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CVG3106 Summer 2018

Soil Mechanics II

Course Instructor
Sai Vanapalli
A015 (CBY)
vanapall@eng.uottawa.ca
(613)562-5800 Ext. 6638

CVG3106 - Summer 2018 - Dr. Sai Vanapalli


1
Effective stress

 No seepage of water
 Effective stress: vertical component of
forces at solid-to-solid contact points
over a unit cross-sectional area

σ γ h1 + γ sat h2
=
u = h2γ w
σ=′ γ h1 + γ ′h2

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Effective stress
 Upward seepage of water σ γ w h1 + γ sat h2
=
u = (h1 + h2 + h)γ w
σ ′ = σ − u = h2γ ′ − hγ w
σ ′ h2 (γ ′ − iγ w )
=

 Quick condition

σ′ = 0
γ ′ Gs − 1
=
i icr= =
γ w 1+ e

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 Example 1

A layer of saturated clay 4 m thick is overlain by sand 5 m


deep, the water table being 3 m below the surface. The
3m saturated unit weights of the clay and sand are 19 kN/m3 and
5m 20 kN/m3 respectively: above the water table the unit weight
of the is 17 kN/m3. Plot the vertical stress and effective
vertical stress against depth. If sand to a height of 1 m above
the water table is saturated with capillary water, how are the
above stresses affected?

4m

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1 m capillary rise

3m 3m
5m
17 kN/m3 5m
1m

20 kN/m3

4m 4m

2×17 + 1×20 = 54

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Consolidation
 Consolidation is the gradual reduction in volume of a fully saturated soil of low
permeability (i.e. clays) due to drainage of some of the pore water; the process of
consolidation continues until the excess pore water pressure set up by an increase
in total stress has completely dissipated.

 In other words, consolidation is long term settlement

 The above concept is valid only for saturated clays.

 What kind of settlement you expect for coarse-grained soils?

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Consolidation (Oedometer Test)
 Floating ring consolidometer

 Fixed ring consolidometer


Consolidation

 t=0
∆u =∆hiγ w =∆σ
∆σ ′ = ∆σ − ∆u = 0

 t=∞
∆u = 0
∆σ ′ =∆σ − ∆u =∆σ − 0 =∆σ

 The gradual increase in effective stress in the clay layer will cause settlement over
a period of time.

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Consolidation
 Normally consolidated clay
σ 0′ ≥ σ c′
 Overconsolidated clay
σ 0′ < σ c′

 Compression index (typically 0.1 - 0.3)


e1 − e2
= Cc = ; Cc 0.009( LL − 10)
 σ 2′ 
log  
 σ 1′ 
e3 − e4
 Swelling index Cs =
= (1/4 - 1/5) Cs σ′ 
log  4 
 σ 3′ 

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Consolidation
Calculation of primary consolidation
settlement in NC clays
e
Cs
∆σ z

Cc  σ z′1 
sc = H log  
1 + eo σ
 0 ′
Cc

σ c′ σ z′0 σ z′1 log σ ′

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Consolidation
Calculation of primary consolidation
settlement in OC clays
e ∆σ z e ∆σ z
Cs Cs

Cc Cc

σ z′0 σ z′1 σ c′ log σ ′ σ z′0 σ c′ σ z′1 log σ ′


Cs  σ z′1  Cs  σ c′  Cc  σ z′1 
sc = H log  =sc H log  + H log  
1 + eo σ ′
 z0  1 + eo σ ′
 z0  1 + eo σ
 c  ′

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 Example 2 (DGD)

A laboratory consolidation test on the normally consolidated clay gave


the following results show below.

a. Calculate the average effective stress


on the clay layer.

b. Determine the compression index,


Cc.

c. If the average effective stress on the


clay layer is increased to 115 kPa,
what would be the total
Pressure (kPa) Void ratio (e) consolidation settlement?
100 0.905
200 0.815

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 Example 3 (DGD)

A total of 60 mm consolidation settlement is expected in the two clay layers due to a


surcharge of ∆σ. Find the duration of surcharge application at which 30 mm of total
settlement would take place.

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 Example 4 (DGD)

The coefficient of consolidation of a clay for a given pressure range was obtained as
8 x 10-3 mm2/sec on the basis of one dimensional consolidation test results. In the
field, there is a 2 m thick layer of the same clay. Based on the assumption that a
uniform surcharge of 70 kPa was to be applied instantaneously, the total
consolidation settlement was estimated to be 150 mm. However, during
construction, the loading was gradual. Estimate the settlement at t = 30 and t = 120
days after the beginning of construction.

