafe behaviors for preventing injuries at the workplace. Accidents at work not only
impede, but also interrupt a planned activity, which we ought to prevent through team effort.

Safety Induction, Safety education and training, Tool Box talks, Posters are proven techniques of
developing safety awareness. These programs must be designed to emphasize the need for
proper attitudes and aim in cultivating good attitudes.

When a hazard is predictable, it’s preventable.


Most of the accident causative factors are normally overlooked due to sheer work pressure or
human error. Proper planning helps in overcoming pressure on the job.

Harry Mockey, the great American speaker says pressure has to do something for which you
have not/ are not prepared. So, why not prepare everyone to work safely under pressure.
Always, preparation is the key to success & everyone must be trained to prepare themselves to
tackle the hazards especially ones due to human error at work as it is the root cause for 96% of
accidents. Realisation of the fact, everyone is accountable for safety, is very much essential for
better results. Continual efforts must be put for attitude development and change by creating
safety awareness for the benefit of safety.

12.4 Changing attitudes


Poor safety performance can be turned around with a reduction of unsafe behaviors. This can
be directly related to attitude - Attitude towards safety can be judged from actions related to
safety as human behaviors are widely influenced by it and affected by genetics, education and
safety climate in the workplace.
Behavior based safety focuses on reducing unsafe behaviors (stemming A man’s action is an
from the attitudes built within us) done to save effort and time. From birth outcome of his
everyone has followed a religion and it plays a big role in developing the
attitude. Behaviours
attitudes as a part of the growing up process. Religion can be used to change
are visible actions
a person’s attitude towards safety as it can be observed many times groups
that can turn systems
believe and have superstitions opinions ‘All accidents are Acts of God’.
and procedures into
reality.
Lowenthal, a researcher, studied how religious principles affected the attitudes of the people
and firmly concluded that religion relates to behaviour of individuals via Morality. Morality in
turn determines a man’s attitude. All religions teach the same “GOLDEN RULE” – Humanity. All
religions teach our actions must be for the wellbeing of our own and other human beings as our
actions can directly or indirectly cause harm to others. We should take care of our actions and
do not cause an accident. All religions teach their followers to care of our fellow humans
whether related to us or not as we do for ourselves. In short, Man's action depends on his
morality and he shall do what he has been taught for years. To change their attitudes continuous
education is the most effective approach for everlasting positive results. This method can be
very useful for workgroups who have little educational background like in the mining and
construction sector.

104
BUDDIST HURT NOT OTHERS IN WAYS THAT YOU WOULD FIND HURTFUL

ALL THINGS WHATSOVER HE WOULD THAT MEN SHOULD DO TO YOU, DO


CHRISTIAN
EVEN SO TO THEM

CONFUCIAN DO NOT UNTO OTHERS WHAT YOU WOULD NOT HAVE THEN DO TO YOU
In common all religions advocate, "Our Act"
should not cause harm or suffering either to
THIS IS THE SUM OF DUTY; DO NAUGHT UNTO OTHERS WHICH IF DONE TO us or lives around us. This can be used to
HINDU
THEE WOULD CAUSE THEEPAIN change the attitudes of the workmen for
following safety and be careful at work such
NO ONE OF YOU IS A BELIEVER UNTIL HE DESIRES FOR HIS BROTHER that we prevent working unsafe, i.e. an
ISLAMIC unsafe act that could cause harm directly or
THAT HE DESIRES FOR HIMSELF
indirectly to fellow workmen, working with
us.
IN HAPPINESS AND SUFFERING, IN JOY AND GRIEF, WE SHOULD
JAIN
REGARD ALL CREATURES AS WE REGARD OUR OWN SELF

SIKH AS THOU DEEMEST THYSELF, SO DEEM OTHERS

REGARD YOUR NEIGHBOUR’S GAIN AS YOUR OWN GAIN, AND YOUR


TAOIST
NEIGHBOURS LOSS AS YOUR OWN LOSS.

105
Follow safety at work
Experience a heavenly workplace
Else your unsafe acts will be punished here itself not in HELL

106

Work safely, prevent incidents, ACHIEVE ZERO


12.5 Encourage Safe behaviors
Innovative approaches to provide understanding and motivation is required to own
responsibility for safety and ACHIEVE ZERO.

Safety promotional programmes must be conducted to create sufficient safety awareness for
knocking out hazards in the route to ACHIEVE ZERO.
In one such a safety programme workman was put up a question – Has anyone ever seen or
heard of a banyan tree, uprooted during a storm or a heavy wind. The common answer we got
was no. Everyone claimed that how such a strong tree can get uprooted in a wind or rain. When
asked whether they have heard of a banana tree being uprooted in a wind or rain, almost
everyone answered yes we have witnessed it often. Many answered it is a common event. During
a strong wind or heavy downpours, we can always observe many uprooted. It was made clear
that if there is no adequate support for a system or function, failure becomes inevitable.
Participation in safety activities with involvement is a must to obtain effective results in safety
implementation. Obviously, the safety performance level goes up since the support everyone
gives is like that of the supporting roots of a banyan tree that helps the tree to withstand the
destructive forces during a strong wind or heavy downpours.
More often we can observe some workmen in respective trades i.e. Carpentry, bar bending,
Rigging, Electrical, etc. who excel in their job also take safety seriously. Though this number is
few, they are the role models who can very effectively propagate safety activity down the line. It
is bonus if they are elder and experienced in their team. Such types of workmen can be selected
as informal safety representative from their respective team. These people readily take up the
responsibility as we are reposing our confidence in their ability, workman ship and experience.
Barring to a few, usually the response is positive.
They are expected to work safely and the same is expected from their team mates. In case of non-
compliance by their team member, the person involved and these informal safety
representatives are held responsible. These informal safety representatives will bear the
charges positively as we are respecting them as Competent / Senior / Experience individual and
we are making them realise that they are more capable than what they think themselves.
For effectiveness, such type of scene is required not more than twice or thrice. We can then
witness the welcome change. They will own the safety responsibility for themselves and for their
team, thanks to this element of ego gratification. They feel happy to be identified and respected.
We can then observe the compliance level rising to an acceptable level. The junior & less
experience workman will usually take the firm advice of their senior colleague readily and will

107
understand all these safety activities are implemented for their benefit. Here the acceptance and
learning curve is very short.
This empowerment has a practical beneficial effect. They will come out openly with safety
related problems and offer practical suggestions too. This type of atmosphere enforces a sense
of ownership, accountability & responsibility towards each other thus enhance their desire to
work safely. It is also a welcome deviation from our usual “Top – Down” style of management.
The approach certainly deserves a try for effective implementation, as it is not just a theoretical
hypothesis but found effective.

