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AS/NZS 5033:2005

(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)


AS/NZS 5033:2005

Australian/New Zealand Standard™

Installation of photovoltaic (PV) arrays


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AS/NZS 5033:2005
This Joint Australian/New Zealand Standard was prepared by Joint Technical
Committee EL-042, Renewable Energy Power Supply Systems and Equipment. It
was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 8 April 2005 and

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on behalf of the Council of Standards New Zealand on 15 April 2005.
This Standard was published on 19 May 2005.

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The following are represented on Committee EL-042:

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Alternative Technology Association
Australian Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers Association
Business Council for Sustainable Energy

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Electrocomm and Energy Utilities Qualifications Standards
Energy Network Association
Institution of Professional Engineers, New Zealand
Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand

New Zealand Electrical Institute


Research Institute for Sustainable Energy
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National Electrical and Communications Association

Sustainable Energy Authority, Victoria


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University of New South Wales
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Keeping Standards up-to-date


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Standards are living documents which reflect progress in science, technology and
systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and
new editions are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued.
Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves
they are using a current Standard, which should include any amendments which
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may have been published since the Standard was purchased.


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visiting the Standards Web Shop at www.standards.com.au or Standards New


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Alternatively, both organizations publish an annual printed Catalogue with full
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encourage readers to notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or
ambiguities. Please address your comments to the Chief Executive of either
Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand at the address shown on the back
cover.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 03389.


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NOTES

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AS/NZS 5033:2005
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(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)

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Australian/New Zealand Standard™

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Installation of photovoltaic (PV) arrays
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First published as AS/NZS 5033:2005.


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Reissued incorporating Amendment No. 1 (January 2009).


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COPYRIGHT
© Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher.
Jointly published by Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001 and Standards
New Zealand, Private Bag 2439, Wellington 6020

ISBN 0 7337 6699 4


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PREFACE

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This Standard was produced by Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand

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Committee EL-042, Renewable Energy Power Supply Systems and Equipment, with the
assistance of the Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) and the University of NSW.

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This Standard incorporates Amendment No. 1 (January 2009). The changes required by the
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Amendment are indicated in the text by a marginal bar and amendment number against the
clause, note, table, figure or part thereof affected.

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The objective of this Standard is to provide guidance for installers of photovoltaic arrays.

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The term ‘informative’ has been used in this Standard to define the application of the
appendix to which it applies. An ‘informative’ appendix is only for information and
guidance.

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CONTENTS

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Page

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SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................ 5
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1.2 OBJECTIVE................................................................................................................ 5
1.3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES .................................................................................... 5

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1.4 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 7

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SECTION 2 PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS
2.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 14
2.2 BYPASS DIODES..................................................................................................... 14

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2.3 BLOCKING DIODES ............................................................................................... 14
2.4 FAULT CURRENT PROTECTION.......................................................................... 14
2.5 DISCONNECTING MEANS..................................................................................... 16
2.6 EARTH FAULT PROTECTION ............................................................................... 17
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2.7 ALARMS .................................................................................................................. 19
2.8 LIGHTNING AND OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION ............................................. 19

SECTION 3 WIRING REQUIREMENTS


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3.1 COMPLIANCE WITH AS/NZS 3000 ....................................................................... 20
3.2 SYSTEM VOLTAGE ................................................................................................ 20
3.3 INSTALLATION WIRING....................................................................................... 20
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3.4 CABLE SELECTION................................................................................................ 21


3.5 WIRING IDENTIFICATION .................................................................................... 22
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SECTION 4 COMPONENT REQUIREMENTS


4.1 PV MODULES.......................................................................................................... 23
4.2 PV ARRAY AND PV SUB-ARRAY JUNCTION BOXES....................................... 23
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4.3 SWITCHING DEVICES ........................................................................................... 23


4.4 PLUGS, SOCKET-OUTLETS AND COUPLERS .................................................... 24
4.5 FUSES....................................................................................................................... 24
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SECTION 5 EARTHING
5.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 25
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5.2 PV ARRAY SYSTEM EARTHING .......................................................................... 25


5.3 EARTHING OF EXPOSED CONDUCTIVE PARTS AND EQUIPOTENTIAL
BONDING (SYSTEM BONDING) ........................................................................... 29
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5.4 EQUIPMENT EARTHING ....................................................................................... 29

SECTION 6 MARKING AND SIGNS


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6.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 31


6.2 PV ARRAY AND PV SUB-ARRAY JUNCTION BOXES....................................... 31
6.3 DISCONNECTION DEVICES.................................................................................. 31
6.4 FIRE EMERGENCY INFORMATION ..................................................................... 31

SECTION 7 DOCUMENTATION
7.1 DESIGN INFORMATION ........................................................................................ 32
7.2 COMMISSIONING INFORMATION....................................................................... 32
AS/NZS 5033:2005 4
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Page

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SECTION 8 COMMISSIONING TESTS
8.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 33

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8.2 OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE..................................................................................... 33

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8.3 SOLAR ISOLATION DEVICE TEST....................................................................... 33
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SECTION 9 CASE STUDIES


9.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 34

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9.2 EXAMPLES .............................................................................................................. 34

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APPENDICES
A CHARACTERISTICS OF PV ARRAYS AND SYSTEMS....................................... 35
B MECHANICAL SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS................................................. 38

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C FAULT CURRENT ANALYSIS............................................................................... 39
D EARTHING ISSUES................................................................................................. 43
E SUGGESTED METHODS OF DETECTION AND AUTOMATIC
DISCONNECTION FOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION ...................................... 49
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LIGHTNING/OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION ...................................................... 50
EXAMPLES OF SIGNS ............................................................................................ 53
H MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................... 55
I ADDITIONAL COMMISSIONING TESTS ............................................................. 58
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J CASE STUDIES DIAGRAMS .................................................................................. 61
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STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND

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Australian/New Zealand Standard

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Installation of photovoltaic (PV) arrays

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SECT ION 1 SCOPE AND GENERA L

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1.1 SCOPE
This Standard sets out the general installation requirements for photovoltaic (PV) arrays
with d.c. open circuit voltages up to 600 V between positive and negative conductors or up
to ±600 V with respect to earth and a maximum power of 30 kW.

