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DESIGN & OPTIMIZATION

OF 800 KV TRANSMISSION
LINE
Gopal Ji
AGM (Engineering TL Dept.)
Power Grid Corporation of India limited
Gurgaon, India
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF A
TRANSMISSION LINE
Conductor
Towers (and Foundations)
Earthwire
Insulators ] Insulator
Hardware Fittings ] strings
Accessories
BASIC DESIGN ASPECTS
Electrical Design Aspects
- Power Flow / Line Loadability
- Electrical Clearances (Operational, safety)
- Corona & Interference
- Insulation Requirements

Mechanical Design Aspects


- External (Dynamic) loads due to wind, ice etc.
- Self Weight of components
- Temperature conditions, Climatological factors
- Vibrations

TRANSMISSION LINE OPTMIZATION


Involves simultaneous/parallel studies for design &
selection of various components of transmission line
to achieve overall optimum techno-economic design
TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
Tower Design
Bundle Conductor
Study
studies
Review of Tower Config.
Selection of
Existing systems Analysis
clearances
& Practices

Insulator Line Cost &


Optimization
string design

Tower Fdn.
Economic
Study Eval. Of Line

Results
DESIGN AND OPTIMISATION OF POWER
TRANSMISSION LINES
Review of existing system and practices
Selection of clearances
Insulator and insulator string design
Insulator
Hardware
Bundle conductor studies
Tower configuration analysis
Tower weight estimation
Foundation volumes estimation
Line cost analysis & span optimization
Economic evaluation of line
REVIEW OF EXISTING SYSTEM AND
PRACTICES

Review of practice adopted in different countries as


well as India w.r.t following

- Clearances adopted for different insulation levels


- Swing angles adopted and clearances thereof
- Configuration & Rating of insulator string, no of
discs per string
- Bundle conductor configuration, diameter of
conductor
- Surface gradient, Electric field, AN,TVI, RIV
limitations
SELECTION OF CLEARANCES

Tower Clearance (Strike Distance) for different swing


angles
Phase to Phase Spacing
Ground Clearance
Mid Span Clearance and Shielding Angle
Right of Way Clearance
SELECTION OF CLEARANCES
Strike distance (Live metal clearances): Clearance
requirements are to be based on two assumptions;
- In still air or under moderate winds, the clearance should be
sufficient to withstand the lightning or switching impulse voltages.
- Under high wind, the clearance should be adequate to meet the
power frequency voltage requirements.
Required Clearances are ascertained thru’ Insulation
Co-ordination Studies

Phase to Phase Clearances: Dictated by live metal clearances


for standard tower configurations adopted in India

Ground Clearances: Min clearance Based on I.E rules and


interference criteria (Electric field, surface gradient, AN, RIV)

Mid Span Clearance: Between earthwire and conductor: Based


on voltage level, span etc.

Right of Way Clearance: Based on I.E. rules


Insulator
string
55 deg

7m

Maximum sag of
swing

SAG=14.5 M

conductor
MAXM.
9.0 M elect.
Clearance required
as per IE Rules

CLEARANCE=15M
16.0 M
21.5 sin 55 = 17.50 M

MIN. GROUND
Phase to
Phase
Clearance

9.0M + 17.5M +16.0 =42.5M ROW = 42.5 X 2 = 85M

765kV S/C TRANSMISSION LINE: RIGHT OF


WAY CALCULATIONS
INSULATION CO-ORDINATION

Insulation co-ordination aims at selecting proper insulation


level for various voltage stresses in a rational manner. The
objective is to assure that insulation has enough strength to
meet the stress on it.

How many
Flashovers? Strength
Probability Density

Insulation Flashover
Stress
Over Voltage

Probability
Voltage-kV
INSULATION CO-ORDINATION

The maximum over voltage occurs rarely and like wise insulation
strength very rarely decreases to its lowest value.

The likelihood of both events occurring simultaneously is very limited.

Therefore considerable economy may be achieved by recognizing the


probabilistic nature of both voltage stress and insulation strength and by
accepting a certain risk of failure.