Everything you are against, weakens you

Everything you are for, empowers you

The first step towards change is creating awareness to

ACHIEVE ZERO

Safety, a game against hazards can be won easily by team work.

Be a part of the Safety TEAM (Together Employees Accomplish More)

Saving Goals is akin to scoring goals,

Preventing loss is akin to improving profits.

108
12.6 CONTROL OF WORKING CONDITIONS

"Unfortunately, most measures presently used in safety field require


loss type accidents to occur with a certain degree of severity before
identification of accident problems is possible"
- Dr. W.E. Tarrants
In general, all our attention and efforts are only focused in improving the productivity. Obviously,
this is true, as blindness is preferred in most of the reported cases until and unless a major
accident occurs. ACHIEVE ZERO depends on our ability to realise our role in Knocking hazards
and work safely. As everyone cannot anticipate all the potential hazards, all must realise their
responsibility towards accident prevention and play their role in implementing safety
procedures.

Safe working conditions can be achieved only by team effort like in a game of football. The goal
keeper's role is to save a goal not to score one. Similarly, the striker's main role is scoring goals
above and beyond backing up goal keeper to save goals. Hence everyone in the organization
must realise their role in implementation of safety and play it safe. Safety success is a team effort
with everyone playing their role to avoid failure.

Sl No Position Typical Responsibilities Typical Impact of Failure

1 Top Management - Exerts policy direction Safety and Health actions “fall
- Reviews control Information through the crack”
- Delegates Safety & Health
responsibility/ authority
- Makes budgetary allocations
2 Line - Conducts various training New employees suffer extra
Management programmes ordinary injury rate.
- Supervises workers to insure
correct working procedures
- Communication awareness of
hazards
- Provides employee consultation
3 Design/ - Assesses and designs out safety Inadequate engineering
Engineering hazards control, exposure to safety and
- Considers safety and health health hazards
regulations
- Performs environmental
monitoring of workplace
- Designs or recommends
engineering controls
4 Purchasing - Purchases required protective Purchases some machines,
equipment equipment, materials etc. that
- Ensures that supplier provides fails to comply with safety and
servicing instructions
health regulations which must
- Acquires maintenance manuals
- Ensures that item complies with be shut down often
safety and health specifications

109
- Secures hazard information from
suppliers
5 Finance - Costs safety and health-related Accidents costs significantly
expenditures escalate in one department
- Projects costs to comply with safety
and health legislations
- Budgets for safety and health
training
6 Production - Ensures use of protective There are government
equipment and safe work practices prosecutions for failure to
- Oversees proper housekeeping comply
procedures
- Ensures compliance with safety and
health regulations
- Effectively communicates hazards
to workers
7 Quality Control - Maintains products to set standards, Excessive scrap and rework
obviating hazards seriously affect production
- Assesses safety and health hazards quotas
related to below standards
products
8 Administration - Keeps a list of current local safety A fellow worker is injured due
and health legislation and to a known but unreported
information hazard.
- Arranges for pre-employment
medical examinations
- Establishes induction skill, safety
and health training programs
- Maintains medical records
9 Safety Engineer - Informs management of health and Management is unaware of an
safety problems unsafe condition until after an
- Advises purchasing department of accident has already occurred
new safety standards
- Advises personnel department of
available health & safety training

110
Dr. Shantanu Nagariki, in one of his editorials on the teachings of the great Indian epic,
Mahabharata, explains how the historic Kurukshetra war is the consequence of choosing to be
blind over the preliminary incidents that led to the war i.e. Voluntary Blindness by Dhritrashtra,
father of Duryodhana. Dhritrashtra, who was born physically blind, chose to be blind i.e. without
controlling Duryodhana and his other sons from gambling, misbehaving and refusing to return
the kingdom to the pandavas. It is this second (Voluntary) blindness that led to the battle of
Kurukshetra.
Dhritrashtra has not even taken steps to stop his sons from declaring war, when the pandavas
had come to claim their lost kingdom. Moreover, he chose to be blind on the happenings of the
battlefield too, until the news of death of his close relatives reached him. Only after that he asked
Sanjana to describe the happenings on the battlefield that is on the 10th day of a war that lasted
18 days.

"Indecision and Delays


Too late wasn't it. are parents of failure"
Workplace with thousands of hazards is all the
same similar, fighting in the battlefield. We can't
George Canning
foresee when an accident is going to crop up.
Safety from Day one drives out the hazards on the days to come else it can be an action too late.
During the initial stages of operation or construction the attention given to safety is inadequate.
In the later stages, activities increase and we are not able to dedicate enough time for planning
safety and related activities. Safety activities are neglected presuming it to be a hindrance to
progress.
BEING BLIND & TURNING A DEAF EAR TO SAFETY IMPLEMENTATION AT WORK IS IDENTICAL TO
SETTING THE STAGE FOR A KURUKSHETRA WAR AT THE WORKPLACE. DO WE NEED TO FIGHT A
WAR? CAN WE NOT PREVENT IT?
The Kurukshetra war could have been avoided either if Dhritrashtra had stopped the Kavuravas
under the guidance of their great gambler uncle, Sakuni from gambling or if the Pandavas had
gambled along with Krishna as their guide.
Similarly, accidents can be abated if Managers get in the way of Engineers, Supervisors and
Workmen averting them from taking undue chances to complete the work and insists all to
follow the Safety precautions.

Remember, Safety from Day one,


Drives out the hazards on the days to come.
Don't gamble with hazards to ACHIEVE ZERO

“The Best preparation for tomorrow is to do today's work well - Our


today is worth two tomorrow's”

111
13. Safety observations, Pareto Analysis for Accident prevention
Safety observations are the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions observed in the workplace during
inspecti7ons, recorded in the Inspection forms. These observations must be focused on the
entire task — facility, tools, machinery and people — not just on the actions of the employees. This
observation sheet helps in employees taking care of unsafe acts and unsafe conditions by
themselves.

