2367-4709-1-SM

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

0 Aufrufe

2367-4709-1-SM

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Pengolahan Citra Digital
- Data Compression Report
- SEMESTER 8 R
- SPEECH RECOGNITION USING NEURAL NETWORK
- IJERTV2IS1001
- signal processing via nn
- B.TECH_IT_3-_8
- Build a Neural Network in Python _ Enlight
- Some Idea on Project Work
- Model Predictive Control
- 2003 - Evolutionary Approaches to Neural Control of Rolling, Walking, Swimming and Flying Animats or Robots
- Sklchan S^3 Mods v6.00
- Foundations of Learning and Adaptive Systems ICS320- Part 4: Artificial Neural Networks
- LizSu
- Seminarie3_1
- A Novel Approach to Separable Reversible Data Hiding
- 003
- Session 5 - Neural Networks
- A Comparison of Compressed and Uncompressed Transmission Modes
- Journal

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

0976-5697

Volume 6, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2015

International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science

RESEARCH PAPER

Available Online at www.ijarcs.info

Efficient and Secure Video Encryption and Decryption using Neural Network

Saraswati Singh Nilmani Verma

M.Tech. Scholar, CSE Department, Head, CSE Departments,

School of Engineering & IT, School of Engineering & IT,

MATS University, Raipur (C.G.), India MATS University, Raipur (C.G.), India

Vinay Kumar

Assistant Professor, ET&T Department,

Bhilai Institute of Technology,

Raipur (C.G.), India

Abstract: With the increase of multimedia data are transmitted in the various fields like commercial, video conferencing, medical image system

and military communication etc., which generally include some sensitive data. Therefore, there is a great demand for secured data storage and

transmission techniques. Information security has traditionally been ensured with data encryption and authentication techniques. Different

encryption standards have been developed where secrecy of communication is maintained by secret key exchange. In this paper we proposed the

video encryption algorithm for secure video transmission using permutation and doping function, thereby security of the original cipher has been

enhanced by addition of impurities to misguide the cryptanalyst. Since the encryption process is one way function, the artificial neural networks

are best suited for this purpose in decryption algorithm. The ANNs have many characteristics such as learning, generalization, less data requirement,

accuracy, ease of implementation, and software and hardware availability, which make it very attractive for many applications. Also need of key

exchange prior to data exchange has been eliminated. This paper presents video compression after encryption algorithms such that compressing

encrypted video can still be efficiently performed. In addition, this paper focuses the quality of video to make it efficient using enhancement

technique.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Back propagation algorithm, Encryption, Decryption, Cipher and Decipher, Normalization, Lossless

compression, Enhancement.

I. INTRODUCTION using symmetric key. M. Abomhara, Omar Zakaria and

Othman O. Khalifa [8] [3] have presented a comparative

Today, cryptography is a cornerstone of the modern study of different video encryption algorithm. Ajay

security technologies used to protect information on both Kulkarni, Saurabh Kulkarni, Ketki Haridas and Aniket More

open and closed networks. It uses mathematical techniques [6] made a safely exchange confidential videos by an

related to aspects of information security such as innovative encryption algorithm for videos compressed

confidentiality, data integrity, entity authentication, and data using H.264.

origin authentication [1]. The encryption algorithm transmits It shuffles the video frames along with the audio to

the video securely over the network so that no unauthorized maintain a balance between security and computational time

user can able to decrypt the video. The challenge in and then AES is used to selectively encrypt the sensitive

multimedia applications is the transport services to media video codewords. Amit Pande, Joseph Zambreno & Prasant

such as text, image and video with limited bandwidth and Mohapatra [7] proposed chaos-based for Joint Video

huge data size. With the huge demand for bandwidth due to Compression and Encryption (JVCE) to reduce the

the large data transmitted in multimedia applications, it computational complexity of video compression, as well as

becomes necessary to apply compression technique on provide encryption of multimedia content for web services.

transmitted data. This approach is recently used which may be fast as

Through years, different encryption algorithms have compared to Compression Followed by Encryption (CE) and

been developed based on symmetric key encryption and Encryption Followed by Compression (EC) but procedure is

asymmetric key encryption were highlighted and evaluated complicated. Some of papers are presented

with respect to their security level and encryption speed. encryption/decryption technique using Neural Network

Most of the algorithms used are generic and there is need of because it plays a very important role in information

key to decrypt the multimedia data [2]. Dual approach of security. Khalil Shihab [9] have used neural network for

video compression & encryption is carried out in two encryption/decryption of text data and Saraswati D. joshi,

processes such as individual or independent compression Dr. V. R. Udupi [10] have used novel neural network

and encryption (i.e. either compression followed by approach for encryption/decryption of digital image. Also

encryption or encryption followed by compression) & Joint need of key exchange prior to data exchange has been

