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D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

ADIGRAT UNIVERSITY

STREAM: DESIGN
NAME ID NO

TSEGAU HAGOS RET 4358/07

YEMANE ZEREAY RET 4445/07

ZENEBE TADELE RET 4518/07

SUBMITTED TO INS. W/GEBRIEL.G

SUBMISSION DATE: 14/5/2010E.C

FINAL PROJECT I
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

ABSTRACT

This project is important for people that living in dry areas such as pastorals and
farmers of dry areas. Man power can be good alternative to fulfill the energy
requirements for performing many activities like ground water lifting. Pedaling is the
most efficient way of utilizing power from human muscles. Keeping these things in
mind a pedal powered water lifting can is developed. The machine system comprised of
three subsystems namely:
1. Energy Unit: Comprising of suitable peddling mechanism and F lywheel
conceptualized as Human Powered Flywheel (HPF)
2. Suitable torsion and power transmission shaft
3. Water contain unit (bucket). Though human capacity is 0.1hp continuous duty, the
processes needing the minimum power even up to 20w can be energized by this
machine concept to safe human power operating this machine. This is a water lift which
is run by rotating the pedal of a cycle and rotating the rope on the flywheel that is
connected with full of water bucket. This mechanism lift the water about 10 gallons per
one complete cycle from 10m deeps of hole by extending the rope.

DICLARATION
FINAL PROJECT II
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

This project is entirely our own work. It is clear that any work has owner. We would
like to make clear that this project is done by us. All theories and analysis except that
we have taken from the reference materials and from internet are our own suggestions
and descriptions. We have spent full of our effort and time to work this project. We
believe that we are human beings in general we are neither absolutely right nor
absolutely wrong. There may be error or any other possible problems in this project.
We hope all readers will play their own role in correcting those problems.

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D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, we would like to thank the almighty God for blessing us with strength,
aptitude and patience for successfully completing our project. Our special appreciation
goes to our INS: W/GEBRIEL.G for giving us theopportunity to work with him and
directing us to design this project. His inseparable follow up of our progress of day to
day is really very interesting and we come up with this accomplish through his effort at
all.
We have been able to compile and complete this project report on comprehensive
manner due to guidance, support and counseling that he has provided to us. Next, we
would also have thanks for mechanical engineering department that given us such
fascinating course to solve society’s problem through designing. Finally yet
importantly, our sincere thanks go to each and every one who has helped and supported
us in writing, searching,andanalysis data significantly indifferent stages to accomplish
this project.

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D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Table of Contents

Contents
ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................................................................I
DICLARATION ......................................................................................................................................................... II
ACKNOWLEDGEM ENT ......................................................................................................................................... IV

List of figure ....................................................................................................................................................... VIII


List of table ......................................................................................................................................................... VIII

CHAPTER ONE........................................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 PEDAL POWERED W ATER LIFTING ..............................................................................................................1
1.2 COMPONENTIS OF PEDAL POWERED WATER LIFTING MACHINE.........................................................1

1.2.1 SHAFT .......................................................................................................................................................1


1.2.2 FLY WHEEL...............................................................................................................................................2
1.2.3 Gearbox ...................................................................................................................................................2

1.2.4 CLUTCH ....................................................................................................................................................2


1.2.5 LEVER (HANDLE AT THE SIDE OF CLUTCH) ........................................................................................3

1.2.6 HANDLE (SUPPORTIG BEAM) ...............................................................................................................3


1.2.7 FRAME......................................................................................................................................................3
1.2.8 TANKER ....................................................................................................................................................3

1.2.9 BUCKET ....................................................................................................................................................3


1.2.10 WIRE ROPE ............................................................................................................................................4
1.3 WORKING PRINCIPLE.....................................................................................................................................4

1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT.........................................................................................................................4


1.4.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE...............................................................................................................................5

1.5 SCOPE ...............................................................................................................................................................5

CHAPTER TWO............................................................................................................................................ 6
LITERATURE RIVEW ........................................................................................................................................... 6

2.1 TYPES OF W ATER LIFTING DEVICES ............................................................................................................6


2.1.1THE SHADUF.............................................................................................................................................6
2.1.2BUCKET AND WINDLASS ........................................................................................................................6

2.1.3BUCKET PUMP .........................................................................................................................................7


2.1.4 PEDAL POWERED W ATER LIFTING MACHINE ...................................................................................7

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CHPTER THREE........................................................................................................................................ 9
METHODOLOGY AND PROPLEM STATM ENT .......................................................................................... 9
3.1 METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................................................................9
3.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT..................................................................................................................................9

3.3 LIMITATION .....................................................................................................................................................9

CHAPTER FOUR..................................................................................................................................... 10
DESIGN A NALYSIS ............................................................................................................................................ 10
4.1 GEOMETRICAL ANALAYSIS ............................................................................................................................... 10
4.2 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR COMPONENT DESIGN .......................................................................................... 10

4.2.1 MATERIAL SELECTION FO R SHAFT ................................................................................................... 10


4.2.2 MATERIAL SELECTION FO R FLYWHEEL............................................................................................ 11

4.2.3 MATERIA SELECTION FOR CLUTCH .................................................................................................. 11


4.2.4 MATERIAL SELECTION FO R PEDAL ................................................................................................... 11
4.2.5 MATERIAL SELECTION FO R WIRE ROPE .......................................................................................... 11

4.2.6 MATERIAL SELECTION FO R LEVER .................................................................................................... 12


4.2.7 MATERIAL SELECTION FO R PIPE ....................................................................................................... 12
4.2.8 MATERIAL SELECTION FO R KEY ........................................................................................................ 13

4.2.9 MATERIAL SELECTION FO R BUCKET................................................................................................. 13


4.2.10 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR GEAR BOX .......................................................................................... 14

4.2.11 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR TANKER .............................................................................................. 14


4.3 PART DESIGN ............................................................................................................................................... 15
4.3.1DESIGN OF GEAR BOX ............................................................................................................................... 15

4.3.2 SHAFT AREA.............................................................................................................................................. 33

4.3.3 PRESSURE REQUIREM ENT FOR THE SYSTEM ................................................................. 34

4.3.2 SHAFT DESIGN ................................................................................................................................ 36


4.3.3 FLYWHEEL DESIGN ...................................................................................................................... 39

4.3.4 CLUTCH DESIGN ............................................................................................................................ 41


4.3.5 LEVER DESIGN ................................................................................................................................ 43
4.3.6 HANDLE DESIGN ............................................................................................................................ 44

4.3.7 LEVER A RM DESIGN..................................................................................................................... 45


4.3.8 SHAFT JOURNAL DESIGN ........................................................................................................... 46
4.3.9 PEDA L DESIGN ................................................................................................................................ 47

4.3.10 KEY DESIGN ................................................................................................................................... 48


4.3.11 PULLY DESIGN.............................................................................................................................. 50

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D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

4.3.12 BUCKET DESIGN .......................................................................................................................... 53

4.3.13 DISCHURGING PIPE DESIGN ................................................................................................... 56


4.3.14 ROPE DESIGN................................................................................................................................. 57
4.3.15 FRAM E DESIGN FOR MACHINE COMPONENT ................................................................ 59

4.3.16 WELDING DESIGN ....................................................................................................................... 59


4.3.17 BEARING SELECTION ................................................................................................................ 61

4.3.18 DESIGN FOR FASTENERS ......................................................................................................... 62


4.4 OUTPUT ENERGY ................................................................................................................................... 62

CHAPTER FIVE........................................................................................................................................ 63
5.1 MANUFA CTURING PROCESS ............................................................................................................ 63
5.2 COST A NALIYSIS.................................................................................................................................... 64
5.3 GENERA L ASSEM BLY .......................................................................................................................... 65

CHAPTER SIX ...................................................................................................................................... 66


CONCLUSION AND RECOMMONDATION........................................................................................ 66
6.1 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................................... 66
6.2 RECOMMONDATION ............................................................................................................................ 67

6.3 FUTUR WORK .......................................................................................................................................... 68


REFERA NCE.......................................................................................................................................................... 68
APPENDIX.............................................................................................................................................................. 69

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D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

List of figure

Figure 1 pedal powered water lifting machine............................................................... 8


Figure 2 geometrical analysis of PPWLM ................................................................... 10
Figure 3 Interference of meshing gears........................................................................ 26
Figure 4 sample image of teeth .................................................................................... 27
Figure 5 shaft ............................................................................................................... 39
Figure 6 flywheel ...................................................................................................... 40
Figure 7 clutch ............................................................................................................. 41
Figure 8 lever ............................................................................................................... 44
Figure 9 pedal............................................................................................................... 47
Figure 10 pulley ........................................................................................................ 52
Figure 11 bucket........................................................................................................... 53
Figure 12 sectioning part.............................................................................................. 55
Figure 13 welding designAssumption ......................................................................... 59
Figure 14 bearing ......................................................................................................... 62
Figure 15 fasteners ....................................................................................................... 62
Figure 16 manufacturing method ................................................................................. 64
Figure 17 assembly drawing ………..……………………………………………….60

List of table

Table 1 Material features, application and precision rating ........................................................................... 20


Table 2 Gear and pinion material tensile strength and Brinell hardness number ....................................... 21
Table 3 the comb ined of gear and pinion .......................................................................................................... 21
Table 4 depth angle and number of teeth........................................................................................................... 23
Table 5 standard proportions in module ............................................................................................................ 25
Table 6 force required to apply on the pedal..................................................................................................... 33
Table 7 area of the shaft on which the force is applied ................................................................................... 34
Table 8 pressure distribution when the force is applied on the area of the mechanism. ........................... 34
Table 9 energy input for the system to operate the mach ine. ......................................................................... 36
Table 10 cost analysis ........................................................................................................................................... 65

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 PEDAL POWERED WATER LIFTING


Pedal powered water lifting is machine used for the farmers to lift atones of
water from any depth and apply for irrigation crops. This machine lifts the water
from any depth by extending the rope. When it is rains the water level is high the
farmers can be stored at well and can be lift with less effort. So the water can be
stored in a container for future use especially during drought period of time. The
stored water in a tanker can be piped in farm land for irrigation by pipe. A single
machine can be used for many farmers. Farmers will buy the machine for less than
$500(when mass produced) or rent it on an hourly basis. The pedal powered water
lifting machine that we are going to design is lift up to 38 liters per minute when
pedaled by singled by single person. Two or more people may pedal at the same
time to proportionally increase its lifting capacity. PPWLM is require almost no
maintenance, no requiring more cost, is more reliable locally serviceable in case of
manufacturing, low noise, no pollution and high weight. The PPWLM need not only
lift the entire water needed for irrigation but also it needs for lift the water for
drinking.

1.2 COMPONENTIS OF PEDAL POWERED WATER LIFTING MACHINE

1.2.1 SHAFT

A shaft is a rotating machine element which is used to transmit power from one
place to another. The power is delivered to the shaft by some tangential force and
the resultant torque (or twisting moment) set up within the shaft permits the power
to be transferred to various machines linked up to the shaft. In order to transfer the
power from one shaft to another, the various members such as pulleys, gears etc.,
are mounted on it. These members along with the forces exerted upon them causes
the shaft to bending. In other words, we may say that a shaft is used for the
transmission of torque and bending moment. The various members are mounted on
the shaft by means of keys or Splines.

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D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

1.2.2 FLY WHEEL

Flywheel used in machines serves as a reservoir which stores energy during the
period when the supply of Energy is more than the requirement and releases it
during the period when the requirement of energy is more than supply. Flywheel is a
rotating body acts as reservoir of the energy.

1.2.3 Gearbox

The most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the
output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to
operate at a relatively high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting,
stopping, and slower travel. The transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the
slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Generally, gearboxes are used
to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft (e.g. a
motor crank shaft). This means that the output shaft or a gearbox rotates at a slower
rate than the input shaft, and this reduction in speed produces a mechanical
advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and
provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque. For example lathe
machine.

Functions of a Gearbox
 A gearbox is precisely bored to control gear and shaft alignment.
It is used as a housing/container for gear oil.
It is a metal casing for protecting gears and lubricant from water, dust and
other contaminants.
Use of Gearbox
A variety of gearboxes find applications in a number of industries depending on the
end use. Some of the industries using gearboxes include Agricultural, Industrial, and
Construction, Mining, Petrochemicals and Food processing

1.2.4 CLUTCH

A clutch is a machine member used to connect a driving shaft to a driven shaft so


that the driven shaft maybe started or stopped at will, without stopping the driving
shaft. The use of a clutch is mostly found in automobiles. A little consideration will

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D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

show that in order to change gears or to stop the vehicle, it is required that the
driven shaft should stop, but the engine should continue to run. It is, therefore,
necessary that the driven shaft should be disengaged from the driving shaft. The
engagement and disengagement of the shafts is obtained by means of a clutch which
is operated by a lever.

