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In recent years, a large demand has been placed on the transmission

network, and demands will continue to increase due to an increasing number
of non utility generators and intensified competition among them. Increasing
transmission capacity requirements can be achieved by either constructing
new transmission lines or increasing the transfer capability of existing
transmission facilities (Udomsak Thongkrajay 2008).

Generally, it is not economically viable to attempt to develop

transmission systems just by installing new transmission lines because of a
variety of environmental, land use, and regulatory requirements. An effective
solution is, thus, to consider the use of transmission controllers (e.g. power
electronics based transmission controllers).Flexible ac transmission system
(FACTS) controllers have the potential to increase the capacity of existing
transmission networks through functional versatility and control flexibility
(Fardanesh 2004). FACTS controllers have the capability of direct control of
transmission- line flows by changing the main transmission parameters (e.g.,
voltage, line impedance, and power angle of transmission corridors)

In recent years, considerable attention has been devoted to the

development and applications of FACTS controllers and their ability to

enhance power system security. This has been done by focusing on the ability
of FACTS controllers on both damping of power system oscillations and
improving voltage stability. On the other hand, less work has been conducted
to investigate the impact of FACTS controllers on power system adequacy.
The interline power-flow controller (IPFC) is a new and advanced FACTS
controller, which can be used for dynamic compensation and effective power-
flow management among transmission corridors. The IPFC structure consists
of two or more static synchronous series compensators (SSSCs) connected
through a DC link (Diez-Valencia et al 2002 and Sun et al 2004). IPFC is a
multifunctional controller (Wei et al 2004), which enables power transmission
operators to perform real and reactive power management on transmission
networks (Seyedreza Aali and Daryoush Nazarpour 2010).

This chapter investigates the impact of IPFC on the reliability of

composite generation and transmission power systems and is arranged in the
following order. Explains the structure and the principle function of the IPFC.
A state-space Markov model associated with different operation modes of
IPFC is developed. The application of IPFC in the IEEE–RTS is examined.
Two types of performance indices designated as delivery-point and system
indices are introduced to illustrate the impacts of employing IPFC in power
systems (Sun et al 2003) . The study results and the effectiveness of the
suggested technique and the developed model are illustrated. The conclusions
drawn from the analysis are provided


The schematic representation of an IPFC shown in Figure 5.1.

There are two back-to-back voltage-source converters (VSCs), based on the
use of gate-turnoff (GTO) thyristor valves. The VSCs produce voltages of
variable magnitude and phase angle. These voltages are injected in series with
the managed transmission lines via series transformers. The injected voltages

are represented by the voltage phasors .The converters labeled VSC1 and
VSC2 are coupled together through a common dc link. Illustrates the IPFC
phasor diagram. With respect to the transmission-line current, in phase and
quadrature phase components of injected voltage, respectively, determine the
negotiated real and reactive powers of the respective transmission lines. The
real power exchanged at the ac terminal is converted by the corresponding
VSC into dc power which appears at the dc link as a negative or a positive
demand. Consequently, the real power negotiated by each VSC must be equal
to the real power negotiated by the other VSC through the dc lines.VSC1 is
operated at point A. Therefore, VSC2 must be operated along the
complementary voltage compensation line, such as point B, to satisfy the real
power demand of VSC1. This is given by

Psc1+Psc2=V1pI1+V2pI2=0 (5.1)

In the IPFC structure, each converter has the capability to operate

as a stand-alone SSSC under contingency conditions, such as the outage of
another ac line, other converter, or opening the dc link between the two
converters. The protective actions can be divided into two levels in each
converter station. In case a failure occurs and affects all components, the
protection system

Figure 5.1 Schematic diagram of IPFC (a) without shunt converter (b)
with shunt converter

The IPFC has the in-built capacity to bypass the rest of the components
in that, when a failure occurs at a series transformer, the associated SSSC is
bypasses using the bypass breaker. For instance, when a failure takes place in
a valve of the VSC, built within the GTO thyristor module, the GTO module
is bypassed. This means that, where a number of failures occur affecting a
single component, the protective actions is specifically employed on that
particular component, bypassing the failure and setting it right.


In this first part, a brief introduction of the IPFC operational

characteristics is presented. This explanation applies to both an elementary
IPFC shown in Figure 5.2 and a multi converter IPFC arrangement
(Fardanesh et al 2005). The injection of VC1 on System 1 usually results in an
exchange of Pse1 and Qse1between converter VSC-1 and the line.
Commonly, the VC1, 2 voltage is split into its d-q components which eases
the analysis of the system as a whole. The VC1q component has predominant
effect on the line real power, while the in-phase component (VC1d) has over
the line’s reactive power. The reactive power exchange Qse1 is supplied by
the converter itself, however, the active power (Pse1).

