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HIGHWAY R E S E A R C H BOARD

Bulletin 65
r$>^ L I B R A R Y t
NOV 2 0 1957
^ # 4 L RtSEARCH 65^^
Mapping and
Subsurface Exploration
for Engineering
Purposes

X
HIGHWAY R E S E A R C H HOARD
1952

R . H . BALDOCK, Chairman W . H . ROOT, Vice Chairman


F R E D BURGGRAF, Director

Executive Committee

THOMAS H . MACDONAU), CoTOwissioner, Bureau of Public Roads


HAL. H . H A L E , Executive Secretary, American Association of
State Highway Officials
Executive Secretary, Division of Engineering
L O U I S JORDAN,
and Industrial Research, National Research Council
R . H . BALDOCK, State Highway Engineer, Oregon State
Highway Commission
W . H . ROOT, Maintenance Engineer, Iowa State Highway
Commission
H . P . BiGLER^ Former Executive Vice President, Connors Steel
Company
P Y K E JOHNSON, President, Automotive Safety Foundation
G. DONALD K E N N E D Y , Consulting Engineer and Assistant to
President, Portland Cement Association
BURTON W . MARSH, Director, Safety and Traffic Engineering
Department, American Automobile Association
R . A . MoYER, Research Engineer, Institute of Transportation
and Traffic Engineering, University of California
F . V . REAGEL, Engineer of Materials, Missouri State Highway
Department

Editorial Staff

F R E D BURGGRAF W . N . CAREY, JR. W. J . MUXER


2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington 25, D . C.

The opinions and conrlii.sions cxprcs-secl in this piibliration are those of the authors
and not necessarily those of the Highway Research Board.
HIGHWAY R E S E A R C H BOARD

, .cLr Bulletin 65 ^^. . ^ t R H

r-:/;:, > . 0 -5'] /iM<-,'- ''!

Mapping and ^ ^ ^
Subsurface Exploration &
for Engineering
Purposes

. • •'.•.•.i.vaov'k' ;•

Vi^/.f- • i:'f;£-:;;', i-.nijoat^fi ,e;.ii^*j:

•"•^ 1952 - " . ^ v

Washington, I). C. Jmi.


DEPARTMENT OF SOILS INVESTIGATIONS
Harold Allen, Chairman
Principal Highway Engineer,
Bureau of Public Roads,
U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D . C .

COMMITTEE ON SURVEYING AND CLASSIFYING SOILS


IN PLACE FOR ENGINEERING PURPOSES

Frank R. Olmstead, Chairman


Bureau of Public Roads,
U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D . C .

Professor Donald J . Belcher, School of Engineering, Cornell University,


Ithaca, New York
Earl F . Bennett, c/o Koppers Company, Tar Products Division, Koppers
Building, Pittsburgh 19, Pennsylvania
Donald T. Davidson, Research Associate Professor of Civil Engineering,
Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa
L . E . Gregg, Associate Director of Research, Kentucky Department of
Highways, 132 Graham Avenue, Lexington 29, Kentucky
L . D . Hicks, Chief Soils Engineer, North Carolina State Highway and Public
Works Commission, Raleigh, North Carolina
D. L . Lacey, Senior Engineer, State Highway Commission of Kansas,
Topeka, Kansas
0. L . Lund, LCDR, ROinCC Ordnance Aerophysics Laboratory, Daingerfield,
Texas
A. E . Matthews, Assistant Engineer of Soils, Testing and Research Division,
Michigan State Highway Department, Lansing 13, Michigan
George W. McAlpin J r . , Director, Bureau of Soil Mechanics, New York
Department of Public Works, State Office Building, Albany 1, New York
1. E . Russell, Chief Materials Engineer, Wyoming State Highway Department,
Cheyenne, Wyoming
D . J . Steele, Senior Highway Engineer, Bureau of Public Roads, 1101 Flood
Building, 870 Market Street, San Francisco 2, California
A. L . Straub, Associate Research Engineer, Virginia Council of Highway
Investigation and Research, Thornton Hall, University of Virginia,
Charlottesville, Virginia
Walter H. Zimpfer, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, Civil Engi-
neering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
ii
Contents
Page
COMMITTEE PERSONNEL ii

INTRODUCTION
Frank R. Olmstead, Chairman 1

GEOLOGIC SURVEY MAPPING IN THE UNITED STATES 3

SOIL INVESTIGATION EMPLOYING A NEW METHOD OF


LAYER-VALUE DETERMINATION FOR EARTH
RESISTIVITY INTERPRETATION
H. E . Barnes 26

E F F E C T OF NATIVE MATERIALS ON ROADBUILDING IN OHIO


Harry E . Marshall 37

111
Introduction

FRANK R. OLMSTEAD, Chairman,


Highway Research Engineer, Bureau of Public Roads

• THIS IS the fifth in a related series of At the present time 10 States are making
bulletins sponsored by the Committee on State-wide appraisals of soils and engi-
Soil Surveying and Classifying Soils In- neering soil maps. Four of these, New
Place for Engineering Purposes. The Jersey, Maine, Virginia and Rhode Island,
four previous bulletins, 13, 22, 28, and have cooperative research projects with
46, contain useful information on the in- the Bureau of Public Roads and there are
terpretation of aerial photographs, agri- indications that other States are interested
cultural and geological maps for planning in similar projects.
and organizing engineering soil surveys Local deposits of suitable road gravel
and mapping on an area basis, on the use are rapidly being exhausted in many parts
and application of geophysical methods of of the country. Consequently, materials
subsurface exploration, on the location of must be imported from more distant
granular materials for road-building pur- points. In some areas, the situation is
poses, and on the status of topographic, quite acute and any method which can be
agricultural, and geologic mapping by the utilized to relieve this shortage of local
U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. materials should be fully examined before
Department of Agriculture. Lists of making the final decision to writeoff these
geologists and soil scientists, who may be critical areas from further exploration.
able to assist the highway engineer in The two papers presented in this bul-
obtaining more precise information for letin should be of particular interest to
mapping and map interpretation for any those faced with the problem of shortages
particular part of the United States, have in local materials. Often usable deposits
been included for ready reference. can be found in areas where surface indi-
This bulletin is a continuation of the cations do not reflect the economical occur-
policy of the committee to present infor- rence of such deposits.
mation useful to the engineers responsible The first paper by Mr. Barnes on a new
for planning and building our highways. method of interpretation of resistivity
The rapid rise in construction costs, data shows considerable promise in the
the increased road damage by the greater area in which it has been developed. It is
volume and type of traffic in recent years suggested that engineers in other areas
have made the highway administrator consider this method of layer-value in-
aware of the urgent need for locating, terpretations in their use of resistivity
evaluating, and selectmg local soils with for subsurface exploration so that further
high-bearing power for subbase and base improvements can be made in this method
courses of roads. This trend of thought of exploration.
has been accelerated by the recent findings The second paper by Mr. Marshall on
of road tests by the Highway Research the effect of native materials on road-
Board and States and even more emphasis building in Ohio should be of special sig-
will be placed on the use of the better nificance to the highway administrator
types of local soils and geologic materials because it points out how the complex in-
when the factual evidence of other road formation obtained from geological and
tests I S more widely known. pedological systems of terrain classifi-
The committee considers that the cation can be correlated with considerable
methods of terrain appraisal and subsur- laboratory test data and simplified so that
face exploration described m previous it can readily be understood by the average
H. R. B. bulletins 13, 22, 28, and 46 can highway engineer and applied to the im-
be used to locate and evaluate local ma- provement of their roads and streets.
terials on a State or Nation-wide basis. It I S important to call attention to the
fact that this correlation work in soils and and maintenance problems in the state.
geology and engineering test data was a The decision to use experienced per-
part of the Ohio Department of Highway's sonnel to compile this type of terrain in-
intensive study of the State's roads and formation and the subsequent reduction of
streets to obtain a comprehensive picture this information mto usable form is sig-
of their highway needs. It should also be nificant because it would be difficult and
noted that this work was undertaken by perhaps impossible to carry out this work
experienced soil engineers and technical without a complete understanding of the
research personnel who are thoroughly relations between geology, climate, soils,
acquainted with the design, construction, traffic, design, and construction practices.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF COMMITTEE

Purpose Board with recommendations onengineer-


To assist in the development of a pro- mg soil problems that may be assigned
gram of engineering papers and publica- for review and comment.
tions to emphasize the need for soil
survey information in highway planning Scope
and construction, and to point out practical In general all phases of the soil survey
applications of the use of soil surveys in work such as, interpretation of airphotos,
highway engineering work. geologic maps or agronomic soil maps for
To assist in the development of new soils information, the preparation of engi-
methods for making soil surveys or for neering soil maps, or the preparation of
the identification and classification of material mventorieson an area basis, the
soils from laboratory or field data. methods of subsurface exploration - seis-
To review and recommend for approval mic or resistivity, the evaluation of soil
any technical papers on soils under the survey datafor the design, construction or
jurisdiction of this committee which may maintenance of highways and the methods
be submitted for presentation and publica- of correlation of soil data with pavement
tion by the Highway Research Board. performance are considered within the
Also to furnish the Highway Research scope of this project committee activity.
Geologic Survey Mapping in the United States
• THE committee mdicated m BuUetm siderable laboratory and office research
46 the status and usefulness of geologic generally not performed in the field area,
maps for highway-engmeermg purposes. it I S suggested that any mquiry about them
The following information furnished by the should be addressed to Director, U. S.
U. S. Geological Survey at the request of Geological Survey, Washington 25, D. C .
the committee has been mcluded to sup- Water Resources Division projects, Table
plement the information contained in 2, are directed from permanent off ices in
Bulletin 46. the states where both original and pub-
The usefulness of geologic maps for lished records are available. Inquiry may
highway engineering purposes was brought be made through the field offices or through
out in Bulletin 28, 1950. This bulletin the Director, as indicated above.
included a map showing the status of geo-
logic mapping in the United States furnished STATE GEOLOGICAL INDEX MAP
by the U. S. Geological Survey and mfor-
mation about available indexes to geologic The following map indexes, which are
mapping obtainable by States from that now available for most of the States, show
organization. A new map which brings the areas of published geologic maps in
the information about published geologic each State and give the source of publi-
maps up to 1952 has just been released by cation of each map. Following is a list of
the Geological Survey and is reproduced the available geologic map indexes with
in Figure 1. Extra copies of this map price of each. Most of these indexes are
may be obtained on application to the on a scale of 1:750,000, others are
Geological Survey, Washington 25, D. C. 1:500,000 or 1:1,000,000. They maybe
obtained from the Chief of Distribution,
Current Investigations of the U.S.G. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. ,
Involving Geologic Mapping or for the convenience of persons living
west of the Mississippi River, indexes
The Geological Survey prepares geo- for States m that part of the country may
logic maps for several purposes m more be ordered from the Distribution Section,
than one of its divisions. The Geologic Geological Survey, Denver Federal Cen-
Division conducts systematic surveys and ter, Denver, Colorado.
research and investigations related to
mineral resources and to engineering Alabama so 40 Nevada SO 30
New Hampshlre-Vt 50
geologic problems. Many of the geologic Arizona
Arkansas
35
65 New Jersey .40
maps prepared by this division are highly California 1.00 New Mexico 70
60
detailed and restricted to mineralized Colorado 70
.35
New York
North Carolina 50
Georgia
areas. The Water Resources Division, Idaho 25 North Dakota .40
through its Ground Water Branch, makes Indiana 45
35
Ohio
Oregon
25
.25
Iowa
systematic and special geologic investi- Kansas 30 Pennsylvania .60
gations in connection with the occurrence Kentucky 50
50
South Carolina
South Dakota
.25
30
Louisiana
of ground water. Many of the studies have Maine 25 Tennessee 40
special application to highway construction Maryland-Delaware 40 Texas
Utah
60
.25
Mass - R 1 -Conn 40
and planning. Geologic maps, cross- Mississippi 25 Virginia 40
sections, and texts are published. Missouri .30 Washington
West Virginia
35
25
Montana 35
The following list of investigations Nebraska 35 Wyoming 50
include only a real geologic mapping which
it I S felt may be useful to engmeers en- Most of the states have geological sur-
gaged in construction work in the areas veys or similar state agencies that can
concerned. supply information on availability of geo-
As geologists in charge of the Geologic logic maps and work in progress within
Division projects, Table 1, are in the their states. The names of the state geolo-
field for only a part of the year, and as gists and the location of their offices have
the investigations frequently involve con- been listed m Table 3 for ready reference.
STATUS O F OEOUXIIC UAPPINO

UNITED S T A T E S
T R H R I T O R I E S AND PORSESSIONH

Showing pubUshed geologic maps at


scales between 1 ml to 1 In. and
2 ml. to 1 In Includes some maps
not yet printed but available for
public Inspection.
S T A T U S O F Q E O L O G I C MAPPING
INTIIIt
UNITED STATES
TRRniTOniES AMI F
U.S.D.A - Division of Soil Survey

The Status of soil mapping in the United reference purposes. The address of the
States was presented m Highway Research soil correlators are given in Table 4 and
Board Bulletin 22, "Engineering Use of it IS suggested that these men should be
Agricultural Soil Maps". Additional areas consulted regarding additional details
mapped for 50 and 51 were shown in Bul- about the mapping in these areas.
letins 28 and 46. Since the publication of
the last bulletin additional county, or area, The committee suggests that engineers
agricultural maps have been published; who may not be familiar with the classifi-
also new soil surveys have been started cation system used in the preparation of
or are in the process of completion. agricultural soil maps consult with the
Table 5 lists the soil mapping completed soil correlator designated in Table 4 for
since the publication of BuUetm 46 and the area in question. In many instances
Table 6 lists the counties or areas m which he can indicate which soil map units (soil
soil surveys are in progress. This map- type) are likely to contain sources of road-
ping IS listed by states and where field building materials and also assist the
work IS in progress the party chief and engineer to better understand the county
the soil correlator has been included for soil maps.

Soil Conservation Service - U.S.D.A.

