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Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes discretizados via el m´etodo de elementos finitos

Rodiak Nicolai Figueroa L´opez y German Jesus Lozada Cruz

Departamento de Matem´aticas IBILCE/UNESP - S˜ao Jos´e do Rio Preto - Brasil

VII Fast Workshop on Applied and Computational Mathematics 8 de Enero del 2014

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

Mathematics 8 de Enero del 2014 Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa de la P − convergencia de

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

The Parabolic Problem

We consider the problem

  u t = Lu, u(t, x) = 0,

 

t > 0,

x

t > 0,

x

u(0, x) = a(x),

where a H

1 (Ω), Ω R n is a bounded domain with smooth

0

(1)

boundary Ω, n N, L is second order elliptic operator given by

Lu =

n

i,j=1

x i a ij (x)

u

x j +

n

j=1

b j (x) x u j + (c(x) + λ)u,

(2)

with coefficients a ij , b j , c : Ω R smooth, λ R.

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

c : Ω → R smooth, λ ∈ R . Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa de la

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

We assume that L is uniformly strongly elliptic operator, that is, there is a constant ϑ > 0 such that

n

i,j=1 a ij (x)ξ i ξ j ϑ

n

k=1

ξ

k 2 ,

for all x Ω, ξ = (ξ 1 ,

Let X = L 2 (Ω) be and define the sectorial linear operator

A : D (A) X X

We assume that λ is chosen such that Re σ(A) > 0. Then,

X 1 = D(A), X 0 = L 2 (Ω) and X 1/2 = H

ξ n ) R n with a ij = a ji , i, j = 1,

,

by Au = Lu and D (A) = H 2 (Ω) H

1

0

1 (Ω).

0

,

n.

(Ω).

With this notation, the problem (1) can be written in the abstract form

u˙ + Au = 0 u(0) = a X 1/2 .

(AP 0 )

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

= a ∈ X 1 / 2 . ( AP 0 ) Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

We can associate a sesquilinear form σ : X 1/2 × X 1/2 C such that

σ(u, v ) = Au, v X ,

u D(A),

v X 1/2 ,

|σ(u, v)| Re σ(u, u)

c 1 u X 1/2 v X 1/2 ,

u, v X 1/2

2

c 2 u X 1/2 ,

u X 1/2 ,

(3)

(4)

(5)

where the constants c 1 , c 2 are positives. Also, there are positive constants θ 1 < π/2 and M 1 with the following properties:

S 0,θ 1 = {z C : θ 1 ≤ | arg(z)| ≤ π, z

= 0} ⊂ ρ(A)

(z A) 1 L (X) M |z| 1 ,

z ∈ S 0,θ 1 .

and

(6)

Furthermore, the solution of the initial value problem (AP 0 ) is given by u(t ) = e tA a, t 0, where {e tA : t 0} is the analytic semigroup in X 1/2 generated by A (see [1, Page 35]). Also, from Theorem 1.7.7 in [3], we have

where Γ

1 e −tA = e −zt (z − A) −1 dz, (7) 2πi Γ 1
1
e −tA =
e −zt (z − A) −1 dz,
(7)
2πi Γ 1
Rodiak Figueroa L´opez
Tasa de la P−convergencia de operadores resolventes
−iθ
is the positively oriented boundary running from ∞e
1

Discretization of parabolic problems via FEM

Definition

Let R n be a given domain and let {T h } h(0,1] be a family of subdivisions such that

max{diam(T ) : T ∈ T h } ≤ h diam(Ω).

(8)

The family {T h } h(0,1] is said to be quasi-uniform if there exists ρ > 0 such that

min{diam(B T ) : T ∈ T h } ≥ ρh diam(Ω), h (0, 1],

(9)

where B T is the largest ball contained in T such that T is star-shaped with respect to B T .

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is star-shaped with respect to B T . Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa de la P −

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

Figura : Example of a T ∈ T h star-shaped with respect to ball B

Figura : Example of a T ∈ T h star-shaped with respect to ball B T in R 2 .

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

respect to ball B T in R 2 . Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa de la P

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

We describe the discretization of the domain Ω R n with n 2, using the finite element method. Thus, we will be able to discretize the problem (AP 0 ) and study the limitations given in [3] using the theory made in [1] for its generalization to n 2. We assume the following hypothesis about the domain Ω.

Assumption Let Ω ⊂ R n be a polyhedral domain with n ≥ 2 which
Assumption
Let Ω ⊂ R n be a polyhedral domain with n ≥ 2 which has
{T h } h∈(0,1] a quasi-uniform family of subdivisions with positive
constant ρ (see Definition 0.1). Let (K , P, N ) be a reference
element of class C 0 , satisfying
(i)
K is star-shaped with respect to some ball,
(ii)
P 1 ⊆
P ⊆ W 2,∞ (K )
and
+
(iii) N ⊆ C (K) , ∈ Z
0 .