This leads to substantial decrease in line insulation, spark distances,


tower dimensions, weight, ROW resulting in decreased cost of line.

The decrease in line cost must be weighed against the increased risk of
failure and the cost of such failures.
TYPICAL POWER FREQUENCY AC FLASHOVER TYPICAL AIR GAP SWITCHING SURGE CFO's

CHARACTERISTICS OF LARGE AIR GAPS 3000


Critical Flashover Voltage

2500 2500

Critical Flashover Voltage,kV


2000
(Crest),kV

2000
1500
1000 1500

500 1000
0
500
1 2 3 4 5 6
Gap Spacing,m 0
3 4 6 8 10 12
Rod to Plane
Insulator string Gap Spacing,m
Conductor to Tower Leg Rod to Plane
Conductor to Conductor Tower Window
Vertical Rod to Rod Horizontal Rod to Rod
BUNDLE CONDUCTOR SELECTION AND
OPTIMISATION

Size, Type and Configuration of Conductor influences

- Tower and its geometry


- Foundations
- Optimum spans
- Rating and configuration of Insulator string
- Insulator swings
- Ground clearance
- Line interferences like electric field at ground,
corona, radio & TV interference, audible noise etc
CONDUCTOR SELECTION SCENARIOS

Scenario I
Selection of conductor for a transmission line of identified voltage
level and specified minimum power flow but power flow capacity
becomes ruling factor in selection of conductor size (low voltage
lines).

Scenario II
Selection of conductor for a transmission line with identified
voltage level and a specified minimum power flow but voltage
level becomes ruling factor in selection of conductor/conductor
bundle size (EHV/UHV lines).

Scenario III
Selection of conductor for high power capacity long distance
transmission lines where selection of voltage level and
conductor/conductor bundle size are to be done together to
obtain most optimum solution (HVDC Bipole).
CONDUCTOR BUNDLE SELECTION:
METHODOLOGY
Preliminary set of conductor bundle/ sizes identified
to start optimization

Parameters like insulation requirements, limits for corona,


RIV,TVI,AN,EF,thermal ratings, line losses and statutory clearances
identified

Detailed analysis of various alternatives in respect of following to be


carried out to select the configuration
- Basic insulation design and insulator selection
- Tower configuration analysis
- Tower weight and foundation cost analysis
- Capital line cost analysis and span optimization
- Line loss calculations
- Economic evaluations (PWRR) of alternatives
- Comparison of interference performance
- Cost sensitivity analysis
Conductor Current Carrying Capacity
CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY:

Conductor Heat Balance VARIATION W.R.T AMBIENT TEMPERATURE


Conductor- ACSR Moose
Max Temp 75deg C

Current Carrying Capacity


1200

Heat Generated = Heat


Solar Radiation: 1045 W/sqm
1000 Wind Speed 2Km/hr
Absorption Coeff: 0.8

Dissipated
800 Emmisitivity coeff: 0.45

(Amp)
600

Heat Generated = I2R +


400

200

Solar radiation (qs) 0


20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Heat Dissipated =
Ambient Temp (degC)

Convection Cooling (qc)+ Conductor Current Carrying Capacity : Variation w.r.t


Radiation Cooling (qr) 1400
Max. Permissible Temp

I2R = (qr) + (qs) - (qs)


Conductor- ACSR Moose
1200

Current Carrying Capacity


Ambient Temp: 45 degC
1000 Solar Radiation: 1045 W/sqm
The above equation solved 800
Wind Velocity :2km/hr

(degC)
Absorption Coeff: 0.8
for conductor temperature 600 Emmisitivity Coeff: 0.45

at point of heat balance


400
200
0
65 75 85 95 115 125

Max Permissible Temp (deg C)


CONDUCTOR SURFACE GRADIENT

Conductor Surface gradient depends upon voltage


level, number & dia of conductors, bundle
configuration, phase spacing, clearances etc.