The status of soil mapping by the Soil furnishing factual ground information and
Conservation Service has been indicated minimize the number of field checks re-
in Highway Research Board Bulletin 28 quired for estimating the engineering sig-
"Soil Exploration and Mapping" and a map nificance of terrain in the interfarm areas
was included to show the extent of this from the study of aerial photographs.
type of coverage in the United States.
This information should be useful to The regional soil scientist usually can
engineers making engineering soil sur- furnish the engineer with Soil profile de-
veys or preparing generalized soil maps scriptions, soil keys, nomenclature and
from the study of aerial photographs for the type of parent material associated with
engineering purposes in areas which do the various soil series mapped in his re-
not have published agricultural soil maps. gion. The regional soil scientists for the
Often areas which are not covered by pub- various regions are listed in Table 7 and
lished county or area agricultural soil the State Soil Scientists are shown in Table
maps have been mapped rather extensively 8. It IS suggested that these men be con-
by individual farm maps. Since these sulted for detailed information useful for
maps indicate the soil type and series making engineermg appraisals for highway
they can be made an invaluable aid for purposes.
TABLE 1

CURRENT INVESTIGATIONS INVOLVING GEOLOGIC MAPPING,


GEOLOGIC DIVISION, 1-62,500 OR LARGER SCALES

PE215£t ALABAMA
Survey of the belt of Cretaceous rocks In Central Alabama L. C Conant

ARIZONA
Jerome Copper District, Yavapai County C. A Anderson
Globe-Miami Copper District, Gila County N. P. Peterson
Little Dragoons Copper District, Cochise County J. R Cooper
Carrizo Mountains, Northeastern Arizona J D. Strobell, Jr.
Investigations of uranium in pre-Morrison formations J. F. Smith, Jr.
Upper Gila River Basin R. B. Morrison

ARKANSAS
North Arkansas Oil and Gas, Geologic Mapping and Studies of Resources, Newton-
Searcy Counties J. C. Maher
Waldron quadrangle J. A. Reinemund

CALIFORNU
San Andreas Rift Zone, Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties Levi F. Noble
Areas in Mojave Desert Region, San Bernardino and Kern Counties D. F. Hewett
San Francisco Area Julius Schlocker
Bishop Tungsten District, Inyo County P. C Bateman
Motherload Gold District, Tuolumne and Calavaras Counties A A. Stromquist
Shasta Copper District, Shasta County A. R. Kinkel
Cerro Gordo Quadrangle, Inyo County W. C. Smith
Pala Pegmatite district, San Diego and Riverside Counties R. H. Jahns
Ub'ehebe Peak Quadrangle, Inyo County J. F McAlister
Darwin Area, Inyo County J. F. McAlister
study of deep drill cores of Los Angeles Basin A O. Woodford
Northwest Santa Ana Mountains, Orange County D M. Kinney
Study of Miocene and Pliocene deposits of the Santa Clara Valley, Ventura and
Los Angeles Counties E L. Winterer
Los Angeles and vicinity R. C. Townsend
Eastern Sierra tungsten belt. Mono and Alpine Counties P C. Bateman
Sierra Foothills mineral belt L D. Clark

COLORADO
Surficial Geology—Denver Area C. B. Hunt
Detailed Geologic mapping along Upper South Platte (North fork). Park,
Jefferson and Douglas Counties Glen R. Scott
Kokomo (Tenmile) Mining District, Summit, Lake, and Eagle Counties A H. Koschmann
Central San Juan Mountains W S. Burbank
Holy Cross Quadrangle, Eagle, Lake, Summit, and Pitkin Counties O. L . Tweto
Trinidad Coal Field, Southeastern Colorado G. H. Wood, Jr.
Oil Shale areas in Garfield County J. R. Donnell
Glenwood Springs Quadrangle, Garfield County N. W. Bass
Animas River Coal Field, LaPlate, Archuleta and Montezuma Counties H. Barnes
Uinta Basin Oil Shale-White River Area, Garfield and Rio Blanco Counties W. B. Cashion
City geology, Denver M. R. Mudge
Northwest extension, Animas River area A A. Wanek
Northern coal field of the Denver Basin F. D Spencer
Clay deposits in the foothills of the Front Range K. Waage
Areas in the Colorado Plateau, uranium inves. R. P. Fischer
Hardscrabble mining district Q. D. Singewald
Central City-Georgetown area P. K. Sims
Carbondale coal field J. R Donnell

IDAHO
Blackbird-Noble No. 3 Quadrangle, Lemhi County J S. Vhay
Phosphate districts in Bear Lake, Caribou, Bannock, and Brigham Counties R W. Swanson
Coeur d'Alene mining district, Shoshone County S. W Hobbs
Orofino Area, Clearwater County A. Hietanen-Makela
CURRENT INVESTIGATIONS INVOLVING GEOLOGIC MAPPING,
GEOLOGIC DIVISION, 1:62,500 OR LARGER SCALES (Continued)
Project
Project Chief
INDIANA
Owensboro quadrangle L . L Ray
IOWA
City geology, Omaha and vicinity R D. Miller
Lead-zinc investigations A. F. Agnew
KANSAS
County by county survey of construction materials in northern and central Kansas F E Byrne
Geologic mapping of Pennsylvanian rocks in Kansas beginning in Wilson County H. C. Wagner

KENTUCKY
Geology of the coal-bearing region in eastern Kentucky J. W. Huddle
Owensboro quadrangle L . L . Ray
MAINE
Poland Quadrangle, Androscoggin, Cumberland, and Oxford Counties J. B. Hanley
MASSACHUSETTS
Mapping of Quadrangles in Massachusetts m cooperation with Massachusetts
Department of Public Worlts
L . W. Currier
MICfflGAN
Michigan Copper District, Houghton, Keweenaw, and Ontonagon Counties W S. White
Iron Deposits, Iron and Dickinson Counties H. L . James
MINNESOTA
Cuyuna Range, Crow Wing County R G. Schmidt
MONTANA
Medicine Lake Area, Sheridan, Roosevelt, and Daniel Counties I . J. Witkind
Stratigraphy of Belt Series in and near western Montana C. P. Ross
Plentywood, Sheridan and Roosevelt Counties R B. Colton
Fort Peck Dam Project, McCone and Valley Counties F. S. Jensen
Big Sandy Creek, South half Chouteau and Blaine Counties R. M. Lindvall
Cat Creek region W. D. Johnson, Jr.
Winifred area W. W. Ohve
Jordan coal field G. E. Prichard
Three Forlcs quadrangle G D. Robuison
Great Falls-Sun River Area R. W. Lemke
Stillwater Chromite Deposits, Stillwater and Sweetgrass Counties J. W. Peoples
Phosphate deposits of Southwest Montana, Beaverhead and Madison Counties R W Swanson
Judith Mountains, Fergus County E. N. Goddard
Boulder Batholith, Broadwater and Jefferson Counties M. R. Klepper
Lewistown, Forest Grove-Button Butte Area, Fergus County L S. Gardner
Mission Canyon Project, Park County P. W. Richards
Girard Coal Field, Richland County G. E. Prichard
Bearpaw Mountams, Hill, Choteau, and Blaine Counties W. T. Pecora
NEBRASKA
Yankton Area, Cedar and Knox Counties H. E. Simpson
Geology and Construction Materials of Quadrangles m the Republican River Valley E. Dobrovolny
Quadrangles along the Lower Platte River, Valley and Howard Counties E. Dobrovolny
City geology, Omaha and vicinity R. D. Miller
NEVADA
Carson Sink Basin, Churchill County R. B. Morrison
Mojave Desert Region, Clark County, (Scale 1-120,000) D. F. Hewett
Geology along Colorado River, Clarke County C. R. Longwell
Hilltop and Crescent Valley Quadrangles, Lander County James GtUuly
CURRENT INVESTIGATIONS INVOLVING GEOLOGIC MAPPING,
GEOLOGIC DIVISION, 1:62,500 OR LARGER SCALES (Continued)
Project Chief
Project
NEVADA
Gabbs Magnesite District, Nye County C. J. Vitaliano
R. J. Roberts
Antler Peak Quadrangle, Lander and Humboldt Counties G. Ferguson
Sonoma Range Quadrangle, Pershmg, Humboldt, and Lander Counties E. White
Steamboat Springs District, Washoe County B. Nolan
Eureka Minmg District, Eureka County F. Park, Jr.
Ploche Mining District, Lincoln County E. Hotz
Osgood Mountains quadrangle
NEW JERSEY
Study of Magnetite Deposits, New Jersey Highlands A. F. Buddmgton

NEW MEXICO
Potash resources in Eddy and Lea Counties C. L . Jones
Burro Mountains Fluorspar District, Grant County E. Gillerman
Silver City Mining Region Grant County R. E. Hernon
Sangre de Cristo Mountain area, Santa Fe, San Miguel, Taos, Mora, and Colfax Co. C. B. Read
Chaco River Coal Field, San Juan County E. C. Beaumont
Carrizo Mountains, Northwestern New Mexico J. D. Strobell, Jr.
Tohatchi Area, McKinley County J. D Sears
Animas River Coal Field, San Juan County H. Barnes
Valles Mountams Region, Sandoval County C. S. Ross
Investigations of uranium In pre-Morrison formations J. F. Smith, Jr.
Upper Gila River Basin R. B. Morrison

NEW YORK
Gouverneur Talc district, St. Lawrence County A. E. J. Engel
Magnetite Deposits, St. Lawrence and Clinton Counties A. F Buddington

NORTH CAROLINA
Great Smoky Mountams National Park, Swain, Haywood and Jackson Counties P. B. King
Shelby Quadrangle R. G. Yates
J. L . Kulp
Spruce Pine Pegmatite District, Avery, Mitchell, and Yancey Counties J. M. Parker, 3d
Hamme Tungsten District
NORTH DAKOTA
Pleistocene Geology, Western North Dakota A. D. Howard
Medicine Lake Area, Divide and Williams Counties I . J. Witkind
Missouri-Souris Project, Northwest N. D. R. W. Lemke
Square Butte Coal Field, Oliver County W. D. Johnson, Jr.
Knife River Area, Mercer County W. E. Benson

OHIO
Geology and coal resources of Belmont County H. L . Berryhill, Jr.

OREGON
Portland Industrial Area D. E. Trimble
John Day Chromite District, Grant County T. P. Thayer
Galice Quadrangle, Josephme County F. G. Wells
Coast Range E. M. Baldwin

PENNSYLVANIA
Magnetite Deposits, York and Lancaster Counties A. F. Buddington
Selected coal mining areas m Pennsylvania Anthracite Region H. H. Arndt

RHODE ISLAND
Northeastern Rhode Island A. W. Quinn

SOUTH DAKOTA
Pleistocene Geology, Eastern half of S. D. R. F. Flint
10

CURRENT INVESTIGATIONS INVOLVING GEOLOGIC MAPPING,


GEOLOGIC DIVISION, 1.62, 500 OR LARGER SCALES (Continued)
Project Project Chief
SOUTH DAKOTA
Pierre Area, Stanley and Hughes Counties D. R. Crandell
Chamberlain Area, Brule, Lyman, and Buffalo Counties C. R. Warren
Yankton Area, Yankton and Bonhomme Counties H. E. Simpson
Custer-Keystone Pegmatite District, Custer and Pennington Counties J. J. Norton
TENNESSEE
Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Sevier and Cocke Counties P B. King
Detailed mapping of Zinc deposits in East Tennessee A. L . Brokaw
KnoxviUe and vicinity J M. Cattermole
TEXAS
Areas in Hudspeth County J. F. Smith
Oil and Gas Investigations, North central Texas D. H. Eargle

UTAH
Blue Mountains, San Juan County G. O Robmson
LaSal Mountains, San Juan County C. B. Hunt
Northern Bonneville Basin, Cache, Box Elder, and Weber Counties J Stewart Williams
Southern half Utah Valley, Utah County H. J Bissell
Marysvale Alunite District E. Callaghan
East Tintic Mining District, Juab County T. S. Lovering
Iron Springs District, Iron County J H Mackin
Bear River Phosphate District, Rich County R. W. Swanson
Alta Quadrangle, Salt Lake, Wasatch, and Uintah County M. D. Crittenden
Strawberry Quadrangle A. A. Baker
Woodside Quadrangle, Carbon and Emery Counties V. H. Johnson
Uinta Basin Oil Shale Region, White River Area, Uintah County W. B. Cashion
Cedar City SE quadrangle P. Averitt
Areas in the Colorado Plateau, uranium invest R. P. Fischer
Investigations of uranium in pre-Morrison formations J. F. Smith, Jr.
Drum Mountains, Utah M. H. Staatz
Upper Green River Valley W. R. Hansen

VERMONT
Vermont Talc W. M Cady
VIRGINIA
Hamme Tungsten District J. M. Parker, 3d
Fairfax Quadrangle, Fairfax and Loudoun Counties C. Milton
Richmond coal basin E. I . Rich
Potomac Basin erosion studies J. T Hack
WASHINGTON
Portland Industrial Area, Clark County D E. Trimble
Landslide Studies, Franklin D Roosevelt Lake F. O Jones
Lower Snake River Canyon, Franklin, Walla Walla, Columbia, Whitman, and
Garfield Counties H. H. Waldron
Chewelah Magnesite District, Stevens County Ian Campbell
Northport District, Stevens County C. D. Campbell
Centralia-Chehalis coal district, Lewis and Thurston Counties P. D. Snavely, Jr.
Pysht, Lake Crescent, Port Crescent and Port Angeles Quadrangle, Clallam Co. P. D Snavely, Jr
Toledo-Castle Rock Coal District, Cowlitz County A. E Roberts
Holden-Glacier Peak quadrangle F. Cater
Puget Sound Basm H H. Waldron
WEST VIRGINU
Potomac Basin erosion studies J. T. Hack
WISCONSIN
Lead-Zinc Deposits in Grant, Lafayette, and Iowa Counties
Allen Agnew
11

CURRENT INVESTIGATIONS INVOLVING GEOLOGIC MAPPING,


GEOLOGIC DIVISION, 1-62,500 OR LARGER SCALES (Continued)
Project Project Chief
WYOMING
CokevlUe Area, Lincoln and Sublette County w. W. Rubey
Iron Deposits in Laramie Range, Albany County w. H. Newhouse
Bear River Phosphate Deposits, Lincoln and Uinta Counties R. W. Swanson
Spotted Horse Coal Field, Sheridan and Campbell Counties W. W Olive
Clark Fork Area, Park County W. G. Pierce
Lake De Smet Area, Johnson County W. J. Mapel, Jr
Crazy Women Creek Area, Johnson County R. K. Hose
Beaver Divide area, Fremont County F. B. Van Houten
Lenore area, Wind River Basin J. L Murphy
DuNoir area. Wind River Basin W. R. Keefer
TABLE 2

CURRENT INVESTIGATIONS INVOLVING GEOLOGIC MAPPING,


WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, GROUND WATER BRANCH

Project Project Chief


ALABAMA
Baldwin, Choctaw, Madison, Montgomery, Monroe, Randolph, Tuscolousa,
Wilcox Counties
Mapping Scale 1:31680, Pub. Scale 1-125,000 P. E. LaMoreaux

ALASKA
Anchorage area, Knik and Anchorage Quadrangles
Mapping Scale 1-48,000 D. J. Cederstrom
Matanuska Valley (Agricultural area)
Mapping Scale 1-50,000 F. W. Trainer
Parts of Sutton, Matanuska, Eklutna, Houston Quadrangles and Knik County
Mappmg Scale 1:50,000

ARIZONA
Douglas Basin, Cochise County
Mapping Scale 1-3168, Pub. Scale 1:125,000
Papago Indian Reservation, Pinal County
Papago Indian Reservation, Pima County
Lower San Pedro Valley, Pinal County and parts of Pima, Cochise and Graham Cos.
San Carlos Indian Reservation, Graham County
Navajo County Irregation District
Mapping Scale 1 30,000, Pub. Scale 1 62,500
MogoUon Rim area, Coconino, Navajo and Apache Counties L . C Halpenny
Navajo Reservation - Coconino - Navajo - Apache Cos., Includes areas in San Juan
County Utah, and McKinley and San Juan Cos., New Mexico
Mapping Scale 1-31680, Pub Scale 1-125,000 J. W Harshbarger
ARKANSAS
Reconnaissance of Little River County and parts of Sevier, Howard, Pike, Clark,
Hot Springs, Quachito Nevada, Hempstead and Miller Counties
Scale 1-inch = 3-mlles Roger C. Baker
CALIFORNIA
Eureka - Fortuna Area
Mapping Scale 1-62,500
Napa Valley - Napa County
No Scale indicated
Sacramento Valley
Mapping Scale 1 62, 500
Coastal Area, Torrance - Santa Monica
Mapping Scale 1:24,000
Coastal Area, Orange County
Mapping Scale 1-31,680
12

CURRENT INVESTIGATIONS INVOLVING GEOLOGIC MAPPING,


WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, GROUND WATER BRANCH (Continued)
Project Project Chief
CALIFORNIA
San Rosa and Petalumn Valley
Mapping Scale 1-31,600 Pub. Scale 1:62,500 J. F. Poland
Inyokern, Edwards and Twenty-Nine Palms
Mapping Scale 1-50,000 G. F. Worts, Jr.
Camp Pendelton - San Diego County
Scale 1-24,000
San Bernadino Basin, San Bernadino County
Scale 1 31,680 A. A. Garrett
Foothill and Valley - flow area of Solano and Southern Yolo Counties
Mapping Scale 1 24,000 H. G. Thomasson
COLORADO
Baca County, eastern Huerfano County, South Platte Valley, Grand Junction Area
Mapping Scale - All over 2-inch = 1-mile, Pub. Scale 1-inch = 1-mile T. G McLaughlin
CONNECTICUT
Hartford, Holland and Middlesex Counties R. V. Cushman

FLORIDA
Parts of Highlands, Lee, Gladea and Hendry Cos. N D. Hoy
GEORGIA
Coastal Plain Area (Subsurface)
Scale l-mch = 10-miles S. M. Herrick
Sumner, Dooly, Pulaski, Lee, Crisp and Wilcox Counties
Scale 1-inch = 2-miles G. H. Chase