1.2.5 LEVER (HANDLE AT THE SIDE OF CLUTCH)

A lever is a rigid rod or bar capable of turning about a fixed point called fulcrum. It is
used as a machine to lift a load by the application of a small effort. The ratio of load
lifted to the effort applied is called mechanical advantage. Sometimes, a lever is
merely used to facilitate the application of force in a desired direction. A lever may
be straight or curved and the forces applied on the lever (or by the lever) may be
parallel or inclined to one another. We use this clutch to break the power, lock the
driving shaft and to change the direction of rotation. The principle on which the lever
works is same as that of moments.

1.2.6 HANDLE (SUPPORTIG BEAM)

A handle is component of PPWLM which is used to support the operator during


pedaling for lifting water by the machine.

1.2.7 FRAME

Frame is the bathe of the machine which is used to support the components.

1.2.8 TANKER

A water tank is a container used to store the water. The need for water tank is as old
as civilization, providing storage of water for drinking water, irrigationa l agriculture
and other application.

1.2.9 BUCKET

The bucket is the material used contain the water for lifting from the ground and
discharge to the tanker.

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D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

1.2.10 WIRE ROPE

The wire ropes are extensively used in hosting Hal slag and material handling
equipment. They are also used in stationary application; such as guy wire and stays.
When a large amount of power is to be transmitted over long distances from one
pulley to another (i.e. when the pulleys are up to 150 meters apart), then wire ropes
are used. The wire ropes are widely used in elevators, mine hoists, cranes, conveyors,
hauling devices and suspension bridges. The wire ropes run on grooved pulleys but
they rest on the bottom of the grooves and are not wedged between the sides of the
grooves. The wire ropes are made from cold drawn wires in order to have increase in
strength and durability. It may be noted that the strength of the wire rope increases
as its size decreases. The various materials used for wire ropes in order to increasing
strength of wrought iron, cast steel, extra strong cast steel, plough steel and alloy
steel. For certain purposes, the wire ropes may also be made of copper, bronze,
aluminum alloys and stainless steel

1.3 WORKING PRINCIPLE


The principle of operation of the machine is very simple and requires only one man
to operate. To operate the machine first tied the rope on the bucket, then after
rotate the lever to return the bucket to the ground water. To fetch the water the
bucket will sick on the water by itself due to its spherical shape and we design the
bucket sectioning on the tope surface to sink in the water easily. After it fetches the
water the operator will drive the pedal to lift the water from the well. When it
reaches at the suitable level rotate the lever to the opposite direction in order to
stop the movement of the bucket. After the mechanism will stop, direct the pipe of
the bucket to the tanker and by opining the check valve that found on the bucket
and makes the flow of the water to the tankerafter the tanker will be full of water,
by opining check valve at the bottom of the tanker and watering the crop by
applying pipe.

1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT


This project has two objectives. Thegeneral objective of the project and the specific
objective which express about the entire parts of the project.

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D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

1.4.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE

 To design pedal powered water lifting machine.

1.4.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE

 To design shaft
 To design flywheel
 To design gear box
 To design a clutch
 To design pedal
 To design frame for the mechanism
 To design lever
 To design pipe
 To design rope
 To design bucket
 To design pulley
1.5 SCOPE
This pedal powered water lifting machine design paper is aimed to design a pedal
powered water lifting machine which is used to lift the water from the well. This
project is focused on the purpose of irrigation to minimize the shortage of water
during dry season. This paper also uses for mechanical engineering students as a
reference to beused for academic purpose and to be stored as a document for
mechanical engineering.

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE RIVEW

2.1 TYPES OF WATER LIFTING DEVICES


Many people throughout the world relyan underground water supply for clean
drinking water. Also in hot regions where rain fall is low or unreliable, water is often
lifted from rivers, channeled and also from the dams and wells in to field to water or
irrigate the crops. Different device have been invited over the ages to raise water.
Most of them are still in use. Such as;

 The shaduf
 Bucket and windlass
 Bucket pump
 The Persian wheel
 The rope pump
 The pedal powered flywheel motor
 Pedal powered water pump

2.1.1THE SHADUF

The Shaduf is a simple water lifting device that has been used for the past 4500
years and also used in the Middle East. It is made of an upright past on whish is
balanced along thin pole. A rope and bucket are fixed at one end, and heavy counter
balanced weight is attached to the other end to balance the bucket. Then it is only
necessary to pull on rope lower bucket to the water. The weight can then lift up the
full bucket.

2.1.2BUCKET AND WINDLASS

In many parts of Africa and Middle East, the bucket and windlass device is widely
used as means of raising water from well. This is a type of wheel and axels on the
right are diagrams of two buckets and windlass machine.

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D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

2.1.3BUCKET PUMP

There are three parts to the pump

 The pump stands including footings and windlass.


 The bucket and chain.
 The PVC (plastic) casing which sits in the well.

The bucket pump has a cylindrical still bucket with simple none return valve at its
base so that the water can flow in but not out. The bucket is connected to the
windlass through the length of chain. The bucket is raised or lowered through a PVC
casing which is either mounted in a hand drilled tube well or wide diameter well.

2.1.4 PEDAL POWERED WATER LIFTING MACHINE

PPWLM is the machine which is used to lift the water from above 10 gallons per
minute from wells and bored above 10 meter of depth or from any depth by
extending the rope to provide irrigation and drinking water where the electricity is
not available. From the other water lifting mechanism we have to select and to
design the pedal powered water lifting machine for the following reason. Pedal
powered water lifting machine:

 Can lift the water from any depth. Just extending the rope.
 Cheap to product
 More reliable, no electrical parts
 Works 24 hours a day
 Less risk of theft. Machine have less weight, can be dissembled within a short
period of time and taken a home after completion the purpose.
 No more maintenance for components
 We may goat some materials for production in a simple way.
 It is simple mechanism comparing to the others.

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D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Figure 1 pedal powered water lifting machine

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CHPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY AND PROPLEM STATMENT

3.1 METHODOLOGY
To achieve the goal of our project we used the primary and secondary data analysis.

Primary data collection:

We collected data for project analysis we observe some method from the existing
water lifting systems.

Secondary data collection:

It is expected to do this project by using different resources; such as Internet access,


different bookand our concept. The reference books that we used are:

 Text book of machine design


 Machine element of second edition
 Use Internet
 Interview and observation

3.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT


It is known that there is a shortage of water on the land surface of most desert rural
areas; especially in the low land area of our country. No loose of water in the
developed country easily like in our country. They can use either the rain fall or
ground water properly by applying technology. That is why the government of our
country forces farmers and pastorals to construct wells and dams around their
location. But they did not care to use the water properly. It is mean that; the
population gets risk while they are fetching water and they will be tiered when they
fetch water. That is why we forced to design this project which is known as pedal
power water lifting machine that is used for water lifting from underground.

3.3 LIMITATION
This project entirely concerned with the pedal powered water lifting machine that is
used lift the water from the ground in order to minimize the problem due to the
shortage of the water at the dry area. But this project has the following limitations:

 The mechanism has no on and off system.


 Operating by man power mechanically, not automatically.
 If the operator tiered during operating the bucket of water turns to the well.

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CHAPTER 4

DESIGN ANALYSIS

4.1 GEOMETRICAL ANALAYSIS

Figure 2 geometrical analysis of PPWLM

4.2 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR COMPONENT DESIGN

4.2.1 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR SHAFT

Since the shaft is a rotating machine element used to transmit power from one part
to the other. So to safe operation from risk and shaft from damage we have to select
carbon steel of grade 50C12. Because it has the following property:

 It has high strength


 It has good mach inability
 It has low notch sensitivity factor
 It has high wear resistance property
 It has good heat treatment

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4.2.2 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR FLYWHEEL

Flywheel is a heavy rotating body that acts as reservoir of energy. The energy is
stored in the flywheel in the form of kinetic energy. We select the cast iron for this
component by considering the following property:

 It is cheap
 It can be any complex shape without involving machine operation
 It has an excellent ability to damp vibration

4.2.3 MATERIA SELECTION FOR CLUTCH

A clutch is a machine member used to connect a driving shaft to a driven shaft’s that
the driven shaft may be started or stopped at the will of operator, without stopping
the driving shaft. We select alloy steel material for this component. Because of the
following property:

 It has high heat conductivity


 It has high wear resistance
 It has the ability to stand high temperature that caused by slippage
 It is not affected by moisture and oil

4.2.4 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR PEDAL

Pedal system is any foot operated lever or other device which is used to rotate the
shaft. We select aluminum alloy material for this component. Because of the
following property:

 It is light in weight or mass


 It has high resistance to corrosion
 High reflection to both heat and light

4.2.5 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR WIRE ROPE

Since, the wire rope is made of cold drawing wires in order to have a g reater
strength and durability. We select the wrought iron. Because of the following
property:

 It is tough, malleable and ductile material


 It has high strength
 It has higher durability from the fiber rope

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ADVANTAGES OF WIRE ROPE OVER FIBER ROPE

The wire ropes have the following advantages as compared to fiber ropes.

 These are lighter in weight,


 These offer silent operation,
 These can withstand shock loads,
 These are more reliable,
 These are more durable,
 They do not fail suddenly,
 The efficiency is high, and
 The cost is low. Has high strength to weight ratio
 Has greater reliability
 Silent operation even at high velocity
 Has high strength to weight ratio

4.2.6 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR LEVER

Lever is a component used to engage and disengage the clutch for process of
opening and closing the operation. We select cast iron for this component. Because
of the following property:

 Cheapest or low cost


 High wear resistance
 Good machinability

4.2.7 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR PIPE

The pipes are used for transporting various fluids like water, steam, different types
of gases, oil and other chemicals with or without pressure from one place to other
place. We select polyethylene plastic material for this component. Because of the
following property:

 Relatively low cost per unit weight


 Good corrosion resistance
 Principally low weight
 Generally has excellent plastic property

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4.2.8 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR KEY

We use key to prevent relative motion or rotation between shaft and flywheel. There
are different types of key. From them we select sunk. Also the sunk key can be
classified as many type depend on the shape of keys. So by considering the shearing
and crushing of the key we select rectangular sunk steel material that has the same
property with shaft material which is carbon steel of grade 50C12.Because it may be
minimize the crushing and shearing of the key as the key material has the following
the same property with the shaft materials.

 It has high strength


 It has good machinability
 It has low notch sensitivity factor
 It has high wear resistance property
 It has good heat treatment

4.2.9 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR BUCKET

Bucket is a material which has a circular cone shape that used to contain the water
when we are fetches the water from the ground or from the well. This material can
always contact with moisture in case it is used to contain the water. As we know if
the most materials can contact with water or moisture rusting or corrosion of the
component will be form. Due to this reason to prevent or minimize the corrosion of
this component we select the aluminum alloy with aluminum number 2017 that has
the following properties;

 Yield strength(𝑌𝑠 )=70Mpa


 Tensile strength(𝑆𝑢 )=179Mpa
 Fatigue(𝑆𝑓 )=90Mpa
 Elongation in 2in%=22
 Hardiness=45 HB
 Specific gravity=2.7
We select this material for the following reason
 High corrosion resistance
 Ease of fabrication
 High specific gravity than water

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4.2.10 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR GEAR BOX

The materials of most of the gears used for transmitting reasonable torque and
speed mainly need to be mechanically strong in shear and bending, sufficiently tough
and resistant to wear, fatigue and chemical degradation. Many factors influence the
selection of materials for gears, and the relative importance of each can vary. These
factors include:

 Mechanical Properties
 Grade and Heat Treatment
 Cleanliness
 Dimensional Stability
 Availability and Cost
 Harden-ability and Size Effects
 Mach-inability and Other Manufacturing Characteristics.
Generally, the gears may be manufactured from metallic or non-metallic materials.
The metallic gears with cut teeth are commercially obtainable in cast iron, steel and
bronze. The non-metallic materials like wood, rawhide, compressed paper and
synthetic resins like nylon are used for gears, especially for reducing noise. The cast
iron is widely used for the manufacture of gears due to its good wearing properties,
excellent Mach-inability and ease of producing complicated shapes by casting
method. The cast iron gears with cut teeth may be employed, where smooth action
is not important.
The steel is used for high strength gears and steel may be plain carbon steel or alloy
steel. The steel gears are usually heat treated in order to combine properly the
toughness and tooth hardness.

4.2.11 MATERIAL SELECTION FOR TANKER

A water tank is a container used to store the water. The need for water tank is as old
as civilization, providing storage of water for drinking water, irrigation for agriculture
and other application. Various materials are used for making water tank such as
plastic, steel, stone and fiber glass. From these materials we select the fiber glass.
Because of the following property

 Light in weight
 Can weather resistance
 Both stiff and strong in tension and comparison
 Cheapest in cost

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4.3 PART DESIGN

4.3.1Design of gear box

In engineering and technology the term gearis defined as a machine element used to
transmit motor and power between rotating shafts by means of progressive
engagement of projections called teeth. For mechanical power transmission, gears are
generally categorized into three distinct types

1) Those transmitting power and motion between parallel shafts, namely, spur and
ordinary helical gear.

2) Those for shafts with intersecting axes, the angle between the shaft being
generally 900 , bevel gear.

