Soil Mechanics II
Course Instructor
Sai Vanapalli
A015 (CBY)
vanapall@eng.uottawa.ca
(613)5625800 Ext. 6638
No seepage of water
Effective stress: vertical component of
forces at solidtosolid contact points
over a unit crosssectional area
σ γ h1 + γ sat h2
=
u = h2γ w
σ=′ γ h1 + γ ′h2
Quick condition
σ′ = 0
γ ′ Gs − 1
=
i icr= =
γ w 1+ e
4m
3m 3m
5m
17 kN/m3 5m
1m
20 kN/m3
4m 4m
2×17 + 1×20 = 54
t=0
∆u =∆hiγ w =∆σ
∆σ ′ = ∆σ − ∆u = 0
t=∞
∆u = 0
∆σ ′ =∆σ − ∆u =∆σ − 0 =∆σ
The gradual increase in effective stress in the clay layer will cause settlement over
a period of time.
Cc σ z′1
sc = H log
1 + eo σ
0 ′
Cc
Cc Cc
The coefficient of consolidation of a clay for a given pressure range was obtained as
8 x 103 mm2/sec on the basis of one dimensional consolidation test results. In the
field, there is a 2 m thick layer of the same clay. Based on the assumption that a
uniform surcharge of 70 kPa was to be applied instantaneously, the total
consolidation settlement was estimated to be 150 mm. However, during
construction, the loading was gradual. Estimate the settlement at t = 30 and t = 120
days after the beginning of construction.
Unconfined
Triaxial test compression Direct shear test
test
Proving ring
to measure
shear force
Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation
Proving ring
to measure
shear force
Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation
Failure plane
Oring
impervious
membrane
Soil sample Soil
at failure sample
Porous
Perspex stone
cell
Water
Cell pressure
Back pressure Pore pressure or
volume change
pedestal
Triaxial Shear Test
Specimen preparation (undisturbed sample)
Sampling tubes
Sample extruder
Triaxial Shear Test
Specimen preparation (undisturbed sample)
Sample is covered
with a rubber Cell is completely
membrane and sealed filled with water
Triaxial Shear Test
Specimen preparation (undisturbed sample)
Proving ring to
measure the
deviator load
Dial gauge to
measure vertical
displacement
Step 1
σc Step 2
(∆σ = q)
σc σc
σc σc
σc σ c+ q
Under allaround cell pressure σc Shearing (loading)
yes no yes no
CU; R
• Thanks to Dr. Nalin De Silva
Consolidated drained test (CD Test)
Volume change of sample during consolidation
Expansion
Volume change of the
Time
sample
Compression
Consolidated drained test (CD Test)
Stressstrain relationship during shearing
Axial strain
Expansion
Volume change
Dense sand
of the sample
or OC clay
Axial strain
Compression
Loose sand
or NC clay
MohrCoulomb Failure Criterion
Mohr circle: relationship between the shear strength
parameters and the effective principal stresses
σ’1
Principal Stresses
The maximum and
σ’3 σ’3 minimum normal
axial stresses
θ
(major and minor)
Principal Planes
σ’1 The planes at
which principal
φ′ stresses occur
θ θ= 45° +
2
CD tests How to determine strength parameters c’ and φ’
(∆σd)fc
σ1 = σ3 + (∆σd)f
Deviator stress, ∆σd
Axial strain
φ’
Shear stress, τ
Mohr – Coulomb
failure envelope
σ or σ’
σ3a σ3b σ3c σ1a σ1b σ1c
(∆σd)fa (∆σd)fb
Consolidated Undrained test (CU Test)
Stressstrain relationship during shearing
Axial strain
+
Loose sand
/NC Clay
∆u
Axial strain

Dense sand
or OC clay
CU tests How to determine strength parameters c and φ
Deviator stress, ∆σd (∆σd)fb σ1 = σ3 + (∆σd)f
Confining stress = σ3b
Confining stress = σ3a
σ3
(∆σd)fa
Total stresses at failure
Axial strain
Shear stress, τ
ccu
σ or σ’
σ3a σ3b σ1a σ1b
(∆σd)fa
CU tests How to determine strength parameters c and φ
σ’1 = σ3 + (∆σd)f  uf
σ’3 = σ3  uf
Mohr – Coulomb failure uf
envelope in terms of
effective stresses Effective stresses at failure
Shear stress, τ
Mohr – Coulomb φ’
failure envelope in
terms of total stresses
φcu
ufb
C’ σ’3b ufa
ccu σ’1b σ or σ’
σ’3a σ3a σ3b σ’1a σ1a σ1b
(∆σd)fa
• Thanks to Dr. Nalin De Silva
Unconsolidated Undrained test (UU Test)
Failure envelope, φu = 0
τ
cu
ub ua
σ3a
σ’
3b3 ∆σf σ1a
σ’
1b1 σ or σ’
Shear strength
Sample is first consolidated and then sheared slowly such that no excess pore
water pressures are developed (i.e. ∆u = 0). Therefore, σ’= σ in this type of test
during all stages of the test.
