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‘reanoportation Recearch Record 1043
It Se clear from both of these figures that a sub
Stantial Increase in" longitudinal cracking can be
‘Obtained by reducing the standard deviation (see the
examples in Figures ¢ and § shown by a dotted Line
for a depth ratio = 0.75). This indicates that re
sonable control of the quality of this construction
material (concrete), pavenant thickness, and saycut
‘epth, all conbined, can contribute to a reasonable
evcut depths
conctusrons
The reaulte of this study can be cumarized as fol
lows:
1. The development of longitudinal cracks in a
savecut groove can be explained by a model using the
Concepts of variebility in concrete strength and
thickness of pavenent sections.
2." The model developed for this study is sensi
tive to the construction quality of pavenent. An in
Provenent in construction quality can result In
Feduction of sawcut depthe, The rellability of Lon
ituainal eracks (being confined to sawcut groove)
ig also improved. This can save construction costs
fas well as future maintenance and repair costa,
3. Figures 25 show that it is poseible to in~
Gace’ any” desired anount of longitedinal cracking
along the savcut groove if an appropriate saycut
Gepth is provided.
‘4. The aggregates used in concrete affect the
evelopment ‘of longitudinal cracks along a sawcut
groove. This finding 1e based on a study of two ag
Grogates (river gravel and Linestone)
AcKNOMLBDGNENTS
he authors ace pleased to acknowledge the combined
efforts and support of the Center for Transportation
Research at the University of Texas at austin and
the Texas State Department of Highways and Public
‘Feangportation, in cooperation with the PKA, U.S.
Department of Transportation.
REPERENCE
4J.R. Benjamin and C.A, Cornel. Probability sta~
tiatics and Decision for Civil’ engineers.
MeGrawil1 Book Company, New York, 1970.
she contents of this poper reflect the views of the
authors, who are responsible for the facts and the
accuracy Of the data presented herein. ‘The contents
0 not necessarily reflect the official. views ot
policies of the Federal Highey Adninistration. ‘This
Paper does not constitute s standard, epecifica
tien, or regulation.
Publication of thie paper sponsored by Committee on
Rigid Pavements.
Westergaard Solutions Reconsidered
A. M. JOANNIDES, M. R. THOMPSON, and E. J. BARENBERG
‘mhe pioneering analytical work of Harold Maloon Westergaard (1
311950) has
been at the heart of slabongrade pavenent design since the 1920s. Every code
Of practice published since then Rokes reference to the
thon:
rd. cols
‘These solutions are only available for thee particular leading condi~
Eons (interior, edge, and corner) and acsune 2 sieb of infinite or entinti
nite dinensions. Since their first appearance, beginning in the early 1920s,
Westers:
publications.
r4 equations have often been misquoted or misapplied in subsequent
To remedy thie situation,
a reexamination of these solution?
Using the finite elenent method ie described in thie paper. A nusber of inter
esting resulte ace. presented:
(a) Several equations
the Literature are erroneous, usually as a result of a
jeribed to Westergserd in
ies of typographical
etrore or misapplicatione, or both, ‘The correct form of these equations and
their Linitations have now been conclusively established.
(@) Westergoara®
original equation for edge strese 1c incorrect. The longignored equation given
{in his 1948 paper should be used instead.
corner loading responses have been developed.
the development of Westergaard r
(c) “Improves expressions for maxinun
(@) Slab eize cequirenente for
poner have also been established.u
me pioneering analytical work of Harald Malcom
Westergaara (18801950) has "been at the heart of
Slabongrade pavenent design aince the 1920s. Every
code of ‘practice published since then makes cefer~
‘nce to the *Westergaara solutions." these solutions
fare only available for three particular loading con
@itions (interior, edge, and corner) and assume a
Slab of ‘infinite’ or semiinfinite dimensiones In
Practice, the slab size required for the development
Of Westersaard recponces ie detersined empirically.
Several investigatora, however, have noted repeat=
edly that although the Westergaard solution agreed
fairly well with their observations for the interior
Loading ‘condition, it failed to give even a close
‘estinate of the response in the cases of ease end
Corner loading. ‘he timehonored Westergaard, coli
tions deserve a thorough “reexanination using the
tool of Finite elenent analysis now available.
‘The highlights of an effort to reevaluate the
Westergaara solutions (1) ‘are presented. ‘the forms
theoretical background, Linitationa, and applicebia~
ity of these equations’ have been exanineds and what
are considered to be the most accurate formulae are
Presented herein. Several empiricel adjustments to
the Westergaard solutions are also considered, and
slab size” requirenonts, for the Govelopnent of
Westergaard responses are established.
‘Te basic tool for this study 1¢ the TLLIstas
Einite element computer program developed and exton=
sively used at the University of tlinois. (2). The
TLLTSLAB wodel {= based on classical wediunehick
plate theory, and employs the 4noded, 12degreeof—
Ereedon platebending elenent, known in finite ele=
iment Titerature as ACH or RIB? (3). ‘the Winkler=
type subgrade assuned by Westergaaré {e nodeled a @
uniforn, distributes subgrade thecugh an equivalent
wage formlation (4) »
As defined by Westergaard, this is the case of «
wheel load at 2 “considerable distance from the
edges," with pressure "assumed to be uniformly dis
tributed over the area of a small circle vith radius
a" (G). After an oxtensive Literature survey and
Comparisons with finite elenent resulte (6), the
following interior loading equations are considered
to be in their most general form.
