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Case 1

a) Power generation, transmission and distribution system (, 2018)

Figure 1.1.1: Power generation, transmission and distribution system (,


As the figure shown above, the power system is divided into several systems which
are power generation, transmission and distribution. Each section plays an
important role in the power system to ensure the power supplies are delivered to the
consumers efficiently and successfully.

In the power generation system, the electricity is generated from the bulk with
several methods and various kinds of power plant. The electricity produced from
the bulk will be delivered to the consumers through the transmission systems and
distributor systems. Generally, the methods and the kind of power plant used for

generating power is depending on the sources. Basically, the sources is divided into
two types which are renewable source and non-renewable source. The renewable
source is a reusable energy that can obtained from the nature such as solar, tidal,
wind, thermal and hydroelectric energies. For the non-renewable is referred to the
energy sources (fossil fuel) that depleting in nature and can be obtained in large
amount from the underground of the earth such as fuel, coal, nuclear substances,
natural gas, etc. In Malaysia, the hydroelectric power plant and thermal power plant
are widely used for generating power (TNB Better. Brighter., 2018). The power
produced by the thermal power plant can achieve 275 kV to 500 kV, whereas the
hydroelectric power plant can produce 66 kV to 133 kV (TNB Better. Brighter.,
2018). In the power plants consist of some important equipment that used in almost
all of the power plant which are turbine, generator, cooling system, transformer,
transmission line, bus bars, circuit breaker and isolator.

Figure 1.1.2: Hydroelectric power plant and thermal power plant (TNB Better.
Brighter., 2018)

The transmission system is a connecting link between the power stations and the
distributors. It is responsible to deliver the high voltage power form the power
stations to the consumers. It is divided into primary transmission (220 kV to 500
kV) and secondary transmission (33 kV). The power will be transmitted to
consumers through overhead system and underground system. The transmission
system is categorized into 4 types which are largest type (500 kV, 522 km), large
type (275 kV, 73 km), medium type (275 kV) and small type (33 kV). In this system,
several equipment is used such as cables (3 phase 3 line) and tower (concrete or

Figure 1.1.3: Largest type of transmission line with 522 km length and 500 kV
transmitting capacity

Figure 1.1.4: Medium type of transmission line with 275 kV transmitting capacity

The power from the transmission lines will be distributed by the distribution system
to the receiving points. The distribution system distributes the voltage through
different volt of distribution lines. The distribution lines include 33 kV, 22 kV, 11
kV, 6.6 kV and 415/240 V. Different volt of distribution lines are connected to
different receiving points which the receiving points consume different value of
voltages. In the distribution system, some equipment are needed such as substation,
feeder, distributor and service main.

In the end, the power will be delivered from the distribution system to the
consumers. The consumers can be categorized into industrial consumers and
residential consumers. The industrial consumers will receive the power from
primary transmission line (4000 V) and secondary transmission line (440 V)
respectively. Thus, the residential consumers receive about 240 V from the
distributors. In this part, the receiving point consists of meter, conductor, MCB, etc.

The substations are used to switch the lines in and out of the system. They are also
used to step down and step up the power between the transmission lines and the
consumers, convert the A.C. into D.C. or D.C. into A.C (, 2018). The
components involved in the system are circuit breaker, insulator, switchers,
converter, fuses, lightning arrestors, transformers, meters, rectifier, relay, bus bar,

Figure 1.1.5: Structure of typical Substation (, 2018)

A step up or step down transformer substation is built to step up and step down the
power delivered between power station and consumers (, 2018). The
power will be step up from 11 kV to 220 kV and from 220 kV to 4000/400/230 V.
In this substation, several important equipment are used such as transformer,
transmission bus, circuit breaker, etc. The transmission bus is a device that used to
distribute the power into 2 or 3 transmission lines (normally in 3 lines). The circuit
breakers are installed in between the transmission line and the substation for
controlling the power transmission (, 2018).

Distribution substations are placed near to the end-users (, 2018). This
substation consists of a transformer to change voltage from the transmission lines
to lower value that suitable used by the end users (, 2018). The value of
the voltages are 4000 V, 440 V and 230 V (, 2018). This substation is
connected with 4 lines which are 3 phase 3 lines and neutral line.

b) Classification of distribution system
 Nature of current
A.C. distribution system – Alternating current distribution system is widely
used in the power transmission because the magnitude of the A.C. can be
changed easily by using transformer. A.C. distribution system is classified into
primary distribution system and secondary distribution system.