HAWAII
Island of Kavai
Scale 1:62,500
Dan A. Davis
IDAHO
Parts of Jefferson, BooneviUe, Bingham, Butte Counties (Lost and Little Lost
River Area)
Scale 1:12,000
R. L . Nace
INDIANA
Tippecanoe, Vermillion, Parke, Montgomery, Putman, Vigo, Clay, Owen,
Sullivan, Greene, Adams, Wayne, Fayette, Union, Franklin, Ripley, Ohio
Jefferson, Switzerland, Dearborn Counties
No Scale indicated Claude M Roberts
IOWA
Appanoose, Dallas, Guthrie, Lucas, Madison, Marion, Monroe, Polk, Story
and Warren Counties.
Pub. Scale 1-125,000
Subsurface geologic mapping on a state-wide basis, current work In several
different areas H. Hershey
KANSAS
Gove, Jewell, Pratt, Rawlins, Reno Counties
Mapping Scale 1-inch = 1-mile. Pub. Scale 1-inch = 2-miles
Douglas, Elk, Osage Counties
Mapping Scale 2'/4 -inch = 1-mile. Pub. Scale l-mch = 1-mile V. C Fishel
KENTUCKY
Parts of Allen, Campbell, Floyd, Grove, Johnston, Kenton and McCracken Cos.
Mapping Scale 1-16,000 Pub. Scale 1 24,000
Part of Henderson County
Mapping Scale 1 16,000 Pub Scale 1-inch = 1-mile M. I Rorabaugh
13

CURRENT INVESTIGATIONS INVOLVING GEOLOGIC MAPPING,


WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, GROUND WATER BRANCH (Continued)
Project Project Chief
LOUISIANA
Areas bordering the Calcasieu and Vermilion Rivers, and Boyou Cocodrie
Mapping Scale 1 or 2-inches = 1-mile R. R. Myers
MARYLAND
Charles, Calvert, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, parts of Howard, Baltimore and
Hartford (all coastal plains) R. R. Bennett
Caroline, Dorchester, Kent, Somerset, Talbot, Wicomico and Worchester Cos.
Mapping Scale 1-62,500 and 1-31,680 W. C. Rasmussen
MICHIGAN
Small areas in Houghton and Marquette Counties
Scale 5-inches = 4-miles W. T. Stuart
Bay, Midland, Gratiot, Saginaw, Genesse, and Oakland Counties, Parts of
Shiawassee and Tuscola Counties
Scale 1-inch = 6-miles John G. Ferris
MINNESOTA
Small area in Redwood County
Mapping Scale 1 20,000 R. Schneider
MONTANA
Lower Marias Valley, Liberty, Hill, Chouteau Cos.
Airphoto Scale 4-inches = 1-mile
Lewis and Clark, Jefferson Counties
Airphotos 1-inch = 4000 ft. Pub. Scale 2-inches = 1-mile
Helena, Townsend, and Gallatin Valleys
Scale 1 - inch = 4,000 f t .
Dillon Valley, Crow Agency area, (Yellowstone R )
Scale 1-inch = 1-mile
Buffalo Rapids (Yellowstone R ) '
Scale 1-inch = 400 ft
Lower Yellowstone (Glendive - Sidney)
Airphoto 2-inches = 1-mile E. A. Swenson
NEBRASKA
Dutch Flats area
Mapping Scale 1-inch = 2-miles
Lodgeporte Creek
Mapping Scale 1-inch = 1-mile
Pumpkin Creek area
Mapping Scale 1-inch = 1-mile H. M. Babcock
NEVADA
Buena Vista Valley, Cresent Valley, Spring Valley, Dixie Valley, Antelope Valley,
Warm Springs Valley, Truckee Meadows areas
Scale not indicated O. J. Loeltz
NEW JERSEY
Newark Area
Scale not indicated
Subsurface of Coastal Plains
Scale 1-inch = 8-miles
Bedrock contours - Greater Philadelphia and parts of Burlington, Camden and
Gloucester Counties
Scale 2-inches = 1-mile
Salem County (S"bsurface)
Scale 1-inch = 1-mile H. C. Barksdale
NEW MEXICO
Sante Fe County
Scale 1:63360
14

CURRENT INVESTIGATIONS INVOLVING GEOLOGIC MAPPING,


WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, GROUND WATER BRANCH (Continued)
Project Project Chief
NEW MEXICO
Los Alamos area
Scale 1-63,360
Pueblo Laguna Indian Res. (Velencia Co.)
Scale 1-126,780
Part of Torrance County
Scale 1:63,360
Boswell Basin
Scale
El Paso area - parts of El Pasco Co. Texas, and Dona Ana and Otero Counties
Scale not indicated C. S Conover
NEW YORK
Dutchess - Putman - Bronx, Westchester - Nassau Counties
Mapping Scale 1:62,500 Pub. Scale 1 125,000
Rockland, Delaware Counties
Scale not indicated J. E. Upson

NORTH CAROLINA
Alexander, Catawa, Davie, Iredell, Rowan, Davidson Counties
Scale 1-inch = 2-miles H. E. LeGrand
NORTH DAKOTA
Oakes, Buxton, Aneta, Wimbledon, Zeeland Streeter, Minnewaukan, Michigan,
Lakota, Devils Lake, RoUa - St. John - Mylo, Stanley
Mapping Scale 1:20,000 P D. Akin
Sargent County
Scale 1-inch = 1-mile G. A. LaRocque

OHIO
Lucas, Lickmg, Fairfield, Trumbull, Portage, Ross, Columbiana Counties E S. Schaefer

OKLAHOMA
Beaver, Beckham, Cleveland, Grady, McCurtain Counties
Mapping Scale 3. 2 inches = 1-mile Pub. Scale 1-inch = 1-mile
Parts of Alfalfa, Major, Garfield and Kingfisher Counties
Mapping Scale 1-inch = 1-mile • Stuart L . Schoff

OREGON
Lake County and Walla Walla area
Scale 1 125,000
Yonna - Swan Lake Valleys, Rogue River Valley, Tualatin Valley
Scale 1 62,500 R C. Newcomb

PENNSYLVANIA
Lawrence County
Scale 1:62,500 PaulH Jones

SOUTH CAROLINA
Aiken, and Edgefield Counties
Mapping Scale 1-inch = 1-mile
Marlboro and Chesterfield Counties
Mappmg Scale 1-lnch = 1-mile Pub. Scale '/i-mch = 1-mile George E. Slple

SOUTH DAKOTA
Oahe unit - James R. Valley, James R. Basin, Brown and Marshall Counties
Scale not Indicated G. A. LaRocque

TENNESSEE
Mississippi Basin Tertiary and Cretaceous outcrop areas, also Summer, Macon,
15

CURRENT INVESTIGATIONS INVOLVING GEOLOGIC MAPPING,


WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, GROUND WATER BRANCH (Continued)
Project Project Chief
TENNESSEE
Jackson, Smith, Wilson, Davidson, Williamson, Rutherford, DeKalb, Cannon,
Maury, Marshall, Bedford, Giles, Lincoln, Anderson, and Bradley Counties.
Mapping Scales - contour maps when available 1:2400 and 1-62,500,
otherwise aerial photographs 1-2000 E. M. Cushmg

TEXAS
Galveston, Harris, Bandera, Bexar, Medina, and Zavala counties,
Wilbarger, Comal Counties.
Mapping Scale 1-inch = 1-mile
High Plains of Texas - Cross sections extending through Sherman, Randall, Moore,
Potter, Swisher, Hale, Lubbock, Lynn and North Dawson counties.
No Scale Indicated
Geologic cross-sections showing subsurface geology In Ector, Dimit, Lamb, Lynn,
western Maverick counties.
Mapping Scale I-inch = 1-mile
Kinney County - surface geology
No Scale Indicated.
El Paso area - Parts of El Paso County Texas, and Donna Ana and Otero County New Mexico
No Scale Indicated W. L . Broadhurst

UTAH
Southern Juab Valley, Mllford District and Ogden Valley
Scale 2-inches = 1-mile H. A. Waite
See Navajo Reservation Project, Arizona

VIRGINIA
Coastal Plain Counties North of James River A. Sinnott

WASHINGTON
Part of King County east of Lake Washington, Part of Lewis County
Ahtanum Valley (Yakima County)
Scale 1 20,000
Kitsap and Clark Counties
Tacoma area (Pierce County)
Spokane Valley (Spokane County)
Scale 1:62,500
Yelm area (Thurston and Pierce Counties)
Scale 1:34,600 M. S. Mundorff

WISCONSIN
Portage County
Scale 1-lnch = 1-mlle A H Harder
WYOMING
Cheyenne area - Scale 1-lnch = 2-miles
Egbert Pine Bluffs - Carpenter area
Mapping Scale 1-inch = 1-mlle
Gillette, Glendo - Wendover, Horse Creek, La Prele, Laramie Plains, Pass
Creek Flats, Wheatland Flat, New Castle areas
Mapping Scale All over 1-inch = 1-mlle
Goshen, Platte counties
Mapping Scale 1-mch = 1-mile
Kaycce and Ranchester areas
Highway Plannmg map base
Barthel area (Soil Moisture demonstration study)
Mapping Scale 1-mch = 400 f t .
North Platte irrigation project - Goshen county
Mapping Scale 1-inch = 1-mile H. M. Babcock
Palntrock Project, Bighorn county
Mapping Scale 1-lnch = 1-mlle
Heart Mountam Unit, Park Co. Mapping Scale 2-inches = 1-mile
Riverton Project, Freemont county. Mapping Scale 2-inches = 1-mile F. A. Swenson
16

TABLE 3

TABULATION OF STATE GEOLOGISTS BY STATES

State Geologist and Address

Alabama Dr. Walter B. Jones, State Geologist, Geological Survey of Alabama, University
Arizona Dr. T G. Chapman, Director, Arizona Bureau of Mines, University of Arizona,
Tucson
Arkansas Mr. Norman F Williams, Director, Division of Geology, Arkansas Resources and
Development Commission, State Capitol, Little Rock
California Dr. Olaf P. Jenkms, Chief, Division of Mines, Department of Natural Resources,
Ferry Building, San Francisco 11
Colorado Mr Walter E. Scott, Jr., Vice Chairman, Geological Survey Board, State Museum
Building, Denver
Connecticut Dr Edward L . Troxell, Director, Connecticut Geological and Natural History
Survey, Trinity College, Hartford 6
Florida Dr. Herman Gunter, Director, Florida Geological Survey, P.O Drawer 631, Tallahassee
Georgia Capt. Garland Peyton, Director, Department of Mines, Mining and Geology, State
Division of Conservation, 425 State Capitol, Atlanta
Idaho Mr. A W. Fahrenwald, Director, Idaho Bureau of Mmes and Geology, University
of Idaho, Moscow
Illinois Dr. M. M Lelghton, Chief, State Geological Survey Division, 121 Natural Resources
Building, University of Illinois Campus, Urbana
Indiana Dr. Charles F. Deiss, State Geologist, State Indiana Department of Conservation,
Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomtngton
Iowa Dr. H Garland Hershey, Director and State Geologist, Iowa Geological Survey,
Iowa City
Kansas Dr. John C. Frye, Executive Director, State Geological Survey, The University of
Kansas, Lawrence
Dr. Raymond C. Moore, State Geologist and Director of Research, State Geo-
Loglcal Survey, The University of Kansas, Lawrence
Kentucky Mr. Daniel J. Jones, State Geologist, Department of Geology, Kentucky Geological
Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington
Louisiana Mr. Leo W. Hough, State Geologist, Louisiana Geological Survey, Department of
Conservation, P.O. Box 8847, University Station, Baton Rouge 3
Maine Dr. Joesph M. Trefethen, State Geologist, Maine Geological Survey, University of
Maine, Orono
Maryland Dr Joseph T. Singewald, Jr., Director, Department of Geology, Mmes and Water
Resources, Johns Hopkms University, Baltimore 18
Michigan Mr. William L . Daoust, Acting State Geologist, Geological Survey Division, State
Department of Conservation, Lansing 13
Minnesota Dr. G. M. Schwartz, Director, Minnesota Geological Survey, University of
Minnesota, Minneapolis 14
Mississippi Dr. W. C Morse, Director, Mississippi Geological Survey, University
Missouri Dr. Edward L Clark, Director and State Geologist, Division of Geological Survey
and Water Resources, Buehler Building, Rolla
Nebraska Dr. G E. Condra, Director and State Geologist, Conservation and Survey Division,
The University of Nebraska, Lincoln 8
Montana Dr. J. R. Van Pelt, Director, State Bureau of Mines and Geology, Butte
Nevada Mr. Vernon E. Scheid, Director, Nevada Bureau of Mmes, University of Nevada, Reno
New Hampshire Mr. T. R. Meyers, Geologist, New Hampshire State Planning and Development
Commission, Mineral Resources Committee, Durham
New Jersey Mr. Meredith E. Johnson, State Geologist, Geologic and Topographic Survey, Depart-
ment of Conservation and Economic Development, Room 415State House Annex,Trenton7
New Mexico Dr Eugene Callaghan, Director, New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources,
Socorro
17

TABULATION OF STATE GEOLOGISTS BY STATES (Continued)

State Geologist and Address

New York Dr. John G. Broughton, State Geologist, State Geological and Natural History
Surveys, State Education Building, University of the State of New York, Albany 1
North Carolina Dr. Jasper L . Stuckey, State Geologist, Division of Mineral Resources, Department
of Conservation and Development, P.O. Box 2719, Raleigh
No ih Dakota Dr. Wilson M. Laird, State Geologist, North Dakota Geological Survey, University
of North Dakota, Grand Forks
Ohio Mr. John H. Melvin, State Geologist, Geological Survey of Ohio, Orton Hall, Ohio
State University, Columbus 10
Oklahoma Mr. W. E. Ham, Acting Director, Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman
Oregon Mr. F. W. Libbey, Director, State Department of Geology and Mmeral Industries,
1069 State Office Building, Portland 5
Pennsylvania Mr. S. H. Cathcart, Director, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, Department
of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg
Rhode Island Dr. Alonzo W. Quinn, Chairman, Mineral Resources Committee, Rhode Island Port
and Industrial Development Commission, Providence 3
South Carolina Dr. Lawrence L . Smith, State Geologist, Department of Geology, Mineralogy and
Geography, University of South Carolina, Columbia
South Dakota Dr. E. P. Rothrock, State Geologist, Director, State Geological Survey, State
University, Lock Drawer 351, Vermilion
Tennessee Mr. W. D. Hardeman, State Geologist, Division of Geology, Department of
Conservation, State Office Building, Nashville 3
Texas Dr. John T Lonsdale, Director, Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of
Texas, University Station, Box B, Austin 12
Utah Mr. Arthur L Crawford, Director, Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey,
College of Mines and Mineral Industries, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 2
Vermont Mr Charles G. Doll, State Geologist, State of Vermont Development Commission,
East Hall, University of Vermont, Burlington
Virginia Mr. William M McGiU, State Geologist, Virginia Geological Survey, Box 1428,
University Station, Charlottesville
Washington Mr Sheldon L . Glover, Supervisor, Division of Mines and Geology, Department
of Conservation and Development, Room 404, Transportation Building, Olympia
West Virginia Dr. Paul H Price, State Geologist, West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey,
P. O. Box 879, Morgantown
Wisconsin Mr. E. F. Bean, State Geologist, Geological and Natural History Survey, Science
Hall, The University of Wisconsin, Madison
Wyoming Dr. H. D Thomas, State Geologist, The Geological Survey of Wyommg, University
of Wyommg, Laramie
18

TABLE 4

SOIL CORRELATORS - DIVISION OF SOIL SURVEY


J. Kenneth Ablelter, Chief Soil CorreUtor, Bureau of Plant Industry USOA, BeltsviUe, Maryland

Northern States - Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Minnesota, Missouri (north of Missouri River), Mississippi, New Hampshire, New
Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia and
Wisconsin
Guy D. Smith, Principal Soil Correlator, Northern States, USDA Bureau of Plant Industry, BeltsviUe,
Maryland
0 . C. Rogers, Senior Soil Correlator, East Midwestern States, USDA Bureau of Plant Industry,
BeltsviUe, Maryland
Iver J. Nygard, Senior Soil Correlator, Northern Lake States, Div. of Soils, Agricultural Experiment
Station, University Farm, St. Paul 1, Minnesota
A. J. Cllne, Soil Correlator, West-Midwestern States, Room 117 Agronomy Department, Iowa State
College, Ames, Iowa
M. G. Cllne, Agent (correlation) New York, Department of Agronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
W. H. Lyford, Senior Soli Correlator, Northeastern States, Department of Agronomy, College of
Agriculture, Durham, New Hampshire
Southern States - Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri (south of
Missouri River), Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia
W. S. Llgon, Principal Soil Correlator, Southern States, 508 New Sprankle Building, <vb TVA
KnoxviUe, Tennessee
1. L . Martin, Senior Soil Correlator, (same address as listed above)
M. J. Edwards, Senior Soli Correlator, (same address as listed above)
A. H. Hasty, Soli Correlator, (same address as listed above)

