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SANDVIK ROCK

PROCESSING
THE ART OF CRUSHING

Quarry Academy 2005


What is a C&S system ?
Feed

Machines
&
Processes

Products

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¾Super Quarries & Mines 600-2000 tph
¾Medium Quarries 300-600 tph
¾Small Quarries & Mobiles 150-300 tph

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THE ART OF CRUSHING

‹Raw material?
‹How big? (Size of rawmaterial)
‹How much? (Capacity)
‹Final products?
‹Contamination?

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THE ART OF CRUSHING

‹ Feedcurves
‹ Max Topsize
‹ Impact Work index (Wi)
‹ Abrasion index (Ai)
‹ Type of rock / geology
‹ Density
– Wi measured x B.D./1.6 = Wi real
‹ Moisture
‹ Contamination

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THE ART OF CRUSHING
Crushing Rock Crushing Gravel Crushing Ore

9 Limited reduction 9 Limited reduction 9 Maximum reduction


9 Cubical shape 9 Cubical shape 9 Shape of no importance
9 Over- and undersize 9 Over- and undersize 9 Over- and undersize of no
is important is important importance
9 Flexibility 9 Flexibility 9 Flexibility of minor importance
9 Crushing and 9 More screening than 9 More crushing -less screening
screening Crushing
9 One or two products
9 Range of products 9 Contamination?
9 Range of products

9 Sellable Products ! 9 Sellable Products ! 9 Product to further processing !

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THE ART OF CRUSHING

Final Products - Specifications

‹ Asphalt / Concrete ‹ Railway ballast


9 Shape of material 9 Curve limitations
9 Over and undersize 9 Shape of material
9 No contamination 9 Over and undersize
9 No contaminations

‹ Base course / Sub base


9 Curve limitations

• Different in all countries

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Product properties

British norms L
3
NORMS
German norms

French norms

Slots
“US” norms

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Reduction Ratio (1)
F80
Reduction Ratio =
P80

F80 = (80 % of feed mtrl)


P80 = (80 % of the product)

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Reduction Ratio (2)
Normal reduction:
100
Jaw crusher 2-3
90 Gyratory crusher 3-4
80 Cone crusher 3-5
70 Impact crusher (VSI) 4-6
60 Impact crusher (HSI) 7-10
50
40
30 HSI
H-Cone
20 S-Cone
10 Jaw
Feed
0
1 10 100 1000

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Reduction Ratio (3)
Using reduction ratio to predict required no. of crushing stages

2-stage Impact Plant:


10x7=70
P80 Feed: 400 mm OK, Only for Ai <0.15
P80 Products: 16 mm
2-stage Jaw/cone Plant
3x4=12
Min. required plant NOT OK
reduction ratio:
3- stage Jaw/cone Plant
400
= 25 3x3x4=36
16 OK

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Reduction Ratio 3
Impactors VS Compresive crushers

‹ Impact crusher
r 9 High reduction ratio
she

9 Low investment
cr u

r
s he 9 High wear cost
c ru
act

o ne 9 Max Ai= 0.15


Imp
(Investment + Wear)

/ C
a w
J
‹ Jaw / Cone crusher
9 Low reduction ratio
Total cost

9 Big investment
9 Low wear cost

Production (tons)
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Primary Crusher station
¾ Continuous process
¾ Conveyable product
¾ Remove Contaminations

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Primary Crusher station

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Primary Crusher station

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Primary Crusher station

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Intermediate storage

¾ Quality producing part of plant


independent of Primary crushing
and loading operation

¾ Even out variations in the material


distribution. Uneven load gives
problems in all machines coming
after.

¾ Better total availability for the Plant

¾ Recommended stockpile volume


for 2 shifts operation

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Intermediate Storage (2)

1 feeder

1 feeder 3 feeders

4 feeders
2 feeders

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Secondary Circuit

‹ Big feed opening


‹ High capacity
‹ Controlled feed

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Secondary Crushers

Hydrocone H / S Secondary Impactor

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Production of railway ballast

Hydrocone
S4800 C

Alt.
Hydrocone
C.S.S: 150-175 mm H6800 CXD

Railway
0-18 0-35 flakes Ballast

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Screening
Open / Closed circuit

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Open Circuit

‹ Screening ahead of a crusher


avoids packing.
‹ Less wear in the crusher.
‹ Higher total capacity.
‹ The product is controlled by the
screening cloth and the setting of
the crusher.

