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CHAPTER 2: BIOLOGY OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS

PARTS UNIQUE TO PLANTS:


A. CLASSIFICATION & TAXONOMY OF CROPS

Purpose: order, organization, and logical naming Plastid Double membrane bound; contains
Bases: Aristotle – by structure and size; own DNA & ribosomes.
Linnaeus – by structure only; Proplastid Precursor to other plastid types
Modern classification – by Phylogeny. Chromoplast Non-photosynthetic, colored
BOTANICAL SYSTEM – by taxonomic categories Amyloplast Colorless, starch-storing
AGRONOMIC SYSTEM – cereals, legumes & pulses, root crops, annual Etioplast Under-developed chloroplast
fiber crops, special purpose crops, pasture or forage crops & industrial Chloroplast Site of photosynthesis
crops. vacuole Large, central cavity for storage
HORTICULTURAL CLASSIFICATION – Vegetables, fruit crops, plantation
crops, ornamental crops.
PLANT TISSUE SYSTEM:
OTHER CLASSIFICATION –
o Meristematic tissue
GROWTH HABITAT LEAF RETENTION LIFE-SPAN  Apical ( up/down growth)
Vine Terrestrial Evergreen Annual  Lateral ( side growth)
Shrub Mesophyte deciduous Biennal  Intercalary (between internodes)
Tree Xerophyte perennial o Permanent tissue
o Simple tissue
herb Aquatic
 Parenchyma (seat of activity)
Epiphyte  Collenchyma (support)
Halophyte  Sclerenchyma (lignified)
Sciophyte  Fibers
parasite  Sclereid
o Complex tissue
 Phloem
BASED ON AGRICULTURAL PURPOSE:  Xylem

 Cash – added income PARTS OF THE PLANT BODY:


 Green manure – for nitrogen Shoots – above ground structures, central axis w/ appendages.
 Cover – against erosion Roots – below ground structures.
 Dye and tannin – for the same
 Hedge – grown under main crop Characteristic DICOT MONOCOT
 Biocidal – to control pests Leaves Broad Narrow
 Trap – attract pests Leaf venation Netted Parallel
 Repellant – repels pests and pathogen Leaf sheath None Containing
 Attractant – attract natural enemies for control
Branching Bushy Single stem w/ tiller
B. NATURE AND COMPOSITION OF PLANTS Stem Woody Herbaceous
Flower part Multiple of 4 or 5 Multiple of 3
NATURE – A plant body is made of organs w/c are made of tissues Mature root system Primary, adventitious, both
adventitious
then cells followed by organelles w/c are composed of molecules w/c
are finally made of elements
GENERAL ANATOMICAL REGIONS:
ORGANELLES & OTHER COMPONENTS:
o Epidermis – outermost layer
ORGANELLE FUNCTIONS o Cortex – next to epidermis
o Pericycle – found in root branches
cell wall Cell support and regulation
o Vascular bundle – phloem & xylem
Middle lamella Outermost layer; made of PP o Pith – hollowe part in stem centers
Primary wall Made during active growth
Secondary wall For support, made of lignin & cellulose ANATOMICAL REGIONS OF LEAF:
Cell membrane Cell boundary; semi-permeable 1. EPIDERMIS – skin of plants; covered in cuticle &has openings
Nucleus Contains DNA called stomates (stomata).
Cytoplasm Cell matrix where structures are embedded 2. MESOPHYLL – cells w/ plastids especially chloroplast
Mitochondrion Cell powerhouse 3. VASCULAR BUNDLE – xylem and phloem
Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis VASCULAR VESSELS:
Endoplasmic reticulum Lipid and protein synthesis; transport & support
Peroxisome Metabolizes photosynthetic waste o XYLEM – translocates water & mineral ions (from roots
Glyoxisome Fat metabolism to the rest).
o PHLOEM – translocates inorganic substances & sugars
Golgi apparatus Processes and packages cell components
(from stem to the rest).
Microtubules Support, movement, and cell division
plasmodesmata Cell bridges or tunnels
LIGNIFICATION – the process in w/c lignin wax is beind laid down on the
inside of cells causing death
LIGNIN – complex carbo-polymer w/c makes 25% of trees.
o Plant propagule
o Ornamental for pigment color
o Modified leaf:
 Bulbs – underground shoots with fleshy leaves and
short stem

FLOWER: Reproductive organ of plant; creates fruit; serves in sexual


reproduction w/ seeds as final product. Produced by spermatophytes or
flowering plants (seed plants).

o GROUPS OF SPERMATOPHYTES:
1. Gymnosperms; older, more primitive; includes Conifers &
cycadeans
2. Angiosperms – usually seen as original flowering plants,
includes most species
o PARTS OF A FLOWER
 Perianth: calyx & corolla
 Calyx: sepals (protects buds)
 Corolla: petals (pollinator attractor)
 Androecium: male reproductive organ (made up of
stamens)
MAIN COMPONENTS OF SHOOT SYSTEM:
 Staminodes: sterile stamens
o Stem  Gynoecium: female reproductive organ
o Leaf (carpel & stigma)
o Flower  Apocarpy/choricarpy: 1 carpel/pistil
o Fruit ( contains the seed)  Coenocarpy: several carpel/pistil
 Pistil: made up of enlarged ovary, style, stigma