Average Surface gradient E AVG= Q/ (2r)

Where Q = [C] [V] & r = conductor radius

Maximum Surface gradient E MAX= E AVG (1+d(n-1)/D)


Where d = sub conductor diameter
D = conductor bundle diameter
N = number of sub conductors
r=Conductor radius
CORONA OR VISIBLE DISCHARGE

Corona discharges form at the surface of the


transmission line conductor when the electric field
intensity (surface gradient) on the conductor surface
exceeds the breakdown strength of the air.

Critical surface voltage gradient


To determine the onset gradient E peak of a conductor ,
the following formulae is used
E peak= 31m (1+.308/ r)
m=Surface roughness factor (.9 for dry .6 for rain)
= Relative air density, r=Conductor radius

Corona onset gradient should be greater than max


conductor surface gradient. E peak> E MAX
INTERFERENCE Produced by Transmission Lines

Electric field at ground

Magnetic field (not a predominant issue for EHV/UHV lines)

Audible Noise

Radio Interference
ELECTRIC FIELD
12

ELECTRIC FIELD (KV/M)


10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
LATERAL DISTANCE FROM CENTER PHASE (M)

400kV D/C (Twin Moose) 400kV S/C (Twin Moose)


800kV S/C (Quad Bersimis)

MAXIMUM EXPOSURE TIME FOR HUMAN BEINGS UNDER VARIOUS


ELECTRIC FIELDS
GRADIENT (KV/M) TIME (MIN.)
5 Unlimited
10 180
15 90
20 10
25 6
AUDIBLE NOISE STUDY RESULTS RADIO INTERFERENCE STUDY RESULTS

56
54
Audible Noise L50 (dB above

52
50
60 48

RI (db/1uV/M at 1MHz)
46
20 micro pascal)

44
42
40
38
50 36
34
32
30
28
26
24
40 22
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
LATERAL DISTANCE (M)
LATERAL DISTANCE FROM OUTER PHASE (M)
400 kV , Grd Clearance= 9m 800kv, Grd. Clearance= 23.5m
400KV S/C (Twin Moose) 800KVS/C (Quad Bersimis)
400 KV D/C (Twin Moose) 800kV, Grd. Clearance= 31.5m

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AUDIBLE


NOISE

60 HIGH NUMEROUS COMPLAINTS


AUDIBLE NOISE (dB)

58

56
MODERATE SOME COMPLAINTS
54

52

50 NO COMPLAINTS
LOW
48
DESIGN OF TOWERS

Transmission Line Towers are designed as


per IS:802:1995 considering wind zones as
per IS:875:1987

SALIENT DESIGN CONDITIONS


RELIABILITY REQUIREMENTS CLIMATIC LOADS UNDER
NORMAL CONDITION

SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FAILURE CONTAINMENT


LOADS UNDER BROKEN
WIRE CONDITION

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS LOADS DURING CONSTRUC-


TION AND MAINTENANCE
LOAD.
Reliability Levels
RELIABILITY RETURN SUGGESTED FOR
LEVEL PERIOD

1 50 FOR EHV TRANS LINES UPTO 400KV


CLASS

2 150 FOR TRANS LINES ABOVE 400KV CLASS


AND TRIPLE & QUAD CIRCUIT TRANS LINE
UPTO 400KV.

3 500 FOR TALL RIVER CROSSING TOWERS AND


SPECIAL TOWERS.
TOWER LOADING
Wind Effects:-
i). Basic wind speed
Wind Zone: 1 2 3 4 5 6
Vb(m/sec): 33 39 44 47 50 55
ii). Reference wind speed (Vr=Vb/k0) k0=1.375
iii). Design wind speed
Vd = Vr.K1.K2
Where K1 = risk coefficient factor
k2 = terrain coefficient factor
iv). Design Wind Pressure
0.6 Vd. Vd.
Loads Due To Conductor & Earthwire

i). Transverse Load


a). Due to Conductor & Earthwire.
Pd . Cdc. L . Gc. d
b). Due to insulator string. Where,
Cdi. Pd. Ai . Gi Pd = Design wind pressure

c). Deviation loads Cdc, Cdi = Drag co-officients

2T. Sin(D/2) L = Wind span

Gc, Gi = Gust response factors

ii). Vertical Load d = Dia of cable


T = Design tension

iii). Longitudinal Load D = Deviation angle


Analysis And Design
ANALYSIS
i). GRAPHICAL METHOD
ii). ANALYTICAL METHOD
iii). COMPUTER AIDED ANALYSIS
(K) (A) = (P)
DESIGN AS COMPRESSION AND TENSION MEMBERS.