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A1 This Standard does not apply to photovoltaic systems or arrays operating at less than
25 V d.c. and with a power of less than 25 W.
NOTES:
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This includes the following PV array configurations (refer to Figures 1.1 and 1.2)—
(a) Single string of modules.
(b) Multi-string PV array.
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(c) PV array divided into several sub-arrays.
2 Direct current systems, and photovoltaic systems in particular, pose some hazards in addition
to those derived from conventional a.c. power systems, including the ability to produce and
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sustain electrical arcs with currents that are not much greater than normal operating currents.
This Standard addresses the safety requirements arising from the particular characteristics of
photovoltaic systems. A discussion of those characteristics is presented in Appendix A.
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3 Although this Standard does not cover PV array systems with a power greater than 30 kW,
similar principles can be used for such systems.
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1.2 OBJECTIVE
The objective of this Standard is to provide electrical safety and fire protection
requirements for—
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(a) uninformed persons, including owner(s)/occupier(s) and users of the premises where
photovoltaic arrays are installed;
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(b) informed workers (e.g. electricians) working on these systems; and


(c) emergency workers.
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NOTE: Mechanical safety recommendations are given in Appendix B.

1.3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES


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AS
1319 Safety signs for the occupational environment
60529 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)
4509 Stand-alone power systems
4509.1 Part 1: Safety requirements
4509.2 Part 2: System design guidelines
AS/NZS
1170 Structural design actions
1170.2 Part 2: Wind actions

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1768 Lightning protection


3000 Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)

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3008 Electrical installations—Selection of cables

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3008.1.1 Part 1.1: Cables for alternating voltages up to and including 0.6/1 kV—Typical
Australian installation conditions

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3008.1.2 Part 1.2: Cables for alternating voltages up to and including 0.6/1 kV—Typical
New Zealand installation conditions
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3100 Approval and test specification—General requirements for electrical equipment

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3112 Approval and test specification—Plugs and socket outlets

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3123 Approval and test specification—Plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for general
industrial application
3133 Approval and test specification—Air break switches

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3190 Approval and test specification—Residual current devices (current-operated
earth-leakage devices)
61008

61008.1
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Residual current-operated circuit-breakers without
protection for household and similar uses (RCCBs)
Part 1: General rules
integral overcurrent

61009 Residual current operated circuit-breakers with integral overcurrent protection


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for household and similar uses (RCBOs)
61009.1 Part 1: Residual current operated circuit-breakers with integral overcurrent
protection for household and similar uses (RCBOs)—General rules
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IEC
60309 Plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes
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60309-2 Part 2: Dimensional interchangeability requirements for pin and contact-tube


accessories
61215 Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules—Design qualification
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and type approval


61643 Low voltage surge protective devices
61643-12 Part 12: Surge protective devices connected to low voltage power distribution
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systems—Selection and application principles


61646 Thin-film terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules—Design qualification and type
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approval
61730 Photovoltaic module safety qualification
61730-1 Part 1: Requirements for construction
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A1 61730-2 Part 2: Requirements for testing


61829 Crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) array—On-site measurement of I-V
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characteristics
A1
EN
61730 Photovoltaic (PV) module safety qualification
61730-1 Part 1: Requirements for construction
61730-2 Part 2: Requirements for testing

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1.4 DEFINITIONS
1.4.1 Accessible, readily

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Capable of being reached quickly and without climbing over or removing obstructions,
standing on a chair, or using a movable ladder, and in any case not more than 2.0 m above

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the ground, floor or platform.

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1.4.2 Active (or active conductor)
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Any conductor which is maintained at a difference of potential from the neutral or earthed
conductor. In a system which does not include a neutral or earthed conductor, all

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conductors shall be considered to be active conductors.

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1.4.3 Available, readily
Capable of being reached for inspection, maintenance or repairs without necessitating the
dismantling of structural parts, cupboards, benches or the like.

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1.4.4 Bypass diode
A diode that is connected in parallel with a PV module, or a group of PV cells within a PV
module, and prevents the PV module or group of cells from being reverse biased
(see Figures 1.1 and 1.2).
1.4.5 Cable
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A single cable core, or two or more cable cores laid up together, either with or without
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fillings, reinforcements, or protective coverings.
1.4.6 Cable, armoured
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A cable provided with a wrapping of metal, usually tapes or wires, primarily for the purpose
of mechanical protection.
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1.4.7 Cable core


The conductor with its insulation but not including any mechanical protective covering.
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1.4.8 Class II equipment


Equipment in which protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only,
but in which additional safety precautions such as double insulation or reinforced insulation
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are provided, there being no provision for protective earthing or reliance upon installation
conditions. Such equipment may be one of the following types:
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(a) Equipment having durable and substantially continuous enclosures of insulating


material which envelops all metal parts, with the exception of small parts, such as
nameplates, screws and rivets, which are isolated from live parts by insulation at least
equivalent to reinforced insulation; such equipment is called insulation-encased
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Class II equipment.
(b) Equipment having a substantially continuous metal enclosure, in which double
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insulation is used throughout, except for those parts where reinforced insulation is
used, because the application of double insulation is manifestly impracticable; such
equipment is called metal-encased Class II equipment.
(c) Equipment that is a combination of the types described in Items (a) and (b).
NOTES:
1 The enclosure of insulation-encased Class II equipment may form part of the whole of the
supplementary insulation or of the reinforced insulation.
2 If the equipment with double insulation or reinforced insulation throughout has an earthing
terminal or earthing contact, it is considered to be of Class I construction.

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3 Class II equipment may be provided with means for maintaining the continuity of protective
circuits, insulated from accessible conductive parts by double insulation or reinforced
insulation.

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4 Class II equipment may have parts operating at SELV.
1.4.9 Insulation monitor

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A device that periodically measures the resistance to earth of each pole of the PV array
output circuit, and produces an alarm signal when the resistance values fall under a
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specified limit.
1.4.10 Installation earth

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When a PV array is installed on a building, the installation earth is the earthing bar or

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earthing rod of the building.
For freestanding PV arrays, the installation earth is the earthing bar or earthing rod of the
PV system.