3) Those where the shafts are neither parallel nor intersecting the axes generally
making 900 (or some other angle) to each other but in different planes, worm and
worm gear, crossed-helical gear, hypoid gears.

Gear drives are mainly used as reducer which may be made in single, double or
triple stages. Single, two and three stage reducer may appear with its shafts in parallel,
also two stages with power bifurcation or with coaxial input and output shafts. With
axes inclined at right angles for bevel gear or combination of bevel and spur gears.
Worm and gear drive with the worm placed horizontally below or above the worm
gear or with the worm placed in vertical position. Combinations of double worm and
wheel reducer or spur gear and worm wheel drive are also common.

The main objective of gear drive is to transmit high power with comparatively
small overall dimensions of the driving system which can be constructed with
minimum possible manufacturing cost, runs reasonably free from noise and vibration
and which requires little maintenance.

The following are the advantages and disadvantage of the gear drive

Advantages

It transmits exact velocity ratio


It may be used to transmit large power
It may be used for small center distances of shaft
It has high efficiency
It has reliable service
It has compact lay out

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Disadvantage
Since the manufacture of gears requires special tools and equipment,
therefore it is costlier than other drivesthe error in cutting teeth may cause
vibration and noise during operationit requires suitable lubricant a nd reliable
method of applying it, for the proper operation of gear drives.
Design consideration for a gear drivethe following requirements must be met
in the design of a gear drive.
The gear teeth should have sufficient strength so that they will not fail under
static loading or dynamic loading during normal running conditions
The gear teeth should wear characteristics so that their life is satisfactory
The use of space and material should be economical.
The alignment of the gears and deflections of the shafts must be considered
because they effect on the performance of the gears.The lubrication of the
gears must be satisfactory.
Given parameters
A. specification
i. power [kw]:- 1kw
ii. input speed [rpm]: 1200
iii. total gear ratio:- 3:1
iv. arrangement:- perpendicular drive
v. driving machine: pedal power
vi. driven machine:-simple power mechanism machine
vii. housing design:- casting
B. Main task of the project
1. Select the best alternative for gears carrying out preliminary calculation.
2. Calculate precisely the geometry of the selected alternative so that the
relative slippages at the boarder points of the length of engagement are
equalized.
3. Check the strength of the pair of gears.
4. Check the strength of the shafts and key joints.
5. check critical speeds of the shafts
6. select an appropriate lubrication
7. Prepare a design report of the gearbox containing the assumptions,
considerations, calculations and remarks concerning the project.
Velocity ratio or gear ratio: is defined as the ratio of the rotational speed of
the input gear to the output gear for a single pair of gear.
i=⍵input /⍵output =Routput/Rinput=Doutput/Dinput=Noutput/N input=ninput/noutput ----- R [1]
Where ⍵-angular velocity
R-radius of the gear
D-diameter of the gear

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N-number of teeth of the gear


N-Rotational speed of the gear (rpm)
There for the gear ratio is given i=3
And𝑖 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 *𝑖 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 =𝑖 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 =3
Where 𝑖 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = input gear ratio and 𝑖 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 = Output gear ratio
The number of stage reduction in the gear is
1) From the input to the output
There are two gears and twoshafts
GA- input pinion gear
GB – out put gear
And
S1 – input shaft
S2 – out put shaft

Let’s take = (1.25)*(𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 )(0.5)


𝑖𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡
And (1.25)*(𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 )(0.5)* = 𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 itotal=3
(1.25)*(𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 )(1.5) = 3
(𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 )(1.5) = 2.4
= 1.79
Let’s take𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 1.8
And 𝑖𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 * 𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 = itotal=3
𝑖𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡
=𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 /𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 3/1.8
𝑖𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 1.67
There for 𝑖𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 *𝑖𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 =𝑖𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙=3=1.8*1.67
Show the calculation of output torques and output angular speed

Output angular speed

Given data 𝑛𝐺𝐴 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 =120rpm

𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 =1KW,𝑖𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 1.8 and 𝑖𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 t = 1.67

𝑖𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 1.67=𝑛𝐺𝐴 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 /𝑛𝐺𝐵 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 =120rpm/𝑛𝐺𝐵 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡

𝑛𝐺𝐵 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 =120rpm/1.67

𝑛𝐺𝐵 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 =71.85rpm

Output performance

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The output power is (98–99) % times input power.

Efficiency = power output / power input = P out put /𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡

Useful range of gear efficiency

Gear Efficiency

Spur (98–99)%

Let’s take efficiency 99%

0.99*𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 =𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 and P=2*𝜋*n*T/60

Where P-power, T-torque and n-Rotational speed of the gear (rpm)

P=2*𝜋*n*T/60

0.99*2*𝜋*Tinput * 𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 /60 =2*𝜋*Toutput *𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 /60

0.99*𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 *𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 =𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 * 𝑛𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡

Where𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 =60*Pinput / (2*𝜋*ninput )

0.99*(60*𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 / (2*𝜋*ninput ))*𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 =Toutput *𝑛𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡

𝑇𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 =0.99*(60*𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 /2*𝜋*ninput )*𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 /𝑛𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡

𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 =0.99*60*𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 / (2*𝜋*noutput )

Given data𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 1KW

𝑛𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 𝑛𝐺𝐷 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 =71.85rpm

𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 =0.99*60*(1KW)/ (2*𝜋*71.85rpm)= 131.57Nm

Before we determine the geometry of the gear and the pinion on each stage let’s select
the gear and pinion type and material for the gear and pinion.

Select of Gear and Pinion type

Spur gears have teethes that are straight and arranges parallel to the axis of the shaft
that carries the gear. The curved shape of the faces of the spur gear teethes have a
special geometry called an involutes’ curve. This shape makes it possible for two

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gears to operate together with smooth, positive transmission of power. Stra ight spur
gear drives have the advantage of no axial loading

Spur gears are the cheapest of all types for parallel shaft applications. Their straight
teeth allow running engagement or disengagement using sliding shaft and clutch
mechanisms. Typical applications of spur gears include manual gearboxes. And the
input speed is given is 120rpm.

At the beginning of the design, in order to select the type of gear teeth, we may use
the formula of the empirical velocity given by:

V= 0.11 𝟒√ Pin × Vin × Vout

Where 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 =Input power=1KW

𝑉𝑖𝑛 =input velocity.

𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 =output velocity.

V= 0.11 𝟒√ Pin × Vin × Voutwhere Pin = 1kw

2𝜋𝑛 2𝜋×120
𝑉𝑖𝑛 = = =12.56m/s
60 60

2𝜋×71.85
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = = 7.52m/s
60

4 𝑚
𝑉𝑡𝑜𝑡 = 0.11( √1000𝑤 × 12.56 × 7.52𝑚/𝑠) = 1.92m/s thus the gear type of
𝑠

this design is super gear

Conclusion:

There for the gear selected for the gear and the pinion is Spur Gear and Spur Pinion
because of the above reasons and given value of input speed.

Material selection for the Gear and Pinion

The material used for the manufacture of gears depends upon the strength and service
conditions like wear, noise etc. The gears may be manufactured from metallic or
non-metallic materials. The metallic gears with cut teeth are commercially obtainable
in cast iron, steel and bronze. The non-metallic materials like wood, rawhide,
compressed paper and synthetic resins like nylon are used for gears, especially for
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reducing noise. The cast iron is widely used for the manufacture of gears due to its
good wearing properties, excellent machinability and ease of producing complicated
shapes by casting method. The cast iron gears with cut teeth may be employed, where
smooth action is not important. The steel is used for high strength gears and steel may
be plain carbon steel or alloy steel. The steel gears are usually heat treated in order to
combine properly the toughness and tooth hardness. To select the material for the gear
and pinion based on those properties

Table 1 Material features, application and precision rating

Material Outstanding
Applications Features Applications Obtainable
Precision
Rating
Cast Irons Low cost, Large-size, Commercial
good moderate quality
machining, power
high Internal rating,
damping commercial
gears
Cast Steels Low cast, Power gears, Commercial
high strength medium quality
Ratings
Plain-Carbon Good Power gears, Commercial
Steels machining, medium to medium
heat-treatable Ratings precision
Alloy (steel) Heat Severest Precision
treatable, power and high
highest requirements precision
strength
durability

Some of the outstanding features, application and obtainable


precision rating of the gear martial.

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Table 2 Gear and pinion material tensile strength and Brinell hardness number

Material Tensile Strength (N/mm2) Brunel hardness number


Cast Irons (Tempered and 350 365
Heat treated)
Cast Steels 550 145
Carbon Steels (40 Cr 1 Mo 900 350
60,Hardened and
tempered)
Alloy (steel) 600 90

Tensile strength and Brunel hardness number of the Gear and Pinion materials.

The combined of gear and pinion


The majority of power gears are manufactured from hardened and case hardened stee l.
Other materials used such as

Table 3 the combined of gear and pinion

Gear Material Pinion Material

Cast iron Cast iron

Cast iron Carbon steel

Carbon steel Alloy steel

Alloy steel Alloy steel

Alloy steel Case hardened steel

Table typical material matches for gears and pinions.

By using the above two tables to select the materials for both gears and pinions. And
by making Pinion harder than Gear to equalize wear. Beneficial results from a wear
standpoint are obtained by making the pinion harder than the gear. The pinion, having
a lesser number of teeth than the gear, naturally does more work per tooth, and the
differential in hardness between the pinion and the gear (the amount being dependent
on the ratio) serves to equalize the rate of wear. The harder pinion teeth correct the
errors in the gear teeth to some extent by the initial wear and then seem to burnish the
teeth of the gear and increase its ability to withstand wear by the greater hardness due
to the cold-working of the surface. In applications where the gear ratio is high and
there are no severe shock loads, a casehardened pinion running with an oil-treated
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gear, treated to a Brunel hardness at which the teeth may be cut after treating, is an
excellent combination. The pinion, being relatively small, is distorted but little, and
distortion in the gear is circumvented by cutting the teeth after treatment.

The material selected for the Gear and Pinion are cast iron (grade 35, Heat treated)
and Carbon Steels (40 Cr 1 Mo 60, Hardened and tempered.

For the Gear

There for material for the gear areCast Irons (Tempered and Heat treated)

BHN=Brunel hardness number = 350

Minimum tensile strength = 350 N/mm2

Note: The allowable static stress (𝛿𝑜 ) for gears is approximately one-third of the
minimum tensile strength (𝛿𝑢) i.e. 𝛿𝑜 = 𝛿𝑢 /3.

𝛿𝑜 = 𝛿𝑢 /3=350 N/mm2 /3=116.7 N/mm2

For the Pinion

There for material for the pinion is Carbon Steels (40 Cr 1 Mo 60, Hardened and
tempered)-R [4]

BHN=Brunel hardness number = 355

Minimum tensile strength = 900 N/mm2

Note: The allowable static stress (𝛿𝑜 ) for pinion is approximately one-third of the
minimum tensile strength (𝛿𝑢)

i.e. 𝛿𝑜 = 𝛿𝑢 /3

𝛿𝑜 = 𝛿𝑢 /3=900 N/mm2 /3=300N/mm2

Normal Pressure angle α

An important variable affecting the geometry of the gear teeth is the normal
pressure angle. This is generally standardized at 20o . Other pressure angles should be
used only for special reasons and using considered judgment. The following changes
result from increasing the pressure angle

 Reduction in the danger of undercutting and interference


 Reduction of slipping speeds
 Increased loading capacity in contact, seizure and wear

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 Increased rigidity of the tooting


 Increased noise and radial force

Table 4 depth angle and number of teeth

System of gear teeth, φ Minimum number of teeth on the


pinion

14.50 composite 12

14.50 full depth in 32


volute

200 full depth in volute 18

200 sub in volute 14

The minimum number of teeth on the pinion is shown blow

And because of the above reason let’s use pinion of 20 0 full depthinvolute.

There for GA - input pinion gear


GB – out put gear from pinion gear
𝑖 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 =1.8and 𝑖 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 1.67

ZA + ZB = constant

There for𝑖 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 1.67 = ZB / ZA , ZB = 1.67* ZA

ZA + ZB = constant

2.67*ZA = constant

The number of teeth on the pinion (ZP ) in order to avoid interference may be obtained
from the following relation
2𝐴𝑤
ZA= 1 1
𝐺[√1+ ( +2) 𝑠𝑖𝑛²∅−1]
𝐺 𝐺

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Where AW = Fraction by which the standard addendum for the wheel should be
multiplied, usually =1

G = Gear ratio or velocity ratio = ZG / ZP = DG / DP ,

φ = Pressure angle or angle of obliquity.

For pinion A

Known data: G = 3,Φ=20o


2𝑋1
ZA= 1 1
3[√1+ ( +2) 𝑠𝑖𝑛²20 −1]
3 3

ZPA=8.03 let ZA=8

ZB=1.67*ZA =1.67*8 => ZB=14

ZA +ZB = constant

8+14=22

By using the above formula and the table value i conclude that there is no interference
and the table blow show the number of teeth in the pinion and gear.

