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211

Low voltage

High-voltage zone

Building and services

Pressure relief High-voltage switchgear Door earthing Base frame rail Generator busbar Metal structure Pothead
Pressure relief
High-voltage
switchgear
Door earthing
Base frame
rail
Generator busbar
Metal structure
Pothead
Floor reinforcement
Floor reinforcement
Cable racks
Insulating section
Transformer room
EBC
EBC
LV switchgear
Communications
HV motor
centre
Equipotential bonding conductor (EBC)
Foundation earth
System earth
System earth
Floor reinforcement
Isolating link
Antenna mount
Grading ring
around the building

Cable racks

Cable racks

Lift guide

Low-voltage

Metal structure

switchgear

Heating pipes

Gas supply

Water supply

if necessary:

waste pipe (metal)

AC installation/

ventilation

Lightning protection system

Fig. 5-8 Earthing system with equipotential bonding between HV/LV indoor switchgear and building/building services

5

382 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

a) Switchboards and motor control centres

It is the normal practice to provide a copper busbar at the base of the switchboard or motor

control centre for earthing all the high power circuits, e.g. cable armouring, motor earthing cables, and low power circuits that are not sensitive to noise pick-up. This busbar is insulated from

the frame, and at one or both ends there is an isolating link with bolts that bonds the busbar

to the steel frame. The steel frame is bonded to the local earthing system, e.g. steel decking in

a marine installation, earthing conductor or rod in a land-based installation. The isolating link

can be opened for checking the earth-loop impedance or for making measurements of the noise voltages. It is often the practice to install one or two external earthing busbars in the locality of the switchgear. For example in a switchroom a busbar would be located near to each of the two opposite walls, and in reasonable proximity to the switchgear. Equipment such as switchgear, neutral earthing resistors, transformers, have their internal earth busbars or star points connected by single cables of large cross-sectional area to the external earthing busbars described above. These external earthing busbars are often mounted on insulators or bushings and fitted with bolted isolating links that are again used for testing purposes.

A typical offshore platform will have several modules or large equipment rooms and so all the external earthing busbars will be interconnected by single-core insulated cables of large cross-sectional area. The interconnections are preferably made in the form of a ring circuit so that continuity is highly assured. A similar ring circuit approach can be used for land-based plants where the items of equipment are located near to each other, otherwise a radial interconnection system or one with local grids and rods would be more economical.

b) Earthing within cubicles and panels

Instrumentation cubicles, SCADA cubicles, control panels, computer equipment and the like require to be earthed in a particular manner so as to avoid or minimise the pick up of noise. Some of the internal circuits may be very sensitive to noise pick-up from earth sources, e.g. input amplifiers, signal conditioning units. These circuits may have their own special noise elimination devices, as described in References 20 and 22, but it is better to assume that they have not for the purposes of designing a good earthing system in the first place. It is common practice therefore to provide two separate internal earthing busbars, one for general earthing and the other for the special circuits. These will be isolated and insulated from each other.

The general earthing busbar would be used for earthing the framework, chassis metalwork and cable armouring. The special earthing busbar, often called the ‘clean earth’ busbar, would be used for signal core screens, earth reference points of input circuits, and earth reference points of output circuits. Both the ‘general’ and the ‘clean’ earthing busbars would be mounted near the cable gland plate on insulated bushes. The level of insulation need not be high because in practical testing the potential to earth with the links removed would only be a few volts. (It is more governed by the expected level of cleanliness in the area at ground level, which may contaminate the bushings and cause a leakage current to pass and upset the measurements taken.) If the plant is not prone to earth pick-up noise then the general busbar could be bonded to the same local earthing boss as the main frame or cubicle. However, where earth pick-up is a problem then the clean earth busbar would be interconnected by a large section cable to the copper ring system. The general and clean busbars serve as ‘single-point’ earths, thereby eliminating pick up between distributed earthing points due to conducted noise.

