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SUBJECT: PHYSICS YEAR LEVEL: FOURTH YEAR

PSSLC COMPETENCY: Explain the Role of Physics in Telecommunications Industry and Information
Technology
Specific Learning Objectives
Knowledge

1. Identify the devices in radio communications based on their functions and vice versa
2. Explain how sound transmitted through the radio communication system
3. Trace the energy transformations that occur while sound is transmitted from the radio station
to the receiver
Skills
Attude

1. Show appreciation on the role of Physics in the development of the Telecommunications


Industry and Information Technology.

ASSESSMENT
1. Which of the following devices detects the transmitted radio signal?
A. amplifier B. antenna C. demodulator D. microphone
2. What does a microphone do in sound transmission?
A. transmits signal
B. picks the desired radio frequency
C. converts sound wave into an electrical signal
D. converts electrical signal into physical vibrations
3-7. When you turn on a radio you hear sounds because the ___3____ at the radio station has
converted the sound waves into______4_____, which are then encoded onto an electromagnetic
wave in the _____5____ range (generally in the range of 500-1600 kHz for AM stations, or 86-107
MHz for FM stations). Radio electromagnetic waves are used because they can travel ___6___
distances through the atmosphere without being greatly attenuated due to scattering or absorption.
Your radio receives the radio waves, decodes this information, and uses a ___7___to change it back
into a sound wave.
8-10. What energy transformation occurs in the following: (8) microphone; (9) transmitter; (10)
speaker.
STRATEGIES SUPPORT INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS
Routine Activities

Pre-Activity
Review: The Steam Engine
How does a steam engine work?
How did it usher the Industrial Revolution?

Motivation:
1. Turn on the radio and tune in on an A.M. station. Radio
2. Ask the students if they are ever curious of the way the voice they
hear of the radio look like.
3. Follow up by asking if they want to know how sound is transmitted
to from the radio station to the radio.
Activity Jumbled Strips of Paper
1. Group students into a manageable group size. Where the Processes Involved
2. Distribute the materials for the activity. in the Transmission of Sound,
3. Tell the groups to follow the instructions in the activity sheet. Activity Sheet, and the Manila
4. After the time allotment, instruct the groups to post their outputs. Paper Graphic Organizer
Analysis Blackboard and Chalk to
1. How were you able to come up with your output? Publish Students’ Responses
2. What difficulties did you encounter while making your output?
3. What does the microphone do?
4. What does the transmitter do?
5. What does the speaker do?
Abstraction Blackboard and Chalk to
1. What devices are commonly involved in the radio transmission of Publish Students’ Responses
sound?

2. How does the radio communication system work?


3. What energy transformations are involved in the radio
transmission of sound?
Application
1. How does radio communication improve the quality of our lives?

Answers to the Assessment

1. B. antenna
Your radio contains an antenna to detect the transmitted signal, a tuner to pick out the desired
frequency, a demodulator to extract the original sound wave from the transmitted signal, and an
amplifier which sends the signal to the speakers. The speakers convert the electrical signal into
physical vibrations (sound).
2. C. converts sound wave into an electrical signal
3-7. When you turn on a radio you hear sounds because the transmitter at the radio station has
converted the sound waves into electromagnetic waves, which are then encoded onto an
electromagnetic wave in the radio frequency range (generally in the range of 500-1600 kHz for
AM stations, or 86-107 MHz for FM stations). Radio electromagnetic waves are used because
they can travel very large distances through the atmosphere without being greatly attenuated
due to scattering or absorption. Your radio receives the radio waves, decodes this information,
and uses a speaker to change it back into a sound wave.
8. microphone: from sound waves to electrical energy
9. transmitter: from electrical energy to electromagnetic waves
10. speaker: from electrical energy to sound waves

Activity Sheet:

The Radio Communication System


(Sound from the Radio Station to our Homes)

1. Written on each strip of paper is a step in the transmission of sound from the radio station to the
radio.
2. Arrange this strips of paper so that you will be able to describe the correct sequence of the radio
transmission of sound.
3. Opposite each step, identify the energy transformation that occurs.
4. Use the Manila Paper Graphic Organizer like the one shown below to post your outputs:

STEPS ENERGY TRANSFORMATION


(____Energy to ____ Energy)
Expected Output

STEPS ENERGY TRANSFORMATION

A microphone converts the sound into an electrical Sound to Electrical Signal


signal

The electrical wave is used to encode or modulate a high- None


frequency "carrier" radio wave.

The signal is transmitted by a radio broadcast tower. Electrical Signal to Radio EM Wave

An antenna to detect the transmitted signal, a tuner to None


pick out the desired frequency

A demodulator to extract the original sound wave from Radio EM Wave to Electrical Signal
the transmitted signal, and an amplifier which sends the
signal to the speakers.

The speakers convert the electrical signal into physical Electrical Signal to Sound
vibrations

Further Readings

How Radio Communication Works

Sound and radio waves are different phenomena. Sound consists of pressure variations in matter, such
as air or water. Sound will not travel through a vacuum. Radio waves, like visible light, infrared,
ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays, are electromagnetic waves that do travel through a vacuum. When
you turn on a radio you hear sounds because the transmitter at the radio station has converted the
sound waves into electromagnetic waves, which are then encoded onto an electromagnetic wave in the
radio frequency range (generally in the range of 500-1600 kHz for AM stations, or 86-107 MHz for FM
stations). Radio electromagnetic waves are used because they can travel very large distances through the
atmosphere without being greatly attenuated due to scattering or absorption. Your radio receives the
radio waves, decodes this information, and uses a speaker to change it back into a sound wave. An
animated illustration of this process is given below (mouse-over the images for animations).

A sound wave is produced with a frequency of 5 Hz - 20


kHz.

The sound wave is equivalent to a pressure wave traveling


through the air.

A microphone converts the sound wave into an electrical


signal.

The electrical wave traveling through the microphone wire


is analogous to the original sound wave.

The electrical wave is used to encode or modulate a high-


frequency "carrier" radio wave. The carrier wave itself does
not include any of the sound information until it has been
modulated.
The carrier wave can either be amplitude modulated (AM,
top) by the electrical signal, or frequency modulated (FM,
bottom).
The signal is transmitted by a radio broadcast tower.

Your radio contains an antenna to detect the transmitted


signal, a tuner to pick out the desired frequency, a
demodulator to extract the original sound wave from the
transmitted signal, and an amplifier which sends the signal
to the speakers. The speakers convert the electrical signal
into physical vibrations (sound).

Advantages of Radio Communication

The most important advantage radio offers is its ability to reach specific audiences through specialized
programming. In addition, radio can be adapted for different parts of the country and can reach people
at different times of the day. For example, radio is the ideal means of reaching people driving to and
from work.

Known as drive time, these radio time slots provides the best audience for many advertisers. Pizza hut,
for instance, reached out to its target audience of women making dinner choices by using radio during 4
to 5 pm time slot.

Radio offers advertisers flexibility. Of all media, radio has the shortest closing period. Copy can be
submitted up to airtime. This flexibility allows advertisers to adjust to local market conditions, current
news events, and even weather. For example, a local hardware store can quickly implement a snow
shovel promotion the morning after a snowstorm. Radio's flexibility is also evident in its willingness to
participate in promotional tie-ins such as store openings races, and so on.

Radio may be the least expensive of all media. And because airtime costs are low, extensive repetition is
possible. In addition, the costs of producing a radio commercial can be low, particularly if local station
announcers read the message. Radio's low cost and high reach of selected target groups make it an
excellent supporting medium. In fact, the most appropriate role for most radio advertising in a
supportive one.