Compression and Encryption. Data encryption standard eliminated. There are trades offs when applying different

(DES) [5] has been proposed for main encryption standard. encryption algorithms and its choice depends on the

DES are generally not to be suitable for video encryption applications. However, many researchers have pointed out

Saraswati Singh et al, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, 6 (1), Jan–Feb, 2015,37-42

the weaknesses of these methods such as either low security, technique. Here we are using the Brightness preserving Bi-

or low speed, or poor quality or stream size increases. Histogram Equalization (BBHE) technique [11] because it

This paper presents for video using one way gives better quality than other enhancement technique with

cryptography based on Artificial Neural Network. Neural less complexity [14]. As the size of video is very huge hence

network and cryptography together can make a great help in field of it focused on the compression technique [4] [13] so that

networks security. The objective of this paper to make an efficient and efficient use of transmission channel can be done.

secures video transmission and reception. Semantic block diagram of proposed approach is given

below in figure1. The proposed model is divided into four

II. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS USING modules- Enhancement, Encryption, Decryption and

BACKPROPAGATION ALGORITHM Compression.

models of the biological nervous system. An ANN, in

general, is a highly interconnected, massively parallel

distributed processing network with a large number of

processing elements called neurons in an architecture

inspired by the brain, which has a natural propensity for

storing experimental knowledge and making it available for

later use. Each neuron is connected to other neurons by

means of directed communication links each with an

associated weight. Each neuron has an internal state, called

its activation or activity level, which is a function of the

inputs it has received. Typically, a neuron sends its

activation as a signal to several other neurons. There are

several architectures in which the neurons can be connected.

Commonly neural networks are adjusted or trained, so that

specific input leads to specific target output. Figure 1: Architecture of Proposed Model.

The Backpropagation learning algorithm is one of the

well known algorithms in Neural Network. The introduction A. Enhancement module:

of back propagation algorithm has overcome the drawback The raw input video is fed to Enhancement module

of previous Neural Network where single layer perceptron which uses brightness preserving bi-histogram equalization

fail to solve a simple XOR problem. Hence multilayer feed (BBHE) technique to improve the quality of video for

forward (MLFF) networks with Back propagation learning human interpretation. BBHE method decomposes the

and non linear node functions are used to overcome these original video frame/image into two sub-images, by using

limitations. Multilayer feed forward network [MLFF] is the image mean gray-level, and then applies the Histogram

made up of multiple layers such as: input layer, output layer Equalization (HE) method on each of the sub-images then it

and intermediary layers called hidden layers. The output composes, and this method is applied in whole video frames.

from a Backpropagation neural network is computed using a It is mathematically shown that the BBHE method produces

procedure known as the forward pass, where input layer an output image with the value of brightness (the mean

propagates a particular input vector‟s components to each gray-level) located in the middle of the mean of the input

node in the middle layer. Middle layer nodes compute image and the middle gray-level (i.e., L/2).

output values, which become inputs to the nodes of the

output layer. And output layer nodes compute the network B. Encryption module:

output for the particular input vector. The forward pass In encryption module, enhanced video is encrypted by

produces an output vector for a given input vector based on using permutation-substitution method with impurity

the current state of the network weights. Since the network addition. There is no secret key on which a permutation is

weights are initialized to random values, it is unlikely that generated since the encryption process is one way function.

reasonable outputs will result before training. The weights There are following steps of encryption algorithm:

are adjusted to reduce the error by propagating the output Step1: Get the pixel value of the image file. [0000001] [1]

error backward through the network. This process is where Step2: Divide the pixel byte value into upper and lower

the Backpropagation neural network gets its name and is nibble [0000 and 0001].

known as the backward pass. The training set is repeatedly Step3: Exchange the nibbles and concatenate to form a byte

presented to the network and the weight values are adjusted [00010000].

until the overall error is below a predetermined tolerance. Step4: Calculate the impurity by EX-ORing the original

msnibble and lsnibble, [0001].