CODAL PROVOSION FOR LIMITING SLENDERNESS RATIO FOR


COMPRESSION MEMBER DESIGN
i). LEG MEMBERS - 120
ii). BRACINGS - 200
iii). REDUNDANTS - 250
iv). TENSION MEMBERS - 400
FLOW CHART FOR TOWER DESIGN
NAME, VOLTAGE, CLASS, GEOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS DESIGN PHILOSPHY (FROM
WIND ZONE & BASIC DESIGN DETAILS OF ROUTE & BILL IS / IEC/ STANDARDISATION
PARAMETERS ( FROM OF QUANTITIES (FROM SITE) COMMITTEE REPORTS)
APPROVED FR OR SEF
GROUP)

INPUTS

REVIEW

CONFOIGURATION & TYPE OF TOWERS


REVIEW
TOWER LOADINGS & CONDITIONS
REVIEW DESIGN
STURUCTIRAL ANALYSIS STAGES
-BY COMPUTER
-BY MANUAL VERIFICATION

REVIEW
FINAL DESIGN (THEORITICAL)

STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS

PROTO MANUFACTURE/ FABRICATION TESTING &


MODIFY DESIGN FINALISATION

SUCCESSFUL
FAILED
PROTO TESTING (FULL SCALE) DESIGN FINALISED
Classification of foundations
Foundations are classified based on soil type and subsoil water level
and listed below
Normal Dry
Sandy dry
Wet
Partially submerged
Fully submerged
Black cotton soil
Dry fissured rock (Under cut type)
Wet fissured rock (Under cut type)
Submerged fissured rock (Under cut type)
Hard rock
Unequal chimney foundations are also povided to minimize the benching and
for water logged area as well
Design of Foundations
Following ultimate foundation loads acting at
the tower base (along the tower slope) are
considered
Down thrust (Compression)
Uplift (Tension)
Transverse side thrust
Longitudinal side thrust
Design checks
•Check for Bearing capacity
•Check for uplift capacity
•Check for overturning
•Check for sliding
FLOW CHART FOR FOUNDATION DESIGN
START

MAXIMUM/ CRITICAL TOWER LOADINGS FROM TOWER DESIGN/ PREVIOUS SIMILAR FDN
DESIGN
, TOWER DIMENSIONS & SLOPE FROM TOWER DESIGN

REVIEW

FOUNDATION LOADINGS
INPUTS

TYPE OF FDN FROM BOQ (SITE INPUT), SOIL DESIGN PHILOSPHY (FROM IS/ CBIP /
PROPERTIES FROM SPECN/ SOIL INV. (STANDARDISATION COMMITTEE
REPORT & CONCRETE PROPERTIES FROM REPORTS)
SPECN REVIEW

FOUNDATION DESIGN BY COMPUTER /MANUALLY

REVIEW REVIEW

YES LARGE VARIATION WRT YES


PREVIOUS SIMILAR DESIGN/ NIT
ESTIMATE ?

FOUNDATION DRAWINGS FINALISATION


REVIEW

DESIGN FINALISED END


CAP & PIN DISC INSULATOR
& INSULATOR STRINGS
INSULATOR AND INSULATOR STRING DESIGN
Electrical design considerations
Insulation design depends on
- Pollution withstand Capability
Min. nominal creepage dist. = Min nominal specific
creepage dist X highest system voltage phase to phase
of the system
Creepage Distance of insulator string required for different pollution
levels
Pollution Equiv. Salt Deposit Density Minm nominal specific
Level (mg/cm2) creepage dist (mm/Kv)
Light 0.03 to 0.06 16