A well designed, well maintained safety observation system can help to control the risk of injury
to people, harm to the environment, damage to property and loss of production.
Safety observations are the first step to prevent a hazard resulting in an accident. A job
observation process was identified as a key step in improving the workplace and communicating
the company’s commitment to safety and health to the workforce, exhibiting a positive safety
culture.

The hazards and its impact vary in different workplaces. Hence, it is


Safety observations
necessary to identify the most dominant hazards in a particular are collection of H & S
workplace. Like, fall of persons & material from height is the most violation data by
dominant hazard in the construction of a high-rise building; Manual
Material handling and Ergonomics are the major hazards in Metal
observing employees
Fabrication. Analysing these safety observation helps in identifying perform their work. It is
the type and trend of the hazards existing in a particular work place. an important tool to
13.1 Purpose of Safety Observations analyse existing trends
The basic purpose of safety observations is to spot unsafe practices. in violations for
The other benefits are: preventing accidents &
13.1.1 Decide on the type of training required & Check effectiveness maintaining sound
The best and sometimes only way a supervisor can be sure standards of safety and
employees have absorbed their initial job training is to watch them
health at work to
do the job. Even after being trained, most people are reluctant to
admit they don’t fully understand the task. When observed work ACHIEVE ZERO.
performance doesn’t meet high safety standards, question the
employee about specific accident prevention measures that should Managers find that
be used for that job. Find out if they were trained and if they know rather than being
what to do.
‘responsible’ for
accidents, they are now
13.1.2 Provide on-the-spot correction of unsafe actions
responsible for an
This is the time to deliver immediate on-the-spot safety training and
catch unsafe practices before they become habits. This type of accident prevention
training uses correction for the good of employees, not just to process.
criticize. Be sure you make it clear to employees that you don’t want
them to get hurt! Be clear and specific about how they should work
safely.

112
13.1.3 Provides opportunities for compliments
Most observations will confirm that employees are working safely. This provides a good
opportunity for supervisors to compliment them for a job well done. Everyone appreciates a
kind word now and then, and most will respond with even greater cooperation after they have
been praised for doing the job right.

People tend to repeat behaviour that is rewarded”

Employees identified as “Hazard


Knockers” were rewarded by Eng.
Hussam Aweis during Stand down day.

13.1.4 Suggest better methods to do the job.

13.2 Inspection Principles & Areas to Focus


i. Reactions of workers to your presence
These reactions usually occur within 10 to 30 seconds after employees become aware that they
are being observed and may provide clues to unsafe acts. If employees put on their protective
equipment when they see you, change position suddenly, or rearrange the job, it may indicate
unsafe acts being covered up.

ii. Personal Protective equipment


All PPE necessary for the job, such as hard-hats, safety glasses, hearing protection, respirators,
and other protective equipment are available and being properly used.

iii. Potential injury causes


• Can employees be struck by something, caught in, or exposed to falls?
• Can they potentially contact high voltage lines, be exposed to a hazardous substance, or
overexert themselves while lifting?
• What other hazards are present?

iv. Tools & Equipment


• Are the right tools being used for this job?
• Are tools being used correctly?
• Are tools & equipment in good condition?

v. Job procedures
• Does it appear that proper procedures are being followed or are shortcuts being taken?
• Are the procedures adequate and understood?

113
14. Positive Performance Indicators
Safety Performance measurement is one of the methods at the heart of propelling an
organization towards breakthrough safety performance. It is the key step for continual
improvement in HSE management.

According to the various ‘accident cause’ theories mentioned in earlier chapters, all unsafe acts
and unsafe conditions do not result in an accident. There are lot of unsafe conditions and unsafe
acts in the work area which can cause an accident anytime. With so many factors ready to cause
an accident, how can we say a work place is really safe to work?

Traditional ways of assessing safety performance was based on number of injuries & man-days
lost in a specified period to calculate Accident, Frequency and severity rate (i.e.) performance
was judged based on what is lost in that period. These indicators when used to judge safety
performance are known as lagging indicators.
Measuring safety performance
It appears that the workplace is very safe when the
with accident and injuries statistics
results are zero or low, it does not necessarily mean
that adequate safety systems and controls are in are now universally regarded as
place. Lagging indicators can hide risk and does not unsuccessful is providing
assure the adequacy & performance of hazard
meaningful measures.
controls in place. In reality, there may be a lot of
hazards present in the workplace waiting for a chance Low injuries, even over a period of
to cause an accident which are not taken into account years gives no guarantee that risk
when calculating lagging indicators. Also, it does not
is controlled and adequate
measure whether the hazard control is used
regularly to prevent all kinds of accidents and controls are in place to prevent
injuries. injuries in future.
With continuous use of lagging indicators, complacency develops as safety precautions are
ignored and production becomes the prime priority. Also, there is a possibility of wrong
judgement on the dependability and adequateness of the hazard controls in place.

A work place is really safe when these accident causes are eliminated. According to Peter
Drucker, a Management consultant – “You can’t manage what you can’t measure” i.e. what gets
measured gets done”. Systems to achieve the goal ‘Injury & Incident Free’ & ‘Hazard Free’
requires effective monitoring to control the hazards, possibly at the source itself. Implementing
Safety in all means will control the unsafe conditions and unsafe acts.

The commonly used indicators – accident, frequency & severity rates are calculated at the last
stage or when submitting reports. Analysis of Injuries & accident causes can give valuable
information for accident prevention in future.

Certain indicators must be developed through which we can periodically assess the elements or
factors affecting safety performance such that accidents are prevented. Ideally safety
performance measurements are required to provide timely information about conditions or
behaviours that lead to accidents. Every company has a Safety goal to achieve that is mentioned
through a Safety policy. It forms a Safety program to prevent accidents and improve the working
culture. As a part of continual improvement, measurements are done to monitor the progress
towards the goal.

114
A progress towards ACHIEVE ZERO requires tracking of each and every step towards
improvement. These indicators shall periodically measure activities specifically undertaken to
improve performance and helps in deciding the course of action to achieve our goal by pointing
out where we are.

This helps in identifying the weak spots before they develop as large-scale problems. This
identifies elements that affect the safety features of the work environment. It is put into action
by developing parameters to measure the effectiveness of the accident preventive measures.