III. PROPOSED METHOD Step5: shift the bits of impurities by 5 bits to right. Now we

get 9 bit number [000100000]

The proposed method has been used compression after

Step6: EX-OR the results of step3 and step5 [000110000] =

encryption algorithm to transmit the video at faster rate with

48.

high level security. In decryption algorithm, it used

Step7: Add impurity to the obtained result in step

Artificial Neural Network to decrypt the video frames which

6.Impurity Value chosen is 117, [48+117].

does not use any secret key hence there is no fear to hacking

Step8: Continue step1 to step7 for all the pixels of the video

of secret information. In addition focus the video quality to

frames.

make it better than the original video by using enhancement

Saraswati Singh et al, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, 6 (1), Jan–Feb, 2015,37-42

Additional column required: way encryption based on multi-layer neural network have

Step9: Additional one column is added and the value of 117 presented, as shown in figure.2, which produces the hash

is added in that column. This is required for the value of the video data as input.

normalization of the matrix because after addition of 117 in The neural network is trained for standard mapping

pixel value it exceed the range of 256. value and the weights and biases are stored before applying

Table I shows the transformation of the sample pixel values input to it. Finally, the simulation results showed that after

after encryption. training the artificial neural networks.

Table 1: Sample of Encryption Result

Original Pixel Pixel Value after

Value Encryption

1 165

45 423

67 329

165 559

199 401

255 372

Figure 2: 3-Layer Feed Forward Network using Backpropagation

C. Compression module:

Huffman code method is used for the compression of

encrypted video frames; basically it is a lossless

compression method. There are the following steps for this:

Step1: Compression of encrypted video is performed by

Huffman coding.

Step2: Find the pixel value (i.e. intensity value) which is

non-repeated.

Step3: Calculate the probability of each pixel value.

Step4: Probability of pixel values are arranged in decreasing

order and lower probabilities are merged and this step is

wi - weight matrix of the ith layer, f - activation function, bij - biasis of jth

continued until only two probabilities are left and codes are

neuron in ith layer

assigned according to rule that the highest probable symbol

will have a shorter length code. Figure 3: Neurons diagram

Step5: Further Huffman encoding is performed i.e. mapping

of the code words to the corresponding symbols will result IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

in a compressed data. Thus a Huffman code tree is generated

and Huffman codes are obtained from labelling of the code MATLAB R2012a have used as a simulation

tree environment. „Uigetfile‟ function is use for loading and

Step6: At the receiving end, decompression of compress showing the input video sequence. The loaded video

encrypted image/video is performed by Huffman decoding. sequence is converted into frames using „move (k).cdata‟

Step7: Generate a tree equivalent to the encoding tree. function. Here figure.4 (a-d) show the result of the frames

Step8: Output the character encodes in the leaf and returns (15-18) is separated from the input video.

to the root, and continues until all the codes of Figure.5 (a-d) shows the result of enhanced frames,

corresponding symbols are known. which is better than the original video frames. The video

Step9: The original encrypted video is reconstructed i.e. quality is measured by parameters such as Image Brightness

decompression is done by using huffman decoding. Thus Mean (IBM) and Image Contrast Standard Deviation (ICSD)

result find in compressed encrypted video. for each original frame with their enhanced frames (figure 9

& 10).

D. Decryption module: Figure.6(a-d) shows the result of the encrypted video

In decryption algorithm, decrypt the compressed without key using one way function. Hence there is no fear to

encrypted video by Artificial Neural Network [12] which is hacking of secret information.

best suited for one way encryption. Also there is no need of Figure.7(a-d) shows the result of the compressed

key to decrypt the video. Where it is provides high level encrypted video without loss of video quality.

security because it‟s able to perform for non linear input- Finally figure. 8(a-d) shows the result of decrypted

output characteristics. MATLAB‟s neural network tool box frames thus the video frames are recovered in better quality.

is used for training and implementing. The system is

designed for three layers-input, output and hidden layers. A. Video quality analysis by parameters:

The input and output have only one neuron while in The quality of video file is measured by parameters

hidden layer the neurons can vary. Large number of neurons which are Image Brightness Mean (IBM) and Image Contrast

is required to achieving high security. The structure of the Standard Deviation (ICSD).Where image brightness mean

network NxMxN has been used with different numbers of should be either minimum or close to original video frame

hidden neurons M = 4, 6,9,16 and 25 etc. to select the best and image contrast standard deviation should be high for

structure for video encryption purpose; there is no certain better result. Figure.9 shows the graph between IBM and

method or approach to determine the best structure. One number of frames for input frames and enhanced frames and

Saraswati Singh et al, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, 6 (1), Jan–Feb, 2015,37-42

figure.10 shows the graph between ICSD and number of [6] Ajay Kulkarni, Saurabh Kulkarni, Ketki Haridas and Aniket

video frames of input frames and enhanced frames. Thus the More, “Proposed Video Encryption Algorithm v/s Other

proposed method shows better result in terms of contrast of Existing Algorithms: A Comparative Study”, International

the enhanced video then original video and having better in Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume

preserving the brightness of the enhanced video then original 65– No.1, pp.1-5, March 2013.

video.

