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PLC BASES THREE PHASE PROTECTION


INTODUCTION
Induction motor (IM) is protected against possible problem such as
over voltage, over current, overload, over temperature, under
voltage, occurring in the course of its operation is very important
because of it is used intensively in industry as an actuator. IMs can
be protected using some components such as timers, contactors,
voltage and current relay. This Method is known as classical method
that is very basic and involves mechanical dynamic parts. The
implementation of a monitoring and control system for the
induction motor based on programmable logic controller (PLC)
technology is described. Also, the implementation of the hardware
and software for speed control and protection with the results
obtained from tests on induction motor performance is provided.
The PLC correlates the operational parameters to the speed
requested by the user and monitors the system during normal
operation and under trip conditions. Tests of the induction motor
system driven by inverter and controlled by PLC proves a higher
accuracy in speed regulation as compared to a conventional V/f
control system. The efficiency of PLC control is increased at high
speeds up to 95% of the synchronous speed. Thus, PLC proves them
as a very versatile and effective and the three phase induction
motors are easier to maintain and so are widely used motor in the
industrial applications because of its rugged construction.
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To operate this kind of motor, Star- Delta starters are used. But,
because of its constant speed characteristics many times it is driven
with the help of drive to have reliable operation its performance must
be monitored continuously. Here design and fabrication of monitoring
the control system for 3 phase induction motors based on
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) technology is implemented and
also hardware and software for protection and speed control with the
result is obtained from the test conducted on three phase induction
motor for performance. The PLC correlates the operational
parameters to protect motor and monitor the system during normal
operational and under trip condition. Other performance parameters
of three phase induction motors can also be monitored by other
control devices. AC drives such as Variable Frequency Drive (or VFD)
are also used to control motor rotation direction and rotation speed
for three phase induction motors. All the required control or
protection and motor performance data will be taken to personal
computer via PLC for further analysis. Speed control from control side
and protection from performance side will be a priority. The
monitoring, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition of three phase
induction motors is done by SCADA software.
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LITERATURE SURVEY OF PLC:


Gilberto P. Azevedo et al explains in the software development area,
as in most fields of the computer industry, new technologies are
trumpeted as revolutionary solutions almost daily, just to disappear
silently some time later. This was not the case with open-
architecture energy management systems (EMS). About 10 years
after their conception, they have proven to be a successful
technological approach. But this does not mean that all problems
have been solved; in fact, this is a dynamic research area, in
continuous evolution and still raising challenges for the near future.
Xiaofeng He et al describes the changing requirements due to
privatization and deregulations have created needs for analysing
information from different sources within DW. These needs require
new high performance solutions represented by the new data
warehouse of SCADA/EMS system and its characteristics and
structure outlined in the 50 paper. Utilities have started to take
advantage of this new technique and many other plans to follow. As
the industry gains experience from this new tool new applications
will evolve on the SCADA/EMS system. Jian Wu et al describes the
Supervision Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system is a
communication and control system used for monitoring, operation
and maintenance of energy infrastructure grids. Compared with
traditional applications, a SCADA system has a harsh deadline for
critical tasks. There is special time constraint for the real time
database used in a SCADA system.
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The real time database in SCADA extends traditional database to


include in-memory database. Such real time database management
is designed to operate in the harsh environment of real time systems,
with strict requirements for resource utilization, and is ready to
provide the performance and reliability required by real-life
applications. In this paper, the main principle of real time database
has been introduced. Its implementation in power system SCADA is
discussed and a sample database is briefly introduced. Jim see et al
describes the Electric utilities are finding it increasingly necessary to
better monitor, analyze and control their distribution systems.
Planning and operation of the grid is increasing in complexity on
one hand but subject to ever more binding constraints on the other.
Real-time analysis is being seen as necessary to achieve acceptable
operational efficiencies and quality of service. EASHY YANG et al
describes the queuing models are introduced for evaluation of the
performance and design of the supervisory control and data
acquisition (SCADA) systems. Emphasis is placed on the
applications of the queuing theory to the design and analysis of the
system. Two SCADA systems were implemented and evaluated.
Based on the concept of concurrent processing, a two-processor-
based SCADA system is presented and discussed. The results of this
analysis imply that a cost/ performance close to the optimum may be
achieved by the use of queuing models. Srinivas Medida et al
describes the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
Systems employ a wide range of computer and communication
technologies. Advances in these technologies have helped in
improving the effectiveness of SCADA.
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One such recent technological development is Internet and the


