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Clay Masonry Manufacturing of Clay Masonry

Material Preparation: Raw Materials
ASTM C62 Building Brick (formerly called common brick)
ASTM C216 Facing Brick • Gathering: clays and shales from quarry
ASTM C652 Hollow Brick • Crushing: break up large chunks
ASTM C410 Industrial Floor Brick (dense brick, highly resistant to abrasion, • Grinding: pulverize material to fine consistency
use as finished floor surface) • Screening: vibrating wire screens
ASTM C902 Paving Brick (low absorption)
ASTM C32 Sewer Brick (low absorption, abrasive resistant brick)
• Mixing the raw materials: pug mill
• Water added to provide proper plasticity
Clay Tile • Materials, such as manganese, added to change the
ASTM C34 Load Bearing Wall Tile body color
ASTM C56 Non-Load Bearing Wall Tile
ASTM C126 Ceramic Glazed Structural Clay Facing Tile, Facing Brick Pug
and Solid Units mill
ASTM C212 Structural Clay Facing Tile

ASTM C67 Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile
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Manufacturing of Clay Masonry Manufacturing of Clay Masonry

Brick Shaping Extrusion
• Hand Forming Clay
• Machine Molding exiting
• Extrusion extruder
• Material passes through vacuum chamber to reduce
the amount of air: more homogeneous product
• Mixture forced by means of auger through a die Core
• Core holes placed in column Holes
• Texture produced on brick by scratching, scraping,
rolling or sanding the surface of the column
• Extruded column cut by wires to make individual Extruded column Wire
brick Cutter

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Manufacturing of Clay Masonry Manufacturing of Clay Masonry
Drying and Firing Packaging
• Bricks placed on kiln carts • Broken, twisted and otherwise mechanically defective
• Unfired or green bricks placed in dryer brick are discarded
• Enclosed dryers use excess heat from kilns • Brick color and range is carefully monitored
• Continuous tunnel kiln • Finished product is packaged and banded into cubes of
• Preheating approximately 500 brick
• Burning, up to 2000°
• Cooling

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C 216 Face Brick Grades and Texture Types Compressive Strength

____ No weathering
Grade Minimum compressive strength (psi) Solid brick: Net area >
____ Moderate weathering; freeze, but
Gross Area ___% of the gross area.
not subject to water
____ Severe weathering; resists frost Average of 5 Individual
action SW 3000 2500
MW 2500 2200
Cores add strength:
Texture Types More uniform drying and
Reported brick strengths shrinkage
____Standard Use
____High degree of mechanical perfection, Type Average strength (psi) Keying action between
All molded 5290 mortar and brick
narrow color range, minimum size
variation. Typically not quoted in Extruded, All 11300
southeast as clay in this region easily
Extruded, Fireclay 15350
chips. Modern day brick: minimum
____Architectural effects resulting from Extruded, Shale 11260 compressive strength of ____ psi.
intentional nonuniformity of color, size, and Extruded, Other 9170
texture. Subasic and Borchelt "Clay and Shale Brick Material
Properties -A Statistical Report," Proceedings of the
Sixth North American Masonry Conference,
Clay Masonry 7 June,1993, 283-294 Clay Masonry 8
Brick Sizes and Weights C 652 Hollow Brick
Size and terminology vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. H40V Void area >25%, but < 40%
Thickness x height x length H60V Void area > 40%, but < 60%
Standard Size 31/2 x 21/4 x 8
Queensize 3 x 23/4 x 8 • Hollow brick used in reinforced
masonry construction.
Engineer Size 31/2 x 23/4 x8
• Hollow brick increasingly being used
Modular: 75/8 long for veneers.
• Same grades as C 216
Standard size: __ courses / 8 in
Queensize: __ courses / 16 in • Textures: HBS, HBX, HBA

ASCE 7-10
Thickness (in) Load (psf)
Density range: 80 - 140 lb/ft3
4 39
Average density: _____ lb/ft3
8 79
Approximately ___ psf per inch thickness 12 115
16 155

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Ceramic Glazed Structural Clay Tile Initial Rate of Absorption (Suction)

Series Height (in) Length (in) Compressive Strength (Gross Area)
• ASTM test for initial rate of absorption (IRA)
Designation Direction of Coring Avg. of 5 Individual • Immerse dry brick to a depth of 1/8 in. in water for one minute
4S 23/8 73/4 • IRA is difference in final weight and dry weight
Vertical (End 3000 2500
4D 51/16 73/4 Construction) • Bond strength between masonry and mortar has been related to
6P 33/4 113/4 Horizontal (Side 2000 1500 initial rate of absorption.
Construction) • Ideal range: 5 g/min/30in2 to 20 g/min/30in2
6T 51/16 113/4
• If IRA > 30 g/min/30in2, wet the units prior to placing
6M 53/4 113/4 Average strength for horizontal coring is
around 5000 psi. • Wetting most effective when done about 24 hours before
8W 73/4 153/4 placement
Thickness is 13/4, 33/4, 53/4, or 73/4 • Water will adequately reduce the IRA without leaving the
surface wet
• Simple field test for IRA
• Place 20 drops of water in a quarter-sized area
6T tile
• If it takes > 1.5 minutes for the water to be absorbed, the brick
do not need to be wetted before laying 1/ in

Seismic tile

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Absorption Movement of Clay Masonry
Absorption: Weight of water a clay unit absorbs when immersed in 4.2.4 Moisture Expansion 4.2.3 Coefficient of Thermal
either cold or boiling water for a stated length of time, expressed as a Expansion
ke = 3x10-4 in/in
percentage of the dry unit weight. kt = 4x10-6 in/in/oF
Mean value: 3x10-4
in/in Mean value: 3.9x10-6 in/in/oF
C/B ratio, or saturation coefficient Characteristic value (95%) 5x10-4 in/in
C: cold water absorption during 24 hour test. Measure of free absorption.
B: additional absorption during a 5 hour boiling test. Measure of
remaining pore space. The more remaining pore space, the more Expansion Joints
durable the brick, as there is open pore space to accommodate volume
change as the water freezes. wje j
Se 
(ke  kt t )100 3/in expansion joint
50% extensibility
Lower C/B ratio, the more durable the brick. Also limit on strict 5 hour boil
Temperature change of 100 oF
test, which is a measure of total pore space. Se = spacing of expansion joints
Required joint spacing
wj = width of expansion joint
approximately 22 ft
Grade SW: C/B < 0.78; 5 hour boil < 17% ej = extensibility of expansion joint material (%)
Grade MW: C/B < 0.88; 5 hour boil < 22%

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Construction of Expansion Joints Shelf Angles / Horizontal Expansion Joints

Keep expansion joint free of foreign material that will keep it from
compressing, particularly mortar protrusions.
Interrupt any joint reinforcing; it will buckle as joint closes.

Copper or plastic bellows Compressible Filler Shelf angle

Flashing and weep holes

Backer rod and sealant (typical)
Sealant and backing rod
Backer rod serves as surface to tool joint against.
Sealant must not adhere to backer rod.
Depth of sealant is typically one-half the expansion joint width

Horizontal Expansion Joints

Place below shelf angles. Needs to account for brick expansion, frame
shortening, and shelf angle deflection.
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