Great Plains States - Colorado (east of Continental Divide), Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota,
Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas and Wyoming
W. M . Johnson, Principal Soil CorreUtor, Great PUins States, 204 Nebraska Hall, University of
Nebraska, Lmcoln 8, Nebraska
B. H. Williams, Senior Soil Correlator, Northern Great Plain States, (same address as listed above)
C. A. Mogen, Soli Correlator, Northern Great Plains States, (same address as listed above)
E. H. Templin, Senior Soil Correlator, Southern Great Plains States, Texas Agricultural Experiment
Station, College Station, Texas
Harvey Oakes, Soil Correlator, Southern Great Plains States, (same address as listed above)
Far Western States - Arizona, California, Colorado (west of Continental Divide), Idaho, Nevada,
New Mexico, Oregon, Utah and Washington
R. C. Roberts, Principal Soil Correlator, Far Western States, 322 Woolsey Building, 2168 Shattuck
Avenue, Berkeley 4, California
R. A. Gardner, Senior Soli Correlator, Central Far Western States, (same address as listed above)

TABLE 5

SOIL SURVEYS PUBLISHED SINCE HIGHWAY RESEARCH BOARD BULLETIN 46 WAS ISSUED IN 1951
California Los Banos Area
Maine York County
North Carolina Cherokee County
MltcheU County
Yancey County
North Dakota Morton County'
Oklahoma Okfuskee County
Virginia Scott County
19

TABLE 6

SOIL SURVEYS IN PROGRESS IN PRESENT FISCAL YEAR (1953) OR FIELD WORK COMPLETED

SINCE BULLETIN 46 WAS ISSUED

State County or Soil Area Party Chief Soil Correlator

Alabama DeKalb County*


Marshall County* M. J. Edwards
Arizona Yuma area* W. G. Harper
California Eastern Fresno County* L. Huntington s R. A. Gardner
Eastern Stanislaus County* J. Arkley^ R. A. Gardner
Glenn County* L- Begg' R. A. Gardner
Tehama County' D. Gowans R. A. Gardner
Connecticut Hartford County' E. Shearin W. H. Lyford*"
Florida Escambia County* H. Walker^ I . L . Martin
Central and Southern Flood Control Dis-
trict (Kisslmmee and Upper St. Johns
Valleys, all of Oscola and Indian River
Counties and parts of Highland, Okee-
chobee, St Lucie, Polk, Brevard, Orange,
Volusia, Martin, Palm Beach, and
Seminole Counties)',' Orange County' R. G. Leighty I . L . Martin
A H. Hasty
Sarasota County' R. Wildermuth I . L . Martin
A. H. Hasty
Idaho Canyon County' M. A. Fosberg's W J. Leighty
Illinois Lawrence County"
McHenry County' B W. Ray* A. J. Cline
Will County"
Williamson County' J. B. Fehrenbacher's A. J. Cline
Iowa Jefferson County' Geo. M . Schafer A. J. Cline
Monona County"
Polk County' J. W. McCracken'' A. J. Cline
Shelby County' Everett White A. J Cline
Kansas Brown County' O. W Bidwell^h W. M. Johnson
Kaw Division, Kansas River Valley' C. H. Atkinson W. M. Johnson
Republic County* (All of Scandia Unit)
Louisiana Bossier Parish' S. A. Lytle I . L . Martm
St. Mary Parish" A. H. Hasty
Terrebonne Parish' S. A. Lytle*" I . L . Martin
A. H. Hasty
Michigan Arenac County' Wm. H. Colburn* I . J. Nygard
Ionia County' S. D. Alfred O. C. Rogers
Keweenaw County" /
Sanilac County' I . F. Schneider" 0. C. Rogers
Minnesota Crow Wing County' H. F. Arneman^s 1. J. Nygard
Isanti County' R. H. Farnham I . J. Nygard
Mississippi Bolivar County"
DeSoto County^ E. J. McNutf s I . L . Martin
A. H. Hasty
Humphreys County' J C. Powell* I . L . Martin
A. H. Hasty
Leflore County' W. E. Keenan* I . L . Martin
A H. Hasty
Newton County' L. C. Murphree I . L . Martin
A. H. Hasty
Sunflower County"
Washington County' G. E Rogers^ I L . Martin
A. H. Hasty
Missouri Moniteau County" J. A. Frieze I . L . Martin
Montana Bitterroot Valley area" Roosevelt County
(Part of Missouri-Souris Irrigation
Project)* B. H. Williams
20

SOIL SURVEYS IN PROGRESS IN PRESENT FISCAL YEAR (1953) OR FIELD WORK COMPLETED
SINCE BULLETIN 46 WAS ISSUED (Continued)

State County or Soil Area Party Chief Soil Correlator


Montana (cont.) Yellowstone County' W. C. Bourne'' B H. Williams
Nebraska Buffalo County (Part of Wood River I r r i -
gation Project)'
Gage County' T. E. Beesley B. H. Williams
Hall County (Part of Wood River
Irrigation Project)' D A. Yost B. H. Williams
Saunders County"
New Hampshire Rockingham County* W. H. Lyford''
New York Franklin County' Carlisle. W. H. Lyfoijd''
Lewis County' S Pearsons M. G Cline
North Carolina Duplin County' F. Goldston' G H. Robmson
North Dakota Lake Souris area (McHenry and Bottineau
Counties)* C. A Mogen
New Rockford area' J. E. McClelland C. A. Mogen
Oakes Area'
Renville County (Part of Missouri-Souris
Project)* C. A. Mogen
Ohio Fairfield County"
Ross County' J. H. Petro O. C Rogers
Oklahoma Pawnee County"
Wagoner County' H. M. Galloway'' E H. Templin
Oregon PrlneviUe area' Geo. K. Smith W. J Leighty
Pennsylvania Potter County' K. V. Goodman W H. Lyford''
South Dakota Brookings County' A. J Klingelhoets'' C. A Mogen
Hand County (Part of Missouri-Oahe
Project)' A. J. Klingelhoets'' C A. Mogen
Spink County (Part of Missouri-Oahe
Project)' F C. Westin^ C. A. Mogen
Tennessee Blount County' Joe A Elder* M. J. Edwards
s G H. Robinson
Coffee County' I . B. Epley" M. J. Edwards
G. H Robinson
Henderson County' R. L . Flowers's M. J Edwards
G. H. Robinson
Lawrence County"
Maury County"
Texas Fort Bend County' Gordon McKee E. H. Templin
Lynn County' I . C. Mowery E. H. Templin
Utah Beryl-Enterprise area (Part of Iron County)'
Davis County' Vern K. Hugie W. G. Harper
Weber area (Parts of Weber, Davis,
Morgan, Summit, and Boxelder Counties)'
Virgmia Norfolk County' E. F. Henry^ W S. Ligon
G. H Robinson
Nottoway County' C. S. Coleman G. H Robmson
Washington Walla Walla County' A. O. Ness W. J Leighty
Wisconsin Dodge County' .b
Lee I . J. Nygard
Wyoming Goshen County' Fox E. M. Johnson
Soil Survey assignments for summer of 1952
' Soil Survey areas with field work completed since Bulletin 46 was issued
' Reconnaissance or Reconnaissance-detailed survey
* Temporarily suspended, no personnel assigned
' Personnel to be assigned October 1
' Discontinued for summer 1952
* See table for address of Soil Correlator
b State and Bureau
s State
21

TABLE 7

TABULATION OF REGIONAL SOIL SCIENTISTS BY STATES AND REGIONS'


Region States Within Region
1. Northeastern Region Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont,
H R. Adams Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island
6816 Market Street New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
Upper Darby, Pa. Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia
2. Southeastern Region Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
G. L . Fuller Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi,
P. O. Box 612 Tennessee, Kentucky, Puerto Rico
Spartanburg, S. C.

3. Upper Mississippi Region Ohio, Indiana,


A. H Paschall Illinois, Missouri
434 N. Planklnton Ave. Iowa, Minnesota
Milwaukee 3, Wisconsm Wisconsin, Michigan
4. Western Gulf Region Texas
R. M . Marshall Oklahoma
P. O. Box 1898 Arkansas
Fort Worth 1, Texas Louisiana
5. Northern Great Plains Region Montana, Wyoming,
R. O. Lewis North Dakota, South Dakota,
P. O. Box 713 Nebraska, Kansas
Lincoln 1, Nebraska

6. Southwestern Region Arizona


M. R. Isaacson New Mexico
P. O. Box 1348 Colorado
Albuquerque, N. Mex Utah
7. Pacific Region Washington, Oregon,
S. W. Cosby Idaho, Nevada,
209 S. W. Fifth Street California,
Portland 4, Oregon Alaska, Hawaii
' As of March 1952.
22

TABLE 8

T ABULATION OF SOIL CONSERVATIONIST AND SOIL SCIENTIST BY STATES'

State Conservationist SCS State Office State Soil Scientist Headquarters

ALABAMA
Olln C Medlock New Ext. Service Annex, Miles E. Stephens P.O. Box 311, Auburn
Ala Polytechnic Inst., Auburn
ARIZONA
Julian J. Turner Goodrich Bldg., 14 North Roger D. Headley 202 Agriculture Bldg., Univ.
Central Ave., Phoenix of Arizona, Tucson
ARKANSAS
HoUls R. Williams New P.O. Bldg., and Fed Marvin Lawson P. O. Box 521 FayettevlUe
Court House Building
Little Rock

CALIFORNIA
John S Barnes Post Office Building Leonard R Wohletz P.O. Box 369, Berkeley
Berkeley

COLORADO
Kenneth W. Chalmere 950 Broadway, Agrl. E. Milton Payne 202 Agronomy Bldg., Colo Agr.
Bldg., Denver Exp. Sta., Fort Collins
CONNECTICUT
N Paul Tedrow 500 Capitol Ave. G. A. Quakenbush 126 Llpman Hall, College of
Hartford A g r i . , New Brunswick

DELAWARE
Richard S. Snyder 501 Academy St. M. F. Hershberger Md. Agr. Exp. Sta.,
Newark College Park

FLORIDA
Colin D Gunn Gilbert Hotel Bldg. 35 N O C. Lewis P.O. Box 162, Gainesville
Main St. Gainesville

GEORGIA
J. G. Liddell Old Post Off ice Bldg., Frank T. Ritchie, Jr. P.O. Box 832, Athens
Athens

IDAHO
Robert N. Irving Yates Bldg , 9th and C. F. Parrott 445 Yates Building, Boise
Mam Sts , Boise

ILLINOIS
Bruce B. Clark Nogle Bldg , 605 S. Neil Lmdo J. Bartelli 206 Davenport Hall, Univ.
St., Champaign of lUmois, Urbana
INDIANA
Kenneth Welton Lafayette Loan & Trust Bldg. T. C. Bass 133 N. Fourth Street,
4th & Main Sts., Lafayette Lafayette
IOWA
Frank H. Mendell Iowa Bldg., 505 8th. Ave. Byron A. Barnes Rm. 2, Landscape Architecture
De Moines Bldg., Iowa State Coll., Ames
KANSAS
Fred J. Sykes Public Utility Bldg., 116-'/4 Claude L . Fly Agronomy Dept. Kansas State
W. Iron St., Sallna College, Manhattan
23

TABULATION OF SOIL CONSERVATIONIST AND SOIL SCIENTIST BY STATES (Continued)

State Conservationist SCS State Office State Soil Scientist Headquarters

KENTUCKY
Hubbard K. Gayle 231 W. Maxwell St. W. W. Carpenter 231 W. Maxwell St.,
Lexington Lexington
LOUISIANA
Harold B. Martin Svebeck Bldg., 6th & D. L . Fontenot P.O. Box 1630, Alexandria
Winn Sts., Alexandria

MAINE
William B. Oliver Maples Hall, Univ. of J. Stewart Hardesty Maples Hall, Univ. of
Mame, Orono Maine, Orono
MARYLAND
Edward M. Davis Agrlc. Bldg., Univ. of M. F. Hershberger Agronomy Dept. U. of Md.
Md., College Park College Park
MASSACHUSETTS
Arthur B. Beaumont Stockbridge Hall, State Montague Howard, Jr. Agr. Science Bldg., Univ. of
College, Amherst Vermont, Burlington
MICHIGAN
Everett C Sackrider Agricultural Bldg., State C. A. Engberg Room 410 Agriculture Bldg.,
College, East Lansing East Lansing
MINNESOTA
Herbert A. Flueck Federal Courts Bldg., 6th Alex S. Robertson 517 Fed. Court Buildmg
& Market Sts., St. Paul St. Paul 4
MISSISSIPPI
Charles B. Anders Masonic Temple Bldg., 1130 D T.Webb P.O. Box 610, Jackson 5
W. Capitol St., Jackson

MISSOURI
Kenyon G. Harman Post Off ice Bldg., 6th & Harold E. Grogger Federal Building, Columbia
Cherry Sts., Columbia

MONTANA
Truman C. Anderson Gallatin Block Building Dave R. CawUield Montana State College,
Bozeman Bozeman
NEBRASKA
Emrys G. Jones Rudge & Guenzel Bldg , Lloyd E. Mitchell Nebraska Hall, Univ. erf
13th & N Sts., Lincoln Nebr , Lincoln 1
NEVADA
George Hardman Rm 210 Western Bldg., E. A. Naphan Morrill Hall, Univ. of
818 S. Va. St., Reno Nevada, Reno
NEW HAMPSHIRE
Allan J. Collins 29 Main Street, Durham J. Stewart Hardesty The Maples Bldg , Univ. of
Maine, Orono, Maine
NEW JERSEY
Linwood L . Lee Post Office Bldg., 86 Bayard G. A. Quakenbush 126 Lipman Hall, College of
St., New Brunswick A g r l . , New Brunswick
24

TABULATION OF SOIL CONSERVATIONIST AND SOIL SCIENTIST BY STATES (Continued)

State Conservationist SCS State Office State Soil Scientist Headquarters

NEW MEXICO
Robert A. Young Office Sq. Bldg., 1222 N. H. J. Maker New Mexico A & M College,
4th St, Albuquerque P.O. Box 127, State College

NEW YORK
Irving B. Stafford 236-240 W. Genesee St. Arnold J. Baur Caldwell Hall, Cornell Univ.,
Syracuse Ithaca

NORTH CAROLINA
Earl B. Garrett State Office Bldg., N. C. W. W. Stevens P.O. Box 5126, Raleigh
College, Agri., & Engr.,
Raleigh
NORTH DAKOTA
Lyness G. Lloyd P.O. Bldg., Broadway & Lloyd Shoesmlth State College, Fargo
3rd Sts., Bismarck

OHIO
Thomas C. Kennard Old Fed. Bldg., 3rd & H. H. Morse Room 222 Old Federal Bldg.,
State Sts., Columbus Columbus 15
OKLAHOMA
Harry M. Chambers 2800 S. Eastern Ave. Louis E. Derr Agronomy Dept., Okla. A. &
Oklahoma City M. College, Stillwater

OREGON
Samuel L . Sloan 515 S.W. 10th Ave. William W. Hill 515 S.W. 10th, Portland
Portland
PENNSYLVANIA
Ivan McKeever Dauphin Bldg., 203 Market F. G. Loughry Agriculture Bldg., Penna.
St., Harrisburg State College, State College

RHODE ISLAND
N Paul Tedro Rhode Island combined Montague Howard, Jr. Hills Agricultural Science Bldg.
with Connecticut Univ. of Vt., Burlington
SOUTH CAROLINA
Ernest Carnes Fed. Land Bank Bldg., 1401 P.H.Montgomery P.O. Box 417, Fed. Land
Hampton St., Columbia Bank Bldg., Columbia 29
SOUTH DAKOTA
Ross D. Davies 56 & 3rd St., S. E Glenn A. Avery Agronomy Dept., South Dakota
K of C Bldg., Huron State College, Brookings

