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# Digital Unit Plan – Goals, Objectives and Assessments

Unit Title: Forces Name: Dominic Nguyen, Lauren Smith, Shin Sul
Content Area: Physics Grade Level: 11-12th
Next Generation Science Standards/Performance Expectations
● HS-PS-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons on the patterns of electrons in
the outermost energy level of atoms.
● HS-PS1-3 Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical
forces between particles.
● HS-PS2-4 Use Mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic
forces between objects.
● HS-PS2-6 Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed
materials.
● HS-PS3-2 Develop and use models to illustrate the energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the
motion of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects).
● HS-PS3-5 Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes
in energy of the objects due to the interaction.

Anchoring Activity
1. Video​ (VIdeo of magnetic Train)
2. Teacher guides activity through the theme of the story:
You’re the engineering consultant hired by a city to manage a new train project for the state that will be going through your town. The
city council summons you to their boardroom because they do not understand this new-fangled train technology. You need to create a
presentation to explain to them has this train works.
3. Initial Model

## Driving Question of the Unit

- How can a train travel without wheels or an engine?

Unit Goals

The students will be able to understand and identify different forces around them, including but not limited to gravitational, electrical and magnetic forces, and
applied force. The students will also be able to identify the cause of the force as well as identify different energies associated with the forces in micro and
macroscopic levels.
Students understand how forces arise from the interactions between fields.

## Lesson 1 – Periodic Table Arrangement

Performance Expectation: Acceptable Evidence – Formative and/or Summative Assessment:
● HS-PS-1. Use the periodic table as a model to - Formative assessment of the model that they will make which includes the valence electrons,
predict the relative properties of elements # of protons, the relative sizes, and electronegativity of assigned elements. They will be
based on the patterns of electrons on the observed to see if they were correctly labeled.
patterns of electrons in the outermost energy
level of atoms.
Student Learning Objective:
1. Students will be able to identify the properties
of an atom based on its place in the periodic
table.
2. Students will describe how the periodic table is
arranged with respect to atomic numbers and
similarities of chemical properties.
Lesson 2 – Electric Charge Model
Performance Expectation: Acceptable Evidence – Formative and/or Summative Assessment:
● HS-PS1-3 Plan and conduct an investigation to - Formative Assessment of the model they refined from the previous lesson, the students will
gather evidence to compare the structure of add in data on the properties of particular substances, including the strength of the electrical
substances at the bulk scale to infer the forces between the particles, and their polarity properties (attraction/repulsion).
strength of electrical forces between particles.
Student Learning Objective:
1. Students will understand the concept of
electrical charge, and be able to distinguish
between attractive and repulsive forces.
2. Students will be able to explain how the
polarities of two charges can cause them to
move either away from or towards each other.
(Ex: Electric field, electric force)

## Lesson 3 – Coulomb’s Law and Newton’s Law of Gravitation

Performance Expectation: Acceptable Evidence – Formative and/or Summative Assessment:
● HS-PS2-4 Use Mathematical representations of - Summative assessment in a form of a quiz/exam on Newton’s Gravitational Forces and
Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Coulomb’s law. The assessment will include both mathematical and conceptual questions.
Law to describe and predict the gravitational
and electrostatic forces between objects.
Student Learning Objective:
1. Students will be able to ​calculate the force
strength between two particles of opposite charges
using Coulomb’s law in a 2 dimensional plane.
2. Students will be able to compare and contrast the
differences between Newton’s Gravitational Force
and Coulomb’s Law.

## Lesson 4 - Microscopic and Macroscopic Properties of an Object

Performance Expectation: Acceptable Evidence – Formative and/or Summative Assessment:
● HS-PS2-6 Communicate scientific and technical - Formative assessment of model that students will make. Students will be able to explain how
information about why the molecular-level the molecular level properties of an object as an effect on said object at the macroscopic level
structure is important in the functioning of (ie. Normal force, friction, repel, attraction)
designed materials.

## Student Learning Objective:

1. Students will refine the model and further
investigate how the properties and interactions
of different materials at the molecular level has
an influence on the macroscopic properties of
the object.
2. Students will be able to relate the ideas of
forces at the microscopic level to the
macroscopic level, and describe how the micro
can affect the macro.
Lesson 5 - Transfer of Energy Presentation
Performance Expectation: Acceptable Evidence – Formative and/or Summative Assessment:
● HS-PS3-2 Develop and use models to illustrate - Summative Assessment on a presentation using the model the students made that illustrates
the energy at the macroscopic scale can be transfer of energy at the macro and microscopic levels as well as different forces involved at
accounted for as a combination of energy different levels.
associated with the motion of particles
(objects) and energy associated with the
relative position of particles (objects).
Student Learning Objective:
1. Students will develop models to show the
transfer of energy in a system and its
surroundings
Unit Summative Assessment