MORPHOLOGY OF ANDROECIUM & GYNOECIUM:


STEM:
1. Hypogynous – the
  perianth is attached to the receptacle
below the pistil
MONOCOT DICOT 2. Perigynous – the perianth and stamens are borne on the
rim of a concave structure in the depression of which the
 pistil is borne 
3. Epigynous ovary – blossom seems to arise upon or above
the ovary

PLANT TYPE ACCORDING TO SEX:

1. Androgynous – w/ androecium and gynoecium e.g. papaya


2. Monoecious – both male & female live in same plant e.g. corn
3. Dioecious – male and female each on separate plan e.g. squash

FLOWER TYPES:

o COMPLETE – w/ sepal, petal, stamen, pistil in the same flower


o INCOMPLETE – lacking any one or more parts (wind pollinated)
o PERFECT/BISEXUAL – w/ both sex parts
o IMPERFECT/UNISEXUAL – contains either stamen/pistil only
 Staminate flowers: only stamen
 Pistillate flowers: only pistil
The STEM is needed for translocation (sugar, mineral & water), leaf FLOWER TYPES AFFECTING POLLINATION:
support, to connect leaves with roots, and storage.
o DICHOGAMOUS (organs mature at diff. time)
Bud: embryonic stems  PROTANDROUS – stamens mature ahead of pistils
Arrangement: alternate, opposite, whorled  PROTOGYNY – stigma becomes receptive before
position: terminal, lateral, accessory, or adventitious stamens
Nature of organs: leaf, flower of mixed o AUTOGAMOUS ( plants self pollinate in the same flower)
structure & growth pattern: single upright/ prostrate branched  CHASMOGAMOUS – opens during pollination
“creepers”  CLEISTOGAMOUS – closed during pollination

MODIFIED STEMS:
FRUIT: part of flowering plant; comes from specific flower tissues; used
1. Tendrils – support/attachment (climbing plants)
in disseminating seeds; result of 1 or more flower maturation; gynoecium
2. Stem tendrils – opp. Side of stem
forms all or part of the fruit.
3. Rhizome – enlarged stem for storage & reproduction.
4. Tuberous stem – same w/ rhizome but w/ bud eyes o True fruits – EUCARP; mature/ripe ovary after fertilization
5. Corm – vertically growning enlarged stem o False fruits – PSEUDO-CARP; from floral parts except ovary
6. Runners/stolon – slender branches growning
horizontally/obliquely downwards MODES OF FRUIT DEVELOPMENT:
7. Phylloclades/cladodes – flattened/cylindrical green stems
8. Offshoots – suckers – daughter plants from main o Apocarpous fruits – from one flower w/ 1 or more sep. carpels
9. Bulbils – found in axil of leaves o Syncarpous fruits – from 1 gynoecium w/ 2 or more fused
carpels
LEAF: Principal Photosynthetic Organ o Multiple fruits – formed from many different flowers

o Absorbs chemicals & micronutrients


o Transpiration
o Storage
KINDS OF FRUITS

1. Simple (result of ripened simple/compound ovary w/ one pistil)


A. Dry – not fleshy PART FUNCTION & CHARACTERISTIC
Pod Developed ovary enclosing the seed
Dehiscent capsular: Indehiscent achenial: Schizocarpic splitting: Embryo area Area of embryo axis w/c turns into the legume seed
opens for seed Doesn’t open for seed splits into 2 or more Micropyle Point of entry of pollen tube into the ovule during
discharge discharge closed, 1 seeded parts fertilization
Legume – pea Caryopsis – wheat, rice Lomentum – mimosa, Hilum Point of attachment: seed to legume pod
acacia Hypocotyl Stem tissue between the epicotyl & the radicle
Follicle – (1 carpel) Cypsela – dandelion Cremocarp – coriander Radicle Embryonic root; develops into root central axis
milkweed
Epicotyl Embryonic shoot & leaves; contains apical meristem
& 1st two unifoliolate leaves.
Silique – radish, Nut – hazelnut, acorn, Regma – castor,
Cotyledon Seed leaves and serve as food supply during
cabbage, mustard cashew nut geranium
germination & emergence
Testa True seed coat of a legume seed; acts as protective
Silicle – Sheperd’s Samara – elm Carcerulus – salvia
tissue for the internal seed parts.
purse
FUNCTIONS OF ROOT SYSTEM:
Capsule – brazil nut, Double/ compound
1. Anchorage &support
cotton samara – Elm, maple
2. Absorption of nutrients & water
B. Succulent - (part or all of pericarp is fleshy @ maturity; has 3. Plant propagules for some plants
3 different layers: pericarp, epicarp, mesocarp) 4.nitrogen fixation (legumes)
Drupe Coconut, walnut 5. Storage of water & carbohydrates
6. Soil conservation
Berry Simple fruit from 1 ovary
Thin outer layer; not self-supporting TYPES OF ROOT SYSTEMS:
true berries/ baccae
Modified berries Pepo: papaya, banana o Fibrous – numerous, similar sizes, no primary root, shallow
Hesperidium: citrus o Tap – one central primary root w/ several branches, deep
Pome Apple, pear
OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS:
Balausta Pomegranate
o Adventitious – arises from stem
Amphisarca Dry, rigid; Baobab Tree
o Storage, aquatic, brace, and aerial