Imposes a demand to be fulfilled at the DC terminals. Converter

VSC-2 is in charge of fulfilling this demand through the P P 0 se1
se2 + = constraint. Unlike VSC-1 (in the primary system) the operation of
VSC-2(secondary system) has its freedom degrees reduced, thus, its series
voltage VC2 can compensate only partially to its own line (Naresh Babu et al
2010). This is because converter VSC-2 also has the task of regulating the
dc-link voltage. So, the Pse2 component of VSC-2, shown in Figure 5.2(b) is
predefined. This imposes a restriction to this line in that only the quadrature

component of VC2 can be specified to control its power flow (Kenedy A.

Greyson and Anant Oonsivilai 2008).

Under this condition, the primary system will have priority over the
secondary system in achieving its set-point requirements.

Figure 5.2 (a) Two-converter (elementary) IPFC, (b) Equivalent circuit

The IPFC presented in Fig 3 is a prototype mathematical model, based on the

following assumptions: (i) both the AC systems are stated to have identical
line paramets (ii) both sending and receiving –end sources are equivalent in
both AC systems and are regarded as stiff (iii) V11=V21=V equivalent. That is,
the condition for the switch CB to close is also applied to the analysis
presented in the figure (iv). The d-q orthogonal coordinates will be the basic
for all system variables v) each of the IPFC will, upon on a basic frequency
inject an ideal sinusoidal waveform

Figure 5.3 The IPFC depicted


As previously stated, all the system variables will be decomposed

into their d-q orthogonal co-ordinates. It is also assumed that each converter
injects an ideal sinusoidal waveform, having only a fundamental frequency.
The steady-state power balance of the n number of converters (same number
of compensated lines) can be represented by (5.2):

PSe _ i 0
i 1 (5.2)

As in our n=2, we will have,

PSe1 pSe2 0 (5.3)

So for each line it can be written,

PSe1 VCld I14d VC1Q I14Q (5.4)

PSe2 VC2d I24d VC2Q I 24Q (5.5)

Equations (5.3) through (5.9) allow the main parameters of the

elementary IPFC (Figure 5.4) to be calculated. Unlike the case of the GIPFC
addressed in the unknown variable VC2d will be a function of VC1 (specified).
Once computed the unknown variables (i.e. the d-q components of V12, V22,
I14, I24 and VC2d), the power flow in the receiving-end of Systems 1 and 2, with
or without the effect of the series voltage, can be calculated through (5.10)

V12d V14D VCID X14 I14d (5.6)

V12q V14Q VC1Q X14 I14Q (5.7)

V22d V24d Vc2d X 24 I 24d (5.8)

V22Q V24Q VC2Q X 24 I 24Q (5.9)


I14d K1 (V11Q V14Q VC1Q ) (5.10)

I14Q K 1 ( V11d V14d Vcld ) (5.11)

I 24d K 2 (V21Q V24Q VC2Q ) (5.12)

I24Q K 2 ( V21d V24d Vc2d ) (5.13)

S1 P1 JQ1 V14 I14 (5.14)

S2 P2 JQ 2 V24 I 24 (5.15)

Note that System 1 will have two independently controlled variables (i.e. VC1,
C1). Conversely, System 2 will only have one variable (VC2Q) to be
independently controlled. Simulink model shown in Figure 5.5 & 5.6. Results
for 6 buses shown in Figures 5.7 to 5.11.


Figure 5.4 Simulink Model for IPFC without DC Link


Figure 5.4 Simulink Model for IPFC Without DC Link

Figure 5.5 Simulink Model for Control Circuit



Figure 5.6 Bus 1 Voltages, Current, Active, Reactive Power



Figure 5.7 Bus 2 Voltages, Current, Active, Reactive Power


Figure 5.8 Bus 3 Voltages, Current, Active, Reactive Power



Figure 5.9 Bus 4 Voltages, Current, Active, Reactive Power


Figure 5.10 Bus 5 Voltages, Current, Active, Reactive Power



Figure 5.11 Bus 6 Voltages, Current, Active, Reactive Power


The S-IPFC is the new evolution in the area of FACTS devices that are
converter-based. Being an offshoot of the concept of FACTS, it possesses the
control characteristics of the IPFC. It builts in an additional element of
flexibility by eliminating the common DC link in the IPFC and hence
enhanced long range installation of converters. The S- IPFC when fitted with
shunt converters function as multiple UPFCS. Hence each series converter
has the ability to control the range of all the line parameters in that series. It
is the shunt converter that inputs a 3rd harmonic frequency current into the
network, additionally, to effect an active power for series converter. Thus by
employing a larger number of converters without location constraint and at no
additional cost, the S- IPFC is a valuable addition to power flow control
systems in the proximate future.