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1.4.11 I SC ARRAY
The short circuit current of the PV array at standard test conditions, and is equal to:
I SC ARRAY = I SC MOD × S A
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where S A is the total number of parallel-connected PV strings in the PV array
1.4.12 I SC MOD
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The short circuit current of a PV module or PV string at standard test conditions, as
specified by the manufacturer on the product specification plate.
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NOTE: As PV strings are a group of PV modules connected in series, the short circuit current of a
string is equal to I SC MOD .
1.4.13 I MOD REVERSE
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The current a module can withstand in the reverse direction to normal without damage to
the module. This rating shall be obtained from the manufacturer at expected operating
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conditions.
NOTES:
1 This current rating does not relate to bypass diode rating. The module reverse current is the
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current flowing through the PV cells in the reverse direction to normal current.
2 A typical figure for crystalline silicon modules is between 2 and 2.6 times the normal short
circuit current rating I SC MOD.
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1.4.14 I SC S-ARRAY
The short circuit current of a PV sub-array at standard test conditions, and is equal to:
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I SC S-ARRAY = I SC MOD × SSA


where S SA is the number of parallel-connected PV strings in the PV sub-array
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1.4.15 Junction box


An enclosure where cables are joined, terminated or connected to electrical equipment
and/or protective devices.
1.4.16 Live part
A conductor or conductive part intended to be energized in normal use.
1.4.17 PARRAY
The nominal power of the PV array calculated as the sum of the nameplate power ratings of
all the PV modules that constitute the array.

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1.4.18 PELV (protected extra-low voltage)


An extra-low voltage system which is not electrically separated from earth, but which

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otherwise satisfies all the requirements for SELV.
1.4.19 Power conditioning unit (PCU)

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A unit that converts the electrical power delivered by the PV array into the appropriate

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frequency and/or voltage to be delivered to the load, or stored in a battery or injected into
the electricity grid (see Figures 1.1 and 1.2).
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NOTE: An inverter is an example of a power conditioning unit.

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1.4.20 Power conditioning unit (PCU), isolated

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A power conditioning unit where there is electrical isolation between the input and output
circuits.
NOTE: One means of achieving this isolation is by using an isolation transformer

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1.4.21 Power conditioning unit (PCU), non-isolated
A power conditioning unit (PCU) where there is no electrical isolation between the input
and output circuits.
1.4.22 PV array sN
An electrically integrated assembly of PV modules, and other necessary components, to
form a d.c. power supply unit. A PV array may consist of a single PV module, a single PV
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string, or several parallel-connected strings, or several parallel-connected PV sub-arrays
and their associated electrical components (see Figures 1.1 and 1.2). The boundary of a PV
array is the connection to the PV array cable at the PV array junction box (or equivalent
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location, if there is no junction box, e.g. output side of the isolator). Two or more PV
arrays, which are not interconnected in parallel on the generation side of the power
conditioning unit (PCU), shall be considered as independent PV arrays.
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1.4.23 PV array cable


The output cable of a PV array that connects the PV array junction box (or equivalent
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location) to the power conditioning unit (PCU), battery or load (see Figures 1.1 and 1.2).
1.4.24 PV array, earthed
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A PV array where one of the poles of the d.c. output circuit is electrically connected to
earth.
NOTE: PV arrays connected to earthed battery systems via a series regulator on the earthed
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conductor (i.e. the regulator switches the earthed conductor) are deemed to be earthed PV arrays
for the purposes of this Standard.
1.4.25 PV array, floating
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A PV array not referenced to earth in any way. Thus neither the positive nor the negative
connection are connected to earth and there is no centre tapped arrangement (e.g. resistive
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or capacitive bridge) connected to earth.


1.4.26 PV array, isolated
A PV array where there is electrical separation between the PV array output circuit and the
a.c. system.
NOTE: One means of achieving electrical isolation is by using an isolation transformer.

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1.4.27 PV array junction box


An enclosure where all the PV strings of a PV array (in the not subdivided PV array case,

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see Figure 1.1) or all the PV sub-arrays of a PV array (in the subdivided PV array case, see
Figure 1.2) are electrically connected in parallel and where protection devices may be

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located, if necessary.

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1.4.28 PV array voltage
The PV array voltage shall be considered to be equal to VOC ARRAY .
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NOTE: The open circuit voltage is dependent on the cell temperature.

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1.4.29 PV cell

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The basic unit of photovoltaic conversion; a semiconductor device that can convert light
directly into electrical energy.
1.4.30 PV module

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An assembly of several PV cells electrically connected to form a larger photovoltaic
conversion device, and which are encapsulated together to protect them from the
environment. A PV module is the smallest ready to use photovoltaic conversion device (see
Figure 1.1).
1.4.31 PV module junction box
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An enclosure affixed to a PV module, where the electrical connections to the PV module
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are made.
1.4.32 PV string
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A circuit formed by one or more series connected PV modules. The series connection of PV
modules to form a PV string is intended to provide the required circuit voltage (see
Figure 1.1).
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1.4.33 PV string cable


The cable connecting the modules in a PV string, and/or connecting the string to the PV
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sub-array junction box or to the PV array junction box (or equivalent location, if there is no
junction box) (see Figure 1.1).
1.4.34 PV sub-array
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A group of PV strings connected in parallel, that comprise a partial section of the PV array,
where the output current of that group of strings is carried by a dedicated output cable
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before being connected in parallel with other sub-arrays.


NOTE: Not all PV arrays are divided into sub-arrays.
1.4.35 PV sub-array cable
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The output cable of a PV sub-array that carries only the output current of its associated sub-
array in normal operation, and that connects the PV sub-array with the other PV sub-arrays
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that constitute the PV array.


NOTE: PV sub-array cables are only relevant for PV arrays that are divided into sub-arrays (see
Figures 1.1 and 1.2 for clarification).
1.4.36 PV sub-array junction box
An enclosure where all the PV strings of a PV sub-array are electrically connected in
parallel and where protection devices may be located if necessary (see Figure 1.2).
NOTE: PV sub-array junction boxes are only relevant for PV arrays that are divided into sub-
arrays (see Figures 1.1 and 1.2 for clarification).

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1.4.37 Ripple-free d.c.


For sinusoidal ripple voltage, a ripple content not exceeding 10% r.m.s.

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NOTE: Therefore the maximum peak value does not exceed 140 V for a nominal 120 V ripple-
free d.c. system and 70 V for a nominal 60 V ripple-free d.c. system.