The measures of these pro-active steps to promote safety and prevent workplace injuries &
diseases are called as Positive Performance Indicators or Leading Indicators that act as a gauge
of good practice to assess the HSE Activities like Risk assessments, Inspections, Induction,
Trainings and arrangements.

When considering PPMs for safety, define the key


activities in your safety management system that needs to
Leading indicators are
be promoted, reinforced to visibly drive the culture. predictive measures enabling
Select the activity measures from these. For each of these safety condition monitoring
PPMs you will need to list the measure to be used, how it
will be collected, calculated and reported including the
which may reduce the need to
frequency of reporting. There are no fixed or specific wait for the system to fail in
items stated in codes and guidelines to be used as leading order to identify weaknesses
indicators. The items selected can vary from workplace to
workplace and can be changed to suit the process, aiming
and to take remedial action.
to improve the workplace safety with a reduction of risk to This can be conceived as a
the lowest. It must be objective, easy to use and easily switch from ‘feedback’ to ‘feed
understood by all. The main difference between leading
and lagging indicators is the former warns us the possible
forward’ control.
accident causes well before an accident and the latter
Falburch & Wilbert, 1999;
tells us what caused an accident. Lead indicators give a
Flin, Mearns, O’Connor & Bryden, 2000
real time measure of the effectiveness of the safety
program. The absence of accidents is a negative measure,
largely dependent on luck, while the identification, then
prompt elimination or control of hazards is a positive step
for making a workplace safe.

14.1 Determining Leading indicators i.e. what to measure for improving performance

It is very critical to choose and measure the activities that affect performance. An indicator must
be selected such that progress towards goal can be monitored. Leading indicator for OHS is a
proactive activity necessary to control accidents i.e. activities that reduce the unsafe acts and
unsafe conditions at work. The most important accident control measures are Risk
Management, Safety Education & Training, Safety communications, Safe work procedures,
Monitoring activities like Safety Inspection etc.

The criteria for assessing each work element involved in the safety cycle will vary. Each element
must be individually assessed to understand the way it influences the safety aspects in the work
environment.

115
Manager’s role plays an important part in the level of safety at the workplace. This element when
used as a leading indicator will improve the safety performance.

Leading indicators lead performance and Lagging All indicators must be


indicators lag performance as using lagging indicators measured against a
can develop a sense of complacency towards safety. A
safety program striving for excellence will use a mix of minimum criterion
these Leading and Lagging indicators. Below is a required to ensure a safe
sample Positive performance indicator checklist. This workplace fulfilling the
checklist was used to measure the compliance to the
safety observations in each site. level of safety.

ACHIEVE ZERO – Prevent incidents from occurring with proactive measures and
Prevent incidents from recurring with reactive measures.
No of unsafe No of unsafe Acts Repeated Violations/
No of
Sl Acts / Unsafe / Unsafe % Violations Not Complied
DESCRIPTION inspection
NO conditions conditions compliance (Action required from
conducted
observed complied with Area Office)

1 General inspection of site

2 Height Work Inspection

3 Electrical Safety Inspection

4 Behaviour based safety

5 Fire Extinguisher Inspection

6 Housekeeping Inspection

7 P&M Checking

Lifting tools & tackles


8 inspection

9 Power tools inspection

10 Safety items Stock Checking

11 Scaffolding Inspection

12 PPE inspection

13 First Aid Material Inspection

14 Hazardous materials Insp.

A Leading indicator is a metric of a proactive activity carried out to prevent


& control accidents, loss and damage i.e. it allows measurement of
activities specifically undertaken to improve performance. When
measured and monitored effectively, they provide data to enable effective
intervention to address or reverse a negative trend before it results in an
injury, damage or loss.

116
15. Accident Prevention – Sharing Experience
Accidents are unplanned occurrences that result in injuries, fatalities, loss of production (or)
damage to property & assets. Preventing injuries will be extremely difficult due to lack of
understanding of accident causes. There are many theories for prediction of accident causes.

Many researches were done to identify accident causes in countries namely Kuwait (Kartam &
Bouz, 1998), USA (Abdelhamid & Everett, 2000 & Toole, 2002); Uganda (Lubega et al, 2000);
Thailand (Pipitsupaphol & Watanbe, 2000) & Chine (Tam et al, 2004) to identify the causes of
accidents and the majority of the accident causes can be managed effectively by the following
elements of safety.

a. Developing SWP using Work-permit systems


b. Housekeeping
c. Ergonomics
d. Measuring Safety Performance using positive performance indicators
e. Investigating accident for Root Causes
f. Changing the attitude
g. Maintaining Zero energy state (LOTO)
h. Behaviour Based Safety

Instances of Practical application of Safety management practices to


prevent incidents in my career is discussed in this chapter.

The benefits of learning from accidents & utilizing accident/ incident


information are, however, RARELY APPLIED.
(Baram 1997, Brusberg et al 2002, Harms Ringdahl 2004)

Incidents are not due to lack of knowledge but due to failure to use the
knowledge we have.

117
15.1 Developing SWP for Operating Overlapping Multiple Tower Cranes

a. Tower Crane Accidents:

Collision of tower cranes may occur when two or more cranes overlap, any crane
crosses the site boundary or to a prohibited zone. An example of a collision is the
crane's hoisting hook block & cable collides with the main jib of the other crane.

Prohibited zone –
restricted zone
where almost all
cranes overlap.

b. Construction sites where Multiple Tower cranes are used

118
c. SWP for increasing the height of the Tower Crane by work permit system

There are standard permits available for erecting a tower crane available with the local
authority. When multiple tower cranes are used in close proximity such that the booms overlap,
it is a critical case where tower crane collisions can happen bringing down the tower cranes
killing people and damaging everything. The chance of accident - collision between the cranes
is high especially when the height clearance between the cranes is not provided as per the
standards. These accidents are nothing less than a major disaster. Even then many times risks
are taken and standards are violated. To control the violations and the risks taken it is better to
develop and follow a work permit system such that all factors affecting the crane stability and
safety of the tower crane like free standing height, clearances required etc are continuously
monitored to be within safe limits and under control.