Medium 0.10 to 0.20 20

Heavy 0.20 to 0.60 25

Very Heavy >0.60 31

- Switching/ Lightning Over voltage


INSULATOR AND INSULATOR STRING DESIGN
Mechanical design considerations

a) Everyday Loading Condition


Everyday load 20 to 25% of insulator rated strength.

b) Ultimate Loading Condition


Ultimate load on insulator to not exceed 70% of its
rating. This limit corresponds roughly to pseudo-elastic
limit.

c) In addition, capacity of tension insulator strings at least


10 % more than rated tensile strength of the line
conductors.
Earthwire

 Function
 To protect conductor against lightning flashovers
 To provide a path for fault current

 Maximum allowable fault current (I) through


earthwire mainly depends on

 Area of earthwire (A)


 Maximum permissible temperature
 Time of short circuit (t)

I varies proportional to A and inverse proportion to sqrt (t)


HARDWARE FITTINGS

For attachment of insulator string to tower


D-Shackles,Ball clevis, Yoke plate, Chain link
For attachment of insulator string to the conductor
Suspension & tension assembly
Fittings like D-Shackles, Socket clevis, chain link
For protection of insulator string from power follow
current
Arcing Horn
For making electric field uniform and to limit the electric
field at the live end
Corona Control Ring/ Grading Ring
For fine adjustment of conductor sag
Sag Adjustment Plate, Turn Buckle
HARDWARE FITTINGS-Design
Suspension Assembly
Shaped to prevent hammering between clamp & conductor
To minimize static & dynamic stress in conductor under various
loading conditions
Minimum level of corona/RIV performance
For slipping of conductor under prescribed unbalanced conditions
between adjacent conductor spans

Tension Assembly
To withstand loads of atleast 95% of conductor UTS
To have conductivity more than that of conductor

Sag Adjustment Plate/ Turn Buckle


To adjust sag upto 150mm in steps of 6mm

Corona Control Ring/ Grading Ring


To cover atleast one live end insulator disc
To cover hardware fittings susceptible for Corona/RIV
ACCESSORIES FOR CONDUCTOR &
EARTHWIRE
For joining two lengths of conductor/earthwire
Mid Span Compression joint for Conductor/ earthwire

For repairing damaged conductor


Repair Sleeve

For damping out Aeolian vibrations


Vibration Damper for conductor & earthwire

For maintaining sub conductor spacing along the span


Spacers

For damping out Aeolian vibrations, sub span oscillation and to


maintain sub conductor spacing
Spacer Damper
ACCESSORIES FOR CONDUCTOR &
EARTHWIRE- Design
Mid Span Compression joint for Conductor/ earthwire &
Repair Sleeve

To withstand at least loads equivalent to 95% of the


conductor UTS
To have conductivity better than equivalent length of
conductor (99.5% Aluminium)
WIND INDUCED VIBRATIONS
 AEOLIAN VIBRATIONS
High frequency, low amplitude vibrations induced by low,
steady & laminar wind

 WAKE INDUCED VIBRATIONS


Low frequency, medium amplitude vibrations induced by high
velocity steady winds on bundle conductors

 GALLOPING
Very low frequency, high amplitude vibrations induced by high
velocity steady winds on conductors with asymmetrical ice
deposit

FACTORS INFLUENCING VIBRATION PERFORMANCE


 TYPE , STRANDING & DIA OF CONDUCTOR, EARTHWIRE
 CONDUCTOR/EARTHWIRE TENSION
 SUB-CONDUCTOR SPACING IN BUNDLE CONDUCTORS
 BUNDLE CONFIGURATION
VIBRATION CONTROL DEVICES

 VIBRATION DAMPERS
Commonly used for
vibration control of single
conductor systems as well as
bundle conductors
alongwith spacers

 SPACER DAMPERS
Used for vibration control of
bundle conductors
(instead of combination of
vibration dampers &
spacers)
First 765 kV Single Circuit
Transmission Lines Of
POWERGRID
SALIENT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS & IMPORTANT
PARAMETERS OF 800KV KISHENPUR-MOGA
TRANSMISSION LINE