## - (summative) Cumulative Exam

Students will be assessed on the information that was presented throughout the unit. The exam will involve multiple choice, short answer that tackle conceptual and
mathematical ideas.
- (formative) PRESENTATION USING MODEL THEY BUILT
The students will demonstrate their understanding of the forces around them by making a model of force applied to everyday objects and present to the class. This will involve
researching, collaboration, and presentation skills from the students.
- (formative) LAB WORK
The students will be able to apply the mathematical concepts they learned in class in a hands-on laboratory experiment that goes back to the anchoring activity done by the
instructor at the beginning of the unit. Example video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hn1SiQb7d0E

Useful Websites:
10 website
● http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/newtlaws/Lesson-2/Types-of-Forces
● https://www.livescience.com/46560-newton-second-law.html
● http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/estatics/Lesson-3/Coulomb-s-Law
● http://www.bozemanscience.com/physics
● https://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/sos/?WT.mc_id=USNSF_51
● http://www.physicscentral.com/
● https://www.nasa.gov/stemonstrations
● https://isaacphysics.org/concepts

Review: Outside the Pipeline: Reimagining Science Education for Nonscientists ​ Science, April 19, 2013.

## How People Interact with Science

I​ ndividuals have different motivations for using scientific information. Factors that influence the use of science include social,
cultural, and demographic differences. In addition, the type of science that is useful differs from one problem or issue to
another. Science comes in a variety of forms such as experimentation, observational data or simulations or field research. One
goal of science education is to facilitate student understanding of what forms of science are best suited for the problems that
we are trying to solve. Students will need to understand that science is a flexible philosophical and methodological human
endeavor. The sub-goals of this BIG IDEA are as follows:
● Students will need to understand the context of a problem to understand what type of methods are needed
● Students will understand and interpret the scientific principles that “speak” to the driving questions and anchoring
activities presented in the coursework. The principles will change with subject matter.
● Students will engage in ill-structured problems, defined in personal and practical terms, to practice using different
principles and epistemic practices.

Knowing Science: From Knowing the Textbook to Accessing the Science you need

Science education should prepare more students to access and interpret scientific knowledge at the time and in the context of
need. Students will need to be able to read articles and the text book, draw on prior knowledge to interpret the text, and be
able to cross reference what is read with other materials. This is not simply the application of science for a particular problem,
this is reconstructing the science in valid ways to construct solutions. When it comes to planning science for students some
sub-goals of this major goal are as follows:
● To confront students with an ill-structured problem or challenge framed in an anchoring activity to extend their
existing knowledge and develop concrete solutions.
● To create a learning environment where students develop the skills to recognize when and how science is relevant in
their daily lives.
● To be able to cite textual based evidence to support or refute a claim (CCSS ELA)
● To be able to convert a phenomena into a mathematical model (CCSS Math)

## Thinking Scientifically: From Practicing Science to Judging Scientific Claims

Students will need to engage in the epistemic practices of science in flexible and creative ways. The procedures that make up
the epistemic practices of argumentation, experimentation, modeling, and the negotiation of expository text are not static but
are guided by the cycle of scientific thinking. Students will rarely need to go through ALL the steps in a given epistemic
procedure in order to engage in scientific problem solving or research design. However, students will need to make
sophisticated judgments about credibility of scientific claims based on cues like publication venue, institutional affiliation, and
potential conflict of interest. In order to plan lesson that allow students to engage in this big idea teachers will need to set
some of the following goals:
● To help students understand how scientists evaluate evidence and how research is packaged for presentation. Engaging
student in argumentation and negotiation of expository text does this. Note: expository text will need to be presented in
more ways then just the textbook.
● To help students engage in peer review when teachers are planning an argument or negotiation of expository text.
● Students will engage in epistemic practices to examine a science-inflected social problem, with the goal of uncovering
epistemic and ethical nuances at the interface of science and daily life.
● To help students engage in and interpret scientific text.

## Appreciating Science: From Positive Feelings to Deep and Durable Involvement

Teachers will need to create learning environments where students develop an appreciation of science and recognize how
science influences their daily lives. Students will need to connect with science though interest areas and following their
personal curiosities. Therefore, some of the sub-goals of the work science teachers do will be to:
● Facilitate students pursing their own science related interest, questions, and personal curiosities through
project-based; inquiry-based; and model based learning.
● Facilitate socio-scientific issue discussion in class.
● Help students identify and develop individual interest and expertise in the subject matter.
● Connect students with science resources in the community such as clubs, museums, projects, science fair, and business
that specialize in science outreach.
● Use science-based games to facilitate student interest and curiosity for science problem solving. Empowering students
to use the epistemic practices in their everyday lives and to own the practices for life long problem-solving.