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Table 5 standard proportions in module

Gear’s N-number of teeth n-rotational speed of the gear (rpm)

GA - input pinion gear ZA=8 120

GB – out put gear from pinion gear 1 ZB=14 71.85

Interference
The contact of portions of tooth profiles that are not conjugate is called interference.The initial and final
points of contact are designated A and B, respectively, and arelocated on the pressure line. Now notice
that the points of tangency of the pressure line with thebase circles C and D are located inside of points A
and B. Interference is present. Contact beginswhen the tip of the driven tooth contacts the flank of the
driving tooth. In this case the flank of thedriving tooth first makes contact with the driven tooth at point
A, and this occurs before theinvolutes portion of the driving tooth comes within range. In other words,
contact is occurringbelow the base circle of gear 2 on the non-in volute portion of the flank. The actual
effect is thatthe in volute tip or face of the driven gear tends to dig out the non-in volute flank of the
driver. Inthis example the same effect occurs again as the teeth leave contact. Contact should end at point
Dor before. Since it does not end until point B, the effect is for the tip of the driving tooth to dig out,or
interfere with, the flank of the driven toothWhen gear teeth are produced by a generation process
interference is automatically eliminatedbecause the cutting tool removes the interfering portion of
the flank. This effect is calledundercutting; if undercutting is at all pronounced, the undercut tooth
is considerably weakened.Thus the effect of eliminating interference by a generation process is
merely to substitute another problem for the original one. The smallest number of teeth on a spur
Pinion and gear,1 one-to-one gearratio, which can exist without interference is NP . This number
of teeth for spur gears is

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Figure 3 Interference of meshing gears

Interference can be eliminated by using more teeth on the pinion. However, if the pinion is to

transmit a given amount of power, more teeth can be used only by increasing the pitch diameter.

Interference can also be reduced by using a larger pressure angle. This results in a smaller base

circle, so that more of the tooth profile becomes involutes. The demand for smaller pinions with

fewer teeth thus favors the use of a 20◦ pressure angle even though the frictional forces and bearing

loads are increased and the contact ratio decreased.

MODULE CALCULATION

It is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeter to the number of teeth. It is usually

denoted by m.

Mathematically, Module, m = D / Z

Where D-Pitch circle diameter: It is the diameter of the pitch circle. The size of the gear is usually

specified by the pitch circle diameter. It is also called as pitch diameter.

Z- Number of teeth

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Calculation of module for first stage

We know that power transmitted by the gear,

P=2*𝜋*n*T/60

We know that the torque transmitted by the pinion gear in first stage

T = 60*𝑃 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 / 2*𝜋*𝑛𝐺𝐴 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡

Given data P= 1KW and𝑛𝐺𝐴 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 120rpm

T = 60*1KW / 2*𝜋* 120rpm = 79.57Nm

The design tangential tooth load is obtained from the power transmitted and the pitch line velocity

by using the following relation:

WT =P* CS / V

P = Power transmitted = 1KW

CS-service factor (let’s take C S=1)

WT =1000W/1.068*m = 936.3 / m (N)

The pitch line velocity, V= 𝜋*D*𝑛𝐺𝐴 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 / 60 =𝜋*m* ZA*𝑛𝐺𝐴 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 / 60

Where D - Pitch circle diameter

m – Module (mm)

ZA- Number of teeth = 8

𝑛𝐺𝐴 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 -Speed in (r.p.m)=120rpm

V= 𝜋*m*8*120rpm / 60 (mm/sec) = 50.26*m (mm/s)=0.05026m (m/s)

We know that tangential tooth load, apply the Lewis equation as follows

WT = 𝛿𝑤*b.π m.y = (𝛿𝑜 ×𝐶𝑉 ) *b*π *m*y*(L-b)/L

Notes: where (L-b)/L is bevel factor.

(i) The Lewis equation is applied only to the weaker of the two wheels (i.e. pinion or gear).

(ii) When both the pinion and the gear are made of the same material, then pinion is the weaker.

(iii) When the pinion and the gear are made of different materials, then the product of (𝛿𝑤 × y) or (𝛿𝑜 ×
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y) is the deciding factor. The Lewis equation is used to that wheel for which (σw × y) or (σo × y) is less.

There for the gear and the pinion made from different material the weaker is taken

Gear is cast iron (Tempered and Heat treated)with 𝛿𝑜 = 116.7 N/mm2 (ZB=14)

Carbone Steels (40 Cr 1 Mo 60, Hardened and Tempered) 𝛿𝑜 = 300N/mm2 (ZA=8)

Tooth form factor for 20° full depth in volute system is = y

pinion y=0.154-(0.912/Z) = 0.154-(0.912/8)=0.04

gear y=0.154-(0.912/Z) = 0.154-(0.912/14)=0.088

𝑦𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛 *𝛿𝑜 ,pinion =0.04*300 N/mm2 =12 N/mm2

𝑦𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛 *𝛿𝑜 ,gear=0.88*116.7 N/mm2 =10.27N/mm2

There for the weakest is selected 𝛿𝑜 ,gear=116.7 N/mm2 and y=0.133

𝛿𝑤 = 𝛿𝑜 ×𝐶𝑉 𝛿𝑤 -permissible working stress, 𝛿𝑜 -Allowable static stress

Let us take velocity factor, for accurate cut gears

𝐶𝑉 =6 / (6+V) = 6 /(6+0.05026m)

𝐷𝑔 2 𝐷𝑝 2 𝑚 × 𝑇𝑔 2 𝑚 × 𝑇𝑝 2 𝑚
𝐿 = √( ) + ( ) = √( ) +( ) = √(𝑇𝑔)2 + (𝑇𝑝)2
2 2 2 2 2

L=m/2[(142 +82 )1/2 ] 𝐿 = 8.06m

b= L/3=8.06/58m/3 𝑏 = 2.68m

L-length b/n center gear and pinion

b - Width of gear face.

WT = (𝛿𝑜 × Cv) b*π* m*y*(L-b)/L


936.3 6
=116.7× × 2.68𝑚 ×π* m× 0.133
𝑚 6+0.05026𝑚

936.3(6+0.05026𝑚 )
=129.6m2
𝑚

129.6m3 =5617.8+47.06m

129.6m3 - 47.06m - 5617.8 =0

FINAL PROJECT 28
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Solving this equation by hit and trial method, we find that

m = 3.56mm

Note: The recommended series of modules in Indian Standard are 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 3.75, 4,

5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 32, 40 and 50.

There for module became m=3.5mm

Figure 4 sample image to teeth

The following table shows the standard proportions in module (m) for the two gear systems as

Discussed in the previous article.

Particulars 200 full depth in volute system

Module M

Number of teeth Z

FINAL PROJECT 29
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Addendum 1*m

Dedendum 1.25*m

Working depth 2*m

Minimum total depth 2.25*m

Tooth thickness 1.5708*m

Minimum clearance 0.25*m

Fillet radius at root 0.4*m

Pitch circle diameter Z*m

Face width 2.68*m

Dedendum circle (Root circle diameter) Z*m*cos φ

Adden um circl Z*m*cos φ+2.25*m

When two gears mesh, it is essential for smooth operation that a second tooth begins to make

contact before a given tooth disengages. The term contact ratio is used to indicate the average

number of teeth in contact during the transmission of power. The contact ratio is defined as the

ratioof the length of the line-of-action to the base pitch for the gear. The line-of-action is the

straight- line path of a tooth from where it encounters the outside diameter of the mating gear to

the point where it leaves engagement.

Forces and stress analysis on Pinion and Gear

Consider each tooth as a cantilever beam loaded by a axial load (WN) or (Wa) as shown in Fig

below. It is resolved into two components i.e. tangential component (WT ) and radial componentWR)
acting perpendicular and parallel to the centerline of the tooth respectively. Thetangential component
(WT ) induces a bending stress which tends to break the tooth. Hence, thebending

FINAL PROJECT 30
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Fig 4 action of loads on teeth

Stress is used as the basis for design calculations.

FOR PINION A (ZA = 8 and m=3.5mm)

WT =P* CS / V

P = Power transmitted = 1KW

CS-service factor (let’s take C S=1)

N=120rpm

V= 𝜋*D*𝑛𝐺𝐴 ,𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 / 60 = 𝜋*m*ZA𝑛𝐺𝐴,𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 * / 60

= 𝜋*3.5mm*8*120rpm/60=175.93mm/s = 0.1759m/sec

WT =P* CS / V =(1KW*1)/0.1759m/sec

=5685N

𝑊𝑟 =WT tan Φ=5685N*tan 200

=2069N
𝑊𝑎 =WT /cos Φ=5685N/cos200
=6049.8N
FOR GEAR B (ZB = 14 and m=3.5mm)
WT=P* CS / V
P = Power transmitted = 1KW
CS-servesfactor (let’s take CS=1)
V= *D*n
GB,input / 60 = *m*ZB*nGB,input/ 60

FINAL PROJECT 31
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

= 3.5mm*14*71.85rpm/60=58.67mm/s = 0.05867m/sec
WT=P* CS / V =1KW*1/.05867m/sec
=58.67N
𝑊𝑟 =WT tan Φ=N*tan 20
=21.35N
𝑊𝑎 =WT / cos Φ=1880.87N/cos20
=62.44N

FINAL PROJECT 32
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

FORCE ANALYSIS

FORCE RIQUIRED FOR THE SYSTEM

From the gravitational force analysis:

F=mg because our force applied due to gravity. So;

𝐹1 =𝑚 1g=50kg*9.81=490.5N 𝐹2 = 𝑀2 55kg*9.81𝑚⁄𝑠 2

Gravity(in
No of masses Mass ( in kg) No of forces Force(in N)
m/s 2)
9.81
m1 50 9.81 F1 490.5
m2 55 9.81 F2 539.55
m3 60 9.81 F3 588.6
m4 65 9.81 F4 637.65
m5 70 9.81 F5 686.7
m6 75 9.81 F6 735.75
m7 80 F7 784.8

Table 6 force required to apply on the pedal

4.3.2 SHAFT AREA

Since the shaft circular in shape


𝑑2
A =π
4
(12.5𝑚𝑚) 2
𝐴1= π =126.67
4

No of diameters Diameter( in mm) No of areas Area(in mm2 )


d1 12.7mm A1 126.67
d2 25.4mm A2 506.71
d3 38.1mm A3 1140.09
d4 50.8 A4 2026.82
FINAL PROJECT 33
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Table 7 area of the shaft on which the force is applied

4.3.3 PRESSURE REQUIREMENT FOR THE SYSTEM


𝑭
p=𝑨from the pressure analysis formula

𝐹 490 .5𝑁
P= 1 = =3.869*106 pa
𝐴1 126.67 𝑚𝑚2

Pressure(in Pressure(inN
𝐹1 (in N) Area(in mm2) 𝐹3 (in N) Area(in mm2)
N/mm2) /mm2)
126.67 3.869 126.67 4.647
506.71 0.986 506.71 1.126
490.5 588.6
1140.09 0.430 1140.09 0.516
2026.82 0.242 2026.82 0.315
Pressure(in Pressure(in
𝐹2 (in N) Area(in mm2) 𝐹4 (in N) Area(in mm2)
N/mm2) N/mm2)
126.67 4.259 126.67 5.034
506.71 1.065 506.71 1.258
539.55 637.65
1140.09 0.473 1140.09 0.559
2026.82 0.266 2026.82 0.315

𝐹5 Area Pressure(i Pressure(i Area


𝐹6 (in Area (in 𝐹7 (in Pressure(i
(in (in n n (in
N) mm2) N) n N/mm2)
N) mm2) N/mm2) N/mm2) mm2)
126.67 126.67
5.691 126.67 5.808 6.189
506.71 506.71
1.355 506.71 1.452 1.549
686.7 1140.0 735.75 784.8 1140.0
0.602 1140.09 0.645 0.688
9 9
0.339 2026.8 0.363 0.387
2026.8 2026.8

Table 8 pressure distribution when the force is applied on the area of the
mechanism.

FINAL PROJECT 34
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

ENERGY INPUT FOR SYSTEM

The energy input for the mechanism is the potential energy because the force applied
is the forcedue to gravity. So estimate the input energy we have to consider the height
of the operator to perform the mechanism. As we have taken the height in design
specification; H= (140-170). So;
PE=mgh
PE1 =F1h1=490.5N*1.4m=686.7j

𝐹1 (in N) Height (in m) Energy (in J) 𝐹3 (in N) Height (in m) Energy (in J)
1.4 686.7 1.4 824.04
1.45 711.225 1.45 853.47
1.5 735.75 1.5 882.9
490.5 1.55 760.275 588.6 1.55 912.33
1.6 784.8 1.6 941.75
1.65 809.325 1.65 971.19
1.7 833.85 1.7 1000.12
𝐹2 (in N) Height (in m) Energy (in J) 𝐹4 ( in N) Height (in m) Energy (in J)
1.4 755.37 1.4 892.71
1.45 782.4375 1.45 924.5925
1.5 809.325 1.5 956.475
539.55 1.55 836.28 637.65 1.55 988.3575
1.6 863.28 1.6 1020.24
1.65 890.2575 1.65 1052.1225
1.7 917.235 1.7 1084.005

𝐹5 (in Height Energy 𝐹6 (in Height Energy (in 𝐹7 (in Height Energy
N) (in m) (in J) N) (in m) J) N) (in m) (in J)
1.4 961.38 1.4 1030.05 1.4 1098.7
1.45 995.72 1.45 1066.83 1.45 1137.9
686.7 735.75 784.8
1.5 1030.1 1.5 1103.62 1.5 1177.2
1.55 1064.4 1.55 1140.41 1.55 1216.4

FINAL PROJECT 35
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

1.6 1098.7 1.6 1177.2 1.6 1255.6


1.65 1133.1 1.65 1213.98 1.65 1294.9
1.7 1167.4 1.7 1250.77 1.7 1334.1

Table 9 energy input for the system to operate the machine.