[7] Amit Pande, Joseph Zambreno & Prasant Mohapatra, “Joint

V. CONCLUSION Video Compression and Encryption using Arithmetic Coding

and Chaos”, IEEE Intl. Conf. on Internet Multimedia

Presented work discusses an efficient and secure video Systems Architecture and Application, 2010.

encryption and decryption. Proposed method uses the Neural [8] M. Abomhara, Omar Zakaria, Othman O. Khalifa, “An

Network to decrypt the video frames which does not use any Overview of Video Encryption Techniques”, International

secret key hence there is no fear to hacking of secret Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 1,

information. A feed forward multilayer perceptron utilize pp. 103-110, February 2010.

Backpropagation algorithm that have been found to be

suitable for one way video encryption. The accuracy of the [9] Khalil Shihab, “a Backpropagation neural network for

system has been found very high. Result shows that the computer network security”, Journal of Computer Science

proposed algorithm not only successfully encrypt and vol. - 2 (9), pp.710-715, 2006.

decrypt the video but also give the video in better quality. It [10] Saraswati D. joshi, Dr. V. R. Udupi and Dr. D. R. joshi, “A

provides flexible, accurate and natural looking video frames. novel neural network approach for digital image data

However, this method ensures that every aspect of security is encryption/decryption”, IEEE International Conference on

maintained without sacrificing the quality of video for real- Power, Signals, Controls and Computation

time applications. (EPSCICON),pp.1-4, 3-6 Jan. 2012.

preserving bi-histogram equalization”, IEEE Trans.

[1] William Stallings,” network security essentials, applications Consumer Electronics, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1-8, Feb. 1997.

and standards”, 4th edition Pearson Education India, 2007 - [12] Liew Pol Yee De Silva L.C,”application of multilayer

432 pages. perceptron network as a one way Hash function”, IEEE

[2] Francia G.A, “applied image processing to multimedia International Joint Conference on Neural Networks,vol.2,

information security”, IEEE International Conference on pp.1459-1462, May 2002.

Image Analysis and Signal Processing, pp. 104-107, 11-12 [13] Jagadish h. pujar and Lohit m. kadlaskar, “A new lossless

April 2009. method of image compression and decompression using

[3] B. Furht, D. Socek, and A. M. Eskicioglu, “Fundamentals of huffman coding techniques”, Journal of Theoretical and

Multimedia Encryption Techniques,” Multimedia Security Applied Information Technology, Vol.15, No.1, pp. 18-23,

Handbook, CRC Press, 2005. 2010.

[4] Shiguo lian, Multimedia Content Encryption: Algorithms [14] Vinay Kumar and Himani Bansal, “Performance Evaluation

and Application, CRC Press, 2008. of Contrast enhancement Techniques for Digital Images”

International Journal of Computer Science and Technology,

[5] Wayne G. Barker, “Introduction to the analysis of the Data

pp-23-27, Vol.-2, Issue-1, March 2011.

Encryption Standard (DES)”, Aegean Park Press, 1991.

Saraswati Singh et al, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, 6 (1), Jan–Feb, 2015,37-42

Saraswati Singh et al, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, 6 (1), Jan–Feb, 2015,37-42

Figure 9: Image Brightness mean (IBM) Figure 10: Image Contrast standard deviation