Maximum bending stress, o;
Ordinary theory E3PC + wh /aah™f [en (28/0)
+0591 + 888207 )
speidtheory BIST f[(L + 1/24} (ea (2ND)
051 rBs1087 aw
Foc se sts {OR +s] 2h [in 2tle')
4059] 851250 9)
Sepplemeniany og ESI2OT {[BRC +N /6AN (Ha)
(eeary tea)
Suplementars on BSIRST= {38C. +] /6%} (C0) cc)
(gecil teory}
Supplementary, og BSI25Q= {130 +N]/64"7} (MF 1
orsqoxe)
Maximum deflection, 6;
ree DERIC= ret) {1 +172) (a2)
+7514) (Ff ae)
‘Transportation Research Record 1043,
P = total applied esd,
E © slab Young's modulus;
» Slab Poteson's ratio;
hf slab thickness:
K © modulus of subgrade reaction;
a = radius of clvesiar load;
© = side length of equare loads
w= (hi ~ uA)el) woh de cadive of reta
tive stiffness)
be (a6 + m2) ~ o.675n
if ac a.704h
a deg 2 rainy
ett teeter one
y= Huler's constant’ (= 0,577 215 664 90).
‘ese equations have been incorporated into WESTER,
‘2 computerized compendium of closedform eolutions
for slabs on grade, developed in the course of thie
research (1)
Equation la follova from Equation 50 given in
1939, with the term [tn (21/2) ~ y]_ replacing the
erm {un (21/ya)] used by Weatergnara (2) Note that
the symbol yes used in bquation 1a is the euler
‘constant, whereas Westergaerd uses this sysbol to
@enote the antilog of the Puler constant.
Bguation 1a also includes supplenentary stress,
eg, Eiret cerived by Westergaard in 1939. This is
calculated according to Equation 1a, which ie the
sane as Equation 6 in "Stresses in Concrete Runways
Of Airports" (2). qhis adéitional term vas intro
Guced to account ‘for the effect of the finite size
of the loaded area and is "outistactorily appiicebie
When a does not exceed 7 (7). Its contribution is
Seuatly email, but it ie includes because of ite
Figorous ‘analytical nature. the effect of the size
of the loaded area will be discvased further here>
Pgiation 1b employs Westergaard's “special
theory,” fist proposed in 1926, in vhich radius
Eeplaces the true radius, a, of the loaded aren.
This was Introduced to account for the effect of
shear stresses in the vicinity of the load, which 1e
neglected in the “ordinary theory" of nediunthick
Plates. As Westergaard stated, "the effect of the
Enlernese of the slab ie equivalent to a. rounding
off of the peak in the diajrans of mosente* (5) 10
Setermine the relation anong hy ay and by Wester~
Seard’ (5) performed "nunericel computations s+ in
Secordence “with an analysia vbich iz duo’ to” Ay
Nadal." Results were fitted vith a hyperbola, the
equation of which may be weitten in the form pre~
Sented earlier, "which ig custable for numerics
caleulations™ (5). The valisity of Westergsard:
Semienpirical adjustaent and of the resulting “pe
cial theory” has been debated by various investiga
tors [see, for example, Scott (8)], bute full di
cussion of this tecue would be beyond the scope of
this paper. The authors reconmond, however, ueing
ordinary theory" when comparisons with finite ele=
ent results are nade.
‘To obtain the interior stress in the cere of @
square Loaded area, radius a 1s replaced in Bauation
Ane by & constant, ¢", related to the length of the
aide of the square, cy as follows:
i
o's rI1/2%) en 0573904,..¢
he resulting expression is not stated explicitly by
Westergaard, but follows directly fron his theory
(S,10). ‘TMmoshenko “and WoinowekyKeieger (11) Bro~
vide a theoretical justification for thie substitu
‘tion by shoving that, loeded by the same totel losd
Py a square cide c and a circle radios a give the
‘sane mainum interior etreas.Toannides ot al.
In 1948 Westergaaré presented an equation for the
stress under an elliptical loaded area. (equation 2
in "Now Formulas for Stresses in Concrete Pavenonte
Of Airfields" (o)}. setting both axes of the el
Lipse toa, this equation can be compromised with
Equation 1a provided that’ the following sesumption
ie made,
mere rye lem 204)
For 4 = 0.15, this aseunption gives
asis916~o.61ss374
‘This indicates that the term 0.6189 in Equation 9 in
“Stresses in Concrete Pavenenta Computed by Theoret
ical Anelysis™ (S) is a truncated form of the term
involving) Euler"s constant, not lsh Poisson's
ratio, y+ Equation la ie, therefore, more general
than the 1940 equation.
Equation 1g follows from Equation 51 in "Stresses
in Concrete funways of Airports" (7), described pre
viously, with the introdsetion of Buler's constants
‘his fore Le more general than the one obtained from
Equation 5 in “Mow Formulas for Stresses in Concrete
Pavenents of Airfields" (Ud), which makes the ap=
roxization noted in the previous paragraph:
Westergiard alco presented an equation for up
plementary stress, yy to account for’ "the ef
fects of a plausible redistribution" of subgrade
reactions (12,7). This vas a semiempirical aéjuct
hnent to redsce ‘calculated stresses 20. that they
‘agreed better with the 1932 Aelington teste (3) ~
Bergstrom et al. (14) note that "it appears sdvie—
able to neglect "93 in design," because it is aifti
Gult to evaluate and causes’ considerable reduction
fn strecs, Further discussions of this term are pre
sented by Bradbury (13) and Kelley (26).
Slab Size Requienents for the Development of
Interior Loading westergaaré Responses
As mentioned earlier, the closedform Westergeard
‘solutions assume a slab of infinite dimensions, al~
as
though in practice empirical guidelines have been
Geveloped for the Least slab dimension, Ly required
to achieve the Westergaard “infinite elab™ condt
tion. in this section, analyses will be presented to
establish similar guidelines using the finite ele
ent method. A slab with a radiue of relative stiff
ness, t, of 2316 in. wae used with a mesh fine
hess’ ratio (2a/a) of 1.8. an earlier study (6)
Indicated that this ratio of elenent size, 2a, 4i~
vided by elab thicknese, hy must be about 0.6 for 98
percent accuracy.