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

+ (iii) N ⊆ C (K) , ∈ Z 0 . Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa de

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

Theorem

Let {T h } h(0,1] be a quasi-uniform family of subdivisions of a

polyhedral domain R n and (K , P, N ) the reference element of

class C 0 , satisfying

(i) K is star-shaped with respect a some ball,

(ii)

P m1 ⊆ P ⊆ W m, (K ) and

(iii)

N ⊆ C

(K) .

Suposse

m n 0 when p = 1. For all T ∈ T h , h (0, 1], let (T, P T , N T ) be the afin-equivalence element. Then, there exist a positive constant C depending of the reference element, n, m, p and ρ in (9) such that for 0 m,

1 p ≤ ∞ and or m n/p > 0 when p > 1 or

υ − I h υ W ,p () Ch m |υ| W m,p () , υ W m,p (Ω).

(10)

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

∀ υ ∈ W m , p (Ω) . (10) Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa de la

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

Theorem

Let {T h } h∈(0,1] be a quasi-uniform family of subdivisions of a polyhedral domain
Let {T h } h∈(0,1] be a quasi-uniform family of subdivisions of a
polyhedral domain Ω ⊆ R n . Let (K , P, N ) be a reference finite
element of class C 0 such that P ⊆ W l,p (K) ∩ W m,q (K ) where
1 ≤ p, q ≤ ∞ and 0 ≤ m ≤ l. For T ∈ T h , let (T , P T , N T ) be
the affine-equivalent element, and
V h = {v : v is measurable and v |T ∈ P T , ∀T ∈ P T }. Then there
exists a constant C = C (l, p, q, ρ) such that
n n
v W l,p (Ω) ≤ Ch m−l+min(0,
p −
q
(11)
) v W m,q (Ω)
for all v ∈ V h .

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

) v W m,q (Ω) for all v ∈ V h . Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

With this assumption, we can define the space

X

1/2

h

:= {I h υ : υ C (Ω), υ = 0} ⊂ X 1/2 C (Ω),

which has finite dimension and I h is the interpolation operator. (See [1, Page 108])

We can see that in the Assumption 0.2 we still do not know the value of . This value, , comes from the inequality m n/p > 0 with p [1, ] for v W m,p (Ω) from Theorem 4.4.20 in [1]. In our case, m = 2 = p and n 2, then < 1. Thus, = 0.

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

≥ 2, then < 1. Thus, = 0. Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa de la P −

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

With the Assumption 0.2 the Theorems 4.4.20 and 4.5.11 in [1]

holds. Then, there exists positive constants C and

ˆ

C such that

v − I h v W 1,2 ()

v W 1,2 (Ω)

Ch|v | W 2,2 () , v X 1 and

Ch 1 v L 2 () , v X

h

ˆ

1/2

.

(12)

(13)

In this framework, our finite element approximation

A h : X

1/2

h

1/2

X

h

of A is defined by

A h φ h , ψ h X = σ(φ h , ψ h ),

1/2

φ h , ψ h X

h

.

Thus, the discretization of problem (AP 0 ) can be written as

u˙ h + A h u h = 0, u h (0) = a h

(AP h )

with solution u h (t) = e tA h a h for all t 0.

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

t A h a h for all t ≥ 0. Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa de la

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

Definition

1/2

The orthogonal projection P h : X X inner product of X is defined by

h

with relation to the

P h g, v X = g, v X , v X

1/2

(14)

h

.

The following result follows immediately from the above definition.

Lemma

The ortogonal projection P h satisfies

P h f X f X , h (0, 1].

Lemma

If (4) and (5) holds, then there is a positive constant C such that

P h v v X s Ch 22s |v| H 2 () , v X and s = 0, 1/2.

h v − v X s ≤ Ch 2 − 2 s | v | H
h v − v X s ≤ Ch 2 − 2 s | v | H
 

(15)

) , ∀ v ∈ X and s = 0 , 1 / 2 .  

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

Definition

 

˜

1/2

h

 

The map

P h : X 1/2 X

defined by

˜

σ( P h v, χ) = σ(v, χ), χ X

1/2

h

.

is called elliptic projection in X 1/2 .

 

Lemma

˜

If (4) and (5) holds, then the map P h is well-defined, that is, for

all v X 1/2 , there is a unique v h X

1/2

h

such that

σ(v v h , χ) = 0, χ X

1/2

(16)

h

.