TENNESSEE
William M. Hardy U. S. Court House Nathan I . Brown 806 Broadway, Nashville 3
Nashville
TEXAS
Paul H. Walser 114-118 S. 3rd Street James D. Simpson Texas Agr. Exp. Station,
Temple College Station

UTAH
Josiah A. Libby Atlas Bldg., 36-'^ West John W. Metcalf College Hill, Box 151, Utah
Second South, Salt Lake City Agr. Exp. Station, Logan
25

TABULATION OF SOIL CONSERVATIONIST AND SOIL SCIENTIST BY STATES (Continued)

State Conservationist SCS State Office State Soil Scientist Headquarters

VERMONT
Lemuel J. Peet Extension Bldg., 481 Mam Montague Howard, Jr. Hills Agricultural Science
Street, Burlington Bldg., Univ. of Vermont,
Burlington

VIRGINIA
Sam W. Bondurant 605-609 Mam Street R. E. Devereux P O Box 497, Blacksburg
Richmond
WASHINGTON
Paul C. McGrew Hutton Bldg., 950 Ray W. Chapin Box 448 College Station.
Wash. St., Pullman Pullman

WEST VIRGINIA
Longfellow L . Lough Bank of Morgantown Bldg., Boyd J. Patton Agr Exp. Sta., West Va.
265 High St., Morgantown Univ., Morgantown

WISCONSIN
Marvin F. Schweers State Farm Ins Bldg., William DeYoung State Farm Ins. Bldg.,
2702 Monroe St., 2702 Monroe St.,
Madison Madison 5

WYOMING
Edgar A. Reeves Tip Top Bldg., 355 E. Harold Bindschadler P.O. Box 966, Roach
2nd. St. Casper Bldg., Laramie

ALASKA
Thomas H. Day* P.O. Box F
Palmer, Alaska

HAWAII
Joe W. Kingsbury* Federal Building Annex
Honolulu, T. H.
' As of September 1952
* Territorial Soil Scientist
26

Soil Investigation Employing A New Method of


Layer-Value Determination for Earth
Resistivity Interpretation
H. E . BARNES, Soils Engineer,
Michigan State Highway Department

• IN an effort to improve methods of is considered to be within practical limits.


making soil investigations of proposed
borrow sites and highway construction BACKGROUND AND METHODS O F USE
the Michigan State Highway Department
is now employing the "earth resistivity" Instruments for measuring earth r e -
method as a means of obtaimng infor- sistivity have been used for-many years
mation. The objective m adopting this by geologists and geophysicists in their
method is to eliminate, or at least r e - attempts to prospect and explore the
duce, the chances of costly errors in earth's crust in search of oil, minerals,
estimates of earth quantities and quality etc. In the course of years much research
of earth borrow due to the lack of ade- has been done to improve the techniques,
quate information. Until this resistivity instruments, and interpretation of results
instrument was acquired nearly all in- to obtain better detail and accuracy. It is
vestigations were made by hand augering not the writer's intention to go into an ex-
with the occasional assistance of jet planation of the numerous methods used
borings when the importance of the in- by various groups of geophysicists and
formation warranted its cost of operation. engineers other than to give a partial list
These methods are laborious and in most of the more common ones as follows:
cases, give inadequate data. It is i m - Porous Pot, direct method; Gish-Rooney*
possible to auger into a granular material method; "Megger" method; Single Probe
which lies below water table without the method.
use of power drilling and some form of After considerable study and experi-
casing. Although a soils engineer can mentation to determine the advantages
determine the source of good granular and disadvantages of various methods
borrow, for example, from a few hand with respect to the type of information
borings and trained observations, it is desired from soil investigations, the
very difficult to estimate the size and Gish-Rooney method was selected. One
location of the deposit or to detect a of the main advantages of this method is
hidden clay stratum even if its presence the elimination of the effects of ground
is suspected. With the purchase of the and stray currents by the use of an a l -
resistivity instrument it was the intent of ternating, or more correctly, com-
the Department to develop a procedure that mutated circuit. Voltages and currents
would give more detailed and accurate in- are read separately from which the ap-
formation of soil conditions. parent average resistivity of the soil is
It has now been about two years since computed. The arrangement of four
the instrument was purchased during which electrodes in a straight line spaced an
time considerable e:q)enmentation has equal distance from each other i s used
been carried on with the result that de- almost exclusively. This arrangement
tailed information on types, quantities, 'Gish, O H , 'Improved Equipment for Measuring Earth-
and locations of certain soil materials can Current Potentials and Earth Resistivity". National Research
now be determined with an accuracy which Council, Bulletin, Nov 1926, Vol I I , Pt 2, No 56.
27

-A—4

'Weimar's equation lor the average resistivity of soil

4<AR Figure 2.
2A
I• •
Stollon 44
Tailurol Rongs Volues In Ohm-Cm < lO'^
10 «S 90 100
When B is small compared to A, the equation simplifies to-

f •2irA

*Wenner,U a Bureau of Standards Scientific Paper Na298

Figure 1. Wenner's configuration in the


spacing of electrodes used in the Gish-
Rooney method for measuring earth r e s i s - >
t i v i t y , i l l u s t r a t i n g the equipotential-bowl
theory. <
is generally known as Wenner's* con-
figuration. By using this arrangement \
I.J.I.I , •.•
the spacing between electrodes is equal
to the depth of soil investigated as shown
in Figure 1. As with any tool being ap-
plied to a new field, there is a stage of
development during which different ap- 1
O so 40 60 eo 100 120 140 160
proaches and practices are studied, tried, Loyer-voliM Retlttlvlty (p J In 0hm-Cm> 1 0 ' '
revised, discarded or improved, and
finally a definite procedure embracing Figure 3.
the limitations of the tool is adopted ard practice for those cases requiring
as standard practice. The procedure specific and particular information. In
adopted by the Department as standard general, traverse lines are made not
practice, at least for the present time, more than 100 feet apart and the distance
consists of making depth-profile meas- between stations is held to not more than
urements at selected stations along one 100 feet In measuring depth profiles, it
or more lines of traverse. The distance IS considered good practice to use 3-
between stations and the number of trav- foot intervals of layer thickness for depths
erse lines selected depend upon the size up to 15 or 21 feet and 5-foot intervals
and depth of the soil body for which in- for depths of investigation greater than
formation is desired and the time allowed this 15 or 21 feet. The advantages obtained
to make the investigation. Naturally by measuring several shallow layers in
there are exceptions made to the stand- preference to fewer layers of greater
•Wenner, Frank, "Method of Measuring Earth Resistivity".
thickness will be appreciated when the
U S Bureau of Standards, Scientific Paper No. Z58, Bul- interpretation of field results as developed
letin, Vol 12-No 3, 1915-16 and used by the Department is understood.
28

Figure 4. Assembly of equipment for earth-resistance survey.

INTERPRETATIONS OF T h e r e f o r e , it w a s felt that a method


FIELD MEASUREMENTS of interpretation might be developed which
would give the p a r t i c u l a r type of detailed
The interpretation of f i e l d m e a s u r e - and r e l i a b l e information such as r e q u i r e d
ments f r o m which r e l i a b l e deductions can by the Department if only on a c o m p a r a -
be made presented a most difficult p r o b - tive b a s i s . A s a r e s u l t of much f i e l d work
lem. A study w a s made of the s e v e r a l and calculation of e l e c t r i c a l m e a s u r e -
different methods of interpretations as ments a method of interpreting f i e l d data
presented in v a r i o u s published bulletins has been developed on the p r e m i s e that
and p a p e r s , some of which a r e based on Wenner's f o r m u l a i s a truly fundamental
theoretical and mathematical c o n s i d e r a - e x p r e s s i o n f o r determining the average
tions and at least one of which i s based apparent r e s i s t i v i t y of any thickness of an
upon purely e m p i r i c a l considerations. earth m a s s .
In general, theoretical and mathemati-
c a l methods r e q u i r e such a great volume EQUATION F O R
of computations that the amount of time DETERMINING L A Y E R V A L U E
r e q u i r e d to obtain the d e s i r e d i n f o r m a -
tion would defeat the purpose of using W e n n e r ' s f o r m u l a f o r the 4- electrode.
the r e s i s t i v i t y instrument inasmuch as equal spacing configuration i s given as:
time and costs of obtaining a c c u r a t e i n -
formation a r e p r i m e considerations. On P = 27rAy (1)
the other hand, after many attempts to where P = average s p e c i f i c r e s i s t i v i t y of
apply e m p i r i c a l methods, it w a s found depth A in o h m - c m s
that even the m o r e recent methods of A = spacing of electrodes and depth
e m p i r i c a l interpretation w e r e somewhat investigated in c m s
inadequate and not sufficiently r e l i a b l e .
'op cit.
29

E = potential differential a c r o s s the


inner two electrodes through
"A" depth of earth in volts
I = c u r r e n t c a r r i e d through the
m a s s a s introduced through Commutoter
the outer electrodes i n a m p e r e s
See F i g u r e 1 f o r W e n n e r ' s f o r m u l a and a
sketch i l l u s t r a t i n g the equi-potential bowl
theory.
I n a s m u c h as A i s a v a r i a b l e , then in
order that " r e m a i n constant for different
t h i c k n e s s e s of a homogeneous s o i l , the
ratio of E / I must v a r y i n v e r s e l y with A.
T h e c u r v e i n F i g u r e 2 shows the r e l a t i o n -
ship of E / I to A. Potentiometer Circuit
Power Circuit
T h e equation f o r determimng l a y e r
v a l u e s which i s being presented at this
time i s based on the hypothesis that
l a y e r s of earth a r e analogous in be-
havior to p a r a l l e l e l e c t r i c a l r e s i s t a n c e s .
On the b a s i s of this hypothesis, each
l a y e r of a two or m o r e l a y e r s y s t e m w i l l
have i t s p a r t i c u l a r value of r e s i s t a n c e a s
i l l u s t r a t e d in the following sketch f o r a
three-layer system:
II h II I I
A' Ri Layer 1 T h r e e l a y e r s of
A' R2 Layer 2 non - homogeneous
Figure 5. Schematic c i r c u i t diagram of
A' R3 Layer 3 soil.
e a r t h - r e s i s t i v i t y equipment.
A' = thickness of l a y e r i n t e r v a l r e s i s t i v i t y v a l u e s obtained by the earth
R = average r e s i s t a n c e of l a y e r r e s i s t i v i t y equipment would be Pi f o r
depth A ' , P2 for depth 2 A ' , and Pa f o r
For the above condition the average depth 3 A ' , etc. It i s r e c o g m z e d that the

Figure 6. P r o f i l e contours, Stations 311 to 333.


30

Figure 7. Slope stake i n center at top of cut i s 60 f t . right


of S t a t i o n 332 (see F i g . 6 ) .

368 369 370 371 372 i7i 374 375 576 377 378 379 3«l 382

100 Rt o1 Survajr C«nltr


g Cloyojr T

• Snnd

Oapth cil/t Sounding -

423 424 42S 426 427 428 429

Figure 8. Cross sections from p r o f i l e contours.


31

Figure 9. Cross section from p r o f i l e contour.

E
f r o m the r e s i s t i v i t y instrument.
value of Y in W e n n e r ' s f o r m u l a ( E q . 1)
may give only an approximate value of
Thus: R i = - j ^ , o r the average s p e c i f i c
r e s i s t a n c e f o r the s o i l because the equi-
potential bowl theory does not take into r e s i s t a n c e f o r L a y e r 1. If E 2 and I2 a r e
consideration the warping effect caused the v a l u e s r e a d when investigating the
by the v a r i e d paths taken by the c u r r e n t depth 2A' and the assumption i s made
through heterogeneous m a t e r i a l s . N e v e r - that L a y e r s 1 and 2 act a s p a r a l l e l r e s i s -
t h e l e s s , it s e r v e s as a comparative value tance of different v a l u e s through which the
with which different types of s o i l may be c u r r e n t i s pushed, then this condition
differentiated f r o m each other. C o n s i d e r - may be i l l u s t r a t e d by the following analogy:
ing now the value of r e s i s t a n c e f o r the
f i r s t l a y e r , in the sketch above, it may
be a s s u m e d that A' r e p r e s e n t s a l a y e r of l2
homogeneous s o i l and, therefore, the
value of r e s i s t a n c e i s equal to the quo-
tient obtained by dividing the potential
differential by the c u r r e n t c a r r i e d a s r e a d

S 1010

580 981
Stations
Qoy \ ••••••••V^ Cloyey Sands ond Silts Sand " Depth of p Sounding

Figure 10. P r o f i l e contours taken on construction centerline.


32

Figure 11. Slope stake at top of cut i s 50 f t . l e f t of S t a t i o n


586 + 50 (see F i g . 10).

593 S94 599 99« 997 MB 800 601 602 80} £04 609 60e 60T
609 6L0 6JI
Clay«]r Till | ^ | Sand D.plh el p Sounding ,- .

Figure 12. Cross sections from p r o f i l e contours.


7M T58

ei ST3 NoH A l l borloflt n o i t « * » ( B « f l


IsrttlstlvltTlDtiprttollaL

ciortrTiii •^Dtpth flr/»SoimdngJtM Ptmm - Contours hOM not bMO


alt«r«tf to conform » l t b borlog data.

Figure 13. Cross sections from p r o f i l e contours.

The unknown value of Ra in the above No. 2 w i l l be


analogy i s determined a s follows: (2)
p^2 = ZTTARZ

Step 1) R i = ^ (known) 4) I2 = + I^^ Using the same analogy and p r i n c i p l e s as


used above f o r R2 the value of Rs f o r the
third l a y e r may be found a s follows where
2)1^ = 1 (known) 5) I . = f . |
E3 and I3 a r e the r e s p e c t i v e potential dif-
f e r e n t i a l and c u r r e n t v a l u e s given by the
T E2
6) I ? l2 - 5 - r e s i s t i v i t y instrument f o r the 3A' depth.
R2 Ri Es-
E2
7) R2 = T T El
Ri
Substituting R2 f o r "j" in W e n n e r ' s equation,
the value of r e s i s t i v i t y , P^2' Layer

a C k m Till w MarotX M • , .......


Figure 14. Cross sections from p r o f i l e contours.
34

Figure 15. Cut p a r t i a l l y excavated, 60 f t . l e f t of Station 41+50.