TILISIAB results fron this investigation are
shown ‘in Pigure 1. Both maximun deflection and bend
ing stress converge to large ole values. ‘The con
vergence of geflection is from above, indicating
that a smaller slab settles more than a bigger one
ina "panchlike" fashion, Bending atcess converges
fron velow, ae expected. ‘the rate of convergencey
defined a6 the slab size at which the solution is
essentially that for an infinite slab, se different
Tor deflection (1/2 = 8.0) than for bending stress
(/.'= 3.5). Surprisingly, deflection appears to
be’ much “more ‘sensitive to slab size changes for
(1/1) values of less than 3, because of the previ~
ously Wentioned punchlike effect. ‘the Limit value
approached by maximm deflection ie the Westergeard
Solution (Byuation 1g). ‘The value to which bending
stress converges when. elab size is expanded {=
slightly lover than Westergaara's (Equation 1a) due
to the coarseness of the mesh used.
EEfect of Size of Loaded Aces
In his attenpt to develop equations for a loaded
area of finite size, Westergasrd used an approsch in
Which a solution for @ point lose is first derived.
Ten, ‘the loaded arcs ie split into. a nunber of
tml aubaren, and each subarea is replaced bys
statically equivalent point load acting at its cen~
ter. A cuanation is perfornea over these subaress.
In the Limit of refinenent, this eumnation tends to
fan exact integration (27). Westergaaré suggested
that his equations were valid for any size of loaded
y

of 
{
\
\
yee
% Westergoors
Slob Size, L(f)
—— Es
1 sas
co 3
L
¥
FIGURE 1. Effet of dla sive on maximum interior lading responses,a
area and that hie ‘New Formulas" (10) assume that
“the average width and length of the footprint. of
tthe tire de greater than the thickness of the elab
Loeverg (8) showed that the stress and deflec
tion equations presented by Westergaard are only the
Hirst one or two terns of repidiy converging. inti
nite series. Westergaard'e supplenentary stcens,
entioned. previously, for example, is an additional
term of this series. The rete of convergence can be
expected to vary depending on, among other things,
the size of the loadee area.
‘Timoshenko and WoinowskyReleger (11) state that
tthe ‘equations “apply only when the radius of the
Joade area is "enall in comparison with 1." Scott
(B) attributes enie restriction to the fact that "in
the derivation of the equation a term of approxinate
valve 0.1 3!/1" was omitted." thie cannot be the real
cause of the restriction {aposed by ‘Timoshenko and
WoinowakyReieger, because in most cases (even. when
the Fadius of the losdea area, a, ie not "emell. in
cosparison with i") thie term is, indeed, negli~
gible.
Th’ this study the effect of the size of the
loaded area vas investigated using the finite ele
ment method. ‘To eliminate slab size, mesh fineness,
land elenont asyect ratio ‘effects, ‘a large. (L/t
933) and fine (2a/h = 0.6) mesh, which consicted of
sglare elenents (aspect ratio = 1.0}, wae used. he
Fesulte are plotted in Figure 2.
Tt is observed that Kestergaara strece values
(equation 1a) agree with finite elenent results for
a Toaded area whose Gide length, © (if square), 32
about 0.2 tines the radius of relative stiffness,
ty Lf the load is circular, {te racive, ay mast bo
about 0.1L. he (6/1) oF (a/t) increase,” Einite ele~
ment stresses become progressively higher than
Westerganra's. Therefore the consequences of Wester
gaara's truncation, mentioned previously, must be
Borne in mind when’ attempting such couparicones The
results in Figure 2 also sugyest an effect related
to the internal finite elenent discretization of the
applied load. this ie discussed in more detail else
where ()+
Westergaard defines edge loading at the cace in
Which "the wheel losd is at the edge, but at a con
‘Transportation Research Record 1043,
siderable distance fron any corner." The pressure is
Aeounea to be “dieteibuted uniformly over the eres
Of a enall semivcircle with the center at the edge"
(6). Bqvations. for # circular load at the edge were
Eirst presented in 1948 (10). the most general forms
of the edge loading formlas follow.
Maxim bending stress, ¢
eda eoy —_BSEWOT=0529(1 +0544) A?) Nao (EN
(emi #4) 020) es
Syst tency BSENST=0529(1 +0544) Hogue?
(Gmc smx)071} eo
New" formula BSEIC= [1 Pn 0 tn)
ic $1.86 4403 + (402
+1180+200} @
New" frm SEIS 51+ Pe +] (CE Oc)
(onic) 43844313 050 +20) (4/0) 0D
Simpl “ew"_BSELS= (6) (1 +051) [0489 (I)
formals Gems) = 00910027 /6) °
Sip “new™ —_BSELC™ CRN?) +054) (48906)
formal (ee) 0012006) en
Cra formula DEFEW = (1/6%)(14 0459 0%) eo
wien fora DEFEIC=(0(2 +1259} (68°91)
(ice) 710276 +0419) en
New" formule DEFEIS=(P(@2 + 1.24)"]}/ (4°R)"1) £1
(ome Som +01 I) @
Spite “new” DEFELS= (464). +040) €RE)
foul emi) 70323 (14054) 4/91 ©
Simple “oow" —DEFELC= 1/8) (1 +044) PEE (1
fem) =1.760(1+054) 9) eo
% Westergoord
FIGURE2 Effect of tize of loaded ares on maximum interior loading
sponees
Toannides et al
were
ag = cadius of semicircle,
Bh = ((.6ey + 472) ~ 6.6755
fe ay < 2.7200
say $6 ag > 1.724h, and
other dymbols ave as defined for Equations 2.
