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UCSD Extension

What are the objectives of Lecture 8?


– Slot Antenna
– Equivalence Principle: Huygen’s Principle
• Babinet’s Principle
• Radiation Pattern
• Impedance
– Microstrip Antenna
• Advantages and Disadvantages
• Equivalent Model
• Field and Current Distribution
• How to Feed Patch Antenna
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• What is a Slot Antenna?
– The slot antenna consists of a radiator formed by cutting a narrow slot in a
large metal surface.
– The slot antenna is compared to its complementary dipole to illustrate that
the radiation patterns produced by a slot antenna cut into an infinitely large
metal sheet and that of the complementary dipole antenna are the same.
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• Equivalence Principle: Huygen’s Principle
– Each point on a primary wavefront can be considered to be a new source of
a secondary spherical wave and that a secondary wavefront can be
constructed as the envelope of these secondary spherical waves.
– The equivalent secondary source can be obtained by

Equivalence
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• Equivalence Principle: Huygen’s Principle
– It can be anything inside the object boundary, as long as we keep
the outside field (E1, H1) same. Even for PEC or PMC inside.
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• Equivalence Principle: Huygen’s Principle
– For a slot antenna, an equivalent magnetic source is:
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• Radiation Pattern for Slot Antenna
– As the Dual Theory, slot antenna can be seen as a magnetic dipole,
then, get Vector Potential and Magnetic Field.
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Babinet’s Principle:
When the field behind a screen with
an opening is added to the field of a
complementary structure, the sum is
equal to the field when there is no
screen.
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• Radiation Impedance for Slot Antenna
– If a screen and its complement are immersed in a medium with an
intrinsic impedance η and have terminal impedances of Zs and Zc,
respectively, the impedances are related by

– For a half-wavelength thin slot on a electric screen


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• Difference from a real magnetic source (loop)?

Magnetic Dipole Slot Antenna


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• What is a Patch Antenna?
– Patch antenna is consisted of a thin metal plate separated from a
ground plane by dielectrics substrate at fractional wavelength
– Advantage: Size, Weight, Cost, Low-Profile
– Disadvantage: Low Efficiency, Low Power, High Q, Poor Polarization
Purity.
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• Equivalent Model for Patch Antenna?
– Electric field distribution and equivalent magnetic source.

Equivalence

Magnetic Dipole Array


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• Field Configuration
– Waveguide theory, resonant frequency is given by

– The mode with the lowest order resonant frequency is referred to


as the dominant mode.
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• Radiation Pattern for Patch Antenna
– Radiation slots and non-radiation slots

Non-radiation
Slot

Radiation Slot

– Equivalent to two magnetic dipole (z-oriented, length of W) array,


separated by a distance of L (along y-axis).
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• Radiation Pattern for Patch Antenna
– For a very small heights (k0h«1),

– The two Non-radiating slots do radiate away from the principal


planes, but their field intensity in these other planes is small
compared to that radiated by the two radiating slots such that it is
usually neglected.
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Radiation Pattern for Other Modes

Radiating edge

Radiating edge
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• Radiation Pattern for Other Modes
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• How are patch antennas fed?
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• How are patch antennas fed?
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• How are patch antennas fed?

– Based on the electric field distribution, also the equivalent magnetic


source, center will be the null point. Avoid center and find
appropriate feed length to achieve circuit match.
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Size Reduction Techniques:
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What is the operating frequency of the patch antenna?

b
1.53

0 a

0 az x
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• Antenna Measurements
– The knowledge of antenna measurement is essential for
verification of simulated results and also for measuring the
antennas that are difficult to analyze numerically or by using the
commercial EM simulations tools.
– The parameters that describe an antenna’s system’s
performance:
• Impedance
• Radiation Pattern, Gain, Directivity
• Efficiency
• Current Distribution
• Polarization
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• The S11 or reflection coefficient of the antenna is measured using
a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA).
• The one-port calibration procedures ( Open, Short and Load)

Vector Network Analyzer(VNA) Calibration kit for VNA


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• Pattern Measurements
– Well know antenna is used in the Transmitting antenna
and antenna to be characterized (‘Antenna Under Test’ or
AUT) is in receiving mode.
– Standard gain horn or broadband horn antenna is used as
the transmitting antenna, well defined pattern with gain of
12dBi and a SLL of 25 dB.

Broadband Horn Antenna


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• For example

30 cm

Small Reflector
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• Antenna Ranges
– Outdoor Ranges
• Reflection Ranges
• Free Space Ranges
– Indoor Ranges
• Free-Space Ranges
– Elevated Ranges
– Slant Ranges
– Anechoic Chambers
» Square
» Tapered
– Compact Ranges
– Near-Field Ranges
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Reflection Outdoor Ranges
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• Free-Space Outdoor Ranges
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Free-Space Indoor Ranges

• Controlled Environment
• All-Weather Capability

RF Absorbing Material
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• Gain Measurement
– Two-Antenna Method
– Three- Antenna Method
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