Tower cranes positioned safely through a permit system

119
Tower Crane Jumping – Permit
Format No: SF/ PTW-06/_____

Date:

1. Location: 10. Crane Test details


2. Type:
3. Crane Operator: Sl. Date of Test Certificate
Agency
4. Date of Erection: No last test No Result
5. Type of Erection: Initial/ Height Increase
6. Wind Speed:
7. Tower Crane Parameters:
Sl. No Parameter In meters
11. Name of Crane Operator’s:
1. Crane Height

2. Jib Length
Name Crane Trained in
SOP
Free Standing Height
3.
Max.

No. of Ties reqd. for


4.
height in (1) 12. Additional Precautions:
a. Keep checking for wind speed and Stop
(Crane height from a reference point common to erection if wind speed exceeds 12m/s.
all cranes at site) b. Create No entry zone below the erection area
with barrication.
8. Crane height alteration details _______________________________
Height to be increased/ decreased Work in Charge:
Date & Time:
Height of the crane after alteration ___________________________________
No of ties required @ altered height
Approved for:

Height of Top wall tie

Free Standing height available Erection Operation

9. Check for clearance available above and below Reference Documents:


1. General plan of tower cranes.
the crane
2. Tower crane sectional elevation drawings.
3. Safe operating procedure (refer backside)
Safe to Use

Overlapping
Clearance
available
building

Crane’s/ building
Crane/

Height

Page 1 of 2
Above

Below

a. Clearance reqd. between overlapping cranes = 18 m

b. Minimum clearance above a building = 10 m

120
Safe Operating Procedures for Tower Crane:

SOP is required to be followed when the clearance between the underside of the jib of the
higher crane and the highest point on the lower tower crane is less than 18 m (60 feet).

The situations where this procedure is required to be followed is when the jib of the higher
tower crane passes over the
a. Operator’s cabin of the lower tower crane.
b. Jib of the lower tower crane.

As per the plan the External crane shall be positioned higher than the internal tower crane.

1. The Internal and External Tower Cranes shall spend minimum time in the area, when the
lateral clearance between booms of the tower cranes is close together by 3 meters.

2. The internal tower crane shall be most preferred for wall shuttering above the slab. In case
both the cranes are required to be used for wall shuttering works, one crane shall be put to
work in slab part 1 and the other crane in slab part 2.

3. When both the cranes are required to work in the same part of the slab (i.e.) slab part 1/ slab
part 2, a minimum distance of 6 m shall be maintained between the points of operation. When
operation is over the operators shall clearly communicate to each other the direction of
moving the crane.

4. When the external tower crane is required to lift any load above the internal tower crane, the
operator of the external tower crane shall inform the operator of the internal tower crane. The
internal tower crane operator shall move the boom away from the present position to a
different position where there is no interference between the crane booms.

5. The external tower crane operator shall not lift and pass any load directly under the operator’s
cabin of the internal tower crane. A clearance of 3m in all sides/ directions from the operator’s
cabin of the internal tower crane shall be maintained at all times when handling loads.

Page 2 of 2

121
15.2 Checking the Supports required for formwork

Location: Under Ground Tank Slab Works

Height from Bottom: 7.3-meter Total Pour Area: 41.5 * 20


= 830 M2

Weight of Concrete per M3 (Load) = 2.5 ton/ M3 (as per standard)

Actual Load:

Slab Thickness = 200 MM

Concrete Load/ M2 of bay for a thickness 0.2 M = 1 * 1 * 0.2 * 2.5 = 0.5 ton

Total Load: AL EMAR K-LOCK SCAFFOLDING & DECKING (This check is vital to know the number of supports and prevent
error during construction.)

Staging – Bay Dimensions 2.5 * 1.8 meter (minimum for Al Emar K-Lock type)

Area per bay 2.5 * 1.8 meter = 4.5 M2

Load of concrete/ bay Area of bay * Concrete load/M2 for 0.2 M thick = 4.5 * 0.5 = 2.25 ton/ bay

Total Dead load = 2.25 ton/ bay

Live load = 223 kg/ M2 * (200 kg/ M2 standard from Al EMAR Tables)

Total Load/ bay = Total Live load + Total Dead Load = = 2.25 + 1 ton = 3.25 ton/bay

*Live Load = 4 persons + 2 vibrator = 4 x 75 + 2 x 100 = 500 kgs

Factor of Safety = 2 (considered for slip form works)

Total live load = 2 * 500 = 1000 kgs for 4.5 M2

Hence Live Load per M2 = 1000/ 4.5 = 223 KG/ M2


From the Manufacturer’s Chart for K-Lock Scaffolding and Decking – For an Actual Working Load of 3.25 ton per bay, we select
scaffolding with a Bay Size of 2.50 x 1.80 M, with vertical Ledger spacing of1.5 M, Infill beam spacing (18 MM Plywood) MM, 610

For this type the standard SWL/ bay = 40KN = 4.1 Ton/ bay

As the Actual total load is less than the manufacturer's SWL it is rated Safe.
Total number of bays = Total pour area/ Area per bay = 830/ 4.5 = 184.4 = 185 bays
Total number of supports = 185 x 4 = 740 supports.
After Erection of scaffolding confirm the number of supports, connections, spacing between supports and
verticality of the supports.

Civil Engineer

122
15.3 Fall protection - Safety Net required during construction

Working Platform

1.2 m 1.2 m Safety net –


Outside silo
Safety net –
Inside silo Hanging Platform –
outside silo
Hanging Platform –
Inside silo

H
ID

OD

Number of nets required (All dimensions in M):

Inside portion : (ID - 2W) X 3.14/ length of safety net

Outside portion: (OD +2W) X 3.14/ length of safety net

(W – Width of Platform)

Width of net = Height between walkway of top platform to walkway of bottom platform.

Silo Type
Clinker Silo Cement Silo Homo Silo
Section

Outside of Silo 12/ silo 8/ silo 8/ silo

Inside of Silo 10/ silo 6/ silo 7/ silo

Total net/ Silo 22 14 15

Specification of fall protection safety nets: 10 m x 5 m x 25 mm mesh size

123
Total Number of Silos:

Sl. no Type of Silo Number of silo’s

1 Clinker Silo 2

2 Cement Silo 4

3 Homo Silo 1

- As per planning department, in the worst case a maximum of 3 silos will be under
construction. The construction programme is for 2 silos at a time.

