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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D.

Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

Hydraulic Lift Proof:


• A hydraulic lift uses Pascal's principle. Hydraulic lift is • As shown in Fig., consider a body of height h lying inside
used to raise heavy loads such as car. It contains of two -section of the body is
vertical cylinders A and B of different cross sectional A. The forces on the sides of the body cancel out.
areas A and A . Pistons are fitted in both the cylinders as • There are two vertical forces due to pressures:
1 2
shown in fig. The upward force from the
• A small force is applied F to a small piston of area A pressure P on the bottom surface:
1 1 2 F1
and cause a pressure increase on the fluid. F =PA P1
• According to Pascal’s Law this increase in pressure P is 2 2

transmitted to the larger piston of area A and the fluid The downward force from the
2 P2
exerts a force F on this piston. pressure P on the top surface:
2 1
• Thus, from Pascal’s Law F1 F2 mg
A2 F =PA
A1 1 1
P = F /A = F / A • The resultant force (F2 – F1) is acting on the body in the
1 1 2 2 F2
upward direction and is called upthrust or buoyant force
F = F (A / A )
2 1 2 1
(B).
• Thus if A >>A , even a small force F is able to generate B = F2 – F1 = P A – P A = (P –P )A = h gA
2 1 1 2 1 2 1
a large force F which can raise the load. ( P2 – P1 = gh)
2
• But Ah = V, the volume of the body = volume of liquid
displaced
Buoyant Force
B = V g = Mg
• When an object is fully or partially submersed in a fluid, ( M=V
the surrounding fluid exerts a net upward force which is i.e., upthrust or buoyant force= Weight of liquid displaced
known as the buoyant force or upthrust.
• This proves the Archimedes’ principle.
• It is easier to lift a bucket immersed in water because of
buoyant force.
• NOTE:
Law of floatation
1. The buoyant force comes from the pressure exerted on
the object by the surrounding fluid. • Consider an object of volume V and density floating
solid
2. When showing F.B.D., we need to show either buoyant in a liquid of density . Let V be the volume of
force in the upward direction or forces due to pressure. liquid im

We never show both buoyant force and forces due to object immersed in the liquid. For equilibrium of the
pressure in the same F.B.D. object,
Weight = upthrust
V g=V g
solid im liquid
Archimedes Principle
(Buoyant Forces ) Vim solid

• Archimedes' Principle states that a body which is V liquid


completely or partially submerged in a fluid experiences a
net upward force called the buoyant force, B , which is • This is the fraction of volume immersed in liquid.
equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by • Three possibilities may arise:
the object. Thus,
Buoyant force = weight of the displaced liquid i. < : Body is partially submerged in liquid.
solid liquid
The fraction submerged is given by the relation
B=V g (Buoyant force)
Vim
im liquid solid

V liquid
where,
B = magnitude of Buoyant force ii. = : Body is completely submerged in
solid liquid

V = volume of displaced liquid = immersed volume of liquid. Body remains floating in liquid.
im
solid iii. > : Body will sink in liquid.
solid liquid
= density of liquid
liquid
Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

Apparent Weight Fluids in Motion


• All fluid flow is classified into one of two broad
• If an object is placed inside a fluid then,
categories or regimes. These two flow regimes are
Apparent weight = (Actual weight) – (Buoyant force)
laminar flow and turbulent flow.
• Laminar Flow: Laminar flow is also referred to as
Buoyant Force in Accelerating Fluids streamline or viscous flow or steady flow. When a liquid
flows such that each particle of the passing a given point
• Suppose a body is dipped inside a liquid of density
liquid moves along the same path and has the same velocity as
placed in an elevator moving with an acceleration a. The its predecessor, the flow is called streamline flow or
buoyant force F in this case becomes, steady flow.
• Streamline: A streamline may be defined as the path, the
F V im liquid g eff tangent to which at any point gives the direction of the
flow of liquid at that point.
Here, g eff g a • Tube of flow. A bundle of streamline forming a tubular
region is called a tube of flow.
• Concept of g eff is explained in chapter Simple Harmonic
Tube of flow
Motion.
• For example, if the lift is moving upwards with an
acceleration a, the value of g eff is g + a and if it is moving streamlines
downwards with acceleration a, the g eff is g – a. In a • Turbulent Flow: Turbulent flow is characterized by the
freely falling lift g eff is zero (as a = g ) and hence, net irregular movement of particles of the fluid. The particles
travel in irregular paths with no observable pattern and no
buoyant force is zero. This is why, in a freely falling
definite layers.
vessel filled with some liquid, the air bubbles do not rise
up ( which otherwise move up due to buoyant force ). • Critical velocity. The critical velocity of a liquid is that
limiting (maximum) value of its velocity of flow upto
which the flow is streamlined and above which the flow
becomes turbulent.
Space for notes:
Reynolds Number
• The Reynolds number is a dimensionless number
comprised of the physical characteristics of the flow. The
flow regime (either laminar or turbulent) is determined by
evaluating the Reynolds number of the flow .
• The Reynolds number for fluid flow is given by
vD
Re (Reynolds number)