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1.4.38 SELV (separated extra-low voltage)

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An extra-low voltage system which is electrically separated from earth, and from other
systems, in such a way that a single fault cannot give rise to the risk of electric shock.
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1.4.39 Shall

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Indicates that a statement is mandatory.

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1.4.40 Should
Indicates that a statement is a recommendation.

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1.4.41 STC (standard test conditions)
A standard set of reference conditions used for the testing and rating of photovoltaic cells
and modules. The standard test conditions are:
(a)
(b)
PV cell temperature of 25°C. sN
Irradiance in the plane of the PV cell or module of 1 000 W/m2 .
(c) Light spectrum corresponding to an atmospheric air mass of 1.5.
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1.4.42 V OC ARRAY
The open circuit voltage at standard test conditions of a PV array, and is equal to:
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V OC ARRAY = V OC MOD × M
Where M is the number of series-connected PV modules in any PV string of the PV array.
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NOTE: This Standard assumes that all strings within a PV array are connected in parallel; hence
the open circuit voltage of PV sub-arrays and PV strings is equal to V OC ARRAY .
1.4.43 V OC MOD
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The open circuit voltage of a PV module at STC, as specified by the manufacturer in the
product specification.
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1.4.44 Voltage
Differences of potential normally existing between conductors and between conductors and
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earth as follows:
(a) Extra-low voltage (ELV) Not exceeding 50 V a.c. or 120 V ripple-free d.c.
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(b) Low voltage (LV) Exceeding extra-low voltage, but not exceeding
1 000 V a.c. or 1 500 V d.c.
NOTE: When calculating the voltage of a PV array, V OC ARRAY is to be used.
Co

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NOTES:
1 If there are no string fault current protection devices present, the parallel connection of PV
strings may be done within the PV module junction boxes, as long as the current rating of the
terminal strips is—
(a) greater than the nearest fault current protection device; or
(b) greater than I SC ARRAY.
2 The PV array overcurrent protection devices and the elements shown in the PV array junction
box are not required in all cases. (Refer to Appendix J for specific case studies.)

FIGURE 1.1 PV ARRAY DIAGRAM:


CASE WHERE ARRAY NOT DIVIDED INTO SUB-ARRAYS

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studies.)
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FIGURE 1.2 PV ARRAY DIAGRAM:


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CASE WHERE ARRAY IS DIVIDED INTO SUB-ARRAYS


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NOTE: The PV array overcurrent protection devices and the elements within the PV array and PV
sub-array junction boxes are not required in all cases. (Refer to Appendix J for specific case
*
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SECT I O N 2 P R O T E CT I O N RE Q U I RE M E N T S

*
2.1 GENERAL

d
The installation of PV arrays shall comply with the requirements of AS/NZS 3000 except as

la n
varied herein and with the additional requirements of this Standard. The provisions of this
section are aimed at ensuring that these requirements are met, taking into account a range of
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system configurations and earthing arrangements.

a
2.2 BYPASS DIODES

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Bypass diodes may be used to prevent PV modules from being reverse biased and
consequent hot spots occurring. If bypass diodes are added by the installer, they shall
comply with all the following requirements:

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(a) Have a voltage rating of at least 2 × VOC MOD of the protected module.
(b) Have a current rating of at least 1.25 × I SC MOD.
(c)
(d)
Be installed so no live parts are exposed.
sN
Be protected from degradation due to environmental factors.

2.3 BLOCKING DIODES


rd
Blocking diodes may be used but they are not a substitute for fault current protection. One
of their purposes is to prevent reverse currents from battery systems leaking into a PV array
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at night, when this protection is not an integral part of the battery charge controller.
If used, blocking diodes shall comply with all the following requirements:
an

(a) Have a voltage rating of at least 2 × VOC ARRAY .


(b) Have a current rating of at least 1.3 times the short circuit current at STC of the
circuit that they are intended to protect. That is—
St

(i) 1.25 × I SC MOD for PV strings;


(ii) 1.25 × I SC S-ARRAY for PV sub-arrays; or
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(iii) 1.25 × I SC ARRAY for PV arrays.


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(c) Be installed so no live parts are exposed.


(d) Be protected from degradation due to environmental factors.
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2.4 FAULT CURRENT PROTECTION


2.4.1 Number of parallel strings without overcurrent protection
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The maximum number of strings connected in parallel without overcurrent protection shall
be n P where n P is related to the PV modules reverse current rating and is given by Table 2.1
unless the conditions of Clause 2.4.3 apply. If IMOD REVERSE is not obtainable from the
manufacturer of the PV modules, nP shall be taken as 1.
2.4.2 Discrimination
Fault current protection of the PV array installation shall be graded in such a way that lower
level protection trips first in the event of fault currents flowing from higher current sections
to lower current sections of the PV array installation.
NOTE: When circuit breakers with fault current protection elements are used, they also provide
the disconnecting means required in Clause 2.5.

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TABLE 2.1
NUMBER OF PARALLEL STRINGS WITHOUT OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
nP

*
nP Module reverse current rating - ISC MOD REVERSE

d
1 (i.e. no paralleling) I MOD REVERSE < I SC MOD

la n
2 1 × ISC MOD ≤ I MOD REVERSE < 2 × ISC MOD
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3 2 × ISC MOD ≤ I MOD REVERSE < 3 × ISC MOD


4 3 × ISC MOD ≤ I MOD REVERSE < 4 × ISC MOD

a
5 4 × ISC MOD ≤ I MOD REVERSE < 5 × ISC MOD

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2.4.3 PV strings

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Where there are more than n P parallel connected strings, fault current protection shall be
installed unless the array is ELV and—
(a) the PV modules are mounted in such a way and location that an arc or molten metal
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coming out of the back of any of the PV modules shall not result in property damage
or risk to the lives of people or animals; or
(b) the PV modules are of a type which prevents any molten metal coming out of the
back of the module.
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NOTE: In larger systems fault current protection should be considered (see Appendix A for
explanation).
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The rated trip current (I TRIP) of fault current protection devices for PV strings shall be as
specified by the PV module manufacturer. If the manufacturer does not give any
recommendation, I TRIP shall be determined by the following formula:
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1.25 × I SC MOD ≤ I TRIP ≤ 2 × I SC MOD


NOTE: Appendix C gives examples of a number of earth fault conditions.
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2.4.4 PV sub-arrays (subdivided PV arrays only)


ELV PV arrays, where the PV modules are mounted in such a way and location that an arc
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or molten metal coming out of the back of the PV module shall not cause a fire, do not
require PV sub-array fault current protection.
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For LV, PV sub-arrays, fault current protection shall be provided.


