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VIETNAM WAR #30

1955-1975
http://www.military.com/video/off-
duty/movies/classic-forrest-gump-in-
vietnam-war/1069387728001
PRESIDENTS DURING THE VIETNAM WAR

Dwight D. Eisenhower. John F. Kennedy. Lyndon B. Johnson. Richard Nixon. Gerald. R Ford
PRE-VIETNAM WAR
•The French took control of Vietnam in the late 19th century.

•In 1945, the Indochinese Communist party declared that the


Democratic Republic of Vietnam was independent of France,
which resulted in war.

•The French & the Vietnamese fought in the First Indochina


War until 1954, when the French retreated.
CAUSES OF THE
VIETNAM WAR
oOnce the Vietnamese defeated
the French, an international
peace conference was held in
Geneva.
oIt was decided that Vietnam
would be divided at the 17 N
latitude (17th parallel) because
of political differences.
oCommunists & non-Communists
would fight for control of the
country
HO CHI MINH
•North of this line, Ho Chi
Minh & his Communist
forces (Viet Minh) would
run the government.
oNorth Vietnam’s capital
was Hanoi
PRESIDENT NGO
DINH DIEM
•In the south, the non-
Communist government
of President Ngo Dinh
Diem was in control.
•South Vietnam’s capital Diem is supported by the USA & is
was in Saigon. anti-Communist, but also pretty
corrupt, persecutes Buddhist (his
own people)
CREATION OF THE VIET CONG
•Because Diem was so unlikable, a lot of South
Vietnamese people were against his rule &
formed the Viet Cong. (these were South
Vietnamese guerrilla war fighters, fighting for
Ho Chi Minh, but they lived in the South &
could blend in)
•He was assassinated in 1963
NGUYEN (WIN) VAN THIEU
•Elected president of •He flees to the US to
South Vietnam after the avoid capture
assassination of Diem •Flees with 15 million
worth of gold & 15 TONS
•Rules until Saigon (the of luggage
capital of South •Settles in Massachusetts,
Vietnam) is about to be lives the rest of his life
captured by the North there
• The two
countries were
separated by a
DMZ, similar to
that of Korea
• Communist
North Vietnam
was supported
by both the
USSR and
China.
• The United
States and its
DMZ- DEMILITARIZED ZONE allies supported
South Vietnam.
•The Vietnam war was primarily
a civil war involving the North
Vietnamese Communists and the
South Vietnamese Viet Cong
fighting against a Democratic
South Vietnam.
•Just as in the Korean War, the domino theory played a
part in the Vietnam War.
•US Presidents believed that if Vietnam fell to Communism,
then other nations in the region would too
GULF OF TONKIN INCIDENTS
•The US supported South Vietnam in https://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-
the war effort to contain war/vietnam-war-history
Communism; the US had ships off
the coast of Vietnam
•1964- US Maddox claims that it
was attacked by North Vietnamese
patrol boats & fire is exchanged.
•This angered Congress & the
American people
•Gave LBJ the opportunity to go to
war in Vietnam officially
EFFECTIVE VIETNAMESE
STRATEGIES
•Long before the US involvement
increased in Vietnam, North
Vietnamese troops started using the
Ho Chi Minh Trail.

•This was a system of trails through the


jungles and mountains that connected
N. Vietnam to S. Vietnam via Laos &
Cambodia

•Used to transport soldiers, supplies,


arms, etc.
https://www.youtub

GUERRILLA WARFARE
e.com/watch?v=E6x
iFDAIwy8

•The Viet Cong, Communist fighters based in


South Vietnam, gained more and more strength
as Diem ruled as a dictator.

•Guerrilla soldiers used hit-and-run tactics when


fighting rather than traditional fighting methods.
(they also knew the lay of the land much better
than the Americans)
TET OFFENSIVE
•By this point the American people •After the Tet offensive, President
believe that the US has almost won Richard Nixon would begin to
this war…until the Tet offensive withdraw US troops from Vietnam
•The Viet Cong orchestrate the Tet
Offensive •This policy of turning over control of
•A massive coordinated attack the war to S. Vietnam while the US
throughout all of South Vietnam- it troops withdrew was called
wasn’t completely successful in Vietnamization.
capturing the major cities of South
Vietnam BUT it was successful in •The last US troops in Vietnam left in
losing the support of the American 1973, after the signing of the Paris
people Peace Accords
ANTI-WAR
PUBLIC
•This was the first time in
American history that the
public was so clearly
against war. The Vietnam
War was unpopular in
the US because of the
large number of US
casualties and the draft
of males into the armed
forces.
RESULTS OF THE WAR
•It showed the world that even the US
could be defeated by a lesser power
•Viet Cong & North Vietnam’s guerilla
tactics worked
•Major civilian casualties: because
the US couldn’t find the Viet Cong’s
hiding places, they bombed
anywhere & everywhere in hopes of
it being Viet Cong. Many times it
wasn’t
https://www.c

END OF THE WAR bsnews.com/


news/1975-
cbs-news-
footage-
•The war ended in 1975, when the shows-the-
dramatic-
South Vietnamese surrendered evacuation-
of-saigon/
before the capture of Saigon (its
capital) , by the North Vietnamese
army.
COMMUNIST VIETNAM
•In 1976, N. Vietnam united both
North and South Vietnam to form the
Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Saigon
was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in
honor of the former president of N.
Vietnam. Hanoi became the country’s
capital
•Vietnam remains a united Communist
country to this day
VIETNAM & THE USA https://www.youtube.com/w
atch?v=pRm7Wfzy-dY
WHY DID THE WAR START?
http://thevietnamwar.info/vietnam-war-
summary-infographic/vietnam-war-
summary-2/
•Was the theory domino theory correct in South East Asia?