World Wide Web. True to its name, it has been successful in casting
a web over the wide variety of platforms and applications used in
the entire Information Technology industry. The network thus
achieved, paved a way for the common interfaces to access the data
available on the net. William J. Ackerman describes the use of IEDs
in substations will impose many changes on the design and
implementation of the SCADA/EMS/DMS system. The increased
data volume will require new methods for data transmission,
processing and storage. New methods for checking out the
transmission of data from a substation IED to a master station are
required if the task is to be accomplished in a reasonable 52 amount
of time. Newer EDs already incorporate facilities to accomplish this.
On the positive side, the availability of additional data will lead to
more accurate and reliable application programs such as state
estimation, load flows, contingency analysis, etc. The improvements
in these programs will, in the long run, result in the ability to
operate a power system with greater safety, reliability and economy
Yoshio Ebata et al describes the paper proposes to apply the
Intranet technology to SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data
Acquisition System) for power system and presents the result of
development of the Intranet-Based SCADA trial system. The
Intranet-Based SCADA is concerned about real-time performance
and reliability of supervisory control. How the trial system resolved
these issues is discussed and various measurements at the trial
system including picture display time, supervisory control response
time and Fail-over times are presented.
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Real time performance, system cost and maintainability of the


Intranet-Based SCADA are evaluated based upon the trail system.
And the feature of the Intranet-Based SCADA such as failover
between geographically separated servers and capability of
supervisory control at night from another control center are
discussed. Information security of the Intranet-Based SCADA that
should be paid particular attention to is also discussed. Bin Qiu et al
describes the Load shedding takes place as an emergency measure
in cases of falling frequency conditions or loss of power generation.
Particularly in isolated (island) systems, due to lower inertia and 53
limited reserves, the rate of frequency decay due to loss of
generation can be more pronounced. Therefore, a more carefully
designed load-shedding scheme is required in an island system than
in a large interconnected system. And B. Stojkovic et al describes
the Each EMS (Energy Management System) relies upon the
SCADA system that gathers power system data , processes them and
issues control commands. Among the all control functions of an
EMS, the AGC (Automatic Generation Control) is the most
important one. A SCADA system is characterized by geographical
spread, a great amount of data, a complexity of belonging
equipment, but by a very long period for the finalization and a very
high investment costs, too. The long realization period compared
with the extremely fast development of the available computer’s
hardware and software on the world’s market, coupled with a
permanent need for EMS upgrades caused by privatization of
electric utility companies and deregulation of the electricity market ,
coerce some smaller size electric power companies to think in a
different manner.
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This paper describes that manner - a unique control application,


developed and implemented at the real power system. The specific
feature of this control system is that it is based on the relatively poor
set of power system data (around 70 input data), but a very good
overall observability is achieved (around 300 output process
information).
C.pimpa et al this paper present the type of expert system for
controlling the 22kV voltage levels of power system in northern
region of 54 Thailand based on the SCADA system. At present, for
the operation, the operators have to make decision by their
knowledge and experience to control the voltage. This expert system
is obtained for alleviation of voltage violation in the day to day of
distribution substation in the system and process the data from the
SCADA for helping the operator detect buses experiencing
abnormal conditions.
Robert H Mcclanahan describes the article has discussed
improvements in cost/benefit and flexibility of both SCADA systems
and corporate networks that can be achieved by combining the goals
of the two onto a single, multipurpose network based on IP
protocols. This allows the cost-justifications for these functions to
taken collectively, making the combined networking project more
economically viable. Among these cost/benefit and flexibility
improvements are the following: - The convergence of many types of
services onto IP-based networks makes it possible to implement a
single WAN that can meet most of a utility’s network needs between
remote offices, including SCADA.
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G. L. Kusic et al describes the Transmission line equivalent circuit