ELECTRICAL DATA

A). NOMINAL VOLTAGE 765KV

B). MAXIMUM SYSTEM VOLTAGE 800KV

C). LIGHTNING IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGE 2400kVp

D). POWER FREQUENCY WITHSTAND VOLTAGE (WET) 830 kVrms

E). SWITCHING IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGE (WET) 1550 kVp

F). MINIMUM CORONA EXTINCTION VOLTAGE (DRY) 510kVrms

G). RIV AT 1 MHZ FOR PHASE TO EARTH VOLTAGE 1000uV


OF 510 kVrms
CONDUCTOR BUNDLE SELECTION (800 KV Kishenpur-Moga)

- QUAD ACSR BERSIMIS


STRANDING - 42/4.57 + 7/2.54, DIA - 33.05 MM,
WEIGHT - 2.181 KG/M, UTS - 154KN
SUB-CONDUCTOR SPACING - 457 MM

TOWERS, FOUNDATIONS (800 KV Kishenpur-Moga)

- SELF SUPPORTING TYPE OF TOWERS


- FAMILY SELECTED : 0 DEG, 5 DEG & 15 DEG SUS.
30 DEG & 60 DEG TENSION
- REINFORCED CONCRETE TYPE FOUNDATIONS
TOWER ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE (800 KV Kishenpur-Moga)

- ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE OF 1.3M CORRESPONDING TO 50 HZ.


POWER FREQUENCY - TO BE MAINTAINED UNDER 55 DEG.
SWING ANGLE.

- ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE OF 4.4 M CORRESPONDING TO


SWITCHING SURGE LEVELS OF 1.75 p.u. - TO BE MAINTAINED
UNDER 25 DEG. SWING ANGLE.

- ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE OF 5.1 M TO TOP & 5.6 M TO SIDE


(+0.5M ADDED FOR LIVE LINE MAINTENANCE) - TO BE
MAINTAINED UNDER STATIONARY CONDITIONS.

- PHASE CLEARANCE : 15M


- MID SPAN CLEARANCE : 9M
- SHIELDING ANGLE : 20 DEG.
- GROUND CLEARANCE : 15 M
{BASED ON ELECTRICAL FIELD LIMIT OF 10KV/M.(AS PER
IRPA/WHO GUIDELINES}
INSULATORS (800KV Kishenpur-Moga)

FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS :

- 0 DEG : DOUBLE SUSPENSION 120KN FOR I STRING (2X40)


(IVI) SINGLE SUSPENSION 210 KN FOR V STRING(2X35 )

- 5 DEG : DOUBLE SUSPENSION 120 KN FOR I STRING (2X40)


(IVI) DOUBLE SUSPENSION 160/210KN FOR V STRING
(2X2X35)

- 15 DEG:DOUBLE SUSPENSION 210 KN (4X35)


(VVV)

FOR TENSION TOWERS :

- QUAD TENSION 210 KN


RIGHT OF WAY & INTERFERENCE (Kishenpur-Moga)

- RIGHT OF WAY - 85M


- ELECTRICAL FIELD AT EDGE OF RIGHT OF WAY < 2KV/M
- RI AND AN AT EDGE OF RIGHT OF WAY:

VOLTAGE(kV) ALTITUDE(M) RI (DB) AN(dBA)


(FAIR- (WET-
WEATHER) CONDUCTOR)

800 1000 50.3 58.2


765 1000 48.0 55.9
800 500 48.7 56.5
765 500 46.4 54.2

- RI AND AN LEVELS ARE WITHIN INTERNATIONAL


ACCEPTABLE LIMITS.
LOADING CRITERIA (800 KV Kishenpur-Moga)

- WIND ZONE - 4 (47M/SEC BASIC WIND SPEED).