Equation 28 is identical to Byuation 3 in *Ana
lytical Tools for Juéging Resulte of structural
‘Tests of Concrete Pavements” (12). Equation 2b en~
loys the “special theory,” which ie also used for
Interior loading. in his 1948 paper, Westergaard
(G0) presented generalized solutions for, maximum
sg ané deflection produced by elliptical and
Semleitiptical loaded areas placed at a ela edge.
Setting the lengths of both the major and minor
Semlaxce of the ellipse to a or az lends tothe
corresponding solutions for a circle fadiue, a, of a
senicirele radius, a2, given by Equations Ze and
Tosherg (18) presented simplified versions of
these solutions by introdscing “simplifications of
‘the sane type as Westergaara (19) himself introduced
An hie original formila for the case of edge losé~
ing” to eliminate the "complicated functional rela~
tionship" in which appears in these equations.
Losberg (18) stated ‘that his simplifies equations
Tare vell applicable, for the spall yevalues here
concerned." There are fquations ze and 2¢. Conpar=
isons. nade curing this study shov thet Losberg's
‘simplified equations lead to recults that are tyPi
Cally about 1 percent greater than those obtained by
the general Equations 20 and 22.
equation 23 is Westergsara's original equation
for edge deflection (5), and Equations 2h and 24 can
be obtained from his 1948 paper (10), as indicated
previously. The corresponding Locberg formlas (28)
fre given by Squations 25 and 2k, Setting the radius
OF the Loaded ares to sero, these formulas reduce to
Byyation 29.
Alternative Hestergsard solution
Xt was pointed out eariier,
vestigators (14,18), that in the cage of interior
Geflection and stront, az well as edge deflection,
when the “new" formulas are specialized for a circu
well as by other in
lar (or a semicircular) loaded area, they become
identical ‘to the corresponding original (5,12) equa
tions. Results ‘from thie ‘study chow, however, that
edge stresses calculated fron the tnev" formula are
considerably dicterent than those computes using the
Original formula. A munber of alternative Wester
Geard solutions are considered in this section, in
Order to determine which one, if any, sgreet best
with finite elenent results
‘TABLE 1 Altomative Westergard Solutions
v
In Table 1, five different Westergaard solutions
fare conpered. "In all of these, total applied load,
Py and applied pressure, p, are matched in the
Westergaard and finite clenent analyses. A previous
study (6) confireed thet this Le an appropriate cep
resentation of the square loaded area used. in the
Limite elenent solution. The solutions given in
Table 1 are code naned WESI through WESV and were
obtained using WESTER, vhich incorporates Equations
The range of results in Table 1 is extcamely
wide. Therefore careful use of Kestergaard'e. theory
Cannot be overemphasized. he most obvious eftact te
that the "new" formulas typically lead to stresseo
55 percent higher and deflections € percent Lower
than the values obtained using the original formlae
(compare WESIV with WESTI2) 
2 comparison of WESIV and WESV indicates that the
seaicircular load ie nore severe than the circular
Toad (ives, leads to higher etresces and deflec=
tions), ‘as expected. Tf both the circular and the
Semicitcular loads ‘are reduced to an equivalent
point load acting at the respective center of gfav
ty, this expectation is shown to be justified be
‘cause the center of gravity of the circle is further
foward the interior of the elab then ie that of the
semicircle.
‘This argunent elso leads to the conclusion thet
the difference in response from a cizcular and a
semicircular load should be fairly spall an propor
Uonal to the difference in the distance between the
respective centers of gravity and the slab edge. The
Gitference between WESIV and WESV stresses is about
2 percent, and deflection difference is about 5 per~
cent. These differences are much nore compatible
With’ expected values than is the stress aifference
Sotained using the original equation (compare WEST
fea WEStr2)
Table 2 gives a comparison of WESY, TLLIstAB,
‘and B51 results, the Latter ie a computerised ver
Sion of the Pickett and Ray (20) chart for edge
Loading (21). streases exhibit almost perfect agree
pent even at lov. (i/t) values. Deflections are
more sensitive to tlab size effects, as shown in
Figure 3. Teis graph shows thet an (1/1) value of
about 5.0 is required for the development of Wester~
eard stresses and about 8.0 is required for Wester
gaard deflections. The trends shovn in Pigure 3 are
Similar to those observed for the interior condi=
tion. ote, hovever, that the requirement for the
development’ of matimn edge trent (L/1 = 5.0) te
higher: than for maximum Interfor stress (l/t = 35)
‘The excellent agreement between ILLISIAB and RSi
results and the "ney" formsla confirns Losberg's ob
Servation that tthe original formule for edge load=
ing according to Westergaara (5) is, at least fron a
theoretical viewpoint, completely erroneous."
‘eteston 8 (nis)
Beoting Sues 25 Ge)
on No, Gein) tin) _WESI WES _WESITWESIV WESY WEN WEST WEST WES WESV
7 naa ig 997 ~=Ce eS
2 mo Sea sos 30 esl S9 TB
3 oS S13 ma 3) ea
4 so 6232 cmeaswest, = 80 ots 8 fon wtsar
5 moe ea Bo Sik fl Me ae eS
é So is Ba ios ok S73) ee kek
5 som ae Be 62 3 mom te
a med He 830m bee
5 So ea i243 eo ees
te Ce ec Se Ne ea ec a Seyae
‘Teangportation Research Record 1043,
‘TABLE 2 Comparison with “New” Edge Loading Formulas
Detection 5, Bending Sts ey
x » WEsY ILLISLAB WELISLAD WESVWLLISUAB Ws) TELESLAB
un No.Goalte) Gn) ye) mis) (is) WES pate dW
r er 70970 e097 351098
a ao eS“ joe mo foe O99
i So 1 me 388 motos mn
4 soe ms Ne wo 3)
3 mo 16 mi tar Sy Ss oe
é Sos zor toe a3 ase a
5 so} a 1S ays 6
a 2 oB Be tn 39 se xe
5 jo ite ms a
Has as ents ea
me
iuuisuaB
Wesv
po 1
L
7
FIGURE 3. Effect of ala size on maximum edge loading responses.
