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Block Diagrams and Transfer Functions

Hence, the equivalent block diagram:


It is often useful to represent or model a system graphically. Block
diagrams are a useful and simple method for analyzing a system which
relates its input to its output:

Under feedback:

y(t) = u(t) * h(t)

If system H has a time-domain impulse response h(t), output y(t) can be


expressed in terms of its input as

Y(s) = H(s). X(s) 𝑌


= 𝑋 ∓ 𝑃2 𝑌
𝑃1
Similarly, sub-system blocks and their transfer functions can be combined
in various configurations, but in particular in series; Or equivalently:

Clearly if the output U of P1 is also the input to P2 then: Note that if 𝑃1 𝑃2 ≫ 1, then we have a command and control system:

𝑌 𝑈𝑌 𝑌
= = 𝑃1 𝑃2 →1
𝑋 𝑋𝑈 𝑋