- 150 YEAR RETURN PERIOD. AS PER REVISED IS-802.
- DESIGN WIND PRESSURE ON CONDUCTOR - 1825 Pa
- NARROW FRONT WIND LOADING EQUIVALENT TO
WIND SPEED OF 250 KM/HR. APPLIED ON TOWER
BODY.
- RULING SPAN - 400 M
- MAXM. WIND SPAN - 400 M
- WEIGHT SPANS -
MAXM - 600M FOR SUSPENSION & 750 M FOR
TENSION TOWERS
MINM - 200M FOR SUSPENSION & -200M FOR
TENSION TOWERS.
800KV S/C KISHENPUR-MOGA TRANSMISSION LINE
DESCRIPTION ALTERNATIVES/PARAMETERS/ RESULTS

Conductor Bundle (I) 8 nos. ACSR types with dia ranging from 30.56mm to 38.2mm. (2) 5 nos.
ACAR types with dia ranging from 30.40mm to 35.80mm. (3) 5 nos. AAAC
types with dia ranging from 31.50mm to 35.8mm.

Spans 300 m,350 m,400 m,450 m,500 m,550 m,600 m

Basic Design Considerations


(A) Wind Zone Wind Zone 4 as per IS:875(1987)
(B) Reliability Level 2 as per IS:802 (1995)
(C) Power Flow 2500 MW
(D) System Voltage 800kV
Results
(A) Optimum Conductor Bundle QUAD ACSR BERSIMIS
(B) Span
i. Ruling 400 m
ii. Maximum Wind Span 400 m
iii. Weight Spans 200 to 600 m for suspension towers, -200 to 750 m for tension towers
iv. Maximum ratio wind to weight span. 1.4

Line Parameters
(A) Clearances
i. Live Metal Clearance 5.10 m for switching surge,1.3m for power frequency
ii. Minimum Ground Clearance 15.0m
iii. Minimum Phase Clearance 15.0 m
(B) Insulator String
i. Suspension Towers Double I Suspension with 2x 40 nos, 120 kN disc insulators and single
0 deg. (I-V-I) suspension V string with 35 nos, 210kN disc insulators in each arm.
5 deg.(I-V-I) Double I Suspension with 2x 40 nos, 120 kN disc insulators and double
suspension V string with 2x35 nos, 160/210kN disc insulators in each arm.
15 deg. (V-V-V) Double V Suspension with 2x35 nos, 210kN disc insulators in each arm
(C) Interference Performance
i. Audible Noise 58dBA
ii. Radio Interference 50 dB/1µV/m at 834 kHz
765 kV S/C Kishenpur-Moga Transmission Line
(Horizontal Configuration)
New Generation 765 kV Single
Circuit Transmission Lines Of
POWERGRID
Special Features
Delta Configuration with I V I Insulator
Strings
Reduced Right of Way - 64 m (instead
of 85 m for Horizontal Configuration
Lines)
ROW = 85 Mts ROW = 64 Mts
765 kV S/C Delta Configuration Transmission
Line
765 KV SUBSTATION AT
SEONI
765 kV S/C Line - ELECTRIC FIELD (kV/m)

12

10
Electric Field (kV/m)

HORIZONTAL CONFIGURATION
6
DELTA CONFIGURATION

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Lateral distance (m)
765 kV S/C Line - RADIO INTERFERENCE (dB/1 micro volt/m)

60
Radio Interference (dB/1 micro volt/m)

50

40

HORIZONTAL CONFIGURATION
30
DELTA CONFIGURATION

20

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Lateral Distance (m)
765 kV S/C LINE - AUDIBLE NOISE (L5)

61

60
Audible Noise (dB above 20)

59

58

57 HORIZONTAL CONFIGURATION
DELTA CONFIGURATION
56

55

54

53

52
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Lateral distance (m)
765 kV S/C LINE - AUDIBLE NOISE (L50)

59

58

57
Audible noise (dB above 20)

56

55

54 HORIZONTAL CONFIGURATION
53 DELTA CONFIGURATION

52

51

50

49

48
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Lateral Distance (m)
765 kV Double Circuit
Transmission Line
DESIGN & OPTIMIZATION STUDIES
FOR 765 KV D/C TRANSMISSION LINE