The rated trip current (I TRIP) of fault current protection devices for PV sub-arrays shall be
determined by the following formula:
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1.25 × I SC S-ARRAY ≤ I TRIP ≤ 2 × I SC S-ARRAY .


2.4.5 PV array cables
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PV array cables of systems connected to batteries shall be protected with fault current
protection devices.
The trip current (I TRIP) of PV array fault current protection devices shall be determined by
the following formula:
1.25 × I SC ARRAY ≤ I TRIP ≤ 2 × I SC ARRAY
NOTE: Fault current protection devices are commonly installed between the battery and the
charge controller. If these devices are appropriately rated, they provide protection to both the
charge controller and the PV array cable. In such cases, no further PV array cable fault current
protection is required between the PV array and the charge controller.

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2.4.6 Location of fault current protection devices


Table 2.2 summarizes the location of fault current protection devices, if required by

*
Clauses 2.4.1 to 2.4.5.

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TABLE 2.2

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LOCATION OF FAULT CURRENT PROTECTION DEVICES
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Location of protection devices


System configuration PV string cables PV sub-array cable PV array cable

a
Floating array double insulated with
In one active conductor

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respect to earth
Floating array single insulated In all active
Earthed PV array conductors
In all active conductors

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Array connected to load via a non-
isolated power conditioning unit
NOTE: Active conductors are those not directly connected to earth.

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Fault current protection devices, where required by Clauses 2.4.2 through 2.4.5 for PV
strings, PV sub-arrays and PV arrays, shall be at the load (downsteam) end of those cables.
NOTE: Because PV strings/arrays are inherently current limited, the source of fault current is
likely to be from other parallel connected strings/sub-arrays or from batteries. Hence, the
rd
protection needs to be near the parallel connection point (i.e. the load end)

2.5 DISCONNECTING MEANS


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2.5.1 General
Disconnecting means shall be provided in PV arrays according to Clauses 2.5.2 to 2.5.4, to
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isolate the PV array from the power conditioning unit (PCU) and vice versa, and to allow
for maintenance and inspection tasks to be carried out safely. In ELV stand-alone systems
the disconnecting means may be located between the charge regulator and the battery as
St

required in AS 4509.1.
NOTE: This Clause does not apply to module inverters where the inverter is an integral part of
the PV module.
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2.5.2 Selection and installation


A circuit-breaker installed for fault current protection may also provide isolation, if it is
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rated as an isolation device.


Isolation switches complying with AS/NZS 3133 may be used to provide isolation.
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Plugs and socket-outlets complying with the requirements of Clause 4.4 may be used to
provide disconnection and isolation.
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Fuse systems, which are used for fault current protection, are acceptable non-load breaking
disconnecting means, if they have removable fusing elements, preferably with a
disconnection mechanism (fuse-combination unit).
For a reference to the location of disconnection devices see Figures 1.1 and 1.2.
2.5.3 Disconnection device requirements
Table 2.3 specifies disconnection device requirements for PV array installations. Table 2.4
specifies the location of these devices, when required.

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TABLE 2.3
DISCONNECTION DEVICE REQUIREMENTS IN PV ARRAY INSTALLATIONS

*
PV array Circuit or sub-circuit Type of disconnection device
voltage

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Array cable OR between regulator
ELV and battery as required by Readily available load-breaking disconnection device
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AS 4509.2

a
String cable Readily available disconnection device

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Sub-array cable Readily available load-breaking disconnection device
LV
Readily available load-breaking disconnection device,
Array cable
lockable in the off position

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TABLE 2.4
LOCATION OF DISCONNECTION DEVICES ACCORDING TO SYSTEM
CONFIGURATION
sN
Location of disconnecting devices
System configuration
PV string cables PV sub-array cables PV array cable
rd
In all active1)
Unearthed PV array
conductors
In all active1) conductors
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In all current carrying


Earthed PV array
conductors 2)
1)
Active conductors are those not directly connected to earth.
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2)
The disconnection device is required in this situation to interrupt the earth bonding conductor so that earth
fault currents may be interrupted.

2.5.4 Extra-low voltage segmentation


St

In low voltage PV arrays, means shall be provided to sectionalize each PV string into
segments whose open circuit voltage at STC is within the ELV range.
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2.6 EARTH FAULT PROTECTION


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2.6.1 General
Earth fault detection requirements specified in this Clause are intended for electric shock
and fire protection. These requirements are set out in Table 2.5.
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NOTES:
1 Earth faults in PV array installations are potentially dangerous because of the risks associated
with a floating array being inadvertently earthed, or the development of fault currents and
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arcs in earthed arrays. The risk level associated with earth faults depends on several factors,
such as the voltage and current ratings of the PV array, equipment class and on the PV array
location (ground mounted or on a building).
2 See Appendix D for further information on earthing issues.
Examples of possible locations for earth fault protection devices are shown in Figure 2.1

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AS/NZS 5033:2005
TABLE 2.5
n d
EARTH FAULT PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

a l
V OC ARRAY > 120 V
a
Array System V OC ARRAY ≤ 50 V
50 V < V OC ARRAY
≤ 120 V
Z e OR
Systems which contain a voltage > ELV where there is not electrical isolation

d.c. load(s) only


e w
between the array and that voltage (refer to AS/NZS 3000)

Double or reinforced insulation1), or automatic disconnection of PV supply to

N
Floating (i.e. stand-alone system with
load 2)
no a.c. loads) No requirement

Floating
Isolated PCU(s) with d.c.
and/or a.c. loads
d s
Double or reinforced insulation1), or alarm indicating fault, or automatic
disconnection of PV supply to power conditioning unit 2

Non earthed
Grid-connected system
connected via a non-isolated
a rDouble or reinforced insulation1)
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PCU(s) 3)
d

18
(a) d.c. load(s) only

a n
t
(i.e. stand-alone system
Earthed with no a.c. loads) Double or reinforced insulation1), or automatic disconnection of PV supply and disabling of earth fault

S
No requirement
current path 2), 4)

t
(b) Isolated PCU(s) (a.c.
and/or d.c. loads)
1)

g h
A PV array installation is deemed to comply with double insulation if it complies with the requirements of Clause 5.4 (a).
2)

r i
Suggested methods for automatic disconnection are given in Appendix E.
3)

4)

p y
This configuration is applicable only to grid-connected systems. In this case, the PV array is referenced to earth via the grid interconnection and therefore will not be floating.
Not required on ground mounted ELV PV arrays where there is minimal risk of personal or property damage if a fire occurs in the array (see Clause 2.4).