parameters are often 25% to 30% in error compared to values
measured by the SCADA system. These errors cause the economic
dispatch to be wrong, and lead to increased costs or incorrect
billing. The parameter errors also affect contingency analysis, short
circuit analysis; distance relaying, machine stability calculations,
transmission planning, and State Estimator Analysis. An economic
example is used to demonstrate the affect 55 of transmission line
errors. SCADA measurements from several utilities are used to
compute the ‘real world’ value of the transmission line parameters.
State Estimation with the estimated parameters is compared to the
computations using the theoretical values.
Paulo S et al describes the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data
Acquisition) systems play an important role in industrial process. In
the past, these used to be stand-alone models, with closed
architecture, proprietary protocols and no external connectivity.
Nowadays, SCADA rely on wide connectivity and open systems and
are connected to corporate intranets and to the Internet for improve
efficiency and productivity. SCADA networks connected to
corporate networks brought some new security related challenges.
This paper presents an overview of the security aspects of this
interconnection.
9

Anjan Bose explains the power grid is not only a network


interconnecting generators and loads through a transmission and
distribution system, but is overlaid with a communication and
control system that enables economic and secure operation. This
multi-layered infrastructure has evolved over many decades
utilizing new technologies as they have appeared. This evolution has
been slow and incremental, as the operation of the power system
consisting of vertically integrated utilities has, until recently,
changed very little. For example, the monitoring of the grid is still
done by SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition)
systems whose hierarchical design for polling data was appropriate
for vertically 56 integrated utilities and whose speed in seconds still
reflects the conceptual design of the 1960s. Kun Xiao et al describes
the focus of this paper is on vulnerabilities which exist in
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Cyber
attacks targeting weaknesses in these systems can seriously degrade
the survivability of a critical system. Detailed here is a non-intrusive
approach for improving the survivability of these systems without
interruption of their normal process flow. In a typical SCADA
system, unsafe conditions are avoided by including interlocking
logic code on the base system. This prevents conflicting operations
from starting at inappropriate times, and provides corrective action
or graceful shut-down of the system when a potentially unsafe
condition is detected. The workflow will then contain functional and
survivability knowledge of the underlying system. Failures induced
by the introduction of malicious logic will be predicted by
simulating the fault in the workflow. Modeling these modes of
failure will be valuable in implementing damage control.
10

This model is event driven and conducts simulation externally,


hence does not interfere with normal functionality of the underlying
systems.
Jelena Caret al describes the SCADA is an acronym for Supervisory
Control and Data Acquisition. SCADA systems are used to monitor
and control a plant or equipment in industries such as
telecommunications, water and waste control, energy, oil and gas
refining and transportation. VIEW2 SCADA system, as a modern
distributed supervisory-control system, is essential part of Energy
Management System (EMS). This paper describes cyber and
network security problems in SCADA system as a key role of overall
system stability. Dr. A.Inan et al describes the principle task of an
energy meter (electricity, gas, heat, water) is to measure the quantity
of energy which is imported or exported, and to make the measured
values available for billing purposes. The structural changes taking
place in the Utility Industries require that the meter provide an
enlarged scope of performance and a wider range of functionality.
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METHODOLOGY:
The drawbacks of previous work are with micro controllers which
are not suitable for industrial environment, motor parameters were
not possible to show on PC and motor control from PC was not
possible. The proposed system is to monitor motor parameter on
SCADA Screen. This system configuration of parameter monitoring
of an induction motor system is shown in the figure below. This
system Consists of different working arrangements which mainly
consist of the induction motor, current sensor, VFD, PLC , CT and
figure below shows the detail blocks which describe the working of
the parameter monitoring of an induction motor system.

Induction motor is last element whose parameter we has to be


monitored on SCADA. The Induction motor receives AC main
power through AC Drive or VFD. To see current consumed by an
induction motor on SCADA screen, we use CT which is connected in
between the motor and PLC. Output of CT is given to PLC through
which value of current is shown on SCADA screen.VFD plays vital
role in protecting motor from various faults like overload, over
voltage, over current etc. Whenever faults occur, VFD indicates the
same on its display. By referring code user will be able to find
solution same within a short period of time. Here the system is set to
sense motor parameters, to show them on SCADA screen also to
control motor from SCADA. Once the parameters are sensed, PLC
will decide whether measured parameters are within limit or not.
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If the parameter crosses the limit set by the user, SCADA screen
will give warning message on its screen. So at supervisory level,
users will be able to see motor condition, it parameters whether
they are crossing threshold or not. User also will be able to control
the motor.

