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Experiment # 07 Tuesday

Water Testing Kit

1: Chloride Test
Chloride ions are one of the major inorganic anions in water and wastewater. Although high concentration of
chloride in water are not known to be toxic to humans, the regulation of its concentration is mainly due to taste.
It is essential to monitor chloride concentration in boiler system to prevent damage of metal parts. In high
levels, chloride can corrode stainless steel and be toxic to plant life.

Reaction Chemistry
The chloride level in mg/L (ppm) is determined by a mercuric nitrate titration. The pH is lowered to
approximately 3 by addition of nitric acid. Mercuric ions react with chloride ions to form mercuric chloride.
When excessive mercuric ions are present, it complexes with diphenyl-carbazone to form a purple solution. The
color change from yellow to purple determines the end point of this titration.

Test Result
0.1*1000 = 100 mg/L Chloride

2: Iron Test
Significance and Use
Ground and surface water contains no more than 1 mg/L (ppm) iron but due to mining and industrial drainage,
higher levels of iron have been observed. Iron in water appears to be more of a nuisance than a hazard. The
presence of iron can stain laundry and give water a bittersweet taste. This test determines the iron
concentration in water by conversion of the ferrous (Fe+2) state.

Reaction Chemistry
Iron can exist as ferrous (Fe+2) or ferric (Fe+3) ions. The test determines total iron levels in water via a
colorimetric method. First of all, ferric ions are reduced by sodium sulfite to ferrous ions. Phenanthroline
complexes with ferrous ions to form an orange colored solution. The color intensity of the solution determines
the iron concentration.

Test Result
Iron was found to be less than 1 ppm or 1 mg/L.
Experiment # 07 Tuesday
3: Hardness Test
Significance and Use
Water hardness was defined by the capacity of water to precipitate soap. The ionic species in the water causing
the precipitation was later found to be primarily calcium and magnesium. Water hardness is actually a
quantitative measure of these ions in the water sample. It is also now known that certain other ion species, such
as iron, zinc and manganese, contribute to the overall water hardness. The measure and subsequent control of
water hardness is essential to prevent scaling and clogging in water lines.

Reaction Chemistry
The hardness level as mg/L (ppm) calcium carbonate is determined by an EDTA titration. The solution is first
adjusted to a pH of 10 using a buffer solution. The indicator chelates with metal ions such as magnesium or
calcium to form a red colored complex. As EDTA is added, metal ions complex with it. After all the free metal
ions have been complexed, an excess EDTA removes the metal ions complexed with the indicator to form a blue
colored solution. This color change from red to blue is the end point of the titration.

Test Result
0.78 * 300 = 234 mg/L as CaCO3

4: Phosphate Test
Significance and Use
Phosphates are widely introduced into the environment from such sources as agricultural fertilizers, cleaning
and laundering products, boiler water conditioners, and drinking water treatment aids. At high levels, phosphate
stimulates the growth of photosynthetic organisms which may contribute to the eutrophication of lakes, rivers
and ponds. This makes it important to monitor and control phosphate discharges into the environment.
Phosphate can be classified as ortho, condensed or organically bound.

Reaction Chemistry
The orthophosphate level in mg/L is determined by a colorimetric method. Ammonium molybdate and potassium
anti-monyl tartrate react in acid medium with ortho-phosphate to form a phosphomolybdate complex, that is
reduced to intensely colored molybdenum blue by ascorbic acid. This color intensity of the solution determines
the phosphate concentration.

Test Result
Phosphate was found to be less than 1 ppm in the sample.