TO TRANSIT BLOCK OR HEC'S EARTHING TERMiNAl I SUBSTATION/SERVICE CUTOUT MIN.150 mm 2 YELLOW/GREEN PVC
TO TRANSIT BLOCK OR HEC'S EARTHING TERMiNAl
I
SUBSTATION/SERVICE CUTOUT
MIN.150 mm 2 YELLOW/GREEN
PVC SHEATHED COPPER
TAPE /
l-CORE PVC
SHEATHED COPPER
1-14
RUBBER
GROMMET
-l
100
A'
l
j
MIN 25
I
30:::::i 20 i-F--
150
100
MIN. 6mm THICK YELLOW/GREEN
PVC SHEATHED COPPER LINK
1
250

INSULATED ENCLOSURE COMPLETE WITH SCREW RXED COVER AND A BILINGUAL LABEL :

r :jf1!!.1!i'm1lm'fflru~:i'i]~U:kU~_:jfI!!

M

-lIJo/lM J

~soloting Link for Bonding Conductor Between HEC Earth System and Building Main Earth System - DO NOT REMOVE'

BOLT T ~ / r-SPRING WASHER ::::'l"r- PLAIN WASHER :, ' ~ PVC SHEATHED COPPER
BOLT
T
~
/
r-SPRING WASHER
::::'l"r- PLAIN WASHER
:,
'
~
PVC SHEATHED COPPER LINK
150mm2 PVC SHEATHED COPPER TAPEI
100
~
1
COPPER CABLE TERMINATED WITH CAffi.E LUG
"'''--PLAIN WASHER
"--INSULATOR
I

Sectional Elevation A-A'

NOTES:

1. All dimensions are in mm.

2. Where the supply is token direct~ from Company's transformer(s) within the premises in which the installation is situated. The position of the disconnection link should be installed near the main earth terminal.

3. Where the supply is taken from the Company's service cutout having exposed conductive ports, the position of the disconnection link should be installed near the bonding terminal provided by the Company.

Drg. No. GCS/6/09 RECOMMENDED INSTALLATION DETAIL FOR THE DISCONNECTION LINK WITH INSULATED ENCLOSURE FOR BONDING CONDUCTOR BETWEEN HEC EARTH SYSTEM AND CUSTOMER'S MAIN EARTH SYSTEM

6.29

Protection of electric motors 12/309 I I also provide a three-phase simultaneous make and break
Protection of electric motors 12/309
I
I
also provide a three-phase simultaneous make and break
of contacts through their ‘no volt’ coil. Figures 12.46
and 12.47 illustrate typical power and control circuit
diagrams, respectively, for a 6.6 kV vacuum contactor-
I
I
operated motor starter.
HT isolators
I
I
Motor control
- Bus bars
I
The isolator should be a load-break and fault-make type
centre
/
I /’
1’
Contactor
of switching device. Normally, it is provided with an
integral grounding switch, such that in the isolated position
it will automatically short-circuit and ground all the three-
phases of the outgoing links. This is a basic safety
requirement for a gang-operated isolator, mounted on
outdoor poles and operated manually from the ground
by a disconnecting lever. For an indoor switchgear,
Overcurrent
relay
Cable
Isolator
\
Motor
P.B.
Note
1. Switch-fuse unit or a circuit breaker.
2. Isolator near the motor is also recommended, when the motor
is away or not visible from the switching station (it is a safety
requirement)
-G
3. A stay put type stop push button may also be mounted near
the motor for maintenance safety
Figure 12.43(a)
Power line diagram of an MCC
Isolating
Pre trip alarm
link
Stalling
alarm/trip
Remote thermal
IShortina
I
links -
1-1
7
) 16111181191
-
Alarm
Trip
Control supply
isolating
contact contact
contact
link
Figure 12.43(b)
MCC for single line diagram of Figure 12.43(a)
Figure 12.44 A simple power circuit diagram for a breaker-
operated HT motor starter