Case 1: Construction of 1 Clinker silo and either 1 Homo silo/ 1 Cement silo

Total nets required for 2 silos = 1 x 22 + 1 x 15 + 1 spare = 38 nets

Case 2: Construction of 2 Clinker Silos at a time

Total nets required = 2 x 22 + 1 = 45 nets

Case 3: Construction of 3 silos at a time

Total nets required = 2 x 22 + 1 x 15 + 1 spare = 60 nets

_____________

Safety Engineer

124
15.4 Housekeeping – Sorting & Storing of Gas cylinders

Organization’s put in lot of efforts in housekeeping which is part of their fire prevention &
accident prevention programme. Improper housekeeping & material storage can create (or)
hide numerous hazards such as
• Slip & trip hazards
• Contact with sharp objects
• Overloading of storage shelves and bins
• Chemical exposure
• Fire & Explosion hazards
Fire & explosion hazards can be well managed when the items are sorted & stored as per their
combustible properties. The main housekeeping aspects concerned with storage of gas
cylinders are
a. Storage areas must be kept dry and well ventilated
b. Combustible materials, open flames (or) exposed electrical components are not permitted in
the flammable gas cylinder storage area.
c. Segregate flammable gas from oxidizing gas during storage i.e. oxygen and fuel gas cylinders
must be stored at a distance of 25-30 feet apart (or) separated by a fire wall with 2 hours rating.

During inspection in a workshop, it was observed that the fuel & gas cylinders are stored closer
than as allowed by the standards. Each cell is around 1 meter in length and is made of steel
framework.

Industrial LPG Domestic LPG Acetylene Argon Oxygen CO2 Nitrogen

Full Empty Full Empty Full Empty Full Empty Full Empty Full Empty Full Empty

3.3 ft

10 feet only (very unsafe)

The gas cylinders were rearranged and stored maintaining the required separation distance.

Flammable Gases Flammable Gases Inert Gases Inert Gases Oxygen


Full Empty Empty Full

Acety Indu Dom Acety Indu Dom Acety Indu Dom Acety Indu Dom
lene strial estic lene strial estic lene strial estic lene strial estic
LPG LPG LPG LPG LPG LPG LPG LPG

Full Full Full Empty Empty Empty Full Full Full Empty Empty Empty Empty Full

33 feet (Gas cylinders sorted by property and stored safely as per


standard (25 to 30 feet))

125
15.5 Ergonomics, A Fatigue reduction tool for Accident Prevention

Carrying – One person


The person usually lifts & places the gas cylinder over his shoulder and walks to the place
of work. The load is fully on the body and more energy is spent. Fatigue increases when it
is repeated. Explosion may result, when the cylinder slips to fall down damaging the
valve.

Load = 100 %, hence maximum effort is required

Fatigue = Maximum

Carrying – 2 persons
Two persons tie a pipe on both ends and carry it to their place of work.

The load is shared equally among the two, thus halving the energy spent by one. Carrying
cylinders below the hip level has less risk as compared with carrying over shoulders.

Load on the person = 50%, Hence, effort is halved.

Fatigue is halved.

Push/ Pull – 2 wheeled trolleys


The gas cylinders are placed in the trolleys, locked by chains and then pushed/ pulled to
the place of work.

The load will be on the trolley but the worker will feel the strain when pushing or pulling
the trolley to the workplace. Load will be on the workman only while tilting the trolley to
move or place it at the workplace.

Moving along steep slopes and rough surfaces involves certain degree of risk. However,
these gas trolleys can fall down if the worker loses grip while pushing/ pulling the trolley
or it is being hit by some moving object.

Load on person < 50%, Hence, effort < 50%; Fatigue < 50%.

Push/ Pull – 3 / 4 Wheeled trolleys


The gas cylinders are placed in the trolleys, locked by chains and then pushed/ pulled to
the place of work.

The load will be fully on the trolley, without strain on the workman. They put effort to push
or pull the trolley to the workplace.

Moving along steep slopes and rough surfaces involves certain degree of risk. Gas
cylinders can fall when loading/ unloading the trolley but not during use. There will be no
load on the workmen other than the energy spent to push/ pull the trolley.

Load on person = 0 %, Hence, effort = Minimum

Fatigue = Minimum

Using 3/4 wheeled trolleys proves to be the best way because of less fatigue and improved safety by
minimizing the risk of accidents while handling gas cylinders.

126
15.6 Regular review of work procedures
Work procedures must be regularly reviewed, especially whenever there is a change in job or
working conditions. The workplace and the job must be studies carefully and hazards must be
identified. Hazards are present everywhere and must be identified to manage it else we give it
chance to cause an accident. This makes a big difference as there are many hidden hazards in
the job.

When doing a job for the first time, a hazard analysis is done and later it is used for all kinds of
related work irrespective changes in the job characteristics and working conditions. New
hazards are not identified and the safety precautions applied for the previous work conditions
will be applied in the new conditions creating a GAP.

The incident shown in the photographs below can be used to demonstrate the need to review the
hazard identification done for a job. Though the incident is not a normal industrial activity, this
task has all the characteristics of an industrial activity.

Moreover, these kinds of innovative ideas used for teaching, promotes the interest to learn and
remember it for a long time.

A car has been parked along the edge of the road. By mistake the car fell over into water. A
crane was used to life the car. Due to poor planning of the lift operation, the crane along with
the car has collapsed and fallen into water. Then, a bigger was used to lift the car. The car was
lifted successfully. Oh fantastic! The same successful procedure was used to lift the drowned
crane.

But when lifting the crane, the lifting operation failed and both the cranes fell back into the water.
The job characteristic i.e. the object to be lifted has changed in size and weight, but the same
lifting process was followed without considering the change in parameters. The crane may be 5
to 10 times the weight of the car. If this has been considered before lifting the lifting operation
would not have failed when lifting the crane from water.

From this incident we can learn that

• One hazard analysis may not suit another job


• Do/ Review the hazard analysis every time, especially when there is a change in the job
characteristics & working conditions.
• Prior to execution, educate the workmen through pep-talk/ tool box meetings about the
hazards that can be expected when performing the job.