DESIGN OF SOFTWARE:
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are special-purpose
computers that are widely used in industry for control and
automation of machinery and processes. PLCs are programmed
using languages specified by the International Electro technical
Commission (IEC) 61131-3 standard, variations of those
languages, or languages specific to the vendor and PLC platform.
The quality of PLC software has a direct impact on production
efficiency. For example, PLC software may sequence equipment
differently than intended by the equipment designer, or
interlocked equipment may hold in a wait state longer than
necessary. Such software may still produce products correctly,
but waste time and/or energy unnecessarily. Software engineering
is a large and well-studied field. Some research has been
published on how to apply concepts and theories such as Petri
nets, discrete event systems theory, etc. to the development of PLC
software. However, this work has had little impact on PLC
programming practice because it is too complex for most PLC
programmers to apply. Some work has been done to apply
software engineering principles to PLC software development,
such as recognizing design patterns, using an object-oriented
approach and proposing new, high-level graphical languages.
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This is a good start. However, searching the literature for terms


such as “PLC software architecture,” “PLC software
framework,” “scalable PLC software,” etc. yields few if any
results that are easily applied to practice. In fact, broader
literature searches for “PLC software” or “PLC programming”
yield few papers, most of which are too complex to apply to actual
practice. There is a need to close the gap between academia and
industrial practice. Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are
becoming more sophisticated, and it seems the trend will continue
for some time. Many vendors are using the term Programmable
Automation Controller (PAC) to emphasize that the current
generation is much more powerful than previous generations of
PLCs. In the past, PLCs were often programmed by people with
little or no formal background in computer programming. Today,
programs are often written by people having a much better
background in computer programming, with a good
understanding of data structures, object-oriented programming
principles, etc. Naturally, these people want to use their
knowledge and take advantage of the programming capabilities
offered by the latest PLCs. Unlike most other types of software,
PLC programs are often seen and used by the end-user as a
troubleshooting tool. The person doing the troubleshooting, often
an electro-mechanical technician may have limited programming
skills because they have many other responsibilities.
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This is a key point that programmers must keep in mind when


they develop PLC programs. The program that is easiest to
troubleshoot is often the simpler one, not the more elegant or
sophisticated one. Over the lifetime of a production line, with
other factors being equal, the line that is easiest to troubleshoot
will probably have higher up-time and therefore be more efficient
and profitable. Recently, a leading food manufacturer
commissioned a completely rewritten PLC program that controls
a major production line. After ten full months running the new
program, the production efficiency was 6.1% higher on average
than it was during the ten full months prior to the conversion. The
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system and
Human-Machine Interface (HMI) screens were modified to
communicate with the new PLC program. Some additional
informational screens were added, but the control screens used by
operators were not changed significantly and operator procedures
remained the same. The PLC hardware and the equipment on the
line were not changed. The only changes made were to the control
software, primarily the PLC software.
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The new PLC software uses an architecture and framework that


favors simplicity, replacing an architecture and framework that
favored more sophistication and used more of the advanced
capabilities of the PLC processor.

As such, this project provides an unusual opportunity to quantify


the impact of different PLC software architectures on production
efficiency.

This is only one case study; so many conclusions drawn from the
experience require further investigation to confirm. However, it is
safe to conclude that two different PLC programs for the same
production line can result in significantly different efficiencies that
equate to significant differences in profitability.

This, in turn, motivates the need for research in software


architecture and software framework for PLC software, as well as
research in applying other knowledge from the field of software
engineering to PLC software development.
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This is the design of the PLC software and however; it is safe to


conclude that two different PLC programs for the same
production line can result in significantly different efficiencies
that equate to significant differences in profitability. This, in turn,
motivates the need for research in software architecture and
software framework for PLC software, as well as research in
applying other knowledge from the field of software engineering
to PLC software development.
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PLC Programming Languages:


Most PLCs can be programmed using several different
languages. Some of the most common languages are:

• Ladder Diagram (LD). LD is a graphical language that was


developed to mimic hard-wired relay logic.

• Structured Text (ST). ST is a textual language that is similar to


the BASIC programming language.

• Sequential Function Chart (SFC). SFC is a graphical language


that resembles a flow chart.