4.3.2 SHAFT DESIGN

The shaft should be designed on the basis or on the consideration of strength and
rigidity. We select carbon steel
Grade 50C12
Ultimate tensile strength (𝛿𝑢) =700Mpa
Yield strength (𝑌𝑠 ) =390Mpa
F=637.7=638N
D=31.8mm=0.0318m
L=1.4m

Figure 4 shaft

Shaft subjected to the combination of both twisting moment and bending moment.
When shaft is to combined twisting moment and bending moment, then the shaft must
be designed on the basis of the two moments simultaneously. The following two
theories are important from the subject point of view.
Maximum shear stress theory
Maximum normal stress theory
But we use the formula of maximum shear stress theory since the material we selected
for this
shaft material is ductile material.
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 =√δ2b − 4τ

we have the following equation when shaft is subjected to twisting moment


𝑇 τ
= …………………………….………..………….eq (1)
𝐽 𝑟
Where T =twisting moment acting up on the shaft
J =polar moment of inertia of the shaft about the axis of rotation

FINAL PROJECT 36
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

τ =torsional shear stress and


𝑑
r =distance from the neutral axis to the outer most fiber or r= 2

We know that for round solid shaft polar momentum of inertia (J)
𝜋
J= 32 *𝑑 4

So the eq (1) may be written as the following


𝑇 τ
𝜋 = 𝑑
∗ 𝑑4
32 2

𝜋
T=16 *τ*𝑑 3 …………………………………..…….…………………eq (2)
So, the torque of the shaft when the force 637.6N is applied on the shaft of 31.8mm in
diameter having 7.94𝑚2 is calculated as the following.
𝜋
T=16 *τ*𝑑 3

𝐹
We know that τ= but A=𝜋𝑑 2 /4=794.2𝑚𝑚 2
𝐴
638𝑁
=7.942∗10 −4 𝑚2
𝑁
= 0.8𝑚𝑚2
=0.8Mpa

𝜋 𝑁
T= *0.803293756 *(31.8𝑚𝑚)3
16 𝑚𝑚2

=5072N.mm

We the following equation when the shaft is subjected to bending

𝑀 δ𝑏
= 𝑦 ……………………………………………….eq (1)
𝐼
Where M=bending momentum
I=momentum of inertia of cross-sectional area of the shaft about
the axis of the shaft.
δ𝑏 =bending stress
Y=distance from neutral axis to the outer most fiber
It is known that for a round solid shaft momentum of inertia (I),
𝜋 𝑑
I=64 ∗ 𝑑 4 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 = 2 ………………………………….eq (2)

FINAL PROJECT 37
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Figure 5 bending momentum diagram

Take ΣMA=0
RB*1400mm-638N*700mm=0
638𝑁 ∗700𝑚𝑚
RB= =319N
1400𝑚𝑚

Again taking Σ 𝐹𝑌 =0
𝑅𝐵 +𝑅𝐴 -F=0
𝑅𝐴 =F- 𝑅𝐵
𝑅𝐴 =638N-319N
=319N
Σ𝑀𝐵 = 𝑅𝐵 *1.4 + F*0.7
=319*1.4 + 638*0.7
=893.2N.m
𝑀𝑇= 0+893.2=893.2N.m

𝑀 δ𝑏
=𝑦
𝐼
𝜋 𝜋
I= ∗ 𝑑4 = ∗ 324 =51471.85𝑚𝑚4
64 64

𝑑 32
y=2 = = 16𝑚𝑚
2
From the above
𝑀 δ𝑏 𝑀𝑦 893200𝑁 .𝑚𝑚∗16𝑚𝑚
= 𝑦 , δ𝑏 = 𝐼 = 51471.85 𝑚𝑚4 =277.65Pa
𝐼

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 =√δ2b − 4τ=√2.7765𝐾𝑃𝑎2 − 4 ∗ 0.8𝑀𝑃𝑎=2.132kpa

Factor of safety
τs
F.S=
τall
𝑌𝑠 390𝑀𝑃𝑎
Butτs = 2 = =195Mpa and
2
τall =0.18𝑆𝑢 =0.18*700Mpa=126Mpa

S0 safety factor of the shaft will be:

FINAL PROJECT 38
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

τS 195𝑀𝑃𝑎
F.S= = =1.5
τall 126𝑀𝑃𝑎

Mass of shaft
M=ƍ*v
𝑘𝑔
Where mass density of steel is 7850 ⁄𝑚3 and volume shaft is area of shaft
multiplied by lengthof shaft (the shaft is solid)
V=794.2𝑚𝑚2 *1400mm
=1111880𝑚𝑚3 =0.001111880𝑚3
So, mass of shaft will be:
𝑘𝑔
M=7850 ⁄𝑚3 *0.001111880𝑚3 =8.73kg
Weight of shaft
W=mg=8.73kg*9.8=85.6N
Angular velocity of shaft
=100𝑚𝑚⁄𝑠
𝜋𝐷𝑁 𝜋∗32𝑚𝑚 ∗60𝑟𝑝𝑚
V= =
60 60

4.3.3 FLYWHEEL DESIGN

Specification
Selected material is cast iron having
Tensile strength=100Mpa
Compressive strength=400Mpa
Shear strength=120MPa
Mass of flywheel=20kg (our assumption)
𝑘𝑔
Density of cast iron=7200 ⁄𝑚3
The flywheel should be designed based on the consideration ofCross-sectional area
dimension of the flywheel rimDiameter and length of hub

FINAL PROJECT 39
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Figure 6 flywheel

CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF THE RIM


A=b*t
=2𝑡 2
Where t=thickness of the flywheel rim
b=width of the flywheel rim and b=2t
Assume mass of the flywheel rim is 20kg diameter of the flywheel is 150mm
Mass (m) =density*volume
=A*𝜋D*ρ
Where A=area of the rim=2𝑡 2
D=diameter of the flywheel
𝑘𝑔
ρ=density of the cast iron=7200 ⁄ 3
𝑚
Because the material that we selected for this purpose is cast iron
So 20kg=2𝑡 2 *π*0.15m*7200𝑘𝑔⁄𝑚3
𝑘𝑔
10kg=𝑡 2 *π*0.15m*7200 ⁄ 3
𝑚
𝑡 2 =0.002947𝑚2
t=√0.002947𝑚2 =0.054289m=54.289mm=54mm
Area of the rim
A=2𝑡 2 =5832m𝑚2
Volume of the flywheel
V= A*πD
=3.14*5832m𝑚2 *120mm
=2197497.6𝑚𝑚3
Width of the flywheel rim (b)
b=2t =2*54mm=108mm
DIAMETER AND LENGTH OF THE HUB
Let, d=diameter of the hub= 2𝑑1

FINAL PROJECT 40
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

𝑑1 =diameter of the shaft


l=length of the hub
We know the shaft diameter before d1 (31.8mm)
The diameter of hub (d) is twice of the shaft diameter (d1)
d=2𝑑1 =2*31.8mm=63.8mm=64mm and
Length of the hub (l) is twice of the width of the rim (b)
L=2*b =2*108mm=216mm
Weight of the flywheel=m*g=20kg*9.81𝑚 ⁄𝑠 2 =196.2N
Angular velocity
𝜋𝐷𝑁 𝜋∗120𝑚𝑚 ∗60𝑟𝑝𝑚
V= 60 = =376.8mm⁄s
60

4.3.4 CLUTCH DESIGN

Selected material is alloy steel 35Ni1cr60


Mass of clutch=15kg (assumption)
We design the clutch by considering the two friction surfaces maintained in contact
by an axial thrust (W) as shown in the figure below.

Figure 7 clutch

Where: p=intensity of axial pressure with which the contact surface are haled
together
r1and r2 =mean radius of the friction face
μ=coefficient friction
W=an axial thrust.
Consider an elementary ring of radius (r) and the thickness diameter (dr) in the fig.
3.5
We know that area of the contact surface or friction surface
A=2𝜋r*dr
Therefore: normal or axial force on the ring
δW=pressure*area
=p*2𝜋r*dr and
The frictional force on the ring acting tangentially at radius (r):
Fr=μ*δW=μ*p*2𝜋r*dr
Therefore: frictional torque (TR) acting on the ring will be
TR=Fr*r=μ*p*2𝜋r*dr*r
TR=2𝜋𝑟2 *μ*p*dr
The pressure is uniformly distributed over the entire area of the friction face as shown
in the fig. (a), then the intensity of pressure will be:
FINAL PROJECT 41
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

𝑤
P=
𝜋[𝑟12 −𝑟22 ]

Where:W=axial thrust with which the friction surfaces are haled together.
We have discussed above that the frictional torque on the elementary ring of radius (r)
and thickness (dr) is:
TR = 2π𝑟2 *μ*p*dr
Integrating this equation within the limits from 𝑟1 and 𝑟2 for total frictional torque.
Therefor: total frictional force acting on the friction surface or on the clutch is:
3 𝑟 𝑟2 𝑟2
T=∫𝑟 2π𝑟2 ∗ μ ∗ p ∗ dr=2πμp [𝑟 ⁄3]𝑟1 =2πμp[ 31 − 32 ]
𝑟1
2 2
𝑤 𝑟12 𝑟22 2 𝑟13 𝑟22
=2πμ*𝜋[𝑟2 −𝑟2 ]*[ 3 − 3 ]= ⁄3 [𝑟2 − 𝑟2 ] π w
1 2 1 2
=N*W*R
𝑟3 𝑟2
Where: R=2⁄3 [𝑟12 − 𝑟22 ]
1 2

R=mean radius of the friction surface.


The plate clutch having a single driving plate with contact surface on each side is
required to 20 w at 60 rpm. The outer diameter of the contact surface is to be 35mm.
the coefficient of friction is 0.4 and the uniform pressure is 2.06 𝑁⁄𝑚𝑚2 and the outer
diameter of the contact surface (d1) is 35mm.
Then we have to determine the inner diameter (d2) of the contact surface.
We know that the torque transmitted by the clutch.
𝑝∗60 20∗60
T= 2𝜋𝑁 = 2𝜋∗60 =3.1Nm=3100Nmm
Axial thrust with which the contact surfaces are held together is:
W= Pressure*Area =p*π*[𝑟12 − 𝑟22 ]=2.06*[(17.5mm)2 -(𝑟22 )]
W=1982[1-𝑟22 ]……………….……………eq (1)
And mean radius of the contact surfaces for the uniform pressure condition is:
𝑟3 𝑟2
R=2⁄3 [𝑟12 − 𝑟22 ]
1 2
2 17.53 𝑟2
R= ⁄3 [17.53 − 𝑟22 ]…………………….....eq (2)
2
We know the torque transmitted by the clutch
T=ɳ*μ*w*R…………………………………………..eq (3)
By substituting eq (1) and eq (2) in eq (3) we will gate
𝑟3 𝑟2
T= ɳ*μ*6.5*[(17.5mm)2 -(𝑟22 )*2⁄3 [𝑟12 − 𝑟22 ]
1 2
𝑟3 𝑟2
=2*0.4*6.5*[(17.5mm)2 -(𝑟22 )*2⁄3 [𝑟12 − 𝑟22 ]
1 2
2 3
= ⁄3*2*0.4*6.5*[(17.5mm) -(𝑟2 )]3

3 3
=3.5*[(17.5mm) -(𝑟2 )]

But the torque transmitted by the clutch is 3.1Nm or 3100Nmm from the privies
calculation.
T=ɳ*μ*w*R
3100N.mm=3.5*[(17.5mm)3 -(𝑟23 )]
FINAL PROJECT 42
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

3100N .mm
= [(17.5mm)3 -(𝑟23 )]
3.5
885.7=5359.4-𝑟23

𝑟23 =4473.7𝑚𝑚3
3
𝑟2 = √4473.7𝑚𝑚3
𝑟2 =16.477mm,𝑑2 =33mm
Weight of clutch
W=m*g =15kg*9.81𝑚⁄𝑠 2 =147N

4.3.5 LEVER DESIGN

We design the lever for operating the clutch to connect and disconnect the operation.
The lever can be operated either by a single person or by two persons. The maximum
force in order to operate the lever may be taken as 400 N and the length of handle as
300 mm. In case the lever is operated by two persons, the maximum force of
operation will be doubled and length of handle may be taken as 500 mm. The handle
is covered in a pipe to prevent hand scoring. The end of the shaft is usually squared so
that the lever may be easily fixed and removed. The length (L) is usually from400 to
450 mm and the height of the shaft Centre line from the ground is usually one meter.
In order to design such levers, we have to put the following in to consideration.
The diameter of the handle (d)
The cross-section of the lever arm is usually rectangular having uniform
thicknessthroughout.
The induced shear stress in the section of the lever arm near
theboss, caused by the twisting moment
checking the maximum principal or shear stress
The diameter journal of the shaft.

