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# Solution 1:

## Where: (Row, Column)

At (3, 2):
(1)(−6) − (−2)(3)
(3, 2) = − = 𝟎; (−2)(4) = −𝟖
−2
At (3, 3):
(1) (−4) − (−2)(2)
(3, 3) = − = 𝟎; (−6)(3) = −𝟏𝟖
−6
At (3, 4):
(3) (−4) − (−6)(2)
(3, 4) = − = 𝟎; (−4)(2) = −𝟖
−4
At (4, 2):
(−2) (−18) − (−8)(−6)
(4, 2) = − = −𝟏. 𝟓
−8
At (4, 3):
−2
(4, 3) = −4 − ( ) (−8) = −𝟐
−8
At (5, 2):
(−8) (−2) − (−1.5)(−18)
(5, 2) = − = −𝟕. 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑
−1.5
At (5, 3):
−1.5
(5, 3) = −2 − ( ) (−8) = −𝟎. 𝟑𝟔𝟑𝟔
−7.3333
Solution 2:
Where: (Row, Column)
At (3, 2):
(1)(20) − (4)(8)
(3, 2) = − = 𝟑
4
At (3, 3):
1
(3, 3) = 15 − ( ) (0) = 𝟑
4
At (4, 2):
(4)(15) − (3)(20)
(4, 2) = − = 𝟎; (3)(2) = 𝟔
3
At (4, 3):
(3)(0) − (0)(0)
(4, 3) = − = 𝟎; (15)(1) = 𝟏𝟓
15
At (5, 2):
(3)(15) − (6)(15)
(5, 2) = − = 𝟑
6
Solution 3:
Where: (Row, Column)

At (3, 2):
(1)(50) − (10)(35)
(3, 2) = − = 𝟑𝟎
10
At (3, 3):
1
(3, 3) = 34 − ( ) (0) = 𝟑𝟒
10
At (4, 2):
(10)(34) − (30)(50)
(4, 2) = − = 𝟑𝟖. 𝟔𝟔𝟔𝟕
30
At (4, 3):
10
(4, 3) = 0 − ( ) (0) = 𝟎
30
At (5, 2):
30
(5, 2) = 34 − ( ) (0) = 𝟑𝟒
38.6667
Solution 4:
Where: (Row, Column)

At (3, 2):
1
(3, 2) = 12 − ( ) (25) = 𝟕
5
At (3, 3):
1
(3, 3) = 45 − ( ) (50) = 𝟑𝟓
5
At (3, 4):
1
(3, 4) = 82 − ( ) (60) = 𝟕𝟎
5
At (3, 5):
1
(3, 5) = 84 − ( ) (0) = 𝟖𝟒
5
At (4, 2):
5
(4, 2) = 25 − ( ) (35) = 𝟎; (7)(6) = 𝟒𝟐
7
At (4, 3):
5
(4, 3) = 50 − ( ) (70) = 𝟎; (35)(5) = 𝟏𝟕𝟓
7
At (4, 4):
5
(4, 4) = 60 − ( ) (84) = 𝟎; (70)(4) = 𝟐𝟖𝟎
7
At (4, 5):
5
(4, 5) = 0 − ( ) (0) = 𝟎; (84)(3) = 𝟐𝟓𝟐
7
At (5, 2):
7
(5, 2) = 35 − ( ) (175) = 𝟓. 𝟖𝟑𝟑𝟑
42
At (5, 3):
7
(5, 3) = 70 − ( ) (280) = 𝟐𝟑. 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑
42
At (5, 4):
7
(5, 4) = 84 − ( ) (252) = 𝟒𝟐
42
Using the Formula for Steady-State Error:
𝟏
𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒑 (∞) =
𝟏 + 𝑲𝒑

𝟏
𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒑 (∞) =
𝑲𝒗

𝟏
𝒆𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒂 (∞) =
𝑲𝒂

Where,

𝑲𝒑 = 𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝑮(𝒔)
𝒔→𝟎

𝑲𝒗 = 𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝒔 𝑮(𝒔)
𝒔→𝟎

𝑲𝒂 = 𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝒔𝟐 𝑮(𝒔)
𝒔→𝟎

## By using Gillesania Analysis:

Let 𝟎 ≅ 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏
𝟓𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟑𝟓𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝟎
𝑲𝒑 = = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟏
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟑𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟐𝟗𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟗𝟔𝟎

𝟏
𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒑 (∞) = = 𝟎. 𝟕𝟔𝟑𝟒
𝟏 + 𝟎. 𝟑𝟏

## (𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)(𝟓𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟑𝟓𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝟎)

𝑲𝒗 = = 𝟓. 𝟐𝟒𝟒𝟔 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟔
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟑𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟐𝟗𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟗𝟔𝟎

𝟏
𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒑 (∞) = = 𝟏𝟗𝟎𝟔𝟕𝟐. 𝟑𝟏 ≈ ∞
𝟓. 𝟐𝟒𝟒𝟔 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟔

## (𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 (𝟓𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟑𝟓𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝟎)

𝑲𝒗 = = 𝟓. 𝟐𝟒𝟒𝟔 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟎
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟑𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟐𝟗𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟗𝟔𝟎
𝟏
𝒆𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒂 (∞) = = 𝟏𝟗𝟎𝟔𝟕𝟐𝟑𝟏𝟎𝟔 ≈ ∞
𝟓. 𝟐𝟒𝟒𝟔 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟎
By using Gillesania Analysis:

Let 𝟎 ≅ 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏

## (𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)(𝟓𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟔𝟓𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟐𝟔𝟎𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎)

𝑲𝒑 = = 𝟑. 𝟏𝟐𝟓𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟑
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟒 + 𝟑𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟐𝟗𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟗𝟔𝟎

𝟏
𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒑 (∞) = = 𝟑𝟏𝟗. 𝟗𝟕𝟐𝟑
𝟑. 𝟏𝟐𝟓𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟑
𝟓𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟔𝟓𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟐𝟔𝟎𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎
𝑲𝒗 = = 𝟑𝟏. 𝟐𝟓𝟐𝟕
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟒 + 𝟑𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟐𝟗𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟗𝟔𝟎

𝟏
𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒑 (∞) = = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟑𝟏
𝟏 + 𝟑𝟏. 𝟐𝟓𝟐𝟕

## (𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 (𝟓𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟔𝟓𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟐𝟔𝟎𝟎𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎)

𝑲𝒗 = = 𝟑. 𝟏𝟐𝟓𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟕
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟒 + 𝟑𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟐𝟗𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟗𝟔𝟎

𝟏
𝒆𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒂 (∞) = = 𝟑𝟏𝟗𝟗𝟕𝟐𝟐. 𝟕 ≈ ∞
𝟑. 𝟏𝟐𝟓𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟕

## By using Gillesania Analysis:

Let 𝟎 ≅ 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏

(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟓 + 𝟐𝟒(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟒 + 𝟐𝟐𝟑(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟗𝟗𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟐𝟏𝟏𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟏𝟔𝟖𝟎
𝑲𝒑 = = 𝟏𝟕𝟓𝟎𝟏𝟔𝟔𝟒𝟔. 𝟑 ≈ ∞
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟓 + 𝟓𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟒 + 𝟐𝟗𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟗𝟔𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐

𝟏
𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒑 (∞) = = 𝟓. 𝟕𝟏𝟑𝟒𝟒𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟗 ≈ 𝟎
𝟏+ 𝟏𝟕𝟓𝟎𝟏𝟔𝟔𝟒𝟔. 𝟑
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟓 + 𝟐𝟒(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟒 + 𝟐𝟐𝟑(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟗𝟗𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟐𝟏𝟏𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟏𝟔𝟖𝟎 ∞
𝑲𝒗 = (𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟏) [ ] = 𝟏𝟕𝟓𝟎𝟏. 𝟔 ≈
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟓 + 𝟓𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟒 + 𝟐𝟗𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟗𝟔𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 ∞

𝟏
𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒑 (∞) = = 𝟓. 𝟕𝟏𝟑𝟒𝟒𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟓 ≈ 𝟎
𝟏𝟕𝟓𝟎𝟏. 𝟔

(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟓 + 𝟐𝟒(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟒 + 𝟐𝟐𝟑(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟗𝟗𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 + 𝟐𝟏𝟏𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟏𝟔𝟖𝟎 𝟕
𝑲𝒂 = (𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 [ ] = 𝟏. 𝟕𝟓𝟎𝟏𝟔 ≈
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟓 + 𝟓𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟒 + 𝟐𝟗𝟔(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟑 + 𝟗𝟔𝟎(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 𝟒

𝟏 𝟒
𝒆𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒂 (∞) = = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟕𝟏𝟑𝟕𝟔 =
𝟏. 𝟕𝟓𝟎𝟏𝟔 𝟕

## By using Gillesania Analysis:

Let 𝟎 ≅ 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏

𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝑲𝒑 = = 𝟐𝟓
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟒

𝟏 𝟏
𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒑 (∞) = =
𝟏 + 𝟐𝟓 𝟐𝟔

𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝑲𝒗 = (𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) [ ]= = 𝟐. 𝟒𝟗𝟗𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟑
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟒 𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏

𝟏
𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒑 (∞) = = 𝟒𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟏
𝟐. 𝟒𝟗𝟗𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟑
𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝑲𝒂 = (𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏)𝟐 [ ]= = 𝟐. 𝟒𝟗𝟗𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟕
(𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏) + 𝟒 𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏𝟎𝟎

𝟏
𝒆𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒂 (∞) = = 𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏𝟎𝟎 ≈ ∞
𝟐. 𝟒𝟗𝟗𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟕
8. Assessment:

## 1. For the system shown below, do the following:

(a) At 𝐾 = 10, is the system stable? Find the system type, the static error constant and the error of
the system at this gain, then plot and determine the time response parameters if possible.
(b) Repeat part (a) at 𝐾 = 106 .

Solution:
System (check if stable) Static error Steady-state errors
constants
𝑲𝒑 𝑲𝒗 𝑲𝒂 𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒑 (∞) 𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒑 (∞) 𝒆𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒂 (∞)
Where K = 10

𝟎 𝟏 𝟎
∞ 𝟎 𝟔
𝟎 𝟔 𝟎

Where 𝑲 = 𝟏𝟎𝟔

𝟎 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝟎 𝟑
∞ 𝟎
𝟎 𝟑 𝟎 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎
a.) In Matlab:
Pole-Zero

## Results on Transfer Function where K = 10 using Matlab

Pole-Zero Map using Matlab

b.) In Matlab:
Pole-Zero

## Results on Transfer Function where 𝑲 = 𝟏𝟎𝟔 using Matlab

Pole-Zero Maps using Matlab