where
Re = Reynolds number (dimensionless; have not any unit)
v = average velocity
D = diameter of pipe
= viscosity of fluid (to be studied later)
= fluid density
• Important point to note about Reynolds number:
i. For practical purposes (as per NCERT), if the
Reynolds number is less than 1000, the flow is
laminar. If it is greater than 2000, the flow is
turbulent.
ii. Flows with Reynolds numbers between 1000 and
2000 are sometimes referred to as unsteady flows.
iii. Re represents the ratio of inertial force (force due to
inertia i.e. mass of moving fluid or due to inertia of
obstacle in its path) to viscous force.
Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

Equation of Continuity Proof of Bernoulli’s Principle


• Equation of continuity states that total mass of fluids • One end of the pipe is horizontal at a height h1 above
going into the tube through any cross-section should be some reference level and has uniform cross-sectional area
equal to the total mass coming out of the same tube from A up to some length. The other end is at a height h2 from
any other cross section in the same time. The continuity 1

equation results from conservation of mass. the reference level and has uniform cross-sectional area
A.
• Let us consider mass is entering with speed v at left end 2
1
and flowing out with speed v . • Now consider the portion of fluid shown by shaded
2 volume as the system. Suppose the system of fluid gets
v1 v2 displaced from the position1 shown in figure to that in
A2 position 2 in a small time interval.
A1 • Now, we shall find out the work done by different forces
to use Work-Kinetic Energy theorem.
• Clearly, in a time interval t, mass entering
= (mass per unit time) time = A v t. • Here four forces are acting on the system. Normal force
1 1 from wall, force P A on left portion, force P A on right
(Hint: mass = V= Al 1 1 2 2
portion and force of gravity mg.
Hence, mass per unit time = m/t = A l/t = Av) x1
• And, in same time interval t, mass leaving
= (mass per unit time) time P1 v1
P1 A1 x2
= Av t A1
2 2

• Hence, from conservation of mass we have, v2 P2


A v t= A v t h1
1 1 2 2
A2 P1 A1
Av =Av (Equation of Continuity) h2
1 1 2 2 Reference level
• The product of the area of cross section and the speed
remains the same at all points of a tube of flow. This is • Work done W by normal force from the walls:
N
called the “equation of continuity” and expresses the law W =0 …(i)
N
of conservation of mass in fluid dynamics.
(because normal force is perpendicular to motion of fluid)
• Work done W1 by force P1A1 at the left end:
Bernoulli’s Principle W = force × displacement = P A x …(ii)
1 1 1 1
• Bernoulli’s Principle relates the speed of a fluid at a point
the pressure at that point and the height of that point • Work done W2 by force P2A2 at the right end:
above a reference level. It is just the application of work- W = force × displacement = - P A x …(iii)
2 2 2 2
energy theorem in the case of fluid flow. (negative sign because force P2A2 & x2 are
• We here consider the case of irrotational and steady flow
in opposite directions)
of an incompressible and non viscous liquid.
• Bernoulli’s Principle states that the sum of pressure • The work done on the system W3, by the gravitational
energy per unit volume, kinetic energy per unit force mg:
volume and potential energy per unit volume of an W = force × displacement = mg (h - h ) …(iv)
g 1 2
incompressible, non-viscous fluid in a streamlined
irrotational flow remains constant along a streamline. • the total work done on the system, by using Work- KE
Mathematically, theorem, we have:
1 2 W = KE
T
p v gh constant 2 2
2 W + W + W + W = ½ mv – ½ mv
N 1 2 g 2 1
1 2 1 2 2 2
p1 v1 gh1 p2 v2 gh2 P A x – P A x + mg(h – h ) = ½ mv – ½ mv
2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1
…(v)