Moreover, there is a constant C > 0 such that

P h v X 1/2 C v X 1/2 , v X 1/2 .

˜

(17)

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

∀ v ∈ X 1 / 2 . ˜ (17) Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa de la

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

Theorem

If the assumption 0.2 holds, then there exist a constant C > 0 such that

˜

u P h u X Ch u X 1/2 ,

˜

u P h u X 1/2 Ch u X 1,

˜

u P h u X Ch 2 u X 1,

u X 1/2 ,

(18)

u X 1 ,

(19)

u X 1 , .

(20)

Proof:

using (16), we have

˜

We denote by u˜ h := P h u, uˆ h := I h u and e := u u˜ h , and

(e, ϕ h ) X 1/2 = 0,

1/2

ϕ h X

h

.

(21)

Hence, taking ϕ h = u˜ h uˆ h , using (12) and (21), we obtain

2

e X 1/2 = (e,

e + ϕ h ) X 1/2 = (e, u uˆ h ) X 1/2 Ch e X 1/2 u H 2 () ,

which implies (19). We recall that

e X =

0

sup

=φX

|(e, φ) X | . (22) φ X
|(e, φ) X |
.
(22)
φ X

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

From theory of elliptic operators (see [2]) we kwon that given φ X , there is a ψ X 1/2 , such that

Re σ(v , ψ) = (v , φ) X ,

Moreover, ψ H 2 (Ω) and

v X 1/2 .

ψ H 2 () C φ X .

(23)

(24)

Now, substitute (23) and (24) in (22), we have

e X C

0

sup

=ψX 1

| Re σ(e, ψ)|

ψ H 2 (Ω)

.

(25)

But, again using the Galerkin orthogonality, we obtain

1/2

Re σ(e, ψ) = Re σ(e, ψ)Re σ(e, ψ h ) = Re σ(e, ψψ h ), ψ h X

h

(26)

.

From continuity of σ and (26), it follows

| Re σ(e, ψ)| = | Re σ(e, ψ ψ h )| ≤ c 1 e X 1/2 ψ ψ h X 1/2 .

(27)

X 1 / 2 ψ − ψ h X 1 / 2 . (27) Rodiak Figueroa

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

Choosing ψ h satisfying the inequality (19), we obtain

ψ ψ h X 1/2

˜

Ch ψ H 2 () .

(28)

Then, from (25), (27) and (28), we have

e X Cc 1

0

sup

=ψX 1

˜

e X 1/2 Ch ψ H 2 ()

ψ H 2 (Ω)

.

Thus,

(29)

Since e X 1/2 u X 1/2 by the definition of u˜ h and (29) we obtain (18). Finally, replacing (19) in (29) it follows (20).

 

¯

e X

Ch e X 1/2

.

Lemma

If a subdivision {T h } h∈(0,1] is quasi-uniform family, then there exist a positive
If a subdivision {T h } h∈(0,1] is quasi-uniform family, then there exist
a positive constant C such that
P h v X 1/2 ≤ C v X 1/2 , ∀ h ∈ (0, 1] and v ∈ X 1/2 .
(30)
Rodiak Figueroa L´opez
Tasa de la P−convergencia de operadores resolventes

Theorem (Theorem 3.1 in [3])

There exist a positive constant C and an acute angle θ 1 such that

for any f

X and z ∈ S 0,θ 1 we have

(z A) 1 f (z A h ) 1 P h f X 1/2 Ch f X ,

(31)

(z A) 1 f (z A h ) 1 P h f X Ch 2 f X ,

(32)

(z A) 1 f (z A h ) 1 P h f X Ch|z| 1/2 f X ,

(33)

where (z A) 1 and (z A h ) 1 are the resolvent operators of A and A h , respectively.

Lemma

From Theorem 0.10 and Lemma 0.6, we obtain (z − A h ) −1 P
From Theorem 0.10 and Lemma 0.6, we obtain
(z − A h ) −1 P h f −P h (z − A) −1 f X s ≤ Ch 2−2s f X ,
(34)
for all z ∈ S 0,θ 1 , f
∈ X
and s = 0, 1/2.
Rodiak Figueroa L´opez
Tasa de la P−convergencia de operadores resolventes

Gracias !!!!!!!!!!!!!

Rodiak Figueroa L´opez

Gracias !!!!!!!!!!!!! Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa de la P − convergencia de operadores resolventes

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes

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. Florida: Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2004. Rodiak Figueroa L´opez Tasa de la P − convergencia de

Tasa de la Pconvergencia de operadores resolventes