The Pickett and Ray charts (20) for the ease
oading ‘condition on a dense Liguld ‘subgrade ‘are
based on a pait of integral equations identical to
those presented by Wertergaaré (U0). the results
from these charts, therefore, agree with, the "new
formulas, ab indicates by Sl results in Table 2,
Te is interesting to note thet, although in several
design codes reference 1s made to the original equa
tion, the fact that multiple wheel leads are often
coneiacred inplics, that design charts in these coSes
Nave been obtained using the Pickett end Ray cherts
(Gsesy the ew" foemilas) >
The question of the source of the discrepancy be
tween Westergaard'e original and ney. formlaa for
ending resains wnanawored. I ie too early to
28 the original fornilaa aa altogether false
and uselees. Bergatzon et al. (14) reported that
Values celouiated using these equations are in Fel=
Stively close agreement with test results.” They
furthermore suggested that” there are "no resvons to
use the new formla for edge Loading.* On the other
hand, soot (6) suggests that vexperimental indica
tons are that ‘the edge stresses experienced in
practice are higher than the Westergaara. (original)
Equation "indicates." Laboratory model ‘esto by
Gerlton and Behcnann (23) produced edge stresses 10
to 12 percent, tover than the new formula. predicts,
Felnforcing the expectation that in eit values
Probably Ite between the two Westergasrd equations,
‘The theoretical backscound for. the oFipinal edge
stcere equation is also open to debates the derive
lon of thie equation is not presented in any of
Wostecgaard's papers. Attenpts by Losberg” da) to
rive at this forma through Integration ‘of the
expressions for the concentrated oad (19) id not
Produce agceenent with Westergoard'e result. If the
Probability of a gross theoretical blunder by euch
possible explanation
for this discrepancy is sone assumption regarding
subgrade support at the slab edge, which 1s (aaliost
inthe original formula bot i ‘never explicitly
conmER LOADING
Of the eheee fundamental cases of loading investi=
gated by Westergaaré, cornet loading 42 undoubtedly:
he most obscure and debatable, ‘the theoretical
beckground for maxinm corner deflection and stress
equations is particularly vesk. ‘Their semiempirical
land approxinate nature has lea to numerous
‘ions and modifications in the yeare since their
original publication, in an attempt. to reconcile
observed slab behavicr with theory. These ave die
cussed by Kelley (16) and Pickett (23) and sre sum
Sarized ae follows:
Deslection
82 PRE) [11088 4,09] Weerard (5) ee
eu"(@PM) Goldbeck (25) Oder(26) oe
ee" PMA) (= (i094) Westrgand (5) 69
ehToannides et al.
¢= (3P/B?) [1 = (a/]
‘o¢= (P/M?) {1 ~ (ay 8)"]_— Kelley (16), Teller vad Sutherland/ 3) (3e)
a." 2PM?) [1 =(0/0)] Spangler (28) eo
ocean) (1= {1609110925 +022 }])
Bradbury (15) os)
Picket (23) Ge)
Distance to point of maximm stress along corner
angle bisector
Xy=21@0%] Wester (5) oe»
were
2 = radius of circular Load tangent to both edges
at comer and
‘ay ~ distance to point of action of resultant
‘long corner’ angle bisector
= (ZA, A Gee Bguations 1 for other symbols
In the early 19202 4 ehort and simple piece of
analytical work vas heralded as "the most important
Bingle ttep in the Lnvestigation of the mechanics of
Fond slabs" (24). This vas the flea attempt to
Solve the problen of the “corner break" by two. proo
nent engineers of the day working independently,
AuB. Goldbeck of the Bureau of Public Rosde and
Ciittord clder of the Tlinoke Highway Department.
By ascuning that in the corner region the slab acts
as a cantilever of uniform strength (1.0. that in
Enis region the subgrade reaction is negligible com
pared to the applied losd), Equation 3b was pro
pored for the maximin stress, Gg; due £0 # concen
Erated load, Py acting et the comer of @ slab, of
thickness b”(25,26) .
‘A few yoare Later, Westergaard (5) took up the
problem ajain, trying to account for the effect of a
Toed distributed over some area, the ceaultant of
which could be represented by # point losd P acting
at a Gmall distance a from the corner, along the
Bisector of the corner angle. Using a “simple ap
proximate process" involving the use ‘of the prin~
Ciple of minim potential eneray (27) he hoped to
achieve an. "improved approximation" of corner
Berens. ‘Thus he first arrived at Equation 3a. for
corner deflection. He considered this equation *ap~
proxinately applicable for plausible ranges of ay
‘nd t" (presumably (ay/1) is not much greater than
O11). From thie, he obtained bending monents by Ln
kegration snd concluded that the maxinun stress
Swould be represented with satisfactory accurscy" by
Bquation 2c. Furthernore, the distance to the point
Of maxinun stress along the corner angle bisector
ae found to be given "roughly" by Bquation 3h.
Equations for the Corner Loading Conéition Based on
he Finite Element Method
In this section, ILLISIAB is used to establish
et of equations that vould accurately predict the
Fesponse of a slab, in full contact with a Winkler
foundation, to a single load distributed over a
small area at its corner. Equations 3, propored by
Previous investigators, suggest that, from a theo
Eetical viewpoint, the parameters involved in the
Geternination of slab response cen be lumped into
‘hee nondinensional ratios to. be investigated,
namely, (éckt!/2) (ach*/2) and (2/1) or (ay/t) for &
chroalar, of (c/t) for a equare load.
