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# Signal Conditioning

Elements
Elements-2
Signal Conditioning Elements

• Deflection Bridge
Deflection bridges are used to convert the output of resistive, capacitive and
inductive sensors into a voltage signal.
• Eg: Thevenin Equivalent Circuit for Deflection bridge

• Amplifiers
• Ideal Operating Amplifiers Characteristics.
• Eg: Inverting Amplifier
• Non-Inverting Amplifier
• Voltage Follower
• Differential Amplifier
• Instrumentation Amplifier
Thévenin equivalent circuit for a deflection bridge

## • Thévenin equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source ETh together with a

series impedance ZTh.
• Figure 9.1 shows a general deflection bridge network.
network
ETh is the open-circuit
circuit output voltage of the bridge,
i.e. when current i in BD = 0.
Using Kirchhoff’s laws:
Fig:9.1 Calculation of Thevenin equivalent Ckt. for Deflection bridge
Cnts
• Assuming Q is at earth potential, then:
Potential at P and A = Vs
Potential at B =VS −i1 Z2
Potential at D =VS −i2 Z1
• ETh is equal to the potential difference between B and D, i.e.
ETh = (Vs − i1 Z2) − (Vs − i2 Z1)
= i2 Z1 − i1 Z2
Using [9.1] and [9.2] we have
Cnts

## • ZTh is the impedance, between the output terminals BD,

when supply voltage VS replaced by its internal impedance.
impedance
• Assuming internal impedance supply is zero,
• Then this is equivalent to a short circuit across AC (see Figure 9.1). Where ZTh is equal to the
parallel combination of Z2 and Z3 in series with the parallel combination of Z1 and Z4, i.e.
Amplifiers
• Amplifiers are necessary in order to amplify low-level
low signals,

## e.g: Thermocouple or strain gauge bridge output voltages,

to a level which enables them to be further processed.
Ideal operational amplifier and its applications

## • It is a high gain, integrated circuit amplifier designed to amplify signals

from d.c. up to many kHz.
• The external feedback networks only produce precise transfer characteristics.
• There are two input terminals and one output terminal,
terminal
• The voltage at the output terminal being proportional to the difference between the
voltages at the input terminals.
• Figure 9.6 shows the circuit symbol and a simplified equivalent
circuit for an operational amplifier.
Ideal Amplifier Characteristics
• Table 9.1 summarises the main characteristics of an ideal operational amplifier together with
those of a typical practical amplifier OPA27.
Cnts

## • If we assume Ideal behaviour,

• Then calculations of transfer characteristics of OP-AM feedback networks are
simplified.
• These calculations can be modified if it is necessary to take into account the
Non-ideal behaviour of practical amplifiers.
amplifiers
• The transfer characteristics are derived using Two ideal conditions:
Inverting amplifier

## Figure 9.7 shows a signal source VIN , RIN

IN connected to an
inverting amplifier. Since V+ = V− = 0:
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• Thus output voltage Vout is proportional to the input voltage VIN with
gain –RF / RIN.
• The resistance R is set equal to the resistance of RIN in parallel with RF , i.e.

## • To balance the d.c. bias currents to Inverting and Non-inverting inputs.

Non –Inverting
Inverting Amplifier
Voltage Follower
Differential Amplifier

Figure 9.10
Fig:9.11 Strain gauge bridge connected to differential amplifier
Cnts.
Cnts.
Instrumentation Amplifier
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•THE
THE END