MODIFIED AND SPECIALIZED ROOTS


2. aggregate/etaerio (develops from 1 flower w/ many pistils or
many carpels) e.g. raspberry, strawberry, rose, blackberry, o Buttress roots – large, found in nutrient poor forest, prevents
soursop, guyabano) tree from falling over
3. Multiple/composite (1 formed from a cluster of flowers called o Tuberous roots – enlarged for storage (e.g. carrot, radish,
inflorence) singkamas, sweet potato, lesser yam)
o Syconus: hypothandium type e.g. fig o Prop or stilt roots – adventitious, helps support and anchor the
o Sorosis: catkin, spike or spadix type e.g. pineapple, shrub, provides aeration
jackfruit, mulberry  Lenticels – provide gas exchange and add. O2 source,
highly hydrophobic
Other related terms:
 Pneumatophores/pneumatorhiza – located above
o Parthenocarpy – fruit set w/o fertilization; may or may not water level
require pollination  Aerenchyma tissues – projections allow gas exchange
o Stenospermocarpy – seedlessness results from abortion of o Root nodules – root enlargement w/ nitrogen-fixing bacteria
embryonic plant, requires pollination & fertilization (Rhizobium), root nodules develop because of symbiosis.
o Seed dispersal – spread of seeds by other physical factors o Mycorrhiza – fungi & root symbiosis; plants provide the former
with carbohydrates, while fungi provide water and minerals for
SEEDS: miniature plants in arrested state the latter.

MONOCOT SEED C. THE NATURE & COMPOSITION OF PLANTS


PART FUNCTION & CHARACTERISTIC CONCEPTS RELATED TO PLANT GROWTH:
brush Tuft of persistent hairs
Dent Top of corn kernel; due to shrinking of inner starch o Leibig’s Law of the Minimum - states that yield is proportional
Pericarp Primary ovary tissue; protects CARYOPSIS* to the amount of the most limiting nutrient, whichever nutrient
Aleurone layer Outer few cell layers of endosperm: has enzyme for it may be (Barrel concept).
breaking endosperm material o Blackman’s Theory of Optima & Limiting Factors – when the
Endosperm Mostly starch; makes the bulk of the grain process is conditioned as to its rapidity by a number of separate
starchy – soft, white factors, the rate of the process is limited by the slowest factor
flinty – hard, vitreous (Linear response)
endosperm proteins – source of protein in grains
o Mitscherlich Law of Diminishing Returns – when plants have
Scutellum Secretes enzymes for breaking down endosperm
right amounts of all but one limiting element, the growth
Coleoptile Apex of embryo axis; serves as protective sheath for
response is proportional to the limiting element and tends to
young leaves
increase with every increments of a limiting factor though not
Epicotyl Embryonic leaves and root
in direct proportions (curvilinear response).
Apical Above scutellar node, stalk and leaf tissue develops
meristem here o Growth – irreversible increase in size, length & volume
Scutellar node Point of attachment of scutellum to embryo axis o Development – change in size, shape, form, degree of
Radicle Embryonic root differentiation, & state of complexity
Coleorhiza Protective sheath surrounding the radicle o Differentiation – progressive change simple meristematic
Black layer Indicates physiological maturity tissue to complex and variable tissue & tissue combinations in
tip (Pedicel) Point of attachment: kernel to flower stalk adult plant bodies.
*ripened ovary fruit but not a true seed
PHASES OF PLANT GROWTH o water comes from the soil, CO2 goes through stomata
o Site of Light reaction – Thylakoid (here light is transformed
1. LAG – early vegetative growth into chemical energy during w/c water is oxidized &
2. LOG – grand period of growth, rate is exponential reduced by NADPH & ATP is produced)
3. DECLINING – flowering onset is offset by leaf fall o Site of CO2 reduction – stroma
4. STEADY – grain filling & ripening occurs steadily until end o Reaction centers – photosystem I & II {ps II catalyzes
5. SENESCENCE – characterized by death of the plant and parts removal of e- from H2O molecules (photolysis – water
STAGES OF PLANT DEVELOPMENT oxidation); ps I absorbs LE independently but its core
component receives e- from H2O taken by ps II}.
1. SEEDLING – starts w/ germination until true leaves grow.
2. VEGETATIVE – juvenile stage between germination & flowering o Phases
(w/ progressive development of root systems & foliage). Photophase Dark Phase
3. REPRODUCTIVE – occurs when plants start to flower until fruits = Light Phase = Enzymatic Phase
& seeds mature = Light Reaction = Dark Reaction
o Dormancy – seed’s inability to germinate due to Photolysis of Water : CO2 Fixation:
certain factors
= Splitting of water to = C3 (Calvin Cycle), C4 or CAM (Crassulacean
o Quiescence – seed’s failure to germinate due to
2H+ + 2e- + ½O2 acid metabolism) Pathways
absence of any req.’s for germination
Photosystems II & I Cyclic Phosphorylation &
o Germination – resumption of growth of the embryo
causing the radicle to rupture the seed coat or by the Z-scheme, Hill Reaction Non-cyclic phosphorylation