The primary distribution system is carried out by 3 phase, 3 wire system and the
voltages can carried by the primary distribution are 11 kV, 6.6 kV and 3.3 kV.
Generally, primary distribution is used to transmit the power in long distance
from the power station to the substations or big consumers.

Figure 1.2.1: Primary distribution system

The secondary distribution system is carried out with 4 wire system and can
carry 400/230 V from the substation to the consumer destination. The primary
distribution delivers power to the substation through the step-down transformer.
The voltage between 2 phases is 400 V and between any one of the phase with
neutral is 230 V.

Figure 1.2.2: Secondary distribution system

D.C. distribution system – In this system, the A.C. power is converted into
D.C. power at the substation for special purpose. The D.C. power can be
obtained into 2 wire form and 3 wire form. The 2 wire circuit consists of the 2
wires which are positive wire and negative wire. The load is connected to the 2
wire circuit in parallel between 2 wires. The 3 wires circuit consists of 2 outer
wires and a neutral wire. The voltage of between 2 outer wires is twice the
voltage between an outer wire and a neutral wire.

Figure 1.2.3: 2 wire and 3 wire D.C. distribution system

 Type of construction
Underground system – this system is developed to install the transmission
cable at underground. The transmission cable is insulated with outer protective
covering as shown in figure. The outer protective covering are including
perforated metal shielding, sheath, tape covering and filter. The ducts and
manholes may be installed underground with the cables as shown in figure.
Temporary supports and permanent supports are used to fix the cable at a
position and support them.

Figure 1.2.4. The cable used in underground distribution system

Figure 1.2.5: The conduit of underground distribution system

Overhead system – The overhead system is built to hold and support the
transmission line on the surface of earth. The cables is hold with a pole which
is made by wood, steel or concrete (, 2018). There are several
components mounted on the poles as shown in the figure. The components are
including fuse, lightning arrester, bushing, step down transformer, and neutral
conductor (, 2018). The lightning arrester is used to block the
lightning from damaging the overhead system. A bushing is used to block and
reduce the electrical stresses in the insulating material. The step down
transformer is playing an important role in the transmission line to step down
the voltage from 11 kV into 240 V.

Figure 1.2.6: The overhead distribution system (, 2018)

 Scheme of connection
Radial system – The feeders radiate are separated with a substation. The radial
distribution system distributes the power from a substation to a number of
distributor through a feeder only. This system is supplied with one main power
supply. All the distributors will face the power loss issue if that is any
interruption of feeder. This system is very cheap and can be built easily but it is
only can be used for short distances. The line connected from the substation is
primary feeder (OC) and the line connected between the primary feeder and
distributor is known as secondary feeder (AB) (Distribution, 2018). In figure,
this system is categorized into D.C. distribution and A.C. distribution. In D.C
distribution, the distributor is directly received the power from the substation.
Thus, a step down transformer is used in the A.C distribution system to step
down the power into 11 kV/400V, 230V.

Figure 1.2.7: Diagram of radial distribution system

Figure 1.2.8: D.C. and A.C. radial distribution system (Distribution, 2018)

Ring main system – This system transfers the power from the substation to the
distributors through a main feeder which is in a loop form. The secondary feeder
and the distributor are connected to the loop. The loop circuit will be started
from the substation, loops through the area need to be served and returns to the
substation. This system is used to transfer A.C. power. In this system, the power
can be fed in both direction so the consumers does not facing any power loss
issues when either one side of the loop circuit is interrupted. In figure shown
the schematic diagram of ring system, a loop circuit is designed, a substation is
connected to the loop circuit for supplying power supply, others distributors are
connected to the loop circuit on the other sides for receiving power supply
(Distribution, 2018). Generally, a number of isolators are connected in the main
feeder (loop circuit) for shutting down the faulty part. When one side is shut
down, the other side still can supply the power to the other distributors
(Distribution, 2018).

Figure 1.2.9: Diagram of ring distribution system

Figure 1.2.10: Ring distribution system (Distribution, 2018)

Interconnected system – This system can be known as network system. This
system is supplied with 2 and above power supplies for ensuring the consumers
are supplied with alternating power (Distribution, 2018). The network system is
built with the combination of radial system and ring system. The primary feeder
is built in ring form and the secondary feeder could be built in ring system or
radial form. This system is almost similar to the ring system. This system is
more reliable and flexible compares to ring and radial systems. This system can
supply 1000 to 4000 kV.