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Open Circuit – Examples
Splitting of By-passing fine Scalping
crusher feed material

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Closed Circuit

¾ Calibrated product
¾ Higher reduction ratio.
¾ Better cubical shape
¾ More machines
¾ Lower capacity

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Closed Circuit
4/5

¾ Closed circuit ~ 1/5 of screen


feed circulating recommended
5/5 ¾ Smaller or same setting (CSS)
as separation.
¾ Higher wear
1/5 ¾ Cubical shape
¾ Big screen

¾ discrepancy:
4/5 – Short jobs
– Prod of sand

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Closed Circuit – Examples
Screening after Screening ahead of Screening ahead of
crusher crusher and after crusher

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SCREENNING SUMMARY
Screen duties
A = Scalping screening
A
B = Close circuit screening
C = Final products screening
D = Natural fines screening

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Final Crusher

Demands:
‹ Optimised feed
‹ Capacity
‹ Product shape

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FINAL CRUSHER - Hydrocone
100

90
Feed
80 H3800 F

70

60

%-Passing
50

40

30

20

10

0 Aperture (mm)
0,1 1 10 100
„Good shape product area

¾ Good Flexibility
¾ Higher crushing forces
¾ Limited good shape range
¾ Uniform reduction ratio

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FINAL CRUSHER- Merlin VSI
100

90
Feed
80 RP108

70

60

%-Passing
50

40

30

20

10

0 Aperture (mm)
0,1 1 10 100
„Good shape product area

¾ Better shape
¾ Uneven Reduction
¾ Limited topsize capacity
¾ High fines production
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HYDROCONE – MERLIN RP
100

Hydrocone H3800 90 Feed


H3800 F
F 80
RP108
Ecc: 29 mm 70

60
C.S.S: 16 mm

%-Passing
50
ASR Plus
40

30

20

10

0 Aperture (mm)
0,1 1 10 100

Merlin RP 107 Curves show Hydrocone H3800 F and


Tip speed: 60 m/s Merlin RP 107 in a medium hard granite
Bi-flow: 0 % (Wi=16) in open circuit
operation
150 kW

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Storage at Crusher

Choke fed Crusher;


¾ Higher Reduction
¾ Better shape
(cubical)
¾ Better utilization of
mantle and liners
¾ Bin volume; 5-10
min operation

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Crusher feed

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Process Control

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Stationary / Mobile
Stationary Mobile
¾ Long term Contracts ¾ Contract crushing
¾ Valuable products ¾ Crushing at construction
¾ Range of products site
¾ Production on demand ¾ Low product demands
¾ Flexibility with many ¾ Few products
stages ¾ Flexibility with Fleet
¾ High Production control

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Mobile Units (1)

Mobility selection chart

Portable Wheel-mounted Track-mounted

1 5 25 100
Movements/Year

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Mobile Units (2)

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Mobile Units (3)
Dismounting time
Portable

Wheel-mounted

Track-mounted

1 10 50
Hours

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Mobile Units (4)
Nom. loading Capacity (m³/h)

300

250

200

150

100

10 20 30 40 50 60
Machine Weight (Tonnes)
Wheel Loader
Excavator

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Application
2-Stage Plant Example
Capacity:200 tph

Bin with
Hydrocone Feeder
Feed station H-4800 EC

Jawmaster
JM 1108 HD
Screen
CS 86-IV

0-4 4-8 8-16 16-32

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Application
3-Stage Plant Example
Capacity: 200 tph

Bin with
Hydrocone Feeder
S-3800 EC
Feed station

Hydrocone
Jawmaster H-3800 M
JM 1108 HD

Screen
CS 86-II

Screen
CS 86-II
0-4 4-8 8-16 16-32

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Application
4-Stage Plant, Cone Example
Capacity: 200 tph

Hydrocone Screen
S-3800 EC CS 86-II
Feed station

Bin with Screen


Jawmaster Feeder CS 86-II
JM 1108 HD

16-32 8-16 4-8 0-4

Hydrocone Hydrocone
H-3800 MF H-3800 M

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Application
4-Stage Plant, VSI Example
Capacity: 200 tph

Hydrocone
S-3800 EC
Feed station Screen
CS 126-II
Bin with
Jawmaster Feeder
JM 1108 HD

16-32 8-16 4-8 0-4

VSI Hydrocone
H-3800 M

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Application examples
SUMMARY
Product distribution
Product 0-4 mm 4-8 mm 8-16 mm 16-32 mm
2-stage 33 t/h 19 t/h 41 t/h 107 t/h (*)
3-stage 43 t/h 29 t/h 66 t/h (*) 62 t/h *
4-stage 61 t/h 35 t/h * 54 t/h * 50 t/h *
4-stage, VSI 88 t/h 38 t/h * 44 t/h * 30 t/h *
* Good shape

2-stage 3-stage 4-stage


Cheap Medium expensive Expensive
Easy to move Could be moved Difficult to move
Bad shape Medium shape Very good shape
Low flexibility Good flexibility Very good flexibility

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Application
Mining Plant Example

Hydrocone
S-4800 C

Jawmaster
JM 1312 HD
Hydrocone
H-4800 M

EFC EFC

0-10

2x Hydrocone
H-4800 EF
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