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Olson’s ramp loading solution

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Importance of Shear Strength of Soils
 Stability (and safety) of any geotechnical structure is
dependent on the shear strength of soils
Determination of Shear Strength of Soils

Unconfined
Triaxial test compression Direct shear test
test

Field vane test


Laboratory vane test
Shear strength
s= c′ + σ ′ tan φ ′ c’ = effective cohesion
σ = total normal stress
φ’ = angle of internal friction

 φ’ for gravels > sands> silts > clays


 Shear strength parameters are commonly determined using either direct shear
tests or triaxial shear tests.

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Direct shear test
Steel ball
Test procedure P
Pressure plate
Porous
plates

Proving ring
to measure
shear force

Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation

• Thanks to Dr. Nalin De Silva


Direct shear test
Steel ball
Test procedure P
Pressure plate
Porous
plates

Proving ring
to measure
shear force

Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation

Step 2: Lower box is subjected to a horizontal displacement at a constant rate


Shear strength

Direct shear test


N
σ′ =
A  Simple and can be used for sands to
determine the shear strength.
R
s=  Also, direct shear tests can be used for
A clays to determine the effective shear
strength parameters? Reasons ???

 What is the value of effective cohesion,


c’ for loose sands, gravels, and normally
consolidated soils?

 What is the value of effective cohesion,


c’ for dense sands and over-
consolidated clays?

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Shear strength

Triaxial shear test

 For clays, three main type of tests can


be conducted with triaxial equipment.

 Consolidated-Drained test (CD test)


 Consolidated-Undrained test (CU test)
 Unconsolidated-Undrained test (UU
test)

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Triaxial Shear Test
Piston (to apply deviatoric stress)

Failure plane
O-ring

impervious
membrane
Soil sample Soil
at failure sample
Porous
Perspex stone
cell
Water

Cell pressure
Back pressure Pore pressure or
volume change
pedestal
Triaxial Shear Test
Specimen preparation (undisturbed sample)

Sampling tubes

Sample extruder
Triaxial Shear Test
Specimen preparation (undisturbed sample)

Edges of the sample Setting up the sample


are carefully trimmed in the triaxial cell
• Thanks to Dr. Nalin De Silva
Triaxial Shear Test
Specimen preparation (undisturbed sample)

Sample is covered
with a rubber Cell is completely
membrane and sealed filled with water
Triaxial Shear Test
Specimen preparation (undisturbed sample)

Proving ring to
measure the
deviator load

Dial gauge to
measure vertical
displacement

• Thanks to Dr. Nalin De Silva


Types of Triaxial Tests deviatoric stress

Step 1
σc Step 2
(∆σ = q)

σc σc
σc σc

σc σ c+ q
Under all-around cell pressure σc Shearing (loading)

Is the drainage valve open? Is the drainage valve open?

yes no yes no

Consolidated Unconsolidated Drained Undrained


sample sample loading loading
Types of Triaxial Tests
Step 1 Step 2

Under all-around cell pressure σc Shearing (loading)

Is the drainage valve open? Is the drainage valve open?


yes no yes no

Consolidated Unconsolidated Drained Undrained


sample sample loading
loading

CD; Slow UU; Quick

CU; R
• Thanks to Dr. Nalin De Silva
Consolidated- drained test (CD Test)
Volume change of sample during consolidation

Expansion
Volume change of the

Time
sample

Compression
Consolidated- drained test (CD Test)
Stress-strain relationship during shearing

Deviator stress, ∆σd


Dense sand
or OC clay
(∆σd)f
Loose sand
(∆σd)f or NC Clay

Axial strain
Expansion
Volume change

Dense sand
of the sample

or OC clay
Axial strain
Compression

Loose sand
or NC clay
Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion
 Mohr circle: relationship between the shear strength
parameters and the effective principal stresses
σ’1

Principal Stresses
The maximum and
σ’3 σ’3 minimum normal
axial stresses
θ
(major and minor)

Principal Planes
σ’1 The planes at
which principal
φ′ stresses occur
θ θ= 45° +
2
CD tests How to determine strength parameters c’ and φ’
(∆σd)fc
σ1 = σ3 + (∆σd)f
Deviator stress, ∆σd

Confining stress = σ3c


Confining stress = σ3b

(∆σd)fb Confining stress = σ3a σ3


(∆σd)fa

Axial strain
φ’
Shear stress, τ

Mohr – Coulomb
failure envelope

σ or σ’
σ3a σ3b σ3c σ1a σ1b σ1c
(∆σd)fa (∆σd)fb
Consolidated- Undrained test (CU Test)
Stress-strain relationship during shearing

Deviator stress, ∆σd


Dense sand
or OC clay
(∆σd)f
Loose sand
(∆σd)f or NC Clay

Axial strain
+

Loose sand
/NC Clay
∆u

Axial strain
-

Dense sand
or OC clay
CU tests How to determine strength parameters c and φ
Deviator stress, ∆σd (∆σd)fb σ1 = σ3 + (∆σd)f
Confining stress = σ3b
Confining stress = σ3a
σ3
(∆σd)fa
Total stresses at failure
Axial strain
Shear stress, τ