127
When parameters of the same job change

Review JSA everytime to ACHIEVE ZERO

128
15.7 Root cause analysis, an Accident Prevention tool
Accidents, property damage incidents, machinery breakdowns are some of the many unwanted
events that can in the workplace that can bring a mammoth financial loss to the organization.
These unwanted situations consume lot of resources and sometimes tends to happen in a
repeated fashion.

Investigations are done to find out the underlying By repeatedly asking the question
causes and suggest preventive actions to prevent ‘why?' you can peel away the layers
similar events in future. Often the recommendations of an issue, just like the layers of an
only treat the symptoms/warning signs (i.e.) the
onion, which can lead you to the
cause of the particular incident and conclude any of
the different forms of Human Error like root cause of an accident.
carelessness as the underlying accident cause. The
Asking why can lead to great
same human error can happen again with another
person replacing the accidentee and this continues. discoveries?
There are many tools for conducting accident
investigation to figure out the real cause of the Over generations, millions of
accident. When this real cause is dealt with properly, people have seen the apple fall but
similar incidents will not be repeated in future. This none knew or asked Why it falls
underlying cause is referred to as Root Cause down. When Newton saw it fall, he
Analysis, finding the real cause of the problem and
asked why and it led to the
dealing with it rather than simply continuing to deal
with the symptoms. discovery of the “gravitational
force” and Newton’s law of Gravity.
One of the simplest methods is to ask “Why?” five Asking why can lead to great
times. By repeatedly asking why 5 times, you can
discoveries.
peel away the layers of symptoms which can lead to
the root cause of the problem. TO ACHIEVE ZERO never hesitate to
Although this technique suggests asking “Why” five ask why?
times, it may be required to ask few or more times
than five before arriving at the root cause of the Root causes will be failures in the
problem. The following example demonstrates the management system.
process. An employee was not wearing safety glass
in the shop floor:

Why 1? Because he was not able to see properly


Why 2? Is there sufficient lighting? Yes, there is
Why 3? The glass is full of scratches and poorly visible
Why 4? Has he not changed the glass? The organization issues glass every 3 months and he has
taken the glass just 2 weeks before? Low quality of the glass is the issue.
Why 5? Purchase department has been instructed to go for low cost products as part of budgeting to
reduce expenses.

Hence the root cause of the problem is – Poor quality of safety glass. Sometimes we can arrive
at the root cause by asking why 2 or 3 times. In these cases, we should continue asking “Why?” to
avoid assumptions and logic traps.

129
15.8 Encouraging safe behaviors – BBS in action
As explained earlier, all the possible unsafe behaviors are listed out and a checklist is made.
Then observers are identified and trained to make observations. These observations are
analysed for their root cause and the required training in given along with positive or negative
reinforcement techniques to minimize unsafe behaviors.

It appears that by following a BBS program will make the workplace safe and free from
accidents. BBS is not a substitute for Safety & Hazard management programs. BBs must be used
to support the Hazard management programs to make the workplace safe.

Proper behavior is often achieved through BBS. For long term benefits this behavior change
must be aimed to change the attitude. This is because behavior (for the moment) comes from the
sub-conscious mind. Conscious mind is temporary and sub-conscious mind is permanent.
Hence for long term benefits, an attitude change is important if safe working practices are to be
internalized by operatives.

Research proves reinforcing safe behavior’s continuously, leads to a change in attitude because
if there is a mismatch between the ways we behave and our attitude it results in internal tension.
The easiest way to remove tensions is to change our attitudes.

A simple example to illustrate: Despite putting huge efforts to persuade for using seat belts the
results were not satisfactory. New laws were enforced and strictly followed meant that we have
to wear them – and after sometime few workers would feel comfortable driving around without
a seat belt.

Regular encouragement coupled with motivation & reinforcement makes safe behavior a habit
as unsafe behavior is within one’s control.

Everyone wants to maintain a good public image. Praising people in public gatherings, meetings
will bolster their image and is good compliment for a work done safely. These kinds of
appreciations expressed properly become an incentive for working safely and foster’s the
needed cooperation in following safe practices.

During toolbox talks, emphasize on the personnel and job gains for working safely. Always
stress on the gains that impress employees. Everyone has got their own career targets to
achieve like position, money and a lot to list. Working safely gets promotion (for ambitious man),
keeps his family safe (for family man) and boosts the reputation (for proud man). Awarding
deserving employees with catchy safety titles & certificates will bolster their image in turn
motivates all to demonstrate safe behavior. One such catchy title is “Hazard Knocker”.

Thorndike’s famous law of effect says “behavior that is rewarded increases”. It is a simple rule of
thumb worth keeping in mind when considering actions. A reward like a financial incentive, a
chance for promotion likewise with this certificate boosts their image to a star’s status. This
makes everyone eager to get the certificate of honor and used to encourage safe behaviors.
Sometimes public punishing is required to correct unsafe behavior.

Posting details of incidents with loss details will make everyone aware about the losses due to
unsafe behavior – “Learn from the experience of others”.

130
Higher management must always disapprove unsafe behaviors no matter how much cost or
time saved. Actions with positive results tend to be repeated and with negative results tend to be
avoided.

Encourage employees to participate in safety activities. One of the commonly used techniques is
the safety suggestion scheme. Praising and rewarding for good suggestions encourages
employees to follow safe behaviors.

Co-worker’s actions make everyone’s life safe

15.8.1 My experience in promoting safe behaviour at work


We can also use the movies & media to promote safety. Excerpts from movies can be used to
promote the concept of safety. Some parts of the movie show the situations and dialogues which
has an underlying safety concept. These kinds of dialogues must be identified and screened
when conducting safety promotional programmes. Movies with catchy dialogues are often
remembered and can be used to promote safety as done below.