shoots leading to seedling emergence. In the THYLAKOIDS of In the STROMA of


CHLOROPLAST CHLOROPLAST
GERMINATION
STAGES PATTERNS REQUISITES CONDITIONS A. LIGHT REACTIONS:
Activation Epigeous – 1. Seed must WATER
hypocotyl be viable a. antenna pigments
elongates and chlorophyll a, b, B-
raises cotyledon
carotene & Zeaxanthin
above ground
(mostly dicot) serve as energy funnel
Digestion& Hypogeous – 2. internal PROPER b. Z-scheme, Hill
translocation hypocotyl conditions TEMPERATURE reaction
doesn’t raise must be
cotyledon above favorable
ground; only
epicotyl emerges NONCYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION: light reactions across thylakoid
Cell division 3. seed must be OXYGEN
where e—from water transfer to NADP+ accompanied by H+ transport
embryo growth subjected to
radicle or appropriate CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION: e-- from PS I cycle back thru
shoot emerges environmental ferrodoxin to some components of electron transport system causing ATP
conditions formation by ATP synthase
LIGHT IN SOME NADPH & ATP generated in light phase are reserved to be used in dark
METHODS OF BREAKING DORMANCY: SPECIES (red phase.
light)
1. Soaking in water (cold or warm) B. CO2 FIXATION
2. Scarification
3. Stratification – store seeds in high moisture & low temp. environment  C3 pathway – 1st product: 3-PGA (phospoglyceric acid); 1st step:
carboxylation (add CO2 & H2O to RuBP to form 2 molecules of 3-
4. Chemical Treatment – KNO3, thiourea, hydrogen peroxide, G regulators
PGA (carboxylating enzyme: RuBP carboxylase)).
5. Breaking the seedcoat – removing hilum covering
 C4 pathway – 1st product: oxaloacetic acid; 1st step:
METHODS OF TESTING SEED GERMINATION: carboxylation of PEP to form OAA; enzyme: PEP carboxylase
 Kranz anatomy – special type of cell org. in C4 plant leaves.
1. Ragdoll 3. Petri dish Method These are bundle sheath (BS) cells that surround the vascular
2. Seedbox method 4. Tetrazolium test* centres, and mesophyll (M) cells that, in turn, surround the BS
cells.
*a sol’n of 2,3,5 triphyenyltetrazolium chloride is added to water to form  Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) – CAM plants grow in
colorless sol’n. Seeds are placed in 1% sol’n (unbisected), or dilute 0.1% areas with little water; closes stomata by day, opens at night.
sol’n for bisected grasses & cereals. Results are either: SOUND (normal Fixes atmospheric CO2 to make malic acid (stored in vacuole at
red color shows while resisting penetration (H release is slow)); or WEAK night and defuses to cytosol where it is decarboxylated by day)
LIVING (abnormal color meaning they’ve lost resistance. Respiration’s  C3 vs. C4 plants – C4 plants maintain high ratio of CO2/O2 w/in
accelerated, formazan forms rapidly, bruised* photosynthetic cells to minimize photorespiration
 Energy yield: 12 NADPH + 18 ATP + 6 CO2 (PHOTOPHASE) →
CHAPTER 3: PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES C6H12O6 + 12NADP+ + 18 ADP + 18 P + 6O2
 Photorespiration - refers to a process in plant metabolism
A. PHOTOSYNTHESIS (PS) where the enzyme RuBisCO oxygenates RuBP, causing some of
o General Reaction: CO2 + H2O + light → CH2O + O2 the energy produced by photosynthesis to be wasted.
o Crop yield depends on PS efficiency  Factors affecting photosynthesis – light, CO2 concentration,
o Photosynthetically active Radiation (PAR), wv of 380 nm leaf diffusive resistance, temperature, water, leaf age, mineral
(violet) to 760 nm (red) in visible part of energy spectrum status.
o Apparatus – chloroplast

o Processes, products & sites: B. RESPIRATION


Light Rxn +
← CO2 → O2  Movement of CO2 & O2 to & fro the outside (to cells)
sucrose Calvin cycle PhotoPhos-
 Importance – generates NADH & ATP; produces CO2 skeleton
sugar ← synthesis ← triose ← (in chloroplast- ← NADPH ← phorylation ← H2O
for compound synthesis
(in cytosol) stroma) ← ATP ← (in chloroplast- <== LIGHT!!  Site - in all plant parts
thylakoid)
 Reactions – glycolysis – glucose breakdown (and others) to
o Leaves – principal photosynthetic organs (including other pyruvic acid in cytosol
green parts)
 Processes, products, and sites