C o
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a
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FIGURE 2.1 LOCATION OF EARTH FAULT PROTECTION DEVICES

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AND THEIR ASSOCIATED DISCONNECTION DEVICE

2.6.2 Earth fault protection settings


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Detection devices based on insulation resistance measurement, where required, shall
operate when the insulation resistance between any of the active conductors and earth is
less than 36/A MΩ, where A is the PV array area in m 2 .
rd
Detection devices based on earth leakage or residual current measurement, where required,
shall operate before the leakage or residual current exceeds 30 mA (see Appendix D).
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2.7 ALARMS
2.7.1 Visual alarms
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Visual alarms, where used, should be located where the system owner and/or service
personnel can easily see them.
NOTE: See Section 7 regarding documentation for alarms.
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2.7.2 Audible alarms


Audible alarms, where used, should be placed where the system owner and/or service
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personnel can easily hear them.


NOTE: See Section 7 regarding documentation for alarms.
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2.8 LIGHTNING AND OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION


2.8.1 Lightning protection
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Lightning protection measures may be required in some PV installations. The need for
lightning protection should be assessed in accordance with AS/NZS 1768. Appendix F gives
guidance on the assessment of lightning protection requirements.
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2.8.2 Overvoltage protection


Overvoltage protection measures include—
(a) equipotential bonding;
(b) avoidance of wiring loops;
(c) installation of surge arrestors; and
(d) shielding.
NOTE: See Appendix F for additional information.

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SECT ION 3 W IR I NG R E QU I REMEN TS

*
3.1 COMPLIANCE WITH AS/NZS 3000

d
The installation of wiring associated with PV array systems shall be in accordance with

la n
AS/NZS 3000 except as varied herein and with the additional requirements of this Standard.
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NOTE: Particular attention needs to be given to the protection of wiring systems against external
influences.

a
3.2 SYSTEM VOLTAGE

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V OC ARRAY shall not exceed the maximum allowed operating voltage of the PV modules (as
specified by the manufacturer).

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3.3 INSTALLATION WIRING
3.3.1 General
The wiring for PV arrays shall be arranged to minimize the possibility of line-to-line and
line-to-earth faults occurring. sN
All connections shall be verified for tightness and polarity during installation. (This is to
reduce the risk of faults and possible arcs occurring during commissioning and operation.)
rd
3.3.2 Wiring loops
The PV array wiring should be laid in such a way that the area of conductive loops is
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minimized (e.g. by laying cables in parallel as shown in Figure 3.1) (see also
Paragraph F2.2).
an
St
ht
rig
py
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FIGURE 3.1 PV STRING WIRING WITH MINIMUM LOOP AREA

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3.3.3 String wiring


If the wiring of PV strings between modules is not in conduit, all the following shall apply:

*
(a) Insulated and sheathed cables shall be used.
(b) Cables shall be protected from mechanical damage.

d
(c) Cables shall be clamped (to relieve tension and to prevent conductors coming free

la n
from connections).
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3.3.4 Wiring installation in junction boxes


The following provisions apply to the installation of wiring systems in junction boxes:

a
(a) Where conductors enter a junction box without conduit, a tension relief system shall

Ze
be used to avoid cable disconnections inside the junction box (for example by using a
gland connector).
(b) All cable entries shall maintain the IP rating of the enclosure.

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NOTE: Water condensation inside junction boxes may be a problem in some locations and
provision may be needed to drain water build-up.
(c) For LV PV arrays, where a return conductor is routed through module junction boxes,
sN
such return conductor(s) shall be a single-core double-insulated cable, and the cable
and its insulation shall maintain double insulation status over its entire length,
particularly through junction boxes (i.e. these provisions also apply to the joints, if
any).
rd
NOTE: This requirement is to provide double insulation between the return conductor and
exposed metal terminals in junction boxes.
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3.3.5 Location of PV array and PV sub-array junction boxes


PV array and PV sub-array junction boxes, where installed, shall be readily available.
an

3.4 CABLE SELECTION


3.4.1 Cable size
St

The minimum cable sizes for PV array wiring, based on current carrying capacity, shall be
based upon a current rating calculated from Table 3.1, and the current carrying capacity of
cables as specified in AS/NZS 3008.1 series, where the a.c. to d.c. conversion factor is
ht

taken as 1.0.
NOTE: When calculating cable size, consideration needs to be given to—
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(a) voltage drop (a maximum of 5% is recommended); and


(b) de-rating of the current carrying capacity of a cable due to temperature.
3.4.2 Insulation
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The insulation of cables used within the PV array installation shall—


(a) have a voltage rating of at least 1.2 × VOC ARRAY;
Co

NOTE: The use of single core insulated and sheathed cable is recommended for wiring of PV
array installations where VOC ARRAY ≥120 V d.c. to minimize the risk of faults within the
wiring.
(b) have a temperature rating according to the application; and
NOTE: PV modules frequently operate at temperatures of the order of 40 K above ambient
temperature. Cable insulation of wiring installed in contact with, or near, PV modules needs
to be rated accordingly.
(c) if exposed to the environment, be UV resistant, or be protected from UV light by
appropriate protection (e.g. installed in UV resistant conduit).