In a safety drama, some scenes from famous Bollywood block buster Hindi movie – "HUMRAAZ"
was enacted as drama for workmen to understand how hazards multiply – One hazard leads to
another, to promote the importance of eliminating hazards to ACHIEVE ZERO. One man taking
risk will certainly affect others. In Humrazz, the comedian, Johnny Lever explains in a comic
way how a simple act like smoking or spilling tea, can create havoc throughout the city, with a big
hungama.
Akin to this, another dialogue from the Bollywood movie, "Faisla - The Decision" (cast by Bobby
Deol & Amisha Patel) can be used during toolbox talks. Kabir bedi in villain role often quotes a
dialogue "loog kahan sochana bandh karthey hai, main vahan se soochana shuru kartha hoon"

131
– the dialogue means the "hazard" (villain) starts striking from the point where people stop
implementing safety precautions for accident prevention. Isn't this analogous with the Safety
thought - "Accidents start where Safety ends".
In the advertisement telecast in Indian TV channels for Krack Cream, when the mother advises
her daughter to use the Krack cream to avoid cracks causing pain in the feet, the daughter
caringly tells her mum that pain is for you mother caused by cracks in her feet. She alerts her
mum – you know everything, even then failed to take preventive action. Isn't this analogous with

"TO ACHIEVE ZERO knowing about safety is not enough,

It needs Action from everyone to ACHIEVE ZERO."

Often, to catch up the backlogs in construction schedules safety procedures are overlooked. Just
worrying about the backlog of the construction schedules doesn't empty the sorrows of
tomorrow loss in production but it certainly empties the strength of achieving the task in hand
today as working safely means you are planning perfectly with the approved 4M's required to do
the job. It must also be insisted to eliminate all false protection provided at work places. This can
be widely observed in construction sites particularly in the use of ACCESS requiring attention
round the clock as it is the basic requirement for doing work safely to ACHIEVE ZERO. Providing
unsafe handrails particularly made of packing timber/ wood or plywood and improper access at
workplaces indirectly invokes a workman to take shortcuts and violate safety rules. Proper
access ensures safe work while improving the work output making working a pleasure.

Author acting in a safety drama, Substation project @


Juayamah Saudi Arabia to explain the concept

"Hazards Multiply

Fast if not

Knocked out in time."

– “Jaldi Faisla Karo"


(means Decide fast) to
ACHIEVE ZERO

Toolbox talks by the Author @ Diplomat Hotel


site, Bahrain elaborating

"Knowing about safety is


not enough, safe action is a
must from everyone to
ACHIEVE ZERO.

132
15.9 Pareto Analysis, Analyze the trend in violations
Work safety observations must be analyzed to spot the recurring unsafe practices occurring in
the workplace. With this data the workmen can be trained suitably & our efforts can be directed
more towards the prominent hazards prevailing in the workplace.

CONSOLIDATED SAFETY LOG/ CONCERN/ OBSERVATION

Sr. Priority Concern/ Corrective Action/ Due


Location Date Hazard Type Status
No. Rating Observation Recommendation Date

Note: The higher the priority rating, the higher the risk or hazard A=High D=Low

“Hazard Type” is the classification of unsafe act or unsafe condition observed (refer sec.4.3).
Analysing observations over a period of time we can identify the trend in types of hazards
dominant in the work place and violations recurring with the workmen.

Lot of accident data is available with which we can determine what has been accomplished and
what further action must be put to increase the effectiveness of work to prevent accidents.

Pareto’s law: “The vital few and the trivial many” - a small Pareto Analysis is an ideal
proportion of causes produce a large proportion of results.
Thus, frequently a vital few causes may need special
way to prioritize which
attention while the trivial many may warrant very little. problems we have to deal
Vilfredo Pareto is an Italian economist and sociologist, who first & where to focus for
after analyzing the wealth distribution in Italy proposed the
rule – 80% of the country’s (Italy) wealth are owned by 20%
action, so that areas creating
of the people and the balance 20% of the country’s wealth is most of the issues and
owned by 80% of the people. difficulties are addressed
Pareto analysis is a ranking method that can be used to first.
determine the major areas on which the efforts must be
concentrated to improve safety performance. This is based Before solving problems
only on past data that identifies the most important items identify the vital few issues
among many using the thumb rule - 80-20, which states that
about 80% of the problems are produced by about 20% of the
which when addressed will
causes and 80% of problems could be resolved by dealing solve the recurring problems
with 20% of the causes. (Trivial many problems can be (or) the most important
solved by managing vital few causes. A vital few
improvements can produce the bulk of the results.)
problem to solve.

133
Similarly, a vital few accidents cause the bulk of losses - “20% of the accidents account for 80%
of the losses & balance 80% of accidents account for 20% of the losses”. The results of thinking
along Pareto lines are immense. For example, we may have a lot of shop floor accidents, a high
percentage of rejects, and a sudden increase in costs etc. The first stage is to carry out a Pareto
analysis. This is nothing more than a list of causes in descending order of their frequency or
occurrence. This list automatically reveals the vital few at the top of the list, gradually tailing off
into the trivial many at the bottom of the list.

Our task is now clear and unavoidable - effort must be expended on those vital few at the head
of the list first. This is because nothing of importance can take place unless it affects the vital
few. Thus, our attention is unavoidably focussed where it will do the most good. It is a creative
way of looking into problem causatives & stimulates thinking about the prominent hazards, as
it keeps varying for one industry to another.

“Managers are the key to establish a successful safety culture where


everyone values safety highly as productivity and ACHIEVE ZERO”

134
A Treaty with Safety
To ensure Cent Per Cent Sanctity of Safety,
At Workplace, Consciously, let us make this Treaty.

Studiously Keep the Work-Spot vicinity,


Litter-free, accessible, clean and tidy.

When handling accessories and Tools hefty,


Take all the precautions and avoid being hasty.

While using Wire Ropes, carefully study,


If it is sufficiently weight-worthy & sturdy.

Accidents don’t befall; they result from laxity,


In observing Safety Rules strictly while on Duty.

Do not be careless when gauging the gravity,


Of the Work on hand and devising your strategy.

While using sensitive explosives like TNT,


Your diligence can prevent a situation nasty.

Periodic checks on Chains & Pulleys a necessity!


Don’t ever Over - look; beware its Warranty.

Use Warning Tapes To cordon off deep trenches' entry,


Enforce wearing PPE at Work - Spot, as its Sentry.

Swear by Your Commitment, as a Soldier of Safety,


To realize an Environment of a Safer Society.

K. LAKSHMANAN

135
Hazard Knockers manage risks using
 

TRICK
TRAINING
RECOGNITION
 

 
INSPECTION
 

 
CORRECTIVE ACTION
 
KNOWLEDGE SHARING
&S

Achieve Zero
 

INCIDENTS
INJURIES
ILLNESSES

Hareekirishnan LRK