Figure 1.2.11: Diagram of interconnected distribution system

Figure 1.2.12: Interconnected distribution system (Distribution, 2018)

c) Merits of overhead power lines
 The initial cost of the overhead system is cheaper than the underground system.
 It is very easy to detect the fault location and repair the fault in the line since
overhead system is visible and easily accessible.
 The flexibility of overhead system is greater than underground system because
any change in the construction of overhead system can be easily made.

Case 2

a) 2 types of condenser
 Jet Condenser

Jet condenser is a direct type of condenser which is directly sprinkling the

coolant into the steam (, 2018). This method can cool down the
hot steam quickly and efficiently. The cooled water cannot be reused due to the
water is mixed with the coolant. The excessive air will be absorbed to outside
with the atmosphere pressure. The used coolant will flow to the bottom of the
chamber and flow back to the condenser.

Figure 2.1.1: The structure of jet condenser

 Surface Condenser

This condensing method is commonly used in all thermal power plant which
indirectly cools down the hot steam. The coolant is transferred from the
condenser to the destination through the tubes. The hot steam will be cooled
down when pass through the tube due to the surface of the tube is cooled
(, 2018). The coolant circulates continuously around the
chamber to convert the steam into water.

Figure 2.1.2: The structure of surface condenser (, 2018)

 Two drawbacks of this thermal power plant (Mechanical-engineering-, 2018)
o Thermal power plant cause air pollution issues to environment by producing
fume (using fossil fuel as source) and also cause geology disaster caused by
digging the ground for installing equipment.
o The operation cost is considerably high compared with other non-
conventional source of power plant because it needs qualified personnel and
workers to operate the power plant.

b) Structure of Pelton wheel power house

The hydroelectric power is depended on the kinetic energy of the flowing water to
drive the turbine at the power house to turn the generator. The turbine of the
hydroelectric power plant is classified into two types which are reaction type and
impulse type. Pelton wheel power house is the impulse type (, 2018).
The Pelton wheel turbine is turned by the water at high velocity. The water flow
from the dam through the penstock and the nozzle and form the high velocity of
water. The high velocity water is pumped and jet at the wheel (turbine).

Figure 2.2.1: The structure of Pelton wheel house

Pelton wheel is an impulse turbine mounted on the horizontal shaft of the plant. On
the periphery of wheel is mounted with a number of buckets (Electrical Theory and
Practice Tests, 2018). The high velocity water jets on the bucket directly through
the nozzle (Electrical Theory and Practice Tests, 2018). The water jet after
imprinting on the buckets is deflected through an angle of 160o and flows axially in
both the directions thus avoiding the axial thrust on the wheel (Electrical Theory
and Practice Tests, 2018). An additional nozzle is built at opposite above the wheel
which is brake nozzle. The brake nozzle will jet out the water to slow down or stop
the spinning of the wheel. The efficiency of the Pelton wheel can be achieved about
95 % (Electrical Theory and Practice Tests, 2018). The impulse turbine able to
achieve the maximum efficiency when the velocity of the spinning wheel is slightly
under half the jet velocity. The diameter of the wheel should be as small as possible
for achieving maximum speed of rotation.

c) Main parts of a nuclear reactor and reactor control
 Control rod
It is used to keep the fission process at the desired level within a nuclear reactor.
The rod is made of neutron absorbing material such as boron, hafnium,
cadmium, etc. The control rod absorbs the neutrons surrounding it to prevent
the neutrons from further fissions (Nuclear Power, 2018).

Figure 2.3.1: The control rod (Nuclear Power, 2018)

 Moderator
It is used to slow down the fission process of the nuclear reactor. The moderator
is made of low-mass number material. The probability of the fission Uranium
will be increased at the thermal energies of slow neutrons (Nuclear Power,

Figure 2.3.2: The moderator (Nuclear Power, 2018)

d) Advantages of thermal power plant (Anon, 2018)
 The thermal energy power plant can be built with small space.
 The thermal energy power plant can be built and used in every country because
the sources used for producing heat energy is very general and abundant and
can be obtained easily.