Mohr – Coulomb φcu


failure envelope in
terms of total stresses

ccu
σ or σ’
σ3a σ3b σ1a σ1b
(∆σd)fa
CU tests How to determine strength parameters c and φ
σ’1 = σ3 + (∆σd)f - uf

σ’3 = σ3 - uf
Mohr – Coulomb failure uf
envelope in terms of
effective stresses Effective stresses at failure
Shear stress, τ

Mohr – Coulomb φ’
failure envelope in
terms of total stresses
φcu

ufb
C’ σ’3b ufa
ccu σ’1b σ or σ’
σ’3a σ3a σ3b σ’1a σ1a σ1b
(∆σd)fa
• Thanks to Dr. Nalin De Silva
Unconsolidated- Undrained test (UU Test)

Mohr circles in terms of total stresses

Failure envelope, φu = 0
τ

cu
ub ua

σ3a
σ’
3b3 ∆σf σ1a
σ’
1b1 σ or σ’
Shear strength

Triaxial shear test (Summary)

 Consolidated-drained test (CD test) (S test)

Sample is first consolidated and then sheared slowly such that no excess pore-
water pressures are developed (i.e. ∆u = 0). Therefore, σ’= σ in this type of test
during all stages of the test.

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Shear strength

Triaxial shear test (Summary)

 Consolidated-undrained test (CU test) (R test)

 The specimens are first consolidated and then sheared.


 During the shearing stage, pore-water pressures can be measured.
 Two different shear strength envelopes can be plotted for CU tests, if the pore-
water pressures are measured.

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Shear strength

Triaxial shear test (Summary)

 Unonsolidated-undrained test (UU test) (Q test)

 The soil specimens are not consolidated and sheared immediately under
undrained conditions.

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Shear strength

Triaxial shear test (Summary)

 Note: φ’ will be approximately same from CD tests and CU tests (with pore-
pressure measurements). But φ (from CU tests using total stress approach) will be
less than φ’ (from CU tests using effective stress approach).

 Total stress analysis (i.e. cu; φu = 0_(used in short term analysis: for understanding
stability of geotechnical structures immediately after loading).
Question: Which tests are used for determining them?

 Effective stress analysis (i.e. c’, φ’) (used in long term analysis).
Question: Which tests are used for determining them?

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Shear strength

Triaxial shear test (Summary)

This is Bell’s equation: VERY IMPORTANT

 φ′   φ′ 
=σ 1′ σ 3′ tan 2  45 +  + 2c′ tan  45 + 
 2  2

This is traditional failure envelope

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Shear strength (IMPORTANT SLIDE)

Relationships derived using Mohr’s Circles

 φ′   φ′ 
=σ 1′ σ 3′ tan 2  45 +  + 2c′ tan  45 + 
 2  2
1
τf
= (σ 1′ − σ 3′ ) sin 2θ
2
1 1
σ f = (σ 1′ + σ 3′ ) + (σ 1′ − σ 3′ ) cos 2θ
2 2
This is traditional failure envelope

φ ′ = sin −1 ( tan α ′ )
α′
c′ =
cos φ ′

This is modified failure envelope


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Shear strength

Stress path for CD and CU tests for a NC clay

UNDERSTAND ALL THE CONCEPTS

There are 3 different methods:


1. Analytical method (Bell’s equation)
2. Traditional failure envelop (Graphical)
3. Modified failure envelope (Graphical)

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 Example 5 (DGD)

Following are the results of the two consolidated- drained triaxial tests on a clay at
failure.

TEST 1: σ3 = 82.8 kPa ; σ1 = 329.2 kPa


TEST 2: σ3 = 165.6 kPa; σ1 = 558.6 kPa

Determine the effective shear strength parameters, c’ and φ’.

Can be solved using 3 different methods:


1. Analytical method (Bell’s equation)
2. Traditional failure envelop (Graphical)
3. Modified failure envelope (Graphical)

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Shear strength

Pore-water pressure parameters


σd
∆u = B [∆σ 3 + A (∆σ 1 − ∆σ 3 )]
σ3 } σ1
∆u = ∆u(Confining ) + ∆u( Deviator )

B∆σ 3
∆u(Confining ) =
∆u(Confining )
B= B = f(saturation)
σ3 ∆σ 3
∆u
∆u( Deviator =
) A(∆σ 1 − ∆σ 3 )
∆u( Deviator )
A= A = f(OCR)
(∆σ 1 − ∆σ 3 )

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Shear strength

Pore-water pressure parameters


 In the above equation, B = 1 when
degree of saturation, S = 1; B = 0 when
S = 0 and under unsaturated
conditions, 0 < B < 1.