S 0.17 0.17 0.15


Cl 0.14 - -

Fe 0.08 0.012 0.0058


Mn 0.04 0.009 0.0044
 cellular resp. – metabolic process by w/c an organism obtains
Cu - 0.0009 0.0006
energy
B - 0.0016 0.003
 CR processes – glycolysis; krebs cycle; electron transfer;
Zn - 0.003 0.001
Oxidative phosphorylation
 Factors affecting respiration – Si 1.2 - -
- Substrate availability A 0.89 - -
- Oxygen availability Unkown 7.8 - -
- Temperature • Essentiality concept:
- Type & age of plant 1. Needed for life cycle
C. TRANSPIRATION 2. Involved in nutrition and life processes
• Importance – aids transport; regulates leaf temp. 3. Cannot be substituted for elements
• Water path from root to xylem tissue –  general functions of essential elements
1. Apoplastic (between cells *casparian strip is serious barrier
1. structural – carbohydrates make up plant structure; also a
2. Symplastic (thru plasmodesmata)
source of metabolic energy.45.6% & 43% is made of C, H &
3. Transcellular (across cell membranes)
O.
• water ascent from room to leaves – cohesion – tension theory; 2. regulation of osmotic potential – soluble element builds
high surface tension & cohesion of water prevents cavitation turgor pressure for maintaining form, growth speed, etc.
• driving force – water tension gradient • The essential elements - 16 elements are essential (Na, Si and Co are
• water absorption efficiency – func. Of total root absorbing also essential to some plants). These are:
surface N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cl, B and Mo (Mnemonic to remember:
• evaporating surface efficiency – function of leaf area * "C. Hopkins Cafe closing; mob coming with machine guns"
stomatal density • Sources of elements: air (i.e., C and O via CO2), water (lots of O and H)
• wind speed and soil solids; from fertilizers
• solar radiation • Symptoms of nutrient deficiencies: Deficiency symptoms depend on:
• temperature 1. Function(s) of the element
• humidity 2. Whether or not the element is readily translocated
• Nitrogen: plant’s light green, yellow lower leaves , drying to light
D. TRANSLOCATION brown color; short and slender stalks (later stage of growth)
• Transport tissues – phloem: assimilates; xylem: water & •Phosphorus: plant is dark green with red and purple colors; stalks
minerals are short and slender (later stage of growth)
• Movement direction – xylem: unidirectional (acropetal, up); •Potassium: mottled/chlorotic leaves w/ large/small spots of dead
phloem: bidirectional (acro/basipetal, up or down) tissue at tips and between veins, more marked at leaf margins;
plasmodesmata allows lateral movement in both slender stalk
• Movement rules •Magnesium: localized mottling/chlorosis w/ or w/o spots of dead
1. No movement from young leaves to mature ones tissues on lower leaves; chlorotic leaves may redden; tips and
2. Upper leave supply the stem apex while the young supply margins of leaves cup upward; slender stalks
the roots •Zinc: generalized spots, enlarging between veins and eventually
3. Removing apical leaves causes lower leaves to send more involving secondary and primary veins; leaves are thick; stalks have
to upper ones short internodes
4. Very minimal sideward flow of solutes •Calcium: tips of young leaves typically hook, then the tip and
5. Active sink is fed by nearest source margins die, finally terminal bud dies
• Factors affecting translocation •Boron: base of young leaves of terminal bud is light green; the
1. Temperature leaves become twisted at later growth, and then stem at terminal
2. Inhibitors bud dies
3. Water stress •Copper: permanent wilting of young leaves without spots or
4. Potassium chlorosis; if deficiency is severe, twigs could not stand erect
5. Hormones •Manganese: spots of dead tissues are scattered over the leaf; small
• Retranslocation - Movement of compounds from an area veins tend to remain green and produce checkered effect
where they are once deposited to an area where they can be •Sulfur: tissues between veins of young leaves are light green; dead
reutilized is referred to as remobilization or retranslocation. spots are not common
•Iron: young leaves are chlorotic but the primary veins are typically
green; stalks are short and slender
E. MINERAL NUTRITION
• Nutrient uptake mechanisms:
1. Passive – ions move with water without metabolic involvement;
Maize apoplastic path characteristics determines of passive uptake rate of
Maize Leaf Cherry
nutrients; transpiration creates the force necessary for the ascent of sap
Element Shoot (%DW) Leaves
2. Active – ions cross the plasmalemma with the involvement of
(%DW) (%DW)
metabolic energy from the ATP and ions move from one cell to another
O 44.4 - -
through the palsmodesmata; Factors affecting nutrient uptake:
C 43.6 - - • Availability of nutrients
H 6.2 - - • Stage of growth and development
N 1.5 3.2 2.4
k 0.92 2.1 0.73
Ca 0.23 0.52 1.7
p 0.20 0.31 0.15
Mg 0.18 0.32 0.61
Nutrient forms & their mobility c. Plagio- (angle neither parallel or perpendicular)
b) Phototropism
From air From soil and fertilizers a. Positively (towards light)
and water
b. Non-
N Fe
c. Plagio- (growth at an oblique or horizontal
C P Mn
angle) *Heliotropism – plant organ follows the
H K Zn
Ca Cu diurnal cucle*
O
Mg B c) Thigmotropism
S Mo
Cl  Nastic responses (response unrelated to stimuli direction)
a) Thigmonasty (touch)
Macronutrients – N, P, K b) Nyctinasty (rhythms of light & dark)
Secondary –Ca, Mg, S c) Epinasty (bending of plant organ due to differential
Micronutrients – Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Cl growth between upper (rapid) and lower side of
organ (due to high ethylene concentration)
 Nutations (rotary movements of plant structures , esp.
shoot tips)
Element Form(s) absorbed Element Form(s) absorbed
Circumnutations – independent, autonomous movement
N NO3-, NH4+ Mn Mn2+ of plant organs.
P HPO4-, HPO42- Fe Fe2+,
K K+ Cu Cu2+, Fe3+ G. Plant Growth Regulators
Ca Ca2+ B B(OH)3 - organic compounds that are not nutrients, which in small
Mg Mg2+ Mo MoO42- amounts promote, inhibit, or otherwise modify any
S SO42- Cl Cl- physiological process in plants.
1. Natural or endogenous regulators – plant hormones
Zn Zn2+
(phytohormones). Regulate plant physiological processes.
2. Synthetic/exogenous – man-made