SPECIFICATION

We select cast iron having


Tension and compression =80Mpa
Shear stress =50Mpa
Length of the handle=300mm
Length of the arm=400mm
Overhang of the journal=100mm
Mass of lever=2kg (assumption)

FINAL PROJECT 43
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Figure 8 lever

NB: - It is assumed that the effort (p) applied on the handle acts at 2⁄3𝑟𝑑 of the
length. Thepermissible bending stress for the lever material may be taken as 50Mpa
and shear stress for shaftmaterial as 40Mpa. The lever is acted by single a person.

4.3.6HANDLE DESIGN

Since the force applied acts at a distance of 1⁄3𝑟𝑑 length of the handle from its free
end, thereforethe maximum bending momentum is:
M= (1 - 1⁄3)p∗ l=2⁄3p*l
=2⁄3*400∗300=80*103 N-mm
Section modulus (Z)
Z=𝜋⁄32*𝑑 3
Z=0.0982*𝑑 3 …………………………….…………eq (1)
Resisting bending momentum
M=δ𝑏 *Z=50*0.0982*𝑑 3 M=4.91𝑑 3 N-mm……………………………..……eq (2)

From equation 1 and 2 we will gate the diameter of the handle


So the diameter is
80∗103
𝑑3= =16.3*103
4.91
= 3√ 16.3
=25mm
Area of the handle
𝜋𝑑2
A= 4

FINAL PROJECT 44
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

=490.6𝑚𝑚2
Volume of the handle
V=A*L=490.6𝑚𝑚2 *300mm
=147187.5𝑚𝑚3

4.3.7 LEVER ARM DESIGN

Assume the lever arm is designed for 25% more bending momentum, so the
maximum bending
Momentum of the lever is:
M=1.25p*l =1.25*400*400
=200*103 N-mm
The section modulus (Z), since the lever is rectangular section:
Z=1⁄6*t*𝐵 2
Where: t=thickness of the lever arm in mm and
B=width of the lever arm near the boss, in mm
Assume B=2t
Z=1⁄6*t*𝐵 2 =1⁄6*t*(2𝑡)2
=0.667𝑡 3
From the bending stress (δ𝑏 )
𝑀 50 ∗200 ∗103 50∗200 ∗103
δ𝑏 = 𝑍 = , 50=
0.667𝑡 3 0.667𝑡 3
3
300∗10
𝑡3=
50
𝑡 3 =6*103 = 3√ 6000=18.2=20mm

B=2t=2*20=40mm
Area of lever arm
A=2𝑡 2
=800𝑚𝑚2
Volume of lever arm
V=A*h=800𝑚𝑚2 *400mm
=320000𝑚𝑚3
T0tal volume
Vt=320000𝑚𝑚3 +147187.5𝑚𝑚3
=467187.5𝑚𝑚3
Including bending and shear stress we have to check the lever arm
Bending momentum on the lever arm near the boss
(Assuming that the length of the arm existed up to center of the shaft) is given by:
M=p*l=400*400
=160*102 N-mm
Section modulus (Z)
Z=1⁄6*t*𝐵 2 = 1⁄6*20*402 =5333𝑚𝑚2
𝑀 160000
δ𝑏 = 𝑍 = =30Mpa
5333

FINAL PROJECT 45
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Therefore: Included bending stress is within safe limits.


The twisting momentum:
T=2⁄3p*l =2⁄3∗ 400 ∗ 300
=80*103 N-mm
From twisting momentum
T=2⁄9B*𝑡 2 *τ80*103 N-mm=2⁄9*40*202 *τ
80000𝑁 −𝑚𝑚
So, τ= 3556 =22.5Mpa
Check the cross-section of the lever arm for maximum principal or shear stress
maximum principal stress

𝛿𝑏(max)= 1⁄2[δ𝑏 (+ √(δ𝑏 2 +4τ2 )]

= 1⁄2 [30+√(302+22.52 )] =42Mpa

Maximum shear stress

τ (max) =1⁄2+√(δ𝑏 2 +4τ2 )


τ (max) = 1⁄2+√(302+22.52 ) =27Mpa
Therefore the maximum principal and shear stresses are also within safe limit.

4.3.8 SHAFT JOURNAL DESIGN

Since the journal of the shaft is subjected to twisting momentum and bending
momentum, therefor:its diameter is obtained from equivalent twisting momentum,
soEquivalent bending momentum is:
2𝑙
Te=𝑝√[( + 𝑥)2 + 𝑙 2 ]
3

2∗300
=400√[( + 100)2 + 4002 ]
3
From the equivalent twisting momentum (Te)
200*103 =𝜋⁄16∗ τ∗ 𝐷 3
200*103 =𝜋⁄16∗ 40∗𝐷 3
200000
𝐷 3=
7.86
3
D= √25.445 ∗ 103 𝑚𝑚3 =30mm
Weight of lever
W=mg=2kg*9.81𝑚⁄𝑠 2 =19.6N

FINAL PROJECT 46
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

4.3.9 PEDAL DESIGN

The pedal is used to rotate the shaft when the force is applied on it. When we design
the pedal forthis mechanism we essentially consider the following.

Figure 9 pedal
Let l=length of rod of pedal
y=height of foot
D=diameter of the pedal
h=total length of the pedal
x=length of foot
l+y=43mm+24mm=67mm
x=26mm
t=20
From the measurement of pedal of bicycle we assume the total length (h) of the pedal
is equals to 100mm.
h=D+l+y
D=h-(l+y)
D=100mm-(43mm+24mm)=33mm
Total area
AT=A1+A2+A3
𝐴2 =𝜋⁄4 𝐷 2=𝜋⁄4*(33𝑚𝑚)2
=855𝑚𝑚2
𝐴2 =t*l
=20mm*43mm=860𝑚𝑚2
𝐴3 =x*y

FINAL PROJECT 47
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

=26mm*24mm𝑚𝑚2 =624𝑚𝑚2
AT= A1+A2+A3=855𝑚𝑚2 +860𝑚𝑚 2 +624𝑚𝑚2 =2339𝑚𝑚2
Volume of the pedal
V=AT*h=2339𝑚𝑚2 *100mm
=233900𝑚𝑚3 =0.0002339𝑚3
Mass of the pedal
M=ƍ*v
Where ƍ=density of the pedal
V=volume of the pedal
But the volume the pedal is 2700𝑘𝑔⁄𝑚3 because the material that we selected is
aluminum
So, M= ƍ*v=2700𝑘𝑔⁄ 3 *0.002339m3
𝑚
=0.63153kg
Weight of the pedal
W=m*g=6.21kg*9.81𝑚⁄ 2
𝑠
=6.1953093N=6.2N
For four pedal w=6.2*4=24.8N

Stress of the pedal


δ=𝐴 =2339𝑚𝑚 2 =0.0267𝑁⁄𝑚𝑚 2
𝐹 6.2𝑁
𝑇

4.3.10 KEY DESIGN

Key is the component used to prevent the relative motion or rotation between the shaft
and theflywheel when we connect them to transmit the torque due to the applied
force. When a key isused in transmitting torque from the shaft to a rotor or hub, there
are two types of forces acts onthe key.
Force (F1) due to fit of the key in in its key way, as in a tight fitting straight key
or intapered key driven in place. These forces producecompressive stresses in the key
whichare difficult to determine in magnitude.
Force due to the torque transmitted by the shaft. These forces produce shearing
andcompressive (or crushing).The distribution of the force along the length of the key
is not uniform because the forces areconcentrated near the torque- input end. The
non-uniformity of distribution is caused by thetwisting of the shaft within the hub.In
designing a key, forces due to fit of the key are neglected and it is assumed that the
distributionof forces along the length of key is uniform.

FINAL PROJECT 48
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Fig 3.8 key


Let T=torque transmitted by the shaft
F=tangential force acting at the circumference of the shaft
d=diameter of the shaft
L=length of key
h=thickness of key
b=width of key and
τ&𝛿𝑐=shear and crushing stress for the material of key
τ1=shear stress for shaft material.
The rectangular sunk key parameters have the following proportion:
b=𝑑⁄4
h=2𝑑⁄3=𝑑⁄6
Consider that due to the power transmitted by the shaft, the key may fail due to
shearing orcrushing.Considering shearing of the key, the tangential shearing force
acting at the circumference of theshaft:
F=area of resisting shearing*shear stress
=L*b*τ
Therefore torque transmitted by the shaft will be:
T=F∗𝑑⁄2
=L*b*τ*𝑑⁄2………………………..eq (1)
Considering crushing of the key, the tangential crushing force acting at the
circumference of the
Shaft:
F=area of resisting crushing*crushing stress
=L*ℎ⁄2*𝛿𝑐
Therefore torque transmitted by the shaft will be:
T= F∗𝑑⁄2
= L*𝑑⁄2*ℎ⁄2*𝛿𝑐…………….…eq (2)
Consider that the strength of key will be equal both in shearing and crushing.
So L*b*τ*𝑑⁄2= L*𝑑⁄2*ℎ⁄2*𝛿𝑐
𝑏 𝛿
= 𝑐…………………….....eq (3)
ℎ 2τ
In order to find the length of the key to transmit full power of the shaft, the shearing
of the key isequal to the torsional shear strength of the shaft.
We know that shearing strength of the key
FINAL PROJECT 49
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

T= L*b*τ*𝑑⁄2……………………………...eq (4)
Torsional shear strength of the key
T=𝑑⁄2*τ1*𝑑 3 ………….………….…………eq (5)
From eq (4) &eq (5) we will gate
L*b*τ*𝑑⁄2=𝜋⁄16*τ1*𝑑 3
τ
L=1.571d 1 since, we select the same material for shaft and key
τ
τ=τ1
L=1.571d…………………………...…………………eq (6)
Length of key
L=1.571d we have shaft diameter (d=32mm)
=1.571*32mm
=50.272mm
Width of key
b=𝑑⁄4= 4 =8mm
32𝑚𝑚

Thickness of key
h=2𝑏⁄3=𝑑⁄6= 6 =5.3mm
32𝑚𝑚

Volume of key
V=h*b*L=50.272mm*8mm*5.3mm
=2131.5𝑚𝑚3
Shear stress (τ)
Since we select the materials for shaft and key they have equal shear stress.
τ=τ1 we have shear stress of shaft (τ1=803293.756 𝑁⁄𝑚𝑚2 )
=803293.756𝑁⁄
𝑚𝑚2
Crushing stress (δc)
𝑏 𝛿
We know that ℎ =2τ𝑐from eq (3) so,
𝛿𝑐=3τ
=3*803293.756𝑁⁄𝑚𝑚2 =2409881.268𝑁⁄𝑚𝑚2
4.3.11PULLY DESIGN

We have design the pulley by adapting the following procedure.