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TABLE 3.1
CURRENT RATING OF PV ARRAY CIRCUITS

*
Minimum current upon which cable
Type of cable
cross-sectional area should be chosen1)

d
1 PV string cable Rated trip current 2) of the nearest downstream fault current

la n
(PV string fault current protection protection device + 1.25 × I SC MOD × (SPO−1)
not provided)
where
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SPO is the number of parallel connected strings protected by the

a
nearest fault current protection device.
NOTE: When no fault current protection is used, SPO is the total

Ze
number of parallel connected strings in the PV array, and the trip
current of the nearest fault current protection device is replaced by
zero.
2 PV string cable
Rated trip current 2) of the PV string fault current protection device

ew
(PV string fault current protection
(See Figure 1.1)
provided)
3 PV sub-array cable The greater of the following calculations:
(PV sub-array fault current
protection not provided) sN
(a) Rated trip current 2) of the PV array fault current protection
device + 1.25 × sum of short circuit current of all other sub-
arrays
(b) 1.25 × ISC S-ARRAY (of relevant array).
rd
Note: When PV array fault current protection is not used, the
corresponding parameter is replaced by zero in equation (a).
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4 PV sub-array cable
Rated trip current 2) of the PV sub-array fault current protection
(PV sub-array fault current
device (See Figure 1.2)
protection provided)
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5 PV array cable
(PV array fault current protection 1.25 × ISC ARRAY
not provided)
St

6 PV array cable
Rated trip current 2) of the PV array fault current protection device
(PV array fault current protection
(See Figures 1.1 and 1.2)
provided)
1)
The operating temperature of PV modules and consequently their associated wiring can be significantly
ht

higher than the ambient temperature. A minimum temperature rise above maximum expected ambient
temperature of +40 K should be considered for cables installed near, or in contact with, PV modules. The
AS/NZS 3008.1 series contains appropriate cable temperature derating factors.
rig

2)
The rated trip current will be greater than the nominal rated current of the PV string/sub-array/array.

3.5 WIRING IDENTIFICATION


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Where PV array cabling could be confused with other wiring systems, appropriate
identification shall be provided at regular intervals.
Co

NOTE: Typically, identification should be not more than 3 m apart.

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SECT I ON 4 C O M PO N E N T RE Q U I RE M E N T S

*
4.1 PV MODULES

d
4.1.1 Reliability

la n
Crystalline silicon PV modules shall comply with IEC 61215. Thin film PV modules shall
comply with IEC 61646.
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4.1.2 Equipment class*

a
PV modules should be Class II.

Ze
4.1.2 Equipment class†
A1
PV modules shall comply with the requirements of IEC 61730-1 and IEC 61730-2 or
EN 61730-1 and EN 61730-2.

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PV modules for systems operating at greater than 50 V or greater than 240 W shall comply
with Class A of the above Standards.

sN
PV modules for systems operating at less than 50 V and less than 240 W may comply with
Class C of the above Standards.
Modules complying with Class B requirements of the above Standards shall not be used in
Australia and New Zealand.
rd
NOTE: Class B does not provide sufficient insulation for safe usage.
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4.2 PV ARRAY AND PV SUB-ARRAY JUNCTION BOXES


4.2.1 Environmental effects
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PV array and PV sub-array junction boxes exposed to the environment shall be at least
IP 54 compliant in accordance with AS 60529, and shall be UV resistant.
St

4.3 SWITCHING DEVICES


4.3.1 General
All switching devices shall comply with all the following requirements:
ht

(a) Be rated for d.c. use.


Have a voltage rating equal to, or greater than, 1.2 × VOC ARRAY.
rig

(b)
(c) Not have exposed metallic live parts in the connected or disconnected state.
4.3.2 Non-load-breaking switches
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In addition to the requirements of Clause 4.3.1, non-load-breaking switches shall have a


current rating equal to, or greater than, their associated fault current protection device, or in
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the absence of such device, have a current rating equal to, or greater than, the required
current carrying capacity of the circuit to which they are fitted. (Refer to Table 3.1)
4.3.3 Current breaking devices
In addition to the requirements of Clause 4.3.1, circuit breakers and any other load breaking
disconnection devices used for protection and/or disconnecting means shall comply with all
the following requirements:

* This Clause ceases to be part of this Standard on 31 May 2009.


† This Clause becomes part of this Standard on 1 June 2009.

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(a) Not be polarity sensitive (as fault currents in a PV array may flow in the opposite
direction to normal operating currents) except for the PV array main switch in
systems without batteries.

*
(b) Be rated to interrupt full load and prospective fault currents from the PV array and

d
any other connected power sources (e.g. batteries, generators and the grid).

la n
(c) When fault current protection is incorporated, the trip current shall be rated according
to Clause 2.4.
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4.4 PLUGS, SOCKET-OUTLETS AND COUPLERS

a
Plugs, sockets-outlets and couplers shall comply with all the following requirements:

Ze
(a) Be rated for d.c. use.
(b) Have a voltage rating equal to, or greater than, 1.2 × VOC ARRAY .

ew
(c) Be protected from contact with live parts in both the connected and disconnected state
(i.e. be shrouded).
(d) Have a current rating equal to, or greater than, the cable to which they are fitted.
(e)
(f)
Require a deliberate force to disconnect. sN
Have a temperature rating suitable for their installation location.
(g) If multipolar, be polarized.
rd
(h) Comply with Class II.
(i) If exposed to the environment, be rated for outdoor use, be UV resistant and be at
da

least IP 54 compliant in accordance with AS 60529.


(j) Plugs shall not be able to enter socket-outlets of other voltage systems.
an

(k) Socket-outlets shall not accept plugs of other voltage systems.


Plugs and socket-outlets normally used for connection to a.c. mains power, as described in
St

AS/NZS 3112, AS/NZS 3123 and IEC 60309-2, shall not be used in PV array wiring.

4.5 FUSES
ht

4.5.1 Ratings
Fuses used in PV array installations shall comply with all the following requirements:
rig

(a) Be rated for d.c. use.


(b) Have a voltage rating equal to, or greater than, 1.2 × VOC ARRAY.
py

(c) Be rated to interrupt the full load and prospective fault currents from the PV array
and any other connected power sources (e.g. batteries, generators and the grid).
NOTE: When fuses are provided for fault current protection, the use of fused switch-
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disconnectors (fuse-combination units) is recommended.


4.5.2 Fuse holders
Fuse holders shall comply with all the following requirements:
(a) Have a voltage rating equal to, or greater than, 1.2 × VOC ARRAY.
(b) Have a current rating equal to, or greater than, the corresponding fuse.
(c) Provide a degree of protection not less than IP 20.