 Diffusion – movement down a concentration gradient
Characteristics:
 Mass flow – movement in water drawn by transpiration 1. Small
 Root interception – nutrients encountered by root 2. Organic compounds
Deficiencies of plant nutrients cause symptoms 3. Synthesized by the plant
• Mobile nutrient deficiencies show on the older, lower leaves: N, 4. Active in low concentration
P, K, Mg (Common crop symptoms) 5. Production site separate from action site
• Immobile nutrient deficiencies show on the newer, upper Hormone Transport Movements;
leaves: Ca, Zn, B, and Mn 1. For localised movement
(Deficiencies of others are very rare)  Cytoplasmic streaming w/in cells
• Sulfur deficiency usually shows over the entire plant.  Slow diffusion of ions & molecules between cells
Soils are often deficient to the following nutrient: N, P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Fe, 2. Vascular tissues
Cu, Mg, B, S, Cl and Mo  Phloem: moves sugars from leaves to root & flowers
 Xylem: water & mineral solutes from roots to foliage
MOBILITY CONCEPT (Roger H. Bray) Main classifications of Plant hormones
Mobile nutrients – extracted from large volumes of soil, and soil beyond 1. Auxin – induces shoot cell elongation (critical effect).
(root system sorption zone) (N, S, B, Cl) auxin affects tropism (Charles Darwin demonstrated this on canary grass
Non-mobile nutrients - P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Mo, extracted from as shown in power of movements in plants (1881)); Indole 3 acetic acid
small volume of soil in the root surface sorption zone (IAA) isolated in 1933 by Kogl, Haagen Smit & Erxleben. Discovered by E.
MOBILITY IN SOIL: & H. salkowski in 1885; high auxin concentration in coleoptile tip, buds, &
• Very – nitrate, nitrogen, sulfate, sulfur, boron growing tips & roots (also found throughout plant body, distributed
• Moderate – ammonium, nitrogen, K, Ca, Mg, Mo basipetally); Auxin regulatory effects vary. Can be stimulary, inhibitory, or
• Immobile – organic N, P, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn (chelated forms of Cu, participating in other hormone activity. Well established in ff. growth &
Fe, Mg, Zn are mobile but resistant to leaching) development processes:
MOBILITY IN PLANT: - cell elongation - geotropism - abscission
• Very – N,P, K, Mg - phototropism -apical dominance - parthenocarpy
• Moderately – S, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, Zn - respiration - root initiation - callus formation
• Immobile – B, Ca Other Indole derivatives include indole 3 propionic acid, indole 3-butyric
acid (IBA). Similarly functioning compounds are: alpha- & beta-
F. PLANT MOVEMENT naphthylacetic acid, naphthoxyacetic acid, phenoxyacetic. The synthetic ἀ
Sequence – signal → receptor →transducing mechanism→ response -naphthalene acetic acid used as rooting hormone; 2,4-
1. Signal – environmental stimulus dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) & 2,4,trichlorophenoxyacetic acid are
2. Receptor – intercepts the signal used as chemical herbicides.
3. Transducing mechanism – sequence that converts signal to Auxin functions:
response: (1) amplification of signal; (2) plant must be in  Cell enlargement, elongation & division in cambium
physiological state.
 Bud formation & apical dominance
 Root initiation
MAJOR POSITIONING RESPONSES
 Promote production of other hormones (cytokinin & ethylene)
1. Environmental – mostly by chance (germination mechanisms)  Abscission
2. Axis orientation – axis movement (gravitropism)  In seeds, regulate protein synthesis
3. Fine tuning mechanisms – assorted responses to maximize  Differentiation of phloem & xylem
resource acquisition & use ( phototropism)  Tropistic response (bending in response to gravity & light)
MOVEMENT TYPES  Senescence delay
1. Hydration  Fruit setting & delay fruit ripening
2. Turgor (reversible)  Flowering
3. Growth (irreversible)  Promote (w/ ethylene) femaleness in dioecious flowers
 Tropism (unidirectional response to stimuli)
a) Gravitropism
a. Ortho- (parallel)
b. Dia- (perpendicular)
2. Gibberellin (gibberellic acid GA) – factor in stem growth,  Release of dormancy
but can cause excessive elongation. First discovered &  Flower senescence
isolated in 1938 from Gibberella fujikoroi. Chemically
related to terpenoids. Immediate precursor of gibberellin is IV. CROP IMPROVEMENT AND SEED SELECTION
kaurene, a diterpene.. Widely distributed in plants, GA A. Propagation of crops Methods of plant propagation:
promote cambial activity, induce new RNA & protein
synthesis. Gas have several pronounced influence in 1. Sexual: with the use of seeds or spores
growth & development: 2. Asexual or vegetative: with the use of natural vegetative propagules
- Overcoming genetic dwarfism in certain plants (e.g. bulbs and bublets, corm and cormels, runners, rhizomes, tubers,
- Bolting & flower bolting results from internode elongation crowns, plantlets), cuttings, layering or marcotting, budding and grafting.
- Light inhibited stem growth 3. Tissue culture: propagation under aseptic conditions using artificial
- Parthenocarpy: GA are more effective than AUX growth media.
- Mobilization of storage compounds during seed germination
GA functions I. Sexual Propagation
 Stem elongation
 Increase wall plasticity • Seed propagation
 Bolting/flowering in response to long days
 Break dormancy - most common method
 Stimulate enzyme production for seed germination - most efficient and widely-used method for cultivated crops
 Stimulate transition between juvenile & adult form
- seeds arise from the fusion of male and female gametes to form zygote
 Induce maleness in dioecious flowers
 Cause parthenocarpic fruit development w/in the ovule
 Senescence delay
3. Cytokinins (CK) – naturally occurring compounds including • Seed classification according to sensitivity to drying and temperature:
zeatin. Also called kinis (from yeast cells); all related to 1. Orthodox: “drying-tolerant” seeds commonly exemplified by most
nucleotide adenine; can occur as free base or a riboside; annual and biennial crops and agroforestry species which are relatively
and synthetic: benzyladenine and kinetin. small-seeded. can tolerate drying to as low as 5% seed e.g. corn
CK functions