- Data Compression ReportHochgeladen vonGraham Lyttle
- SEMESTER 8 RHochgeladen vonVishnu Shankar S
- SPEECH RECOGNITION USING NEURAL NETWORKHochgeladen vonptruong87
- B.TECH_IT_3-_8Hochgeladen vonbkarthickece
- Pengolahan Citra DigitalHochgeladen vonPandu Adhi Wicaksono
- IJERTV2IS1001Hochgeladen vonsayantan2210
- Build a Neural Network in Python _ EnlightHochgeladen vonPedro Elias Romero Nieto
- Model Predictive ControlHochgeladen voncacr_72
- signal processing via nnHochgeladen vonRomil Patel
- Some Idea on Project WorkHochgeladen vonRajendra Manandhar
- 2003 - Evolutionary Approaches to Neural Control of Rolling, Walking, Swimming and Flying Animats or RobotsHochgeladen vonFranck Dernoncourt
- Sklchan S^3 Mods v6.00Hochgeladen vonFakhrur Razil Alawi
- Foundations of Learning and Adaptive Systems ICS320- Part 4: Artificial Neural NetworksHochgeladen vonRoots999
- LizSuHochgeladen vonAnonymous 8erOuK4i
- Seminarie3_1Hochgeladen vonRenata Smith
- A Novel Approach to Separable Reversible Data HidingHochgeladen vonCarmel Mary
- 003Hochgeladen vonAhmed Khazal
- Session 5 - Neural NetworksHochgeladen vonAkshay Aggarwal
- A Comparison of Compressed and Uncompressed Transmission ModesHochgeladen vonBhaskar Mohan
- JournalHochgeladen vonKrest
- New Microsoft Office PowerPoint PresentationHochgeladen vonParul Sharma
- How File Compression WorksHochgeladen vonsarahsurber
- Chapter 1Hochgeladen vonPawan Rajwanshi
- 10.1.1.60.3973Hochgeladen vonsadyehclen
- Paper 9Hochgeladen vonRakesh Lin
- 07-3-2Hochgeladen vonjkl316
- Taguchi Integrated LEAST SQUARES SvmHochgeladen vonguru prasad
- 784232775291.pdfHochgeladen vonmahendra A
- 00000023Hochgeladen vonFlorina Andrei
- 13 Multimedia Data and Its Encoding a ModHochgeladen vonmjr

- db-ch3Hochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 1Hochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 1Hochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 1Hochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 1Hochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 1Hochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 1_5_Bara_AdelaHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- WarehouseHochgeladen vonIoan Beschea
- ContentServer.pdfHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- Basics of NetworkingHochgeladen vonPrateek Persistently Precious
- Discussion 4 AHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- chp09Hochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 23distributed database.pptxHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 27_information retrieval.pptxHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 20 TransactionHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 18 Query ProcessingHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 12 Object DatabaseHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 24_NOSQLHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 28_dataminingHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 30 SecurityHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- mcmHochgeladen vonIshan Khan
- 07-08LogicsHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 115hzapiHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 10ec71 NotesHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI
- 1Z0-215-demo.pdfHochgeladen vonMSAMHOURI

- Huffman and Lempel-Ziv-WelchHochgeladen vonDavid Siegfried
- Willems is It 2013Hochgeladen vonbebo_ha2008
- DIP Image compression 1.11.2015.pptHochgeladen vonLaya
- Fianl Report Term Paper 6th SemHochgeladen vonSomdev Arya
- Visible Light Communication Shlomi ArnonHochgeladen vonMarcos Guerra Medina
- Structure and Interpretation of Computer ProgramsHochgeladen vonHernanSanabria
- Generate Huff Man TreeHochgeladen vonila6890
- HUASWEI HG658 User Guide V2 01 EnglishHochgeladen vonDieGoOChoa
- lab13Hochgeladen vonBalls Mahoney
- Another BlakbukHochgeladen vonwordps
- L9Hochgeladen vonGirish Mulchandani
- Image CompressionHochgeladen vonMunir Tariq
- Huffman Coding For Digital PhotographyHochgeladen vonRaydhitya Yoseph
- Hyperspectral Image Compression using Chain Codes .pdfHochgeladen vonIsrael Chávez
- Advance Coding Theory v5.1-Lec-2 Source CodingHochgeladen vonNikesh Bajaj
- Dynamic Huffman ExampleHochgeladen vonoureducation.in
- dc2ndMIDUandiStarHochgeladen vonSuresh Thallapelli
- EFFICIENCY LOSSLESS DATA TECHNIQUES FOR ARABIC TEXT COMPRESSIONHochgeladen vonAnonymous Gl4IRRjzN
- A Block-Sorting Lossless Data Compression AlgorithmHochgeladen vonDarthShrine
- Biomedical Signal Processing(1)Hochgeladen vonShafayet Uddin
- Huffman_Codes_tree.pdfHochgeladen vonJhomer
- 11.TreesHochgeladen vonelemaniaq
- File Compression Using Huffman Algorithm_2003Hochgeladen vonRajesh
- Sh Ann OnHochgeladen vonChavalam Srigiri
- Digital Camera CasestudyHochgeladen vonVasantha Kumar
- hw3solHochgeladen von123r
- Ch_03 Huffman & Extended Huffman (PPT)Hochgeladen vonHermandeep Kaur
- 05651184Hochgeladen vonAnvesh Kolakaluri
- Efficiency of Entropy Coding as well as Dictionary based Technique for Lossless Data CompressionHochgeladen vonijrdt
- Test Data Compression For Low Power Testing Of VLSI Circuits.pdfHochgeladen vonRobert Theivadas