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Signal Conditioning

Signal Conditioning Elements

• Deflection Bridge
Deflection bridges are used to convert the output of resistive, capacitive and
inductive sensors into a voltage signal.
• Eg: Thevenin Equivalent Circuit for Deflection bridge

• Amplifiers
• Ideal Operating Amplifiers Characteristics.
• Eg: Inverting Amplifier
• Non-Inverting Amplifier
• Voltage Follower
• Differential Amplifier
• Instrumentation Amplifier
Thévenin equivalent circuit for a deflection bridge

• Thévenin equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source ETh together with a

series impedance ZTh.
• Figure 9.1 shows a general deflection bridge network.
ETh is the open-circuit
circuit output voltage of the bridge,
i.e. when current i in BD = 0.
Using Kirchhoff’s laws:
Fig:9.1 Calculation of Thevenin equivalent Ckt. for Deflection bridge
• Assuming Q is at earth potential, then:
Potential at P and A = Vs
Potential at B =VS −i1 Z2
Potential at D =VS −i2 Z1
• ETh is equal to the potential difference between B and D, i.e.
ETh = (Vs − i1 Z2) − (Vs − i2 Z1)
= i2 Z1 − i1 Z2
Using [9.1] and [9.2] we have

• ZTh is the impedance, between the output terminals BD,

when supply voltage VS replaced by its internal impedance.
• Assuming internal impedance supply is zero,
• Then this is equivalent to a short circuit across AC (see Figure 9.1). Where ZTh is equal to the
parallel combination of Z2 and Z3 in series with the parallel combination of Z1 and Z4, i.e.
• Amplifiers are necessary in order to amplify low-level
low signals,

e.g: Thermocouple or strain gauge bridge output voltages,

to a level which enables them to be further processed.
Ideal operational amplifier and its applications

• It is a high gain, integrated circuit amplifier designed to amplify signals

from d.c. up to many kHz.
• The external feedback networks only produce precise transfer characteristics.
• There are two input terminals and one output terminal,
• The voltage at the output terminal being proportional to the difference between the
voltages at the input terminals.
• Figure 9.6 shows the circuit symbol and a simplified equivalent
circuit for an operational amplifier.
Ideal Amplifier Characteristics
• Table 9.1 summarises the main characteristics of an ideal operational amplifier together with
those of a typical practical amplifier OPA27.

• If we assume Ideal behaviour,

• Then calculations of transfer characteristics of OP-AM feedback networks are
• These calculations can be modified if it is necessary to take into account the
Non-ideal behaviour of practical amplifiers.
• The transfer characteristics are derived using Two ideal conditions:
Inverting amplifier

Figure 9.7 shows a signal source VIN , RIN

IN connected to an
inverting amplifier. Since V+ = V− = 0:
• Thus output voltage Vout is proportional to the input voltage VIN with
gain –RF / RIN.
• The resistance R is set equal to the resistance of RIN in parallel with RF , i.e.

• To balance the d.c. bias currents to Inverting and Non-inverting inputs.

Non –Inverting
Inverting Amplifier
Voltage Follower
Differential Amplifier

Figure 9.10
Fig:9.11 Strain gauge bridge connected to differential amplifier
Instrumentation Amplifier