• Function Block Diagram (FBD). FBD is a graphical language


where blocks are connected to show data flow. Blocks include
logic functions, math functions, timers, proportional-integral-
derivative (PID) control, etc.

Most PLCs allow a program to consist of routines written


in different languages. For example, LD might be used for
much of the program, ST might be used for math-intensive
computations, SFC might be used to drive sequenced
operations and FBD might be used for control of
continuous processes. Ladder diagram is a very commonly
used language and is used in the examples in this paper.
Ladder diagram can be used to do anything the other
languages can do, although other languages may be easier
to use for some applications. Figure 1 shows a basic
example of a ladder diagram program that implements the
logic function F = ((A · B) + C) · (D + E), where ‘·’ denotes
the logical AND function, ‘+’ denotes the logical OR
function and B is the complement of B (i.e., NOT B). The
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symbol under A in Figure 1 is called a normally open


contact that is logically true if A = 1. The symbol under B
in Figure 1 is called a normally closed contact that is
logically true if B = 0. Symbols connected in series, such as
A and B, are logically ANDed together. Symbols connected
in parallel, such as D and E, are logically ORed together.
The symbol under F is called a coil that is logically true if
the logic leading into it is true and is false if the logic
leading into it is false.

Normally closed and normally open contacts are called input


instructions. Other input instructions are available, such as
equals, greater than, etc. Input instructions are evaluated as
logically true or false, and then work like contacts. The coil is
called an output instruction. Other output instructions are
available such as timers, computation, PID, jumps, etc. Output
instructions perform an action such as time, compute, execute the
PID equation, and jump to subroutine, etc. when the logic into the
instruction is logically true. Output instructions are not executed
when the logic into the function is false.
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Case Study:
Control System Rewrite A food production line at a leading food
manufacturer was in service and considered to be fully debugged
for several years. However, there were some issues with the
system. Two batch tanks used to mix slurry for the final product
were unable to keep up with the line speed because the batching
sequences of the tanks had unnecessary interlocks. Batching
sequences for the tanks and other processes on the line were
controlled by software running on a personal computer (PC),
which added some delay between steps and would occasionally
lock up and halt production. The PLC program was written using
sophisticated techniques to take advantage of the advanced PLC
capabilities, which made it difficult for electro-mechanical
technicians to use the program to troubleshoot problems when the
line went down. The manufacturer considered a proposal to
rewrite the PLC program to fix these issues. However, it was
difficult to justify the cost, because the line was in full production
and it was difficult to quantify the benefits of replacing one
commissioned program with another. One day during production,
the line went down but showed no alarms. The electro-mechanical
technicians were not able to troubleshoot the problem and
eventually called a plant controls engineer, who could not find the
problem either. An outside contractor was called who eventually
found the problem, which was an internal bit several subroutines
deep in the program that had been set by the brief loss of an
emergency stop input and had to be cleared in the program to
start the line.
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The downtime spanned two shifts, and the incident was used to
justify rewriting the PLC program. The new program uses a
software architecture and framework that favors simplicity, and
considers that the end user will use the program as a
troubleshooting tool. A complete discussion of the architecture
and framework differences between the old and new programs is
beyond the scope of this paper. This section describes a few key
differences between the two programs.

The purpose of this paper is not to claim the best way to write a
PLC program. The purpose is to show that the software
architecture of PLC programs makes a difference in production
efficiency, and is deserving of further study. Some questions to
guide this research are as follows:

• What software architecture(s) should be used for PLC programs


now and in the future?

• How can the increasing power and sophistication of PLCs be


exploited while keeping programs simple enough for infrequent
users to use them for troubleshooting?

• What new troubleshooting tools and techniques can be


developed to reduce or eliminate the need for the end-user to use
the PLC program? Some suggested topics for further research
include the following:

• Framework for PLC Software. A framework for PLC


programming is an implementation shell of the software
architecture. It provides common functionality, such as
hand/off/auto control and alarm handling, so that the
programmer does not have to “reinvent the wheel.” Framework
also speeds up development and leads to code that are more
scalable and robust. The case study suggests that portions of the
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framework that the end-user will see should favor simplicity,


while portions that will only be seen by developers can take
advantage of the increasing sophistication and power of current
and future PLC generations. Developments in other suggested
areas may influence framework design. For example, improved
troubleshooting tools may eliminate the need for end-users to view
the program, automatic code generation may benefit from specific
framework support, etc.