8) I j . = - J ' (known) However, it can be proven that the t e r m


rE E
Es E3 ' n + n + •ff^ ) equals the term
9) I (known)
d R2 Ra ^Ri R2 %-l^
E
Es E3_ /Es^EsN
10) I 13) T h e substitution of the latter t e r m
Rs R3 \Ri R2''
R
n-1
Ea
14) Ra in Equation 3 then r e n d e r s ths solution of
the l a y e r values of r e s i s t i v i t y much more
VRi R2''
expedient.
A l l of the v a l u e s in Step 14) a r e known
Proof of the identity of the above t e r m s
except Ra which, therefore, can be de-
i s given as follows with r e f e r e n c e being
termined. T h i s equation may, of c o u r s e ,
made to the t h r e e - l a y e r case: Let R
be used f o r any number of l a y e r s and w i l l
designate the average value of r e s i s t a n c e
take the general f o r m f o r any number of
f o r an individual l a y e r of m a t e r i a l , and let
l a y e r s n as:
R designate the average value of r e s i s t a n c e
E f o r any depth of s o i l m e a s u r e d f r o m the
"n ^ /E E E \ s u r f a c e as given by the ratio of E it i s
I -( n + n + n \
^ VRi R2 R J
evident that f o r the f i r s t l a y e r R i = R i =
(3)
but f o r subsequent l a y e r s the equality does
T h e use of Equation 3 b e c o m e s r a t h e r
not hold. T h e r e f o r e , R^^ will represent
laborious when it i s d e s i r e d to determine
the value of r e s i s t i v i t y f o r a l a y e r located the average r e s i s t a n c e value f o r the depth
s e v e r a l depth-intervals below the s u r f a c e . of n number of l a y e r s minus one, o r
35

1Q\ ^3l2 ^ E3I2


- 3 ^

Ei"
Equation 3 can now be e x p r e s s e d a s ,
E

(4)
I n
n
R
n-1

If in the three l a y e r c a s e a l l of the s o i l i s


considered to be homogeneous, then R i =
R2 = R 3 . Now, r e f e r r i n g to F i g u r e 2, the
question a r i s e s a s to whether the l a y e r
Equations 3 and 4 take into consideration
the fact that f o r a homogeneous m a t e r i a l
g
the ratio of |- or R , v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y with
the depth.
If the l a y e r equations do take into con-
sideration this v a r i a t i o n , then it can be
proved, when R i = R 2 = R 3 , that Ra =
or t h a t R = —
n n

E3 E3
14) R3 or
E3 E3 E3_
I3
Figure 15. Station 45 ^^ .
R2

Kn-11 = ^ n - l
5
Since R 2 = R i
„ , E3_. 2E3
n-1 R^ - - ^

Es E3 Also R 3 = R i
R3 =-
3E3
21) I3 Ri
R2
_ E2
where R2 = R 22) R i = ^ = 3R3
n-1 I2

E2E1
R2 23) R3 =y-\ or
- E 2 , E 2 I 1 E 1 I 2 - E 2 I 1 (from
• Rl Step 7) - Ri (5)
If,

R2 Ri R2
E
T h e n substituting =-for r e s p e c t i v e R s and
THE USE O F T H E L A Y E R EQUATION
Rs,
PRACTICE
16) E3l2 _ E3I1 ^ E 3 E 1 I 2 - E s E J i
In o r d e r to c l a s s i f y the types of s o i l s
encountered, a s y s t e m of recognition i s
17) E3I2 _ E3I1 ^ E 3 E 1 I 2 _ E 3 E 2 I 1 provided based upon ranges of l a y e r - v a l u e
E2 E2E1 EzEi r e s i s t i v i t i e s determined f r o m experience.
F o r the types of s o i l s existing in the
1 E3I2 _ E3I1 ^ E3I2 E3I1 lower P e n i n s u l a r of Michigan the f o l l o w -
ing table has been developed:
36

PL Soil T y p e s sectional view of the s o i l p r o f i l e to any


depth investigated showing the type, l o -
0 - 10,000 C l a y and Saturated cation, and relative quantity of s o i l m a -
Silt terials.
10,000 - 25,000 Sandy C l a y and Wet
Silty Sand CONCLUSION
25,000 - 50,000 Clayey Sand and Satu-
rated Sand It IS the w r i t e r ' s opinion that i n v e s t i -
50,000 - 150,000 Sand gations of borrow and proposed c u t -
150,000 - 500,000 Gravel sections of considerable s i z e c a n be made
f a s t e r and provide g r e a t e r a c c u r a c y and
detail by the r e s i s t i v i t y method than by
When the value of the l a y e r r e s i s t i v i t y such methods a s hand augering and s o i l
IS g r e a t e r than 500,000 o h m - c m the i n - borings. F o r example, there have been
terpretation of s o i l must be augmented with a number of o c c a s i o n s when the a n a l y s i s
boring information. T h e r e a s o n for this of s o i l deposits by the r e s i s t i v i t y method
IS that a number of conditions c a n exist h a s indicated the p r e s e n c e of m a t e r i a l s
which w i l l show high r e s i s t i v i t y v a l u e s , not apparent f r o m s u r f a c e conditions and
and these conditions range f r o m dry loose shallow borings usually employed. Al-
sand and g r a v e l to weathered r o c k and though t h i s method i s s t i l l in the develop-
bedrock. ment stage, subsequent borings and pit
Inasmuch a s the thickness of the l a y e r excavations proved the a n a l y s e s to be c o r -
i s an a r b i t r a r y selection, the l a y e r - v a l u e rect. T h u s the method of interpreting
of r e s i s t i v i t y must represent the average the f i e l d data by the l a y e r - v a l u e d e t e r -
r e s i s t i v i t y of a l l the s o i l types lying w i t h - mination equation has been s u c c e s s f u l to
in the boundaries of any p a r t i c u l a r l a y e r . date.
A f t e r a l l of the l a y e r - v a l u e s have been It IS felt that the l a y e r - v a l u e d e t e r -
calculated they a r e plotted in b a r - g r a p h mination a s outlined here i s not s e r i o u s l y
fashion agamst their r e s p e c t i v e i n t e r v a l s affected, if at a l l , by the warping of the
of depth a s shown on F i g u r e 3. T h e v a l - equipotential bowl which n e c e s s a r i l y must
ues for the l a y e r s a r e then connected to take place to conform to the v a r i o u s r e -
each other by lines drawn f r o m the middle s i s t a n c e s of the heterogeneous l a y e r s
of e a c h l a y e r . T h e intersection of the of m a t e r i a l . T h e r e f o r e , it i s the w r i t e r ' s
v a r i o u s range values with the r e s i s t i v i t y opinion that a s m o r e experience i s ob-
connecting lines w i l l determine the e l e v a - tained and with f u r t h e r laboratory study,
tion l i m i t s for the s o i l types. T h e s e i n t e r - the method w i l l prove to be sufficiently
section points can then be connected f r o m accurate and r e l i a b l e to s a t i s f a c t o r i l y
station to station to f r o m contour bound- predict the s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c o n -
a r i e s which, in effect, gives a c r o s s - ditions a s r e q u i r e d by the Department.
37

Effect of Native Materials on


Roadbuilding in Ohio
H A R R Y E . M A R S H A L L , Geologist,
B u r e a u of L o c a t i o n and D e s i g n , Ohio Department of Highways

T H E native s o i l s and r o c k s have a profound effect on highway construction in


Ohio. T h e boundary between the Appalachian P l a t e a u s to the east and the c e n t r a l
lowlands to the west p a s s e s north and south through the c e n t r a l p a r t of the State.
T h e bedrock c o n s i s t s entirely of sedimentary s t r a t a including mostly l i m e -
stones and dolomites in the w e s t e r n p a r t of the State and of sandstone and s h a l e s
in the e a s t e r n p a r t . T h e northwestern three-fourths of the state has been s u b -
j e c t to continental glaciation. Road building aggregates a r e obtained p r i n c i p a l l y
f r o m the limestone and dolomites of the c e n t r a l and w e s t e r n p a r t of the State
and f r o m sands and g r a v e l s deposited either directly f r o m the i c e o r a s g l a c i a l
outwash in the p r i n c i p a l r i v e r v a l l e y s .
T h e s o i l s a r e of m a j o r importance i n highway construction i n Ohio. Due to
the s e v e r a l geologic p r o c e s s e s which have been at w o r k i n the State a wide
v a r i e t y of s o i l types a r e found. T o aid i n interpreting s o i l conditions and t h e i r
effect on highway construction an engineering s o i l s map has been p r e p a r e d by
combining data presented on a g e n e r a l i z e d pedological s o i l map of the state,
the geological map of the state and the c o n s i d e r a b l e data on the engineering
p r o p e r t i e s of Ohio s o i l s which has been compiled by the Ohio State Highway
T e s t i n g and R e s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r y during the past 15 y e a r s .
G r a n u l a r s o i l s which provide good support to pavement s t r u c t u r e s a r e c o n -
fined p r i n c i p a l l y to a few old g l a c i a l lake beaches i n the northern p a r t of the
State and to some of the p r i n c i p a l r i v e r v a l l e y s e l s e w h e r e . T h e predominating
subgrade s o i l s through most of the state a r e fine grained silty clay and clay
s o i l s of intermediate to low supporting strength. P a v e m e n t design f o r these
m a t e r i a l s must take into account the stability of the v a r i o u s s o i l s a s w e l l a s
the volume and weight of the t r a f f i c which must be supported. F o r economical
construction c a r e f u l consideration must be given to the v a r i o u s available po-
tential construction m a t e r i a l s . I n view of the high cost of pavement construction
f o r modern day heavy c o m m e r c i a l t r a f f i c on low stability s o i l s a thorough
knowledge of the State's s o i l s and of available aggregates of suitable quality
and reasonable cost f o r pavement s u r f a c e s , b a s e s and subbases i s of utmost
importance.

• I N 1950 and 1951, the Ohio Department p r e s e n t s a brief r 6 s u m § of the data a s -


of Highways, i n conjunction with the sembled f o r this report.
Automotive Safety Foundation, made an In the construction and maintenance
intensive study of the State's roads and of a highway, the roadbuilder must reckon
s t r e e t s i n o r d e r to get a c o m p r e h e n s i v e continually with the natural e a r t h mate-
picture of their use and to determine the r i a l s which w i l l make up i t s foundations o r
needs f o r e:q)ansion and improvement. A s through which it may be cut. P a v e m e n t s ,
a p a r t of this study, a subcommittee w a s roadways and bridges must a l l be built on
assigned the task of reviewing the natural or cut through the native s o i l s and r o c k s .
earth m a t e r i a l s of the state in r e l a t i o n - F u r t h e r , the m a t e r i a l of construction f o r
ship to t h e i r effect on the construction and earthwork, f o r pavement o r f o r s t r u c t u r e s
maintenance of highways. T h i s paper must be obtained f r o m s o u r c e s within
38

reasonable hauling distanc e f or economic a l teaus section i s quite h i l l y with l o c a l r e -


construction. T h e r e f o r e , the native lief v a r y i n g f r o m something over 100 ft.
soils, rocks, gravels, etc., exercise a to approximately 600 ft, along the e x t r e m e
considerable influence over the c h a r a c t e r e a s t e r n edge of the State.
and cost of our highways. Bedrock. T h e bedrock of the state
f r o m w h i c h a considerable p a r t of s o i l s
N A T I V E M A T E R I A L S O F OfflO a r e d e r i v e d and which a l s o i s the s o u r c e
of much of i t s economic wealth includes
Geologic H i s t o r y p r a c t i c a l l y a l l types of sedimentary s t r a t a
ranging f r o m conglomeratic sandstones to
T h e native m a t e r i a l s which makeup the m a s s i v e beds of limestone and dolomite.
s u r f a c e s o i l s and the exposed bedrock The principal structural feature af-
of Ohio have been developed through a fecting the bedrock of Ohio i s the broad
v a r i e t y of geologic p r o c e s s e s over the Cincinnati Anticline whose a x i s extends
long eons of geologic time. For a clear a c r o s s the w e s t e r n p a r t of the State f r o m
the v i c i n i t y of Cincinnati to Toledo. On
either side of t h i s b r o a d a r c h , the r o c k s
EASTERN dip away at an average rate of about 20
LAKE SECTION
ft. to the m i l e . T h i s dip i s so slight that
in any one exposure of the r o c k , the
s t r a t a i ^ p e a r to h e approximately h o r i -
zontal. E r o s i o n h a s r e m o v e d the higher
and younger s t r a t a f r o m the peak of this
a r c h and, consequently, the oldest s t r a t a
now outcrops along the a x i s of the a n t i -
c l i n e and s u c c e s s i v e l y younger r o c k s
appear going away toward the east or
INTERIOt^ LOty
APPALACHIA
west T h e total t h i c k n e s s of the r o c k
PLATEAU
s t r a t a m e a s u r e d on the outcrop i n the
State i s about 5,000 ft. A U of the r o c k
Figure 1. Physiographic d i v i s i o n s of Ohio s t r a t a w e r e deposited on the bottom of
and adjacent t e r r i t o r y . shallow s e a s o r s w a m p s during the P a l e o -
zoic e r a , a time through which most of the
understanding of these m a t e r i a l s , a gen- east c e n t r a l portion of North A m e r i c a w a s
e r a l knowledge of the salient f e a t u r e s of a shallow s e a .
the State's geology i s v e r y helpful. T h e e ^ o s e d s t r a t a range f r o m those of
P h y s i o g r a p h i c a l l y , Ohio i s divided into the O r d o v i c i a n s y s t e m consisting of a l -
two m a j o r p r o v i n c e s , namely, the C e n t r a l ternating thin l a y e r s of limestone and
L o w l a n d s in the w e s t e r n half and the c a l c a r i o u s c l a y shale which outcrop i n a
Appalachian P l a t e a u s in the e a s t e r n half. c i r c u l a r a r e a around C i n c i n n a t i to the
T h e line dividing these p r o v i n c e s is c o a l bearing r o c k s of the Pennsylvanian
a c r o s s most of the State, a r a t h e r c l e a r - and P e r m i a n S y s t e m s . T h e older r o c k s ,
cut escarpment. T h i s e s c a r p m e n t p a r - i . e . , those of the O r d o v i c i a n , S i l u r i a n and
a l l e l s the south s h o r e of L a k e E r i e w e s t - Devonian s y s t e m s outcropping i n the
w a r d l y f r o m the P e n n s y l v a n i a - O h i o line w e s t e r n half of the State a r e p r e d o m i -
to Cleveland, w h e r e it t u r n s southwesterly nantly c a l c a r i o u s , c o n s i s b n g of limestone
and p a s s e s j u s t w e s t of M a n s f i e l d , thence and dolomite with s m a l l amounts of c a l -
through the c e n t r a l p a r t of the State, c a r i o u s s h a l e s , w h i l e the younger r o c k
along the east edge of the Scioto b a s i n outcropping in the e a s t e r n and more
which it c r o s s e s at C h i l l i c o t h e , turning rugged portion of the State a r e c l a s t i c in
w e s t w a r d to the e a s t e r n b o r d e r of H i g h - c h a r a c t e r consisting of sandstones and
land County and thence south to the Ohio s h a l e s . I n the w e s t e r n p a r t of the State,
R i v e r east of M a n c h e s t e r i n A d a m s County. the limestones and dolomites a r e ex-
L e v e l to gently r o l l i n g p l a i n s make up tensively developed a s s o u r c e s of c o m -
the m a j o r portion of the State west of this m e r c i a l aggregate, agricultural lime,
e s c a r p m e n t , while the Appalachian P l a - flux stone, building stone, cement, etc.
39

LEGEND
nermtan
fkmsylnniak
Mistissipplai\
Deve
Silurian
Ordomcion

St.lt of MiIrt

BeasnHTAiNC

X .

Ci»r»tr;of7-W.^7/Bbwc/(,^.

Figure 2. Geologic map of Ohio from Ohio Geological Survey. Be-


low 1 8 a cross section from Bel 1efontaine, Logan Gjunty, through
Delaware to the Ohio R i v e r .

T h e sandstone m e m b e r s of the c e n t r a l ing, grindstones, etc. T h e P e n n s y l v a n i a n


and e a s t e r n part of the State, notably the r o c k s contribute much to the economic
B e r e a formation of the M i s s i s s i p p i a n wealth of the State, both a s a s o u r c e of
S y s t e m , constitute an important regional c o a l and of c l a y s and s h a l e s which f o r m
s o u r c e of building stone, sandstone c u r b - the b a s i s f o r a l a r g e c e r a m i c industry.
40

+1-

3^
j «A8»J
r

.CARROLL r
1 r'
W1SC(
[TUSCAR^ASj '—I

rHARRISON|

J
\5i j iGUERNSEYjBELMONT)

USKIN6UML| 1

) hli) B L El
0 N R 0 E ;

V I N T O N
r •
' M E I 6 Sr

JACKSON,

lA-gP^Msi J. L J

S C l > T 0 7 L^ALL I

A A W R E N C E L .

Figure 3. G l a c i a l map of Ohio from Ohio Geological Survey.