 Both B and A can be determined


experimentally (using triaxial shear
strength tests)

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Shear strength

Pore-water pressure parameters


 Both B and A can be determined experimentally (using triaxial shear strength
tests)

 This experiment will be demonstrated in the laboratory. It will take several weeks
to complete a series of triaxial shear strength tests (to determine the shear
strength parameters). Due to this reason, this is a VERY EXPENSIVE TEST. But, a
VERY RELIABLE TEST!!!

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 Example 6 (DGD)

An embankment is being constructed of soil whose properties are c’= 50 kPa, φ’=
21° (referred to effective stress) and γ = 15.7 kN/m3. The pore pressure
parameters as found from triaxial tests are A = 0.5 and B = 0.9. Find the shear
strength of the soil at the base of the embankment just after the height of fill has
been raised from 3 m to 6 m. Assume that the dissipation of pore pressure during
the stage of construction is negligible, and that the lateral pressure at any point is
one half of the vertical pressure.

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Shear strength

Unconfined compression test


 It is convenient to measure the
undrained shear strength of cohesive
soils.

 Typically used in the design of


foundations on clayey type of soils
(test competed in 15 min).

 Special case of triaxial shear test with


σ3 = 0.

 cu = s1/2 = qu/2

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Shear strength

Interpretation of shear strength


 Peak strength values are commonly
used for coarse-grained soils or soils
that that are subjected to limited
strains. Residual strength values are
used for clays.
 Normally consolidated clay: c’ = 0
 Overconsolidated clay: well defined c’
 Lowest φ’: φr

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Torsional ring shear test

τf
τ φ’max

φ’res

Peak
Residual

Shear σ’
displacement
Torsional ring shear test

σN

Preparation of ring shaped


undisturbed samples is very
difficult. Therefore, remoulded
samples are used in most cases
Shear strength

Interpretation of shear strength

 Drained Loading  Undrained Loading


 In this case, the pore-water pressures  In this case, the pore-water pressures
are equal to zero or they are are typically not measured
measured  During construction (Rapid)
 Long term stability Embankments and Cuttings
 Steady state seepage  Sudden drawdown
 Shallow foundations Dam reservoirs /Floods
 Slow rates of construction  No seepage control
 Seepage control during construction Embankments and Cuttings
 Earthquake loading

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Some practical applications of
CD analysis (i.e. S tests) for clays
1. Embankment constructed very slowly, in layers over a soft clay
deposit

Soft clay

τ τ = in situ drained
shear strength
Some practical applications of
CD analysis (i.e. S tests) for clays
2. Earth dam with steady state seepage

τ
Core

τ = drained shear
strength of clay core
Some practical applications of
CD analysis (i.e. S tests) for clays
3. Excavation or natural slope in clay

τ = In situ drained shear strength

Note: CD test simulates the long term condition in the field.


Thus, c’ and φ’ should be used to evaluate the long
term behavior of soils
Some practical applications of
CU analysis (i.e. R tests) for clays
1. Embankment constructed rapidly over a soft clay deposit

Soft clay

τ τ = in situ undrained
shear strength
Some practical applications of
CU analysis (i.e. R tests) for clays
2. Rapid drawdown behind an earth dam

τ
Core

τ = Undrained shear
strength of clay core
Some practical applications of
CU analysis (i.e. R tests) for clays
3. Rapid construction of an embankment on a natural slope

τ = In situ undrained shear strength


Note: Total stress parameters from CU test (ccu and φcu) (also, referred to
as c and φ) can be used for stability problems where,
Soil have become fully consolidated and are at equilibrium with
the existing stress state; Then for some reason additional
stresses are applied quickly with no drainage occurring
Some practical applications of
UU analysis (i.e. Q tests) for clays
1. Embankment constructed rapidly over a soft clay deposit

Soft clay

τ τ = in situ undrained
shear strength
Some practical applications of
UU analysis (i.e. Q tests) for clays
2. Large earth dam constructed rapidly with
no change in water content of soft clay

τ
Core

τ = Undrained shear
strength of clay core
Some practical applications of
UU analysis (i.e. Q tests) for clays
3. Footing placed rapidly on clay deposit

τ = In situ undrained shear strength

Note: UU test simulates the short term condition in the field.


Thus, cu can be used to analyze the short term
behavior of soils; here φu = 0
Various Applications of Shear Strength

Embankment

Strip footing

Failure surface

Mobilized shear
resistance
Various Applications of Shear Strength

Retaining
wall
Shear failure of soils
Soils generally fail in shear

Mobilized
Retaining
shear
wall
resistance

Failure
surface
Thank You
for
Your Attention

CVG3106 - Summer 2018 - Dr.


67
Sai Vanapalli