• Design Patterns for PLC Software. Design patterns recognize


recurring programming challenges and suggest a common way of
handling them. Simple patterns, such as standard PID control of
an analog output, may be handled sufficiently using existing
templates. Research to identify more complex patterns is
suggested, followed by development of well-thought solutions. For
example, multiple PLCs controlling different equipment on a
production line, which may be programmed by different people,
often need to share command and status data to interoperate
efficiently.

• Simulation of PLC-Based Control Systems. Simulations of


control systems can be used for initial testing of control programs
to speed commissioning and startup. The simulations can be used
after startup to train operators off-line and to try alternate
control strategies. Simulation packages are available
commercially. However, research in this area could lead to open
source methods to develop simulations, which would reduce the
cost and increase the availability of useful simulators.

• Automatic Generation of PLC Code from High Level


Specifications. When a framework is developed, much of the
customization code could be generated automatically. For
example, an input/output (I/O) list could be used to generate tags,
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comments and output logic similar to that shown in. Steps in a


sequence, which are easily described as a finite state machine, can
be converted to PLC logic. One overall goal of this research could
be to generate as much code as possible from a specification of the
process. The specification could be largely derived from
mechanical and electrical drawings of the system that are
typically produced already. This could be extended to
automatically generate a process simulator.

• Verification and Validation of PLC-Based Control Systems. A


framework and a process simulator could help enable automatic
verification and validation of PLC programs. If the framework
includes a standard interface to the HMI software, operator
actions could be simulated to verify the correct response of the
control system. Unit testing, common in general software
application development, could be applied to PLC software.

• Troubleshooting Tools and Techniques for End-Users. The case


study exposed the need to keep PLC software simple so end-users
could use it as a troubleshooting tool. This is at odds with the
desire of many developers to take advantage of the increasing
sophistication of PLCs. Machine learning techniques could be
applied for fault diagnosis.

A simpler approach for the near term could involve automatic


generation of HMI screens that provide the information the end-
user would normally look for in the PLC code.
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• Integration of PLC Software and HMI Development. PLC


programming and HMI development of HMI screens are often
done by different people. In an effective system, the PLC code and
HMI must work well together to get the most benefit from each. It
would be beneficial to approach most of the suggested research
topics from this perspective. For example, a high level
specification could be used to generate integrated PLC code and
corresponding HMI screens, design patterns could account for
operator interaction with a mechanical system, simulators could
simulate operator actions as well as the process, etc.

Design of hardware:
The basic architecture of a PLC consists of main components-the
processor module, the power supply, and the I/O modules. The
processor module consists of the central processing unit (CPU)
and memory. In addition to a microprocessor, the CPU also
contains at least an interface to a programming device and may
contain interfaces to remote I/O and other communication
networks. The power supply is usually a separate module, and the
I/O modules are separate from the processor. The types of I/O
modules include discrete (on/off), analog (continuous variable),
and special modules like motion control or high-speed counters.
The field devices are connected to the I/O modules.
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Depending on the amount of I/O and the particular PLC processor,


the I/O modules may be in the same chassis as the processor and/or
in one or more other chassis. Up until the late 1980s, the I/O
modules in a typical PLC system were in chassis separate from the
PLC processor. In the more typical present-day PLC, some of the
I/O modules are present in the chassis that contains the processor.
Some PLC systems allow more than one processor in the same
chassis. Smaller PLCs are often mounted on a DIN rail. The smallest
PLCs (often called micro-PLCs or nano -PLCs) include the power
supply, processor, and all of the I/Os in one package. Some micro-
PLCs contain a built-in operator interface panel. For many micro-
PLCs, the amount of I/O is limited and not expandable.
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PLC HAREDWARE COMPONENTS:


The input and output interface modules consists of an I/0 rack and
individual I/O modules. Input interface modules, accept signals
from the machine or process devices (120V ac) and convert them
into signals (5V dc) that can be used by the controllers. Output
interface modules convert controller signals (5V dc) into external
signals of 120V ac used to control the machine or process.