Dimension of the pulley
Dimension of the arms
Dimension of the hub
DIMENSIONS OF THE PULLEY
The dimension of the pulley may be obtained either from velocity ratio consideration
or centrifugalstress consideration. We know that the centrifugal stress induced in the
rim of the pulley (δt):
𝛿𝑡=ƍ*v2
Where: ƍ=density of rim material
=7200𝑁⁄𝑚3 since the selected material is cast iron
𝜋𝐷𝑁
V=velocity of the rim= 60
FINAL PROJECT 50
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

𝜋∗200𝑀𝑀 ∗60𝑟𝑝𝑚
=
60
=628𝑚⁄𝑠 2
D=diameter of the pulley and
N=speed of the pulley
DIMENSIOM OF THE ARMS

We have taken four arms for the pulley diameter (𝑑𝑃 =200mm)
The cross-section of the arm is usually elliptical with major axis is equal to twice of
the minor axis. The cross-section is obtained by considering the arm as cantilever that
mean fixed at the hub andcarrying can center led loaded at the rim end. The length of
cantilever is taken equal to the radiusof the pulley. It is further assumed that any given
time the power is transmitted from the hub to the rim or vice versa through only halve
the total number of the arms.
Assume: T=torque transmitted
R=radius of pulley
ɳ=number of arms
Therefore: Tangential load per arm is (WT)
𝑇 2𝑇
WT=𝑅∗𝑛⁄ =𝑅∗𝑛
2
Maximum bending momentum on the arm at the hub end:
2𝑇 2𝑇
M=𝑅∗𝑛*R= 𝑛

DIMENSION OF HUB
The diameter of the hub (d1) may be fixed by the following relation:
d1=1.5d + 25mm
Where: d1=hub diameter
d=shaft diameter (take d=50mm)
L=hub length so,
d1=1.5d + 25mm
=1.5*50mm+25mm
=100mm
The diameter of the hub should not be greater than 2d.
The length of the hub (l)
L=𝜋⁄2*d
=𝜋⁄2∗ 50mm
=78.54mm=79mm

FINAL PROJECT 51
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Figure 10 pulley

The selected material is cast iron. Pulley transmits 20w at 60rpm, we take the
diameter of the pulley (𝑑𝑃 =100mm) and the pulley has four straight arms of elliptical
cross-section in which themajor axis is twice the minor axis. The allowable bending
stress is 1Mpa. Then we have to findthe dimension of the arm and mention the plan in
which the major axis of the arm should be lie.
We know that the torque transmitted by the pulley:
𝑝∗60
T= 2𝜋𝑁
20 ∗60
=2𝜋∗60
=3.1Nm
Therefore: the maximum bending per arm at the hub end is:
2𝑇
M= 𝑛

2∗3.1𝑁𝑚
= 4
=1.5Nm and
Section modulus (Z)
Z = 𝜋⁄32 ∗ 𝑏1 ∗ 𝑎21

Where: b1=minor axis and


a1=major axis=2b1 so
Z=𝜋⁄32 ∗ 𝑏1 ∗ 2𝑎21

Z=𝜋⁄32 ∗ 4𝑏15
𝜋𝑏 3
Z= 8 1
We know that the bending stress (𝛿𝑏)
𝑀
𝛿𝑏= 𝑍
𝑀
But Z=δb

FINAL PROJECT 52
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

1.5𝑁𝑚
=
1 𝑁⁄
𝑚𝑚2
1500𝑁𝑚
=1 𝑁
⁄𝑚𝑚2
=1500𝑚𝑚2
So from the above result we have to calculate the minor and major axis.
The minor axis:
𝜋𝑏 31
Z= 8
𝜋𝑏 3
1500𝑚𝑚3 = 8 1
so
1500𝑚𝑚 3 ∗8
=𝑏13
𝜋
𝑏13 =3821.7𝑚𝑚3
3
𝑏1 = √3821.7𝑚𝑚3
b1=15.6mm =16mm and
The major axis (a1) is equal to twice of minor axis (b1)
a1=2b =2*16mm =32mm

4.3.12 BUCKET DESIGN

To design the bucket we have to consider:


The bucket area
The bucket volume
The mass of the bucket
The weight of the bucket
the circular sectioning part of the bucket
Volume of water per bucket
Mass of water
The weight of the water
We select the aluminum alloy number 2012 for this material that has the yield
strength(𝛿𝑠 =70Mpa), tensile strength (𝑠𝑢 =179Mpa), fatigue (𝑠𝑓 =90Mpa), elongation
in 2%in=22 andhardness=45HB. The specific gravity of the aluminum is 2.7.

Figure 11 bucket

FINAL PROJECT 53
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Where: R=the major radius (take, R=25mm)

r =the minor radius (take, r=15mm)


h=the height between the minor and the major radius (take, h=40mm)
s=the length of the surface

BUCKET AREA
A=π(R+r) s or
= π (R+r)√)[ℎ2 + (𝑅 − 𝑟)2 ]
= (0.25m+0.15)√[0.40.42 + (0.25 − 0.15)2

=0.6407m2=640.7*103 𝑚𝑚 2

BUCKET VOLUME
V=1⁄3 𝜋ℎ(R2+r2+r*R)
=1⁄3 𝜋 *0.04m (0.0252 + 0.0152 + 0.025*0.015)
=0.000513𝑚3
=0.0005𝑚3

MASS OF BUCKET
To determine the mass of the bucket, it is known that the specific gravity of the
aluminum that is
2.7.
𝜌
S.G= 𝐴
𝜌𝑤
Where: S.G=specific gravity of aluminum
𝜌𝐴 =density of aluminum
𝜌𝑤= density of water

So, the density of bucket is:


𝜌𝑏=𝜌𝐴 =S.G*𝜌𝑤
𝑘𝑔
=2.7*1000 ⁄𝑚3
=2700𝑘𝑔⁄𝑚3
Then mass of the bucket will be: 𝜌𝐴
𝑚
𝜌𝐴 = 𝑣 𝐴
𝐴
Mb=𝜌𝐴 *𝑣𝐴
𝑘𝑔
=2700 ⁄𝑚3 *0.0051𝑚3 =1.4kg
WEIGHT OF THE BUCKET
𝑊𝑏 =𝑚 𝑏*g
=1.4kg*9.8𝑚⁄𝑠 2
=14N

FINAL PROJECT 54
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

CIRCULAR SECTIONING PARTS OF THE BUCKET


Take D=20mm

Figure 12 sectioning part

Let A=area of sectioned part


G=location of centroid
Ix=∫ 𝑦 2 dA=2𝑛𝑑 moment of area about x axis
𝐼𝑦 =∫𝑥 2 dA=2𝑛𝑑 moment of area about y axis
𝐼𝑋𝑌 =∫ xydA= max moment of area about x and y axis
JG=∫𝑟2 dA=∫(𝑥 2 +𝑦 2 ) dA=Ix +𝐼𝑦 =2𝑛𝑑 polar moment area about axis th.r G
Ix
𝐾 2 x= 𝐴 =squared radius of gyration about x axis
𝜋𝐷2 𝜋(20𝑚𝑚) 2
So, A= = =314.159𝑚𝑚2
4 4
𝜋𝐷2 𝜋(20𝑚𝑚) 4
Ix=𝐼𝑌 = 64 = =7853.98
64
𝐼𝑋𝑌 =0
𝜋𝐷4 𝜋(20𝑚𝑚 ) 4
JG= 32 = =15707.96
32

VOLUME OF WATER TO OBTAIN FOR 10 GALLON


We decide that the amount of water to take up per one complete cycle is 10 gallons.

So, 1gallon=0.003785𝑚3 =0.0038𝑚3


10 gallons=x
By cross multiplication we gate x=0.038𝑚3
So, the volume of water to obtain per one cycle is 0.038𝑚3 .

MASS OF WATER FOR 10 GALLON


We know the density of fluid is:
𝑚
ρ= 𝑣
Where: 𝜌𝑊 =density of water=1000𝑘𝑔⁄𝑚3
𝜌𝑊 =volume of water
Mw=mass of the water
Mw= ρ*v=1000𝑘𝑔⁄𝑚3 *0.03=38kg
WEIGHT OF WATER
The weight of water for 10 gallon will be:
W=Mw*g
=38kg*9.81𝑚⁄𝑠 2 =372.78N
FINAL PROJECT 55
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

4.3.13 DISCHURGING PIPE DESIGN

The design of the pipe involves the determination of inside diameter of the pipe and
its wall thickness.

INSIDE DIAMETER OF THE PIPE


The inside diameter of the pipe depends on up on the quantity of fluids to be deliver
Where: D=inside diameter of the pipe
V=velocity of fluid flowing per minute
Q=quantity of fluid carried per minute
t=thickness of the pipe
It is known that the quantity of fluid flowing per minute is:
Q=Area*velocity
𝑚3 𝑚3
Assume that the flow rate is 3 𝑠𝑒 and the velocity of the fluid is 30 𝑠𝑒 then,
Q=A*V
𝑚3
𝑄 3
A= = 𝑠𝑒𝑚 0.1𝑚2
𝑉 30
𝑠𝑒
So the internal diameter of the pipe will be
𝜋𝐷2
A= 4
4𝐴
𝐷 2=
𝜋
4𝐴
d=√
𝜋
2
4∗0.1𝑚
=√ 𝜋 =0.36m

WALL THICKNESS OF THE PIPE


The thickness of the wall (t) in order to withstand the internal pressure (p) may be
obtained by using a thin cylinder formula. Because the fluid transported is water.
According to the thin cylinder formula the wall thickness of the pipe will be:
𝑃∗𝑑
t= 2𝛿𝑡
Where: 𝛿𝑡=tensile strength of the pipe
P=pressure flow of the fluid
d=internal diameter of the pipe
The tensile strength of polyethylene material is 38Mpa from the property of selected
thermoplastic of material science of fourth edition. And pressure is 2.06 𝑁⁄𝑚𝑚2 from
the force analysis. So the thickness of the pipe will be:
2.06 𝑁⁄ ∗0.36𝑚
𝑚𝑚2
t= 𝑁
2 ∗38 ⁄
𝑚𝑚2
t=0.0098m=9.8mm

FINAL PROJECT 56
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

For the thin cylinder the internal diameter divided by the wall thickness must give
𝑑
greater than twenty (i.e. 2 >20).
𝑑 0.36𝑚
Therefore: = =36.7=37
𝑡 0.0098𝑚

37>20 it is safe

VOLUME OF THE PIPE


V=A*t
Where: A=area of the pipe
t=thickness of the pipe
So, the volume of the pipe will be:
V=0.1𝑚2 *0.0098m=0.00098𝑚3
MASS OF THE PIPE
Mp=𝜌𝑃 *VP
Where: 𝜌𝑃 =density of the pipe
VP=volume of the pipe
We select the polyethylene material having the density 960𝑘𝑔⁄ 3 from the scienceand
𝑚
engineering of the material selection fourth edition.
Therefore: Mp=960𝑘𝑔⁄𝑚3 *0.00098𝑚3
=0.941kg
WEIGHT OF THE PIPE

𝑊𝑃 =𝑀𝑃 *g
Where: 𝑀𝑃 =is mass of the pipe
g=gravity of the pipe
So, the weight of the pipe will be:
𝑊𝑃 =0.941kg*9.81𝑚⁄ 2
𝑠
=9.23N

4.3.14 ROPE DESIGN

Specification
Height of the frame to support the component from the ground=1m
Height of the pulley to flywheel=3m
Height of the pulley to the top of the well=4m
Depth of the well=10m
To design the rope we have to consider the depth of the well, the distance from the top
of the well up to the flywheel (the height of the pulley from the flywheel and from the
top of the well), the weight of the discharging pipe, the weight of the bucket.

LENGTH OF THE ROPE

FINAL PROJECT 57
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

Length of the rope (𝐿 𝑟𝑃 ) is the sum of (the height of the pulley flywheel +the height
of the pulley from the top of the well + the depth of the well).
𝐿 𝑟𝑃=1m+3m+4m+10m
=18m

STRENGTH OF THE ROPE

We have to consider the rope have to be lift the load or lift the weight of the (bucket
+pipe+water). So the strength of the rope will be calculated as the following.
𝑊𝛿𝑡 =𝑊𝑏 +𝑊𝑃 +𝑊𝑤
Where: 𝑊𝛿𝑡 =strength of the rope
𝑊𝑏 =weight of the bucket
𝑊𝑤 =weight of the water
Therefore: 𝑊𝛿𝑡 =15N + 9.23N +372.8N=396.03N

DIAMETER OF THE ROPE

We wire rope of the rope type from the rope property of machine design second
edition and its tensile strength 1800Mpa is 595𝑑 2 .
Where (d) is the diameter of the wire rope. Equating this tensile strength to design
load.
𝑊𝑟 = 595𝑑 2
396.03N=595𝑑 2
396.03𝑁
𝑑 2 =595 𝑁
⁄𝑚𝑚2
𝑑 2 =0.665𝑚𝑚2
d=√0.665𝑚𝑚2
d=0.816mm

AREA OF THE WIRE ROPE

𝐴𝑟𝑃 =0.38 𝑑 2
Where: d is the diameter of the wire rope. But the coefficient of diameter (d) is
0.38 that have taken from the machine design second edition.

Therefore: the wire rope area is:


𝐴𝑟𝑃 =0.38(0.816mm)2
=0.31m𝑚2

WEIGHT OF THE ROPE

To find the weight of the rope we have taken the weight coefficient
(0.0363𝑁⁄𝑀𝑚𝑚2 ) from the type rope of machine design of second edition. So,

𝑊𝑟 =0.0363𝑑 2 *length of the rope.


FINAL PROJECT 58
D ESIGN OF PEDAL POWER WATER LIFTING MACHINE

=0.0363(0.816mm)2 *18M
=0.0363𝑁⁄𝑀𝑚𝑚2 *0.6659𝑚𝑚2 * 18M
=0.4351N

Weight of operator must be greater than the sum lift up of the weight of (rope
+discharge pipe + bucket + water).
Therefore:
𝑊𝑜𝑟 >𝑊𝑟 +𝑊𝑃 +𝑊𝑤
Where: 𝑊𝑜𝑟 =weight of the operator
𝑊𝑃 =weight of the pipe
𝑊𝑏 =weight of bucket
𝑊𝑤 =weight of water
So, 637.7>0.4351N+14N+372N+9.23N
637.7>395.7N It indicate that the operator will operate easily.