‘the results obtained fron eeveral ILLISLAB anal~
yees are plotted in a nondineneional fashion in Pig
res 4 end 5. Other available closedform solutions
‘are also show in these figures for comparison. ‘The
Inteer were obtained using a circular load of the
same area as the square one in TLLTSIAB but are
»
Sets oop)
aeeskefucor of}
oe, a o os
“
FIGURE Compuson of ILLISLAB and Westead comer
detections
plotted with the corresponding (¢/#) values along
the ordinate. Though not mathenatically rigorou!
this facilitates direct comparison of the results.
ILLISIAB stresses are values of the ainor (tensile)
Principal stress occurring at the top fiber of the
Slab. the maximin normal strese obtained fron finite
lenent analysis (P. Frey, "Develoment of a Finite
Elenent Based Expression to Predict. Maximum Corner
Loading stresaee’ in a” Uniformly Supported Rigid
Pavement on an Elastic Subgrade,* University of 11
Linois, Urbana, 1983) significantly underestimates
‘the critical stress.
‘Curves were fitted to TLLIMSIAB dats with a spe
cial effort made to keep the general form of the
‘equations the sane as that of the Mestergaaré formi~
las. Shue a straight Line may be used to deceribe
corner deflections, fg, obtained using the finite
‘element method (Figure 4). This Line hax the follov=
ling equation:
55= ha) [1.205 069.201 o
where © o the side Length of eguare loséed area.
‘The similarity to Westergaard's equation indi~
cates that Westerganrd's approxination war foirly
008. the finite elenent results obtained are tYpi
cally about 10 percent higher than those predicted
by Westergaard. & emall part of this discrepancy is
Que to the lack of a theoretical solution for 2
square Loaded area, as vell as limitations of the
finite elenent solution with respect to mesh fine
hese and slab size.
In the case of ILLISLAR maxinun corner stresses,
cer curve Fitting suggested the following equation:
se GPM?) [1.0(1H°7} o
‘The Golabeckolder equation Le obviously a rough
‘approximation of the theoretical solution, mich nore
80 at high values of (c/t). This is expected, in
View of the Coldbeckolder secumption of a concen~
trated toad acting on a cantilever. Assuming that
Finite elenont results give a fairly accurate pic~‘Transportation Research Record 1043
F L L L
oa)
FI
ture of the theoretical solution, the Westergaaré
equation represents a considerable improvement over
the ColdbeckOlder one. ‘The finite elenent method
Gives results that fali between those predicted by
estergaard (5) and thove predicted ‘by Bradbury
(Us). Note that the empirical modifications to the
Westergaaré formula proposed in the last 60 yeare=
with the exception of Brecbury'snave tended to. in
Crease the discrepancy between calculated and theo
Fetical stresses. These modified expressions are
such closer to the Goldbeckolder equation than to
the theoretical solution. scott (8) pointe out that
Sexporinental indications are that the corner stres~
ses experienced in practice are higher than. the
Westergaaré cquation indicates." ote, however,
that, in the model teste mentioned previously, neal
‘sured maximin comer stresses "were only 65 to 75
Percent a great as. those determined fron the
Kestergaaré equation" (22). the very significant
Limitations of the Winkler subgrade {deat ization for
corner loading are reflected in Figure 5. At = re~
Sult, discrepancies between measured responses and
theory may be expected. In the absence of nore. con
elusive field data, it i prudent to design for a
higher corner eteess than indicated by Westergoaré!e
formula (Equation 3c).
Location of Maximum ste
‘The ceaulte from 2 selected nusber of TLLISLAR runs
fare given in Teble 3, whore Xz a2 obteined from
TABLE 3. Location of Maximum Corner Stross
IRE 5 Nondimensional maximum hending stress for corner loading.
Equation 3h is compared with the location of the
minor (Coneile) principal strese given by TuLYSIAD,
‘This shows wat TLLISLAB usually gives somewhat
greater distance than westergeard. On the other
hand, model tests suggest values shout €5 percent of
Westergeard's (22), Curve fitting through the values
of 1 obtained by extrapolation from TLLIStAB,
Fesulted in the following equation:
y= ns0ee9 gute ©
‘This best£1t equation indicates that the infiuence
of the radiue of relative stiffness, ty is moch
Greater than that of the size of the loaded area
Westergaard'e equation suggente that these “tho. foo
Eaneters contribute equally to the determination of
Slab Size Requirenente for Corner tosding
Westergaara Responses
The pertinent results from this study are shown in
Figure €, in which ILLISLAB deflections and stres~
fse8 axe Shown as percentages of the values given by
the bestfit equations. The validity of any conclu~
sions drawn from cuch a comparison is not considered
to be greatly affected by the numerical accuracy of
the proposed formulas. The patterns observed in Fig~
lure 6 are the sane as those observed for the other
Loading conditions. Once again, stresses converge
faster, requiring tinimin (L/t) value of bose
Toston of oe kr in)
fc Bauer
Bun No, ny tin) Gn) Equation 3h
foo or oa
Geos ho 3S 435
So go ae
coor so in
cont so da
coe) woo 856
TLESLAB
[ArNode By Extapolaton Popoted Equation
BB is a
Saat 3600 260s
so ike ae
ist iia
Pa Ep
aos Pes
nae HiseYoannides et a1. a
Bok
q 
®
‘ene
\ 1 ! ! 1 
os + os 5 ts
os
FIGURES et of abi on maxima core odin pons
4.0, ant are tose sensitive te changes in (t/H) Bllact of sizeof toned Axes
Si, Ae Se haa afta ay ER
sitive even to snail changes for (L/i), smaller Vigor
than about 3.0. Infinite slab deflection requires en spans
7. shows finite element corner leading re
aes function of (6/1), wnere cis the 
W/t) ratio of at least 5.0, Slab size require sige length of the applieé square load. Rosponsec
rente establiched ducing thie study are sunmarized are normalized with respect fo the values obtained
in Table ¢ Using proposed Equations 4 and 5.