The soil specimens are not consolidated and sheared immediately under
undrained conditions.
Note: φ’ will be approximately same from CD tests and CU tests (with pore
pressure measurements). But φ (from CU tests using total stress approach) will be
less than φ’ (from CU tests using effective stress approach).
Total stress analysis (i.e. cu; φu = 0_(used in short term analysis: for understanding
stability of geotechnical structures immediately after loading).
Question: Which tests are used for determining them?
Effective stress analysis (i.e. c’, φ’) (used in long term analysis).
Question: Which tests are used for determining them?
φ′ φ′
=σ 1′ σ 3′ tan 2 45 + + 2c′ tan 45 +
2 2
φ′ φ′
=σ 1′ σ 3′ tan 2 45 + + 2c′ tan 45 +
2 2
1
τf
= (σ 1′ − σ 3′ ) sin 2θ
2
1 1
σ f = (σ 1′ + σ 3′ ) + (σ 1′ − σ 3′ ) cos 2θ
2 2
This is traditional failure envelope
φ ′ = sin −1 ( tan α ′ )
α′
c′ =
cos φ ′
Following are the results of the two consolidated drained triaxial tests on a clay at
failure.
B∆σ 3
∆u(Confining ) =
∆u(Confining )
B= B = f(saturation)
σ3 ∆σ 3
∆u
∆u( Deviator =
) A(∆σ 1 − ∆σ 3 )
∆u( Deviator )
A= A = f(OCR)
(∆σ 1 − ∆σ 3 )
This experiment will be demonstrated in the laboratory. It will take several weeks
to complete a series of triaxial shear strength tests (to determine the shear
strength parameters). Due to this reason, this is a VERY EXPENSIVE TEST. But, a
VERY RELIABLE TEST!!!
An embankment is being constructed of soil whose properties are c’= 50 kPa, φ’=
21° (referred to effective stress) and γ = 15.7 kN/m3. The pore pressure
parameters as found from triaxial tests are A = 0.5 and B = 0.9. Find the shear
strength of the soil at the base of the embankment just after the height of fill has
been raised from 3 m to 6 m. Assume that the dissipation of pore pressure during
the stage of construction is negligible, and that the lateral pressure at any point is
one half of the vertical pressure.
cu = s1/2 = qu/2
τf
τ φ’max
φ’res
Peak
Residual
Shear σ’
displacement
Torsional ring shear test
σN
Soft clay
τ τ = in situ drained
shear strength
Some practical applications of
CD analysis (i.e. S tests) for clays
2. Earth dam with steady state seepage
τ
Core
τ = drained shear
strength of clay core
Some practical applications of
CD analysis (i.e. S tests) for clays
3. Excavation or natural slope in clay
Soft clay
τ τ = in situ undrained
shear strength
Some practical applications of
CU analysis (i.e. R tests) for clays
2. Rapid drawdown behind an earth dam
τ
Core
τ = Undrained shear
strength of clay core
Some practical applications of
CU analysis (i.e. R tests) for clays
3. Rapid construction of an embankment on a natural slope
Soft clay
τ τ = in situ undrained
shear strength
Some practical applications of
UU analysis (i.e. Q tests) for clays
2. Large earth dam constructed rapidly with
no change in water content of soft clay
τ
Core
τ = Undrained shear
strength of clay core
Some practical applications of
UU analysis (i.e. Q tests) for clays
3. Footing placed rapidly on clay deposit
Embankment
Strip footing
Failure surface
Mobilized shear
resistance
Various Applications of Shear Strength
Retaining
wall
Shear failure of soils
Soils generally fail in shear
Mobilized
Retaining
shear
wall
resistance
Failure
surface
Thank You
for
Your Attention