4.3.15 FRAME DESIGN FOR MACHINE COMPONENT

For frame metals we select gray cast iron 4.5%C ASIM A-48
Tensile strength =130Mpa
Yield strength=200Mpa

4.3.16 WELDING DESIGN

We use the welding in the process to join the frame metals, pulley supporting metal
bars and operator handle.
Specification
Considering the load capacity we select Single transverse fillet weld due to its high
concentration and has high tensile strength.
Load capacity =weight of component applied on the frame
P=weight of (operator + shaft + flywheel + clutch + lever +pedal + other)
= (85.6+196.2+147+19.6+24.8+638) N =1111.2N=1.5KN
Length of welding (L=100mm)

Figure 13 welding design

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Assumption

Since the weld is weaker than the plate due to slag and blow holes therefore the
weld is given a reinforcement which may be taken as 10% of the plate thickness.
In order to determine the strength of the fillet joint, it is assumed that the section
of the
fillet is a righted angle triangle with hypotenuse making equal angles with other two
sides.
Where, t=throat thickness
S=leg or size of weld
L=length of weld
t =S * sin450
A=t*L
F=A*𝛿𝑎𝑙𝑙
Yield stress
From table of fillet weld joint (table 10.5 stresses for welded joint), the stress for all
type (Tension,
Compression, and Shear) is given by 80Mpa.

𝛿𝑠 =80Mpa
The stress concentration factor for transverse fillet weld is given by 1.5. But for static
loading and any type of joint, stress concentration factor is 1.
Length of welding
L=100mm
Adding 12.5 for starting and ending
L=100mm+12.5mm
Throat thickness
In transverse fillet weld joint, the size of the weld S is equal to the thickness of the
plate (𝑡𝑃 )
S=𝑡𝑃
The throat thickness becomes
t = S * sin 450
Throat area
The minimum area of the weld or throat area is given by
A = Throat thickness * Length of weld
=t*l
= S * sin450 *32.5mm
= S*22.98mm
A = (22.98*S) mm
Since the weld is weaker than the plate due to slag and blow holes, therefore the weld
is given a reinforcement which may be taken as 10% of the plate thickness.
A=S * sin450 *32.5mm+ S * sin450 *32.5mm
A=45.96*S𝑚𝑚 2
The size of the weld
Case – 1 Static loading
The tensile strength of the joint for single fillet weld,
P=Throat area * Allowable tensile strength
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P=45.96*S𝑚𝑚2 * 80Mpa
S= P / (45.96 * 80)
=1.5kN/ 3676.8
=0.40796mm
L=112.5mm
Case – 2 Fatigue loading
The tensile strength of the joint for single fillet weld
F = Throat area * Allowable tensile stress
Tensile stress for fatigue = Tensile stress of static loading / Stress concentration factor
𝛿𝑠 = 80Mpa / 1.5
For fatigue 𝛿𝑠 = 53.3Mpa
P= (45.96*S𝑚𝑚2 * 53.3Mpa
S= (P/ (45.96*S𝑚𝑚2 * 53.3)
S= 1.5kN/ 2449.668
=0.612mm
We know that the size of the weld is less than or equal to the thickness of the plate.
In the above two cases, the size of the weld are less than the thickness of the plate.
Therefore, the dimension is safe.
Take the maximum of the two case (in fatigue loading) the weld size is
S=3
The stress developed in order to have a safe welding portion, the permissible stress is
must be greater than the allowable stress.
Permissible stress
𝛿 200Mpa
Permissible stress =𝐹 𝑓.𝑠 = 2
=100Mpa
Allowable stress
Allowable stress= P / A but
2
The throat area = (45.96*S)𝑚𝑚
= (45.96*3)𝑚𝑚2
=137.88𝑚𝑚2
P = 1.5kN /137.88𝑚𝑚2
=10.87Mpa

The allowable stress is less than the permissible stress, so the design of the frame is
S=3

4.3.17 BEARING SELECTION

A bearing is a machine element which supports another moving machine element


(known as journal). It permits a relative motion between the contact surfaces of the
members, while carrying the load. A little consideration will show that due to the
relative motion between the contact surfaces, a certain amount of power is wasted in
overcoming frictional resistance and if the rubbing surfaces are in direct contact, there
will be rapid wear. If bearing is necessary for the mechanism we select from the
following ball bearing. principal dimensions ball bearing.
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Bearing no. 206


Bore diameter= 30mm
Outside diameter =62mm
Width of bearing= 16 mm

Figure 14 bearing

4.3.18 DESIGN FOR FASTENERS

Bolts, screws and nuts used to hold the container holder on the frame have to
carry the summation load acts on it this maximum load. This load may shear the rivets
when it is not the rivets do not resist this load.
Washers are used to protect the outer surface of the connected material from
damage as the bearing or gear was torqued or turned with respect to the shaft.

Figure 15 fasteners

4.4 OUTPUT ENERGY


Output energy is the energy out or exposed during due to the work is done. So, for our
mechanism is potential energy the result from the process of pedaling motion at 60
rpm and transmitting power by shaft, flywheel, pulley and rope to achieve the out
put.so,
𝑂𝑃𝐸 = (𝐵𝑊 +𝑊𝑊 +𝑃𝑊+𝑅𝑊 )*𝐷𝐻
Where 𝑂𝑃𝐸 =output energy
𝐵𝑊 =bucket weight

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𝑊𝑊 =water weight
𝑃𝑊=pipe weight
𝑅𝑊 =rope weight
𝐷𝐻 =height from the water level to discharge
𝑂𝑃𝐸 = (14N+372.78N+9.23N+0.4351N)*14m
=396.4455N*14m
=5550kJ
𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑠𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑓𝑡
Efficiency =1 – 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ𝑛𝑖𝑠𝑚
𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦
=1 –𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 but we minimum input energy (988.9KJ)
989𝑘𝐽
=1 −
5550𝑘𝐽
=0.82*100
=82%
So the operation is safe.

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or
sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech,
but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are
transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for
manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household applianceor
automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell
them to end users the "consumers". Manufacturing is a collection of interrelated
activities that includes product design and documentation, material selection,
planning, production, quality assurance, management and marketing of goods. The
fundamental goal of manufacturing is to use these activities to convert raw materials
in to finished goods on a profitable base. The ability to produce this conversion
efficiently determines the success of the enterprise. The five inputs required are raw
materials, equipment, tooling and fixtures, energy and labor.

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Figure 16 manufacturing method

The manufacturing process for our machine is the following process:


We prepare the flywheel, lever handle, lever arm, pulley and beam for supporting by
cast molding process. We produce the shaft, clutch, pedal and bucket by molding
process. We produce the rope wire drawing process. We use lath machine turning,
tapering, treading, and surface finishing of components; like shaft, flywheel, clutch,
pulley, pedal, key and lever. We use the drilling machine for boring and drilling the
hole of the components: like the hole on the pedal ring, on the shaft, on the lever
parts, on the clutch, on cover of the shaft and on beam metals for frame We use the
electrical cutting ax sow for cutting the components; like shaft, lever parts, beam or
bar metals for frame and pedals. We use welding machine for joining the component;
like beam for frame.

5.2 COST ANALIYSIS

Cost analysis include the total cost expend on the machine to design the machine
components, manufacturing (to buy) the machine components, to assemble the
machine components and the payment for operator.

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Table 10 cost analysis

Design cost in birr= 40,000


Machining cost in birr=2000
Assembling cost including welding in birr=1000
Salary cost per employment per month if the machine is used for community=3000
But if the machine used by individual the user by obtain the operator or may operate
by himself.
Total cost = component cost + design cost + machining cost + assembling cost +
salary cost.
=11200+40,000+6000
=57,200 birr
5.3 GENERAL ASSEMBLY

Assembling is the process of arranging the components at their appropriate location


for function able operation. After the selection of material for components, analysis
and design the components and manufacturing the components we have to be
assemble each component to get the available operation of the mechanism. So, we
assemble our design components of pedal powered water lifting machine as the
following stapes.
1. First adjust the metal bars of frame to support and hold the body of the machine
component, pulley supporting metal and handling metal to support the operator.
2. Inter the shaft in the pedals ring. Then fixing the pedal ring with shaft by bolt;
3. Locating the shaft on the frame at its supporting point.Putting the internal rotary
ball bearing if it is necessary to reduce the friction between the shaft and the
supporting metal. Join the above cover of the shaft to frame by bolt.
4. Adjust the clutch at one end-side the main shaft and meshing its fixed side with
shaft. Then fix the external part of clutch on the frame by bolt.
5. Adjust the lever and mesh it with driven shaft, fix the above holding shaft to the
frame by bolt. The handle of the lever can be supported with lever arm by bolt and the
lever arm mesh with lever boss by treed or fixed by wilding. Then the shaft and the

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lever boss can be joined by spline the rectangular shape (journal) at the end of the
shaft and the rectangular shape inside of the boss.
6. Adjust the flywheel on the other end-side of the main shaft and join the flywheel
with shaft by bolt.
7. Fix one end-side of rope with flywheel
8. Adjust the pulley on the pulley supporting metal.
9. Extend the rope on pulley
10. Fix the other end of rope with bucket arm.
11. Lastly site the tanker at appropriate position of bucket side.

Assembly drawing

CHAPTER SIX

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMONDATION

6.1 CONCLUSION

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The primary focus of this project is to create the equipment with the capability to lift
up the water from the ground or well by the means of energy generated by
human-muscle. The main purpose is to build the pedal powered water lifting machine
with a mechanism to convert mechanical energy created during the machine will
operate. The human body has the potential to create an enormous amount of energy if
we are able to channel it in the right way. Will considering the human energy our
project study how to generate power through the use of human energy and to promote
awareness of the belief that the human energy is an untapped resource can aid in
solving society’s escalating energy.
The benefits relating with the access to use the ground water provide a strong
agreement to increase resource allocations to interventions aimed at further improving
the current shortage of water situation, as a key entry point for achieving much wider
livelihood benefits.
Generally, most of farmers and pastorals this pedal powered water lifting machine is
one of the most advantageous type of water lifting machine used to help them during
the dry season and gate better revenues from agriculture and indirectly it is better to
came up for sustainable development for our country.

6.2 RECOMMONDATION

Our project included almost all design procedures and has full performance to operate
the mechanism with functional. We design all the main machine components properly
and due to time limitation we cannot conclude some related components but we put
into consideration to design in the future. But for design procedure due to the
limitation we decide as the following to some components such as bucket, frame for
the machine and stand bar for the pulley.
It decided to buy the tanker from the market with considering its property to
meet the performance.

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It decided to buy the metal bars for frame.


It decided to buy the metal bars for used to support pulley
The frame metals, pulley supporting bars and the handle of operator by appropriate
welding process at appropriate position, length and height have to be joining to give
full function.

6.3 FUTUR WORK

Agriculture including cultivation, pastoral and farming is the back bone of our
country incomes. So to support such sectors we use agricultural machinery like pedal
powered water lifting machine.In this paper pedal powered water lifting machine
designed as the energy for operating is the human muscle as much as possible. But in
the future if other research will be done on this paper or will be modified by our group
member or by any one, they have consider following alternative additional.
Weight of the machine
Design the alternative mechanism with bucket to fellow water directly from
ground well to tanker.
Design additional self operating mechanism to open the check valve of the
bucket and direct the fellow of water to tanker during the bucket reaches at discharge
point.
Increase the adaptability of the machine at every place where the shortage of
water is available.
Instead of human muscle use alternative energy sours like sun, wind and other

REFERANCE

1. Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design, Eighth Edition


2. R.S Khurmi and J.K Gubta, a text book of machine design, 2oo5, First Edition.
3. S.L. Dixon, Fluid mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbo machinery, Fifth
Edition
4. www.sharedasolutions.com
5. www.water in cyclopeda.com/Po-Ro/
6. Pump traditional.html

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APPENDIX

Table of results and discussion

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Angular velocity of shaft=100𝑚𝑚⁄𝑠 Applied force=638N


Angular velocity flywheel=471𝑚𝑚⁄𝑠
Angular velocity pulley=628𝑚𝑚⁄𝑠

The 3D, 2D and section views of pedal powered water lifting machine and its
components.

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Drawn by Approved by Date 14/5/2010


Group W/GEBRIEL.G E.C
Member

Pinion Gear

Scale 1:2

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Drawn by Checked Approved by Date


group by
member W/GEBRIEL.G 14/5/2010EC

Container
Bucket Scale 1:2

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Drawn by Checked Approved by date


group by
member W/GEBRIEL.G 14/5/2010EC

Direction controller
Clutch Scale 1:2

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Drawn by Checked Approved by date


group by
member W/GEBRIEL.G 14/5/2010EC

Lever parts
Lever Scale 1:2

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Drawn by Checked Approved by date


group by
member W/GEBRIEL.G 14/5/2010EC

Rotor
Flywheel Scale 1:2

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Drawn by Checked Approved by date


group by
member W/GEBRIEL.G 14/5/2010EC

Transmitter
Shaft Scale 1:2

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Drawn by Checked Approved by date


group by
member W/GEBRIEL.G 14/5/2010EC

Transmission shaft
Shaft Scale 1:2

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Drawn by Checked Approved by date


group by
member W/GEBRIEL.G 14/5/2010EC

2D Assemble drawing Assemble parts


Scale 1:2

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Drawn by Checked Approved by date


group by
member W/GEBRIEL.G 14/5/2010EC

3D Assemble drawing Assembly parts


Scale 1:2

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