‘TABLE 4 Slab Size Requirements for Westergaard
Responses Based on the Finite Blement Method
(Eye values for
inter eo u
Comer 58 40
per
(28086
é thierreerzs
Eo
.
n L L n
ar cH as 3 cy
e
FIGURE fet of sie of onded arson maximum comer reponse2
Deflections are not very sensitive to changes in
(c/t), but stresses diverge from the “theoretical”
values as (c/t) exceeds about 0.2, ‘The trend. ex
hibited by corner stresses ia the reverse of that
for interior loading. The effect of (e/t) on cor
ner stresses is lose proncunced than on interior
Stresses. Coments made earlier with respect to this
effect are also generally applicable to corner Load
ing.
‘concuustoN
Since their first appearance, beginning in the carly
1920s, Westergaaré equations have often been mis=
‘quoted of misapplied in subsequent publications. To
Fenedy this situation, a reexamination of these so
Lotions using the finite element method hae been
Presented. This exercise yielded = nunber of inter”
esting results:
1, Several equations ascribed to westergaard in
the Literature are erroneous, usually as a result of
a series of typogeaphical errors or misapplications,
for both. ‘the correct form of these equations and
their Limitations have now been conclusively eatal
Lished (Equations 13)
2. Westergaard's original equation for edge
stress (5) 18 incorrect. The lengignored equation
Given in his 1948 paper (10) should be used instead.
3. Inproved expressions for maxinum corner losd~
ing fesponses have been developed (equations 46).
‘4, Slab size requirenents for the development. of
Westergaard responses have also been” established
(oable 4)
AcraoLzDcRT
‘The investigations for this paper were conducted
under a research project (grant AFOSR020143) spon
sored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research
(E0SR), Ar Force Syctene Command, Bolling Air
Force Base, District of columbia, Lt. Cols LD.
Hokanson vas the Program Manager.
1. AM, Toannides. Analysis of Slabeoncrade for
3" Variety of Loading and support Conditions:
Ph.b. dissertation. University of TLlinois, Ure
bana, 1984.
Aull,” Tabstabaie, £.3. Barenberg, and _R.E.
Salth. “Longitadinal Soint systens in siip=
Forued Rigid Pavenents, Vol. II: Analysis of
Load Transfer Systens for Concrete Pavenents.
Report FAA“HD794,, II, U.S. Department of
‘Transportation, Nov. 1979+
0.c. Zlenkievice. ‘The Finite Element Method.
Bra ed. MeGeawiil Book Company, New York;
wn.
uJ." Dawe A Finite Blonont Approach to Plate
Vibration Problens. Journal of Mechanical Engi=
neering Science, Vol. 7, Ho: 1, 1965.
Him. Westergaaré. Stresses in Concrete Pave~
ments Computed by Theoretical Analysis. Public
Roads, Vol: 7, No. 2, April 1926. Also Proc.,
Sth Annual Meeting.” HRB, National Research
Councit, Washington, D.C., 1926, a= Conpatation
of Stresses in Conorete fssds.
H.R. ‘Thompson, EoJ. Barenberg, A.M. Tosnnides,
and’ J.A. Fischer. Development of » Streas De~
Pendent Finite Element Slab Model. Report TR
S31061. U.8. air Force Office of Solentific
Research, Air Force syatens Command, Bolling
‘Air Force Base, Washington, D.C.» May 1983,
HM. Westergaard. Stresses in Concrete Ramways
of Airports. Proc., 19th Annual Heeting, ED,
ao.
ae
az,
aa.
ae
an
ae
as.
20.
ae
2.
23.
2s.
26.
an.
‘Transportation Research Record 1043
National Research Council, Kashington, D.C.
1939. Also in Stresses in Concrete. Runways Of
Airports. Portland Cement Astociation, Chicago,
Tite, Dec. 1941,
RP. Scott. Foundation Analysis. Prenticetait,
Ine. Englewood Cliffs, W.3, 1902.
un.” Westergaard. Stress" Concentrations in
Plates Loaded over Small Areas. ASCE ‘Trancac~
tions, Vol. No. 108, 1943.
Hun. Wostergaard. slew Pormlas for steesses in
Concrete Pavenents of Mrfielés, ASCE Trensac”
tions, Vol. 113, 1948.
5. ‘Tnoshenko 2nd 5.” WolnowskyRefeger. Theory
of Plates and shells. 2nd ed, McGrawHill Book
Company, New York, 1959.
Buk. Westergaard. Analytical Tools for sudging
Resulte of structural Tests of Concrete Fave~
ments. Public Roads, Vol. 14, No. 10, Dec. 1933.
Lim, Teller and #.C. Sutherland. the Stroctural
Design of Concrete Pavenents, Part $+ An Exper
imental stuay of the Westergaara Analysis of
Strece Condition in Concrete Paverent Slabs of
Uniform Thickness. Puble Beads, Vol. 22, lov &y
Apcildune 1943.
SG. Bergstrom, £. Fronen, and 8. Linderhoim.
Tavestigation of eel load Streseee in. Con
crete Pavenents. Proceedings 13. swedich Cesent
‘and Concrete Research Institute, Royal Insti=
ute of Technology, Stockholm, 1949.
R.D. Bradbury. Reinforced Concrete Pavenents.
Wire Reinforcenent Institute, Washington, D.C.
1938.