41

G e n e r a l l y , however, the bedrock of the the s u r f a c e drainage s y s t e m , both within


e a s t e r n half of the State contains but little the a r e a c o v e r e d by i c e and f a r out beyond
r o c k suitable f o r producing highway c o n - its boundaries. Many old v a l l e y s in the
struction aggregates. unglaciated section of the State a r e p a r t i -
G l a c i a l Deposits. Of p a r t i c u l a r i m - ally f i l l e d with thick l a y e r s of s i l t and c l a y
portance f o r the highway builder a r e the which w e r e deposited f r o m the quiet w a t e r s
g l a c i a l deposits which cover most of the f o r m e d by blocking of old northward d r a i n -
w e s t e r n and northern two t h i r d s of the age outlets by i c e and the consequent d a m -
State. At least three separate advances of ming up of the s t r e a m s . Of g r e a t e r e c o -
continental g l a c i e r s into Ohio a r e recogniz- nomic importance to the roadbuilder a r e
able f r o m t h e i r deposits while an older the considerable deposits of outwash
advance a p p e a r s to have been i n s t r u m e n t a l g r a v e l which w e r e deposited f r o m the
in shifting of the p r e g l a c i a l r i v e r pattern sediment chocked r i v e r s which flowed
and the development of t h e p r e s e n t s u r f a c e away f r o m the i c e front. Abundant quan-
drainage s y s t e m . tities of g r a v e l and sand w e r e thus de-
T h e oldest w i d e s p r e a d g l a c i a l deposits posited i n such v a l l e y s a s the T u s c a r a w a s ,
a r e those o c c u r r i n g in the southwestern Muskingum, Scioto, M i a m i and Ohio.
portion of Ohio and a r e of Ulinoian Age.
T h e s e deposits except in the l a r g e r v a l l e y s
a r e thin, generally l e s s than 15 feet in Surface Soils
thickness. The surface materials, there-
f o r e , show considerably more the i n - T h e s u r f a c e s o i l s developed f r o m the
fluence of the underlying bedrock than do weathering of the parent r o c k o r d r i f t
those in the r e m a i n d e r of the glaciated a r e of utmost importance in the c o n -
area. struction and maintenance of our highways.
T h e m a j o r portion of the s u r f a c e de- F r o m the above description of the State's
posits of the g l a c i e r w e r e left by the most geology, c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n can be
recent, L a t e W i s c o n s i n I c e Sheet. T h e ej5)ected in the s o i l s which have developed
deep mantle of g l a c i a l drift left by this in different p a r t s of the State. T h e p r i n -
advance of the i c e greatly modified the c i p a l s o i l s a r e a s of the State recograzed
p r e - e x i s t i n g topography by f i l l i n g the old by the A g r o n o m i s t s of the Department of
v a l l e y s with considerable t h i c k n e s s e s of A g r i c u l t u r e a r e indicated in F i g u r e 4.
drift and covering the hilltops and up- T h e c l o s e relationship of these a r e a s to
lands with only a thin v e n e e r of m a t e r i a l . the geology of the State i s apparent. In
F u r t h e r , at the edges of the g l a c i a l a d - studying s o i l s f o r highway work in Ohio,
vance and at numerous points w h e r e the an engineering s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m
i c e front halted f o r a time in its r e t r e a t , s i m i l a r to the Highway R e s e a r c h B o a r d
g r e a t e r accumulations of drift in the f o r m s y s t e m i s used- A n engineering s o i l s
of m o r a i n e s w e r e left in i r r e g u l a r low map of the state has been p r e p a r e d c o m -
h i l l s and ridges which c a n be t r a c e d f o r bining the H . R . B . c l a s s i f i c a t i o n with the
many m i l e s . s o i l a r e a s mapped by the a g r o n o m i s t s .
F i g u r e 5. T h e test data used i n p r e p a r a -
One of the m a j o r w o r k s of the g l a c i e r s
tion of this map have been obtained I r o m
w a s the development of the G r e a t L a k e s .
our e}q>erience i n testing approximately
F o r example L a k e E r i e has not always
80,000 s o i l s a m p l e s f r o m highway p r o j -
been exactly a s it now i s , but h a s , during
ects during the past 15 y e a r s . In a d -
v a r i o u s t i m e s during the g l a c i a l period,
dition, during the l a s t 13 y e a r s , we have
extended f a r out into the Maumee R i v e r
been making detailed studies of the s o i l s
basin in northwestern Ohio and south of
and r o c k s which w i l l be encountered in
its p r e s e n t s h o r e f o r s e v e r a l m i l e s at the
cuts, subgrade and foundations f o r a l l
foot of the Portage e s c a r p m e n t in the
m a j o r highway work. T o the f i r s t of
a r e a east of C l e v e l a n d . T h e b a s i n s of
January 1951, such s o i l studies r e f e r r e d
these v a r i o u s older extensions of the L a k e
to in Ohio a s s o i l p r o f i l e s have been made
a r e m a r k e d by sandy and g r a v e l l y ridges
f o r 2 , 0 8 2 m i . of road.
in the positions of their s h o r e s and by
uniform heavy c l a y s on the lake bottoms. T h e p r i n c i p a l s o i l s of the State a r e as
T h e g l a c i e r s had a profound effect on follows:
42

MIROIR - -

aUACIAL

•UT

RESIDUAL LIMESTONE
SOILS

Figure 4. G e n e r a l i z e d s o i l map of Ohio from the Ohio A g r i c u l -


t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n , Wooster.
43

TABLE 1
L E G E N D F O R G E N E R A L I Z E D S O I L M A P O F OfflO ( F i g u r e 4)
F r o m Special C i r c u l a r No. 44 ( R e v i s e d , 1937) published
by the Ohio A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t Station, Wooster, Ohio
I. G l a c i a l limestone s o i l s .
a. Late Wisconsin Drift soils.
1. M i a m i , C r o s b y , Brookston, and Clyde silty clay loam.
2. Bellefontaine, M i a m i and C r o s b y s i l t loam; Brookston and Clyde silty
clay loam.
3. M i a m i and C r o s b y loam and silt loam; Brookston clay loam and silty clay
loam.
4. Mixed sands and find sandy l o a m s - C o l o m a , M i a m i , Nappanee, Wauseon,
etc.
b. E a r l y Wisconsin Drift soils.
5. R u s s e l l and F i n c a s t l e s i l t loam with Brookston s i l t loam.
c. lUinoian D r i f t s o i l s .
6. C l e r m o n t , Avonburg, R o s s m o y n e , and B l a n c h e s t e r s i l t loam.
7. C i n c i n n a t i and Rossmoyne s i l t loam; F a i r m o u n t silty clay loam.
n. G l a c i a l sandstone and shale s o i l s .
a. Late Wisconsin Drift soils.
8. Wooster, C a n f i e l d , Ravenna, and T r u m b u l l s i l t loam.
9. Wooster and C a n f i e l d loam and sandy loam.
10. R i t t m a n , Wadsworth, and T r u m b u l l s i l t loam.
11. E l l s w o r t h , Mahoning, and T r u m b u l l silty clay loam and s i l t loam.
12. A l e x a n d r i a , Cardington, and Bennington s i l t loam; Marengo silty clay loam.
b. lUinoian D r i f t s o i l s .
13. Hanover and F a l l s b u r y s i l t loam.
in. L a c u s t r i n e limestone s o i l s .
14. Brookston c l a y , with Nappanee clay loam, Wauseon fine sandy l o a m , etc.
15. Paulding c l a y , with Nappanee clay.
16. Toledo silty clay with Fulton and L u c a s silty clay loam.
17. Toledo v e r y fine sandy loam, loam, s i l t loam, and clay loam.
18. P l a i n f i e l d , B e r r i e n , and Newton fine sand.
IV. L a c u s t r i n e sandstone and shale s o i l s .
19. P a i n s e v i U e , Caneadea, and L o r a i n loam to silty clay loam; P l a i n f i e l d and
B e r r i e n fine sand.
V. R e s i d u a l limestone and shale s o i l s .
20. Hagerstown, B r a t t o n , Maddox, and E U s b e r r y s i l t loam; Heitt, E d e n and
F a i r m o u n t silty clay loam.
VI. R e s i d u a l sandstone and shale s o i l s .
21. Muskingum s i l t l o a m , with Muskingum loam.
22. Muskingum s i l t loam (largely steep phase).
23. W e s t m o r e l a n d and Belmont silty clay loam, with Muskingum s i l t loam.
24. Meigs silty clay loam and Upshur c l a y , with Muskingum s i l t loam.
44

lUinoian Glacial Drift. In southwestern windblown silts. Thickness of the glacial


Ohio, the principal area of lUinoian Drift, deposits in the valleys is much greater and
the soil mantle outside of the valleys is includes both boulder clay or till and
usually thin. The character of the soil is glaciof luvial sands and gravels.
strongly influenced by the limestone and Wisconsin Moraines. The low hills
shale bedrock and for these reasons the and ridges which mark the limits of ad-
soils are largely clays. However, on vance of the Wisconsin glaciers or areas
certain upland areas there are deposits of in which the ice front during its recession

AMomad

eumm


ja^ce^-f.t'ae .a£a^^}z»*i^ diesc^,x^'fxi^ -**47 CMOBacTs^i^^/xrs or ^//i?^?' s£^£-s

Figure 5. Generalized e n g i n e e n n g - s o i l map of Ohio prepared by


Ohio State Highway Testing and Research Laboratory.
45

remained approximately stationary over a which represent bottoms of pre-existing


considerable time, contain the most widely extensions of Lake Erie are found the
variable soils in the State. Deposits of most uniform soils in the State. These
boulders, gravel and sand are irregularly soils are fairly heavy clays. Crossing
distributed through these areas together these plains at various points are pro-
with sandy silt and silty clay soils. Also, , nounced ridges which represent old shore
numerous pockets of peat are found in lines of the lake. Many of these ridges
many of the undrained depressions both in are followed by highways. Granular ma-
the moraine areas and on the till plains. terial, principally sand, predominate

'•14
ii

Figure 6.. Peat bog, Wisconsin G l a c i a l D r i f t . S . B . 18, L o r a i n


County, Ohio. The peat i s being displaced by loading. Note up-
heaved peat at l e f t and r i g h t of the lower photograph.

Wisconsin Till Plains. The largest both in these ridges and in a few localized
single soil area of the State is the area of areas on the Lake flats in the form of sand
Wisconsin Till. This area consists of dunes.
gently rolling to almost completely flat In northern Cuyahoga and Lake coun-
plains covered with a considerable thick- ties, in the valleys of the major streams,
ness of unsorted drift. The soils in the are found considerable deposits of uniform
area consist almost entirely of fairly textured silt soils apparently of lacustrine
heavy silty clays and clays. origin.
Glacial Lake Plains. On the broad, Alluvial Terraces. Both in the areas
even, low areas in northwestern Ohio covered by the ice sheets and far out be-
TABLE 2
LKOiCND AND C L A S S I F I C A T I O N F O I ^ S O I L T Y P E : IDfcNTIFICATION ON S O I L PRQFILE^S

exiAVOL, SAND 4 S I L T
e O A V t l . ft SAND

E m jSAND
'GEEHili;SAhlBVISE 511-V ^^T^^ , XT*—
MATfcHIAL IWITH CM
g O A S S t MATfctjlAI- WITH C M
b t R M MATCRIAL. CLASSlPltO 6 V ViaoAL INSPtCTION
: ^ ^ S : L ^ O- I o 50-83 13-SO N P - 12 I OS - I I S

_iTmnTimi3ANDv S . L T IS-SO N P- lO I 10- I 2 0


LOAMY H A T f c l t l A i . eONVAiKllWft DfccAvcD VfeGtTAe.i_ll; M A + T t R A N D HOMO*
CLASSIFlfcO B V V I S U A L INSPfcCTION
SANDV SILT ft CLAV
&NIC MATfcPIAL P I Less THAN

S S i a ^ C L A Y y i T M MICA P I LESS THAN " " ^ t j ^

CLAV a SILT

P I C R t A T C R . THAN *" ^ ' f ^ ^


CINDCRS C L A S S I F I E D B V V I S U A L INSPfcCTIOM
R O C K - S O I L MIXTURE: so-oo 5t L A R s e : ROCK. — CLASSIFIED bv VISUAL INSPECTION
ORGANIC MATERIAL P C A T , SO 60+
COAL O a C O A L bLOSSOM
2. ^ ^ S O F T SHALE CLASSIFIED 6 V VISUAL INSPECTION

LIMESTONE C L A S S I F I E D B V V I S U A L INSPECTION
SANDSTONE C L A S S I F I E D B V V I S U A L INSPECTION
C L A S S I F I E D B Y V I S U A L INSPECTION

n
DESCRIDTION —r
"si ^ it
o
O 0 o
"-si f
LIQUID Llff/Tt— r/je /noii-fura con/an^ ex-pras^ec/ as a percenfoge try weight o/" jV»e oven-dnad ^oi/, erf- w/>/ch Me
joi/ wif/ /usf beg/n ?b f/okr t^fien jarred ^//p/iHy
fij,/fST/C tJM/T "Tha /oh/e-at mouf-ure con-fen-/; expressed as a percentage i>y weight of t/M oven-driad soi/, crt
wMch tfie Ml/ can be ro//ecf info f/irecrds '/o inoh in diameter i^ittiou^ breal(ing into pikces.
JSJ.A3TICITY /A/D&X'~r/)e M^erence betp^en the /iguicf /imit ancf ttie /o/astic /imit:
F'/JiLD MO/STO/^Jt i:QUIVi9jL^//T - The ininiinum moisture content, expressed as a percentagie by weiffM

i of the oven-o/ried so// crt which a cfrop of y/cr-fer p/aced


iate^ c/i>jorba<J but jyri//spreac/ out over the jorfoce
on ttie smooth surface
and give it a shiny
of the sol/ hn// no/' be immed-
crppearance
JVyi?/A:(?*e£' /./wr-- rhe moisture content, expressed oiy o percentagre by k/aiaht of the oven-dried sfoiV
at t^hich a rec/oction in moisture con/en/- wi// not cause a decrease in vo/ome of rhe sol/ moss butof h/bich an
increase in moisture content wi// cause an increase in the vo/ume of the j-o// mass.
47

yond the glacial boundaries there are (a) Change of alignment: Where prac-
terraces and valley fills formed by de- ticable, particularly in all new construc-
position from the glacial melt waters in tion work, this is by far the most satis-
the major river valleys. The terraces factory treatment.
particularly and also often a considerable (b) Removal and Replacement with
part of the valley fill are made up of fairly suitable Material: This is perhaps the
clean washed gravels and sand. most positive method of providing last-
Residual Soils. In the southeastern ing stability at the outset. It is also
part of the State beyond the area covered usually the most costly.
by glaciation, the soils have been de- (c) Displacement by loading: This
veloped by direct weathering of the parent may be done either with or without the
rock. They are, therefore, quite van- assistance of blasting. It also is usually
able on a local basis depending on the an expensive process and final settlement
character of the bedrock. Taking the area of the new fill may take several years
as a whole, the predominating materials with the resultant necessity for continued
are shales and clays and the resulting maintenance.
soils, therefore, consist principally of (d) Floatation: In some cases, it may
clays. be possible by the use of flat fill slopes
and slow application of load to construct
Effect of Ohio Geology on Road Con- across a bog area without lateral dis-
struction placement of the underlying peat. Slow
settlement of the finished roadway is likely
The relative importance of the various to occur for a considerable time, when
problems involved in constructing roads construction is done by this procedure.
in Ohio vanes considerably from one However, the initial savings in construc-
region to another. For example, proper tion cost by this method will often be
design of side slopes in cuts is a major considerably greater than the cost of
consideration in the hilly terrain of the maintenance of the section over a great
eastern half of the State but of little im- many years.
portance in the flat lands of the glacial In the unglaciated part of the State,
lake plains. The effect of Ohio Geologic foundations are usually good. In the
and Soil Conditions on various phases of valleys of the smaller streams, bedrock
highway work will be discussed under the often occurs within a few feet of the sur-
headings of Foundation, Earthwork, Sub- face affording excellent support both for
grades and Pavement. structures and embankment. In some of
Foundation. Foundations for struc- the larger valleys of the unglaciated areas,
tures and embankment in the glaciated there are thick deposits of fine textured
portion of the State are usually quite silts or siltyclay soils. For high fills and
adequate for the necessary loadings. structures, some of these materials have
However, there do exist many deposits of questionable supporting stregnth and re-
peat ranging in size from those covering quire special treatment.
a small fraction of an acre to large bogs Earthwork. All highway construction
covering several hundred acres (see Fig. involves some grading to provide suitable
6). Depths of these deposits range from cross section and to obtain the desired
as little as one or two feet to over 50 feet. smoothness of profile and adequate sight
There I S some variation in the composition distance. Grading becomes particularly
and character of the peat which effects its important in the hilly Appalachian Pla-
commercial value, however, as founda- teaus region of the eastern part of the
tion for embankment the material is State. Here deep cuts and high fills are
uniformly poor. The instability of this often necessary. The soils and rocks of
soil I S indicated by the fact that water the State are practically all smtable for
almost always makes up between 2 to 5 embankment construction when properly
times as much of the total weight of the handled. However, there are some ma-
deposit as do the solid particles. These terials such as the red clays found in the
deposits may be treated in one of the upper portion of the coal measures, rocks,
several ways outlined below: and the silts which occur as valley filling
48

in various parts of the State which form excavation in the thick mantle of soil
stable fill only when placement and com- overburden on the lower slopes of the
paction are very carefully controlled. hills, or when embankment must be con-
Due to the wide variety of sedimentary structed on sloping rock or soil founda-
rocks which occur in the eastern part of tion, landslides are of common occur-
the State, cut slopes present a problem rence (see Figures 7 and 8).
which must be worked out from area to Many of the situations conducive to
area and oftentimes different slopes must landslide are readily recognizable from
be used in the several materials which general observation and from routine
may occur in different cuts on the same field soil studies. Where landslides ap-
project or at different levels in the same
pear definitely probably, preventitive
cuts.
measures as follows may be used:

Figure 7. Landslide, &,nemaugh Formation Pennsylvania Series S.R


7 Lawrence County Ohio. This s l i d e developed a f t e r construction
oi a s i d e - h i l l f i l l on sloping t a l u s . Correction consisted of
loading the toe of the s l i d e and adding f i l l at the top together
with improvement of the surface drainage.
Landslides are a problem particularly A. Side Hill Cuts.
in the clay soils and associated bedrock 1. Flatten slopes.
of the upper Pennsylvanian and Permian 2. Provide benches at level of the
formations. Landslides are also common new roadway or higher in the
in the clay soils derived from the weather- slope as specific conditions
ing of the limestone and shale formations indicate.
of the Ordovician system in southwestern
Ohio particularly in the vicinity of Cin- Use interceptor ditches above
cut slope.
cinnati. Due to the hilly topography in 4. In slideswhich have already de-
these areas, considerable grading is
necessary. When this grading involves veloped, excavate the slip ma-
terial and reconstruct, usually
Figure 8. Rock F a l l , Permian sandstone. Route 7, Washington &)un-
ty, Ohio. Joints and mud seams in the sandstone and weathering of
a s o f t shale under the stone r e s u l t e d i n t h i s r o c k f a l l .

providing a cut off drain at the to be a possibility. If, in new construc-


back of the excavated area. tion all possible sections where slips
5. Shift line to avoid the area. might occur were treated to guarantee
B. Side Hill Fills. stability, construction costs in the hilly
1. Cut benches into originalground terrain of the State would soar high above
to solid foundations material present costs for both new construction
and construct fills out of select- and the remedial measures necessary in
ed high quality material such as areas where landslides have occurred.
rock. Pavements and Subgrades. The widely
2. Drain natural seepage planes. varying character of different Ohio soils
3. Hold roadway withpiling, rock, makes pavement design adequate for
concrete or bin type walls foun- these soils and for the traffic demands
ded on solid material. on roads ranging from those which carry
4. Counter-balanceforces tending 100 vehicles per day to those which carry
to produce slippage by flattening several thousand vehicles a complex
slopes or providing a buttress problem. It might at first be assumed
of heavy rock or soil fill at the that all roads in the state should be built
toe of the slope. to handle maximum legal loadings. How-
5. Shift line to avoid the area. ever, it is a well established fact that
many of our secondary roads, which con-
Most of the above preventive or cor- stitute the greater part of the total mile-
rective procedures are very costly. For age of the state system, seldom carry
this reason, it is often more economical heavy vehicles. It is also known that the
to use preventive measures only where frequency of repetition of load has a great
slides appear to be inevitable, than to deal to do with the rate at which a pave-
use them in all cases where slides seem ment wears out. A pavement subject to
O
TABLE 3
DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL TYPES

AASHO Moisture-Density
Percent Modified
Classification Passing Maximum Dry Optimum C. B. R. H. R. B. Performance in
Weight Moisture Results Group Subgrade
No. 200 Liquid Plasticity
H. R. B. S. H. T. L Description Sieve Limit Index (lb /cu. ft.) (Avg.) '""^^
A^^ Well graded mixture of 25 Max - 6 Max. 115-142 ST Highly stable under wheel
stone fragments or gravel loads, irrespective of
and sand, either with or moisture conditions.
without a well graded soil
binder.
A-3 Principally fine sand with 10 Max. Nonplastic 100-115 9-15 32 Unaffected by moisture
no soil fines or with a conditions. Not suscep-
very small amount of non- tible to frost damage or
plastic silt shrinkage or expansion.
Furnishes excellent sup-
port when confined.
A-2 1,2,3,4 Includes a wide variety of 35 Max - - 110-135 9-18 26 0 to 4 Stable when fairly dry.
granular materials with
grading or plasticity or
both in excess of limita-
tion for A-1 or A-3.
A-4 8,9 Silt or sandy silt soil, 36 Min. 40 Max. 10 Max. 95-130 10-20 11 8 Max. Tendency to absorb water
nonplastic or with low readily. Low stability
plasticity. when wet. Susceptible to
frost damage. Generally
requires drainage or gran-
ular insulation material.
A-5 12 Silt soil similar to A-4 36 Min. 41 Min. 10 Max. 85-100 20-35 No tests 12 Max. May be highly elasUc. U-
group except that it sually requires special
usually includes orgamc subgrade treatment
material or mica.
A-6 11,15 Silt clay soil of moder- 36 Min. 40 Max. 11 Mm. 93-125 10-30 7 16 Max. Subject to considerable
ate plasticity. volume change. Medium to
low supporting strength.
A-7 16,17 Clay soil of high plas- 36 Min. 41 Min. 11 Min. 90-115 15-30 5 20 Max. Subject to high volume
ticity. change. May be elastic.
Low supporting strength.
51

only occasional repetition of a load great- freezing weather or through loss of sup-
er than that for which it was designed will port during periods of thaw, these soils
give many years of service while one which must be either drained or replaced. The
is repeatedly used by loads greater than most commonly occurring potentially frost
the design load may fail within a relatively heaving soil in Ohio is a silt which will
short time. To illustrate, fatigue curves not drain rapidly enough to assure com-
published by the Portland Cement Associ- plete protection against frost heave.
ation show that a concrete pavement de- This material is usually replaced to depths
signed for an unlimited number of repeti- of 12 or 18 inches below the pavement
tions of 18, 000-lb. axle loads will carry with non-frost susceptible granular mate-
22, 000 lb. axle loads at the rate of two rial. Drainage is used in conjunction
per day for over 30years without produc- with this replacement to insure stability
ing failure. However, if repetitions of both in the replaced material and in the

F i g u r e 9. Pumping and broken concrete pavement on Route 30N,


Crawford County, Ohio. A 9-7-7-9 concrete pavement on t i l l p l a i n
c l a y of l a t e W i s c o n s i n Age; no subbase.

22, 000-lb. axle loading are increased to underlying undisturbed soiL


10 per day, life of thepavement is reduced Good surface and sub-surface drainage
to about 7 years. For economic reasons, are essential for good pavement perform-
it is essential that pavements be designed, ance. Many of the soils which make up
not for some arbitrary load such as the subgrade are too dense to be much im-
maximum legal load, but for the actual proved by sub-surface drainage. How-
magnitude and number of load applications ever, sub-surface drainage is very ef-
to which it will be subjected. fective in stabilizing sandy silt soils
Silt soils susceptible to frost heave are of low plasticity. These soils are often
frequently encountered in the glacial soils found in the hilly, moranic areas. They
of the State. To prevent damage to the have fairly high stability at moisture con-
pavement either by heaving during sub- tent below optimum but become elastic
52

and subject to excessive deformation and vention of pumping where expected vol-
rebound at high moisture contents. Sub- ume of axle loadings is within these
surface drainage is also of considerable limits.
value in intercepting lateral seepage and (2) Where the number of 14,000 pound
m lowering high groundwater table where- axles per 8 hours is expected to be within
ever these conditions occur. 51 and 250, it may be well to consider
Most Ohio subgrades are made up of the use of a granular sub-base even though
fine textured soils of intermediate to it IS not a first class, low plasticity
moderately high plasticity. Supporting material. Traffic data indicates that this
strength of these silty clay soils is usu- load group would include 20 to 80 axles
ally low. As measured by the Califor- of 18,000 lb. and greater.
nia Bearing Test, the bearing value of (3) The study shows that granular
these soils is almost always less than 10 subbase material having a plasticity index
and for the majority of cases is less than of 6 or less should be used over fine
5. grained subgrade soils to prevent pump-
One of the most serious of the prob- ing where the traffic is expected to have
lems which these low bearing value soils over 250 axles of 14,000 pounds per 8
present under rigid types of pavement hours. Traffic counts indicate that this
is that of pumping (Fig. 9). Pumping is volume of trucks would include more than
the extrusion of water and soil from 80 axles of 18,000 lb. or greater.
joints and cracks in concrete pavements Soil and traffic conditions are such on
under the action of moving heavy loads. most of the primary roads in the State
It results in erosion of the soil below that some pumping preventive measures
the slab and consequent loss of support. are necessary. The most uniformly ef-
The effects of pumping on the slab are fective treatment is the use of a subbase
progressive, leading to the development of nonpumping granular material. Data
of secondary cracks which in turn be- are not yet available to determine the
come pumpers and the final destruction exact minimum depth required. In the
of the pavement. Extensive studies of early years of use of sub-base in Ohio,
this phenomenon in Ohio and in other states 12- and 15-in. depths were widely used.
have established the following four con- In more recent years, 4- and 6-in. depths
ditions as essential to produce pumping. have been commonly used since e3q)erience
1. Presence of free water. gained with granular sub-bases both in
2. Presence of fine grained soil sub- this and other states indicated that the
grade. greater thicknesses previously used
3. Repeated application of heavy loads were not essential. Additional studies
which produce slab deflection. both as to depth and type of nonpumping
4. Joints or cracks in the pavement. sub-base material needed are to be in-
vestigated in the near future, in an ex-
From study of concrete pavements in perimental project.
Ohio and in adjacent states, it has been The low supporting strength afforded
found that pumping is confined princi- by the fine textured subgrade soils in
pally to soils which have less than 55% Ohio necessitates the use of thick flexible
total sand and gravel (material retained pavements and sub-bases so that heavy
on a No. 200 sieve). This limit includes wheel loads will be transmitted to a large
most natural soil subgrades in Ohio. With enough area of the soil that its strength
respect to the effect of load, the studies will not be exceeded. For the traffic on
show: primary roads on the heavy clay soils of
(1) Little pumping occurred on the the State, flexible pavements with a total
majority of projects carrying 50 and less thickness of 19 to 27 in. are required.
14,000 pound axles, and 20 and less 18,000 The thicknesses of flexible pavements
pound axles, per 8 hours even under un- required for the different supporting
favorable conditions of subgrade soil and strength of various subgrade soils varies
design. It spears that careful considera- through a wider range than do slab and
tion should be given to the possible omis- sub-base thickness of rigid pavements
sion of granular sub-bases for the pre- on similarly varying subgrade soils.
53

In flexible pavement design, it is also frequently be limited to values on the


recognized that stresses are most severe other of 1. 1 to 1. 5. " Likewise, in the
in the upper portion of the structure and design of embankment over questionable
that, therefore, the highest stability foundation soils or of pavement structures,
materials need be used only in this part it has long been the practice to provide
of the structure. The usual practice is only a narrow margin of safety. In ad-
to use high grade bases such as macadam dition to the considerable economies
or bituminous concrete in the upper 7 to which are effected in initial construction
10 inches of the structure and to make use by the use of these low safety factors,
of locally available lower cost gran- such low safety factors have been accept-
ular materials in the lower part of the able because failure does not usually re-
structure. sult in complete loss of a substantial part
The materials used in the lower part of the investment in the structure, and al-
of flexible pavements and as pumping most never would be physically hazardous
preventives under concrete are describ- to the user. For example, if a flexible
ed as sub-bases. Specifications for this pavement deforms under the application of
loads greater than those for which it was
material have been written and revised
designed, the material which went into
from time to time to make the best pos- its construction is still there and can be
sible use of local materials. Further, used to form a base for a new pavement.
detailed field and laboratory tests are Many miles of concrete pavements which
often made to ascertain what local ma- had become badly cracked and rough under
terials are available which might be used the steadily increasing weight and vol-
for sub-base and design and specification ume of traffic have been salvaged by the
requirements modified to utilize mate- use of relatively thin resurfacings and
rials from these sources. have then given excellent service under
much heavier traffic than ever was antici-
Safety Factors and Highway Construction pated when the original concrete was
Costs placed.
As was pointed out, highway embank- The tremendous increase in number of
ment, pavements and structures depend heavy commercial vehicles in the past
directly on the natural soil or rock founda- 20 years and the increase both in weight
tions for their support. The engineering and frequency of heavy axle loadings make
properties of soil such as their com- even more desirable the use of higher
pressibility, cohesion and resistance to safety factors. This is particularly true
shear which taken together provide its if legal limitations on loads are to be
strength are at best difficult to measure. continuously pushed upward or disregard-
Further, soils are far from uniform in ed as larger and more powerful com-
composition, gradation, and moisture mercial units are developed. Further,
content even through relatively short if the designer of today must build pave-
distances. It would, therefore, be de- ments to last a century or more, he will
sirable to design structures which depend have to drastically increase his safety
upon soils for their support with a fairly factors with a consequent sharp increase
high factor of safety to compensate for in initial construction costs.
the uncertainties of presently available The importance of different subgrade
testing procedures and the known vari- materials on pavement construction is
ability of the material. However, eco- readily seen when a comparison is made
nomic considerations have often made the between relative costs of pavements built
use of high safety factors impossible. on soils which require no subgrade treat-
D. W. Taylor, in a paper presented at ment and those built on the usual fine
the Highway Research Board in 1939, grained soils. On the good granular
entitled, "Limit Design of Foundations and subgrades such as the beach ridge sands
Embankments, " states that, "experience of the Erie Basin or the gravel terraces
has shown that for practical and economic in some of the river valleys, a pavement
reasons, factors of safety with respect to thickness of about 8 inches is adequate
strength in embankment analyses must for very heavy commercial traffic. Such
54

a pavement 24 ft. wide would cost ap- From the above, it is evident that the
proximately $50,000 per mile at present low supporting strength of most Ohio soils
day prices. On the low supporting strength increases the cost of pavement construc-
clay soils which prevail in much of the tion by about 50% over that which would
State, cost of the 8-in. pavement plus prevail on good subgrades.
about 14 inches of sub-base and necessary If the public demand is for pavements
sub-surface drainage would be about which will carry continually increasing
$76,000 per mi. If it was considered ad- loads and, at the same time require no
visable to utilize a higher safety factor of substantial improvement or repair for as
say 2. 5 instead of the currently accq)ted much as 50 or 100 years, it will be nec-
low safety factors, cost of the high type essary to adopt the higher safety factors
pavement of 10-in. thickness plus 18 in. common in other engineering practice.
of subbase and subsurface drainage would Cost of initial pavement construction above
probably be on the order of $93,000 per that required on good subgrades would then
mile for a 24 foot width pavement. be increased by about 90 percent.
PUBLICATIONS of the fflGHWAY RESEARCH BOARD on
SOIL SURVEYING and MAPPING

Price per
copy

Bulletin 13 The Appraisal of Terrain Conditions for


Highway Engineering Purposes (1948) 99 p. $1. 50

Bulletin 22 The Use of Agricultural Soil Maps and the Status


of Agricultural Soil Mapping in the United
States (1949) 137 p. 1.80

Bulletin 28 Soil Exploration and Mapping (1950) 124 p. 1.50

Bulletin 46 Engineering Soil Survey Mapping (1951) 100 p. 1.50

Bulletin 65 Mapping and Subsurface Exploration for Engineer-


ing Purposes (1952) 57 p. .90
The Highway Research Board is
organized under the auspices of
the Division of Engineering and
Industrial Research of the Na-
tional Research Council to pro-
vide a clearinghouse for highway
research activities and informa-
tion. The National Research
Council is the operating agency
of the National Academy of
Sciences, a private organization
of eminent American scientists
chartered in 1863 (under a spe-
cial act of Congress) to "investi-
gate, examine, experiment, and
report on any subject of science
or art."
S
HIGHWAY
RESEARCH
BOARD

BULLETIN

6 1 - 7 0

NATIONAL
RESEARCH
COUNCIL