Case 3

a) Renewable source of energy (, 2018)

 Geothermal
 Hydropower
 Wind energy
 Solar energy

Non-renewable source of energy (, 2018)

 Nuclear energy
 Biomass energy
 Coal
 Natural gas

b) Layout and the component of MHD power generation (Modelling of a combustible

ionised gas in thermal power plants using MHD conversion system in South Africa,

Magneto hydrodynamic system (MHD) was discovered by Michael Faraday and

developed by Ritchie later. In this system, conductive fluid is used to produce
electrical energy by passing through a strong magnetic field. The fluid is sprayed
from the combustion chamber through the nozzle at high velocity. The fluid passes
through the nozzle to the MHD duct, the fluid is ionized by the strong magnetic
field. The positive and negative ions of the ionized fluid are attracted and collected
by the electrodes that placed at 90 ° to the induced magnetic field. Then, an electric
current is produced from the electrodes. The MHD system is subdivided into 2 types
which are open-cycle system and closed cycle system.

Figure 3.2.1: The structure of MHD power plant

 Combustion chamber
The combustion chamber is used to burn the fuel at the temperature of about
2300 – 2700 °C for producing the hot gas or hot steam. The hot gas is injected
with small amount of ionized potassium carbonate inside the combustion
chamber to increase the conductivity of conductive fluid.

 Nozzle
It is used to increase the velocity of the conductive fluid about 1000 m/s before
entering to the MHD duct.

 Electrode
The electrodes are placed inside the duct with 90° to the magnets to attract the
ionized ion of the conductive fluid to produce electrical energy (D.C.).

 Magnet
The magnets are placed outside and along with the MHD duct to create strong
magnetic fields for ionizing the ion of fluid.

 Inverter
The inverter is used to convert the direct current from the electrodes into
alternating current and transfer to the consumers.

 MHD topping unit

MHD topping unit or MHD duct is a chamber used to ionize the conductive
fluid when the fluid is pumped from the nozzle. The duct consists of a number
of electrodes to attract the ionized ions to produce direct current.

 Heat recovery steam generator

The exhausted steam discharged from the duct will be reheat by using the heat
recovery steam generator that can be used for steam turbine.

 Seed recovery chamber

This chamber is built to separate the ionized material and recycled back into the
combustor. The removal of the ionized material is done by using the sulphur
and nitrogen.

c) Layout and the component of concentrating solar power plant.

Figure 3.3.1: The structure of concentrating solar power plant

Concentrating solar power plant is one kind of the solar plant which is reflecting and
concentrating the sunray at a point by using reflectors to produce high temperature of
heat energy and converting the heat energy into mechanical energy and into electrical
energy eventually. The concentrating solar power plant is developed into several
methods of receiving the sunray efficiently by modifying the designs of sunray receiver
part into different patterns such as parabolic trough method, Heliostats method, solar
dish method and linear Fresnel method. Generally, all types method of concentrating
solar power plant involve reflecting the sunlight onto a concentrate point (receiver) to
heat up the heat transfer material contained inside the receiver. The heat transfer
material is expanded and pumped to the heat storage for producing the steam to drive
the steam turbine. The heat transfer material, commonly synthetic oil or molten salt. A
water feeding system is employed to cool down the hot steam at steam turbine and cool
down the temperature of receiver.

 Mirrors
They are used to reflect the sunlight onto a focal point to heat up the heat transfer
material. Basically, the mirrors are set up according to the design of the
concentrating solar power plant which have different arrangement respect to
different design.

 Receiver
It is a focal point which is made of metallic material for transferring the temperature
of sunlight to the heat transfer material. Normally, it connected with the cooling
system and heat transfer system.

 Steam drum
It is a storage to store the boiling liquid. It receives the heat energy from the heat
transfer material to heat up or boil the water to produce hot steam. The hot steam
will be expanded and transferred to the steam turbine.

 Steam turbine
The turbine will be driven and turned when the steam pass through the turbine blade.
The turbine is mounted with the shaft of the generator for driving the generator. In
this section, the mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.

 Generator
Driven by the turbine with the same shaft mounted on turbine. Using the mechanical
energy to produce electrical energy and transfer to the consumer through
transmission line.

 Steam condenser
Feeds the water to the receiver and steam turbine for cooling purpose and reheating


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