 Morphogenesis (shoot initiation/bud formation) 2. Recalcitrant: drying-sensitive seeds common to trees and shrubs of the
 Delay senescence tropics and temperate areas which are moist, and some plants which
 Mediates auxin transport throughout plant grow in aquatic environments readily killed by drying, especially if their
 Leaf expansion
moisture content falls below the critical value ranging from 12-30%.
 Affect intermodal length & leaf growth
cannot withstand temperatures lower than 20°C. e.g. avocado, mango,
 Stomatal opening
 Highly synergistic effect in concert w/ auxin
mangosteen, lychee, cocoa, rubber tree
 Counter apical dominance
3. Intermediate: those which can be dried to seed moisture levels safe for
 Work in conjunction w/ ethylene for abscission promotion
 Conversion of etioplasts into chloroplasts
orthodox seeds without their viability being affected but are easily
injured when exposed to low temperatures, especially when seed
4. Abscisic acid – a single structure, not a family of related moisture levels are lower than 10%. e.g. African oil palm, royal palm,
structures like the gibberellins. sesquiterpene (i.e. papaya and coffee.
terpenoid), C15 - made from 3 isoprene units, isoprenoid
group related to carotenoids; found in all green plants, also • Embryo culture: done by aseptically removing the embryo from the
in some mosses, algae, and fungi; Accentuated by stresses seed and placing it in a sterilized culture medium to germinate
such as water loss and freezing; and no synthetic analogs
ABA functions II. Asexual Propagation: involves reproduction from vegetative parts of
 Growth inhibitor plants and is possible because the vegetative organs of many plants have
 Mantains or seals in bud and seed dormancy the capacity for regeneration
 Pathogen defense
1. Propagation by apomictic embryos
 Prevents vivipary or embryo development w/out
• Apomixis: production of embryo without meiosis and fertilization;
a dormant period
Embryos arise from the vegetative cells within the ovule
 Inhibits auxin induced growth
 Stomatal closure under water stress
2. Separation and Division
5. Ethylene - Ethylene: single compound (like ABA) and is not
• Separation: involves separating naturally-detachable organs from the
a family of related ones (i.e. gibberellins); formula
mother plant
CH2=CH2; ethylene (MW 28) is similar in size/shape as
• Division: procedure wherein specialized vegetative structures are cut
water; a gaseous plant hormone made by most plants
into sections
including angiosperms, gymnosperms, ferns, mosses,
liverworts and also synthesized by fungi and bacteria; made
Modified organs which may be separated and/or divided:
by all parts of the plant especially meristematic regions
• Bulb: consists of a short, fleshy, usually vertical stem axis (basal
(shoot apex) and senescing tissues; nodes make more
plate) bearing at its apex a growing point/ flower primordium
ethylene than internodes; ethylene production stimulated
enclosed by thick, fleshy scales; e.g. tulips, lilies
by physiological stresses including wounding, anaerobic
• Bulbil: aerial plantlet formed on the axil of the leaves or flower
conditions, flooding, chilling, disease and drought; during
stalk; e.g. agave
the climacteric (the sudden surge of respiratory activity that
• Corm: a swollen base of a stem axis enclosed by the dry-scale
occurs at the peak of ripening in many fruits) lots of
leaves; e.g. banana, gladiolus, gabi
ethylene is made.
• Cormel: miniature corm which develops between the old and
Inhibitors of Ethylene:
new corms
o silver ions (Ag+), CO2 and KMnO4 - bind to ethylene
• Crown: part of the plant at the surface of the ground from
receptors or otherwise interfere with the mechanism of
which new shoots are produced; e.g. aster, Shasta daisy
ethylene action.
• Offset (syn. Offshoot): a characteristic type of lateral shoot or
o Aminovinylglycine (AVG) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOA)
branch which develops from the base of the main stem in
block the action of ACC synthase and pyridoxal enzymes
certain plants (a shortened, thickened stem of rosette-like
ET Functions
appearance); e.g. Pistia sp.
 Fruit ripening and flower opening
• Pseudobulb: a specialized storage structure consisting of
 Abscission
enlarged, fleshy section of the stem made up of one to several
 Epinasty
nodes; e.g. Cattleya sp.
 Triple response: shoot, root growth & differentiation
 Thigmomorphogenesis
• Rhizome: a specialized structure in which the main axis of the Types:
plant grows horizontally at or just below the ground surface;
e.g. banana, bamboo, sugarcane • Shield budding (T budding)
• Runner: a specialized stem which develops from the axil of the • Modified forkert budding
leaf at the crown of a plan, grows horizontally along the • T or Inverted T budding
ground, and forms a new plant at one of the nodes; e.g. • Chip budding
strawberry, black pepper • Patch budding
• Slip: leafy shoot originating from axillary buds borne at the base • I budding
of the plant or peduncle of the fruit; e.g. pineapple, cabbage • Flute budding
• Stolon: special modified stem, produced by some plants that • Ring or annular budding
grow horizontal to the ground; e.g. Bermuda grass • Plate budding
• Sticker: adventitious shoot that arise from underground stems
below the ground; e.g. banana, pineapple III. Tissue culture techniques other than embryo culture: can be started
• Tuber: a modified stem structure which develops below ground from a variety of plant parts which have cells capable of dividing; e.g.
as a consequence of the swelling of the subapical portion of the shoot-tip culture, meristem culture, endosperm culture
stolon and subsequent accumulation of reserve materials; e.g.
potato Some plant tissue culture media:
• Tuberous root: thickened root which contains large amount of
stored foods; e.g. cassava, sweet potato MS (Murashige and Skoog) ER (Eriksson)
White’s B5 (Gamborg et al.)
3. Cutting: a portion of a stem, root, or leaf is cut from the parent plant, Heller’s Nitsch’s
after which this plant part is placed under certain favorable NT (Nagata and Takebe) Knudson C
environmental conditions and induced to form roots and shoots, thus
producing a new, independent plant C. Rooting media for propagating crops:

Types: 1. Soil
• Root cutting – e.g. breadfruit, apple 2. Soil-mixed media
3. Soilless media: water, rice hull, moss, gravel, charcoal, coir dust
• Stem cutting – types: hardwood, semi-hardwood, softwood, 4. Nutrient solution
herbaceous cuttings (e.g. cassava, malunggay, coffee, rose)
• Leaf cutting – e.g. snakeplant, begonia, African violet
• Leaf-bud cutting – e.g. black pepper, vanilla

4. Layering: a propagation by which adventitious roots are induced to


form on a stem while it is still attached to the parent plant
Types:
• Simple or single layering
•Air layering or marcotting
•Compound or serpentine layering
•Mound or stool layering
•Trench layering
•Tip layering

5. Grafting: connecting parts of plants together in such a manner that


they will unite and continue their growth as one plant

- Scion – short piece of detached shoot with one to


several buds and which is to become the upper
portion of graft combination

- Rootstock – lower portion of graft which develops


into the root system of the grafted plant

- Interstock – a piece of stem inserted between scion


and rootstock (to avoid any incompatibility between
scion and rootstock and/or to take advantage of its
growth-controlling properties)

Types of grafting:
• Whip-and-tongue grafting
• Splice grafting
• Side grafting
• Tip grafting
• Hypocotyl grafting
• Cleft or whip grafting
• Wedge grafting
• Bark grafting
• Saddle grafting
• Inarching (Approach Grafting): an asexual propagation
technique in which plants are made to unite while growing on their roots
6.Budding: an asexual propagation, that like grafting, which involves
grafting which involves joining two plant parts such that the size of the
scion is reduced to only one bud and a small section of bark, with or
without wood