E.B. Relley. Application of the Results of Re
search to. the Structural Design of Concrete
Pavenant. Public Roads, Vol. 20, Ko. 5) July
41935; Vol. 20, No, 6, Aug. 2939,
G. Pickett, Miz. Raville, W.c. Janes, ané oJ.
Mccormick.” Detiections,. Yonents and Reactive
Pressures for Concrete Pavements. Bulletin 65.
Engineering Experiment Station, Kansar State
Coltege, Pittsburg, Oot, 1951.
A. Losberg. Structurally Reinforced concrete
Pavenents. Doktorsavhandlingar Vie Chalmers
Tekniska Hogckole, Cotesborg, Eweden, 1960.
EAM. Westergaacd. Om Beregning af Plader pan
elastik Underlag med saerlight™ Henbilk pas
Sporgseaalet om Spaendinger { Botonvese (On the
Design of Slabs on Elastic Foundation with Spe
cial Reference to stresses in Concrete Pave
Rents). Ingeniocen (Copenhagen), Vol 32, 1923
Gs Pickett and G.K. Ray. Influence Charts for
Concrete Paverents, ASCE ‘Traneactions, Vols
ine, 1951.
W.C. Kroger. Computerized Aircraft Ground Plo~
tation Analysiszage Loaded Rigid Pavenent
Research Report HRARWHS72.Coneca2 Dynamics
Corps, Fort Korth, Tex., Jan. 1967.
P,P. Carlton and RM. Sohemann. A Model stoay
of ‘Rigid Pavement Behavior Under Corner and
Page Loadings. Proc., 35th Annual Meeting, HRD,
National Research Council, Washington, D.C.
sss.
G. Pickett. concrete Pavenent Design, Appendix
Tits A Stady of Stresses in the Corner Raglon
‘of Concrete. Pavonent Slabs Under Large Corner
Yoads. Portland Conent Association, Skokie,
Ti1., 1946, repeint 1981.
Hai Weatergeard. Theory of stresses in Road
Slabs. Proc., 4th Annual Mecting, HRB, National
Reseach Council, Washington, D.C, 1925.
A.T. Goldbeck. ‘thickness “Of Concrete Slabs.
Public Roads, Vol. 1, Now 12, april 1919.
©. Older. Wighvay Research’ in T11inots.
‘ansactions, Vol. 87, 192
H.M. Westergaard. What Le frown of stresses.
Mugineering News Record, Jan. 1937.‘Teansportation Research Racoré 1043
28, M.G. Spangler. stresses in the Corner Region of
‘concrete Pavements. Bulletin 157. Engineering
Experinent Station, Tova State College, Anes,
wa.
accuracy Of the data presented herein. the contents
0 not necessarily reflect the official views or
policies of the U.8. Alr Force. ‘this paper does not
Constitute a standard, specification, or regulation:
The contents of this paper reflect the views of the
Publication of this paper sponsored by Committee on
authors who are responsible for the facto and th
Rigte Pavenents,
‘
Establishing Load Transfer in Existing
Jointed Concrete Pavements
WOUTER GULDEN and DANNY BROWN
In this paper are described the results of @ research project that had the ob
jective of developing construction procedures for restoring load tranefer in
‘existing jointed concrete pavenents and of evaluating the effectiveness of the
restoration nethods. A total of 28 test sections with various load transfer Ge~
vioes were placed. ‘the devices include split pipe, figure eight, vee, double
vee, and dovel bars. Patching materials used on the project included the
types of fastsetting grouts, three brands of polymer concrete, and plain port
Land cenent concrete. The nunber and spacing of the devices and dowel bare were
‘also variables. in the project. Dovel bare and double vee devices were used on
tthe major portion of the project. Performance evaluations vere based on deflee~
tion tests: conducted with a 20,000Ib azle losd. Horizontal joint movenent. mea=
surements and visual observations were also made. the ahortterm performance
Gata indicate ‘good results with the dowel bar installations regardless, of
Patching materials. the sections with split pipe, figure eight, and vee devices
Eaiiea in bond ducing the first winter cycle. The resulte with the double vee
Sections indicate the importance of the patching material to. the eucces: oF
failure of the load transfer system: sone sections are performing well and
other sections are performing poorly with double vee devices, lorizontal joint
ovenent messurenonts indicate that neither the dowel bare nor the double vee
Gevices are restricting Joint novenent.
Many niles of Interstate pavenent have been con
structed using plain jointed concrete pavenents of
various thicknesses and joint spacings. ‘The presence
The variability of the amount of lose transfer
available fron aggregate "interlock created. by
Changes in joint openings pointe out the need to
Of a joint is a discontinuity that ceuses higher
Stresees and deflections in the pavenent eapectally
in the outelde corner area, Hany designs of Jointed
concrete pavenent relied on aggregate interlock to
Provide for the transfer of the load across the
Joint, thereby reducing stress concentration and de
‘fections under oad. Laboratory studies conducted
by the Portland Cenent Rescetation (BCA) found that
the effectiveness of “load transfer fron aggregate
interlock depended on load magnitude, number of rep
etitions, ‘slab thickness, Joint opening, subgrage
value, and aggregate angularity (1). Tt vas also
found’ that the effectiveness decreased with cum
lative load applications.
Provide for a nore positive means of load transfe
Tn Georgia, and in many other states, dovel bere are
placed in ‘newly constructed pavementa. Many older
concrete pavonants do not have the dowel bare and
this absence of @ pocitive means of load tranefer ie
a factor that contributes to the deterioration of
‘these pavenent sections. Faulting measurenente made
in Georgia in 1972 on projects that contained both
eoveled and ‘nondoveled Joints indloated that the
Presence of dovels reduced the rate of faulting (2)
‘The distrece found in plain Jointed concrete
pavenents in Georgia generally has been caused bY
the presence of an erogible base or subgrade, infll~
tration of surface water into the pavement system,
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