Electrical Line Parameters


(Same as 765 kV S/C)
Nominal Line Voltage: 765kV r.m.s
Maximum Line Voltage: 800kV r.m.s
Switching Impulse Withstand level: 1550 kV peak
Air gap clearances : 5.6 m at 0 deg
4.4 m at swing corresponding
to 2 yr return period
1.3 m at swing corresponding
to 50 yr return period
DESIGN & OPTIMIZATION STUDIES
FOR 765 KV D/C TRANSMISSION LINE

Conductor – Bundle Alternatives

Quad ACSR Moose (4* 31.77 mm dia)


Quad ACSR Bersimis (4* 35.05 mm dia)
Quad ACSR Lapwing (4* 38.2 mm dia)
Hexa ACSR Zebra (6* 28.62 mm dia)
Hexa ACSR Cardinal (6* 30.4 mm dia)
Hexa ACSR Moose (6* 31.77 mm dia)
DESIGN & OPTIMIZATION STUDIES
FOR 765 KV D/C TRANSMISSION LINE

Conductor Surface Gradients & Corona Onset Gradients


Alternatives Max. Surface Gradient (kV/cm) Fair Weather Corona Onset Gradient
(kV/cm)

Quad Moose 21.2 20


Quad Bersimis 19.6 19.8
Quad Lapwing 17.9 19.7
Hexa Zebra 17.6 20.1
Hexa Cardinal 16.8 20
Hexa Moose 16.2 20

Electric Fields
Alternatives Maximum E.F. Within ROW in kV/m E.F. at ROW edge in kV/m
Quad Moose 9.0 1.6
Quad Bersimis 9.0 1.4
Quad Lapwing 9.3 1.5
Hexa Zebra 10.0 1.9
Hexa Cardinal 10.0 1.9
Hexa Moose 10.0 1.9
DESIGN & OPTIMIZATION STUDIES
FOR 765 KV D/C TRANSMISSION LINE
Radio Interference
Alternatives RIV at ROW edge in dB/µV/m
Quad Moose 53.8
Quad Bersimis 49.6
Quad Lapwing 45.7
Hexa Zebra 38.9
Hexa Cardinal 37.0
Hexa Moose 35.8

Audible Noise
Alternatives A.N. at L5 LEVEL at ROW edge in A.N. at L50 LEVEL at ROW edge in
dBA dBA

Quad Moose 63.8 62.8


Quad Bersimis 63.2 61.6
Quad Lapwing 62.0 59.6
Hexa Zebra 58.5 54.6
Hexa Cardinal 58.1 53.7
Hexa Moose 57.7 52.9
DESIGN & OPTIMIZATION STUDIES
FOR 765 KV D/C TRANSMISSION LINE
Insulator Strings
Conductor Bundle “I” Suspension String insulator rating Tension String insulator rating

HEXA Zebra 2 X 160 ; 2 X 35 nos. 4 X 210 ; 4 X 35 nos.

HEXA Cardinal 2 X 160 ; 2 X 35 nos. 4 X 320 ; 4 X 33 nos.

HEXA Moose 2 X 160 ; 2 X 35 nos. 4 X 320 ; 4 X 33 nos.

Comparative Capital Cost of Line


Conductor Bundle Estimated Capital Cost (in Rs Lakhs Percentage Increase
per km)

HEXA Zebra 240 Base

HEXA Cardinal 264 10.0 %

HEXA Moose 278 15.8%


DESIGN & OPTIMIZATION STUDIES
FOR 765 KV D/C TRANSMISSION LINE

Line Losses
Conductor Bundle Losses (kW/km) at 2500 MVA/ckt
Peak Average

HEXA Zebra 286 115


HEXA Cardinal 245 98
HEXA Moose 232 93

Comparative PWRR
Conductor Bundle PWRR of capital cost of line (in PWRR of losses (in Rs Total PWRR (in Rs
Rs lakhs/ km) lakhs/km) lakhs/km)

HEXA Zebra 360 390 750

HEXA Cardinal 396 334 730

HEXA Moose 417 317 734


765 KV D/C TOWER CONFIGURATION
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