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S E C T I ON 5 E A RT H I N G

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5.1 GENERAL

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5.1.1 General

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The complete system configuration shall be considered when determining the earthing
requirements of the PV array. Two separate issues shall be addressed—
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(a) earthing of the main current carrying conductors or the array (system earthing); and

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(b) earthing of exposed conductive parts for lightning protection and/or equipotential

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bonding (system bonding).
5.1.2 Point of connection of PV system earth
When the PV array is earthed, the connection to earth shall be made at a single point and

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this point shall be connected to the installation earth.
In systems without batteries, this connection point shall be between the PV array
disconnection device and the power conditioning unit and as close as possible to the power-
conditioning unit. sN
In systems containing batteries, this connection point shall be between the charge controller
and the battery. This is to allow for interruption of any earth fault current.
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5.1.3 PV system earthing cable
If the PV array is earthed, the PV system earthing cable shall be sized to carry
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1.25 × I SC ARRAY continuously, and comply with the provisions for earthing conductors set
out in AS/NZS 3000 with respect to material and type, insulation and identification,
installation, connections and aluminium conductors.
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5.1.4 Bonding conductors


All PV array system bonding conductors shall comply with the material, type, insulation,
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identification, installation and connection requirements specified in AS/NZS 3000.

5.2 PV ARRAY SYSTEM EARTHING


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In Table 5.1 several configurations of system earthing are considered. No consideration is


given to earthing of exposed metallic parts (system bonding) as these are covered in later
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Clauses.
The requirements of the manufacturer(s) of the PCU(s) to which the PV array is connected,
shall be taken into account in determining the most appropriate system earthing
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arrangement.
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TABLE 5.1

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PV SYSTEM EARTHING CONFIGURATION

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PV array Application circuit Consequence on the status of the PV array
Unearthed d.c. load Floating (refer to Figure 5.1)

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Earthed d.c. load Fixed to earth (refer Figure 5.2)
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AC load connected via isolated PCU Floating (refer Figure 5.3)


Unearthed AC load connected via a non-isolated power Fixed by the status of the neutral of the

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conditioning unit application circuit. (refer to Figure 5.4).

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NOTE: If the a.c. voltage is LV the entire
installation becomes LV (refer to
AS/NZS 3000).
Unearthed d.c. load (refer to Figure 5.5) Fixed to earth

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Earthed d.c. load (refer to Figure 5.6)

Earthed1 AC load connected via isolated PCU (refer to


Figure 5.7)
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AC load connected via a non-isolated power
conditioning unit (refer to Figure 5.8)
This configuration is dangerous and is NOT
PERMITTED.
NOTES:
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1 In simple earthed arrays either positive or negative conductors could be connected to the earth, but the preferred
configuration is to earth the negative because connecting the positive to earth could result in corrosion of the
earth electrode.
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2 In a centre tapped earthed PV array, the PV array is equally divided into two segments connected in series, and
the midpoint is connected to earth. The ‘consequences on the status of the PV array’ column is not changed
whether the array is centre tapped earthed or earthed on one pole.
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FIGURE 5.1 UNEARTHED PV ARRAY AND UNEARTHED


D.C. LOAD

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*
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FIGURE 5.2 UNEARTHED PV ARRAY AND EARTHED

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D.C. LOAD(S)

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FIGURE 5.3 UNEARTHED PV ARRAY CONNECTED TO A.C. LOAD


VIA AN ISOLATED PCU
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WARNING: THIS CONFIGURATION CAN BE VERY DANGEROUS.


NOTE: If the a.c. side is LV, then the whole installation (including the PV array) has to be treated
as LV.

FIGURE 5.4 UNEARTHED PV ARRAY CONNECTED TO A.C. LOAD


VIA A NON-ISOLATED PCU

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AS/NZS 5033:2005

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LOAD(S)
LOAD(S)

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VIA AN ISOLATED PCU


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FIGURE 5.6 EARTHED PV ARRAY AND EARTHED D.C.


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FIGURE 5.5 EARTHED PV ARRAY AND UNEARTHED D.C.

FIGURE 5.7 EARTHED PV ARRAY CONNECTED TO A.C. LOAD


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WARNING: This configuration is NOT PERMITTED

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FIGURE 5.8 EARTHED PV ARRAY CONNECTED TO A.C. LOAD

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VIA A NON-ISOLATED PCU

5.3 EARTHING OF EXPOSED CONDUCTIVE PARTS AND EQUIPOTENTIAL


BONDING (SYSTEM BONDING)

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There are three possible reasons for earthing exposed conductive parts of a PV array
(system bonding). These are—
(a)
(b)
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equipotential bonding to avoid uneven potentials across an installation;
protective earthing to provide a path for fault currents to flow; and
(c) lightning protection.
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An earth conductor may perform one or more of these functions in an installation. The
dimensions and location of the conductor are very dependent on its function.
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5.4 EQUIPMENT EARTHING


Equipment earthing refers to the bonding to earth of all exposed conductive parts and
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frames of the PV array including any structural metalwork. PV array frame earthing shall be
installed in accordance with the PV array framework earthing decision tree in Figure 5.9.
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Exposed conductive parts of the PV array installation need not be earthed if the PV array
installation complies with any of the following provisions:
(a) Double insulation (applies only if the PV array complies with all of (i), (ii) and (iii)):
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(i) General* PV modules complying with Class II requirements in accordance


with the relevant product Standard.
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NOTE: An IEC PV module safety Standard that includes Class II requirements is under
development (IEC 61730-1).
A1 (i) General† PV modules complying with Class A requirements in IEC 61730-1
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and IEC 61730-2 or EN 61730-1 and EN 61730-2.


NOTE: Class A modules in IEC 61730-1 and IEC 61730-2 and EN 61730-1 and
EN 61730-2 are considered to meet the requirements for Class II equipment in
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AS/NZS 3100.
(ii) Wiring outside junction boxes Where cables may come into contact with
readily accessible PV array conductive parts, the cables shall be double
insulated.

* This item ceases to be part of this Standard on 31 May 2009.


† This item becomes part of this Standard on 1 June 2009.

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(iii) Wiring inside junction boxes Conductors within junction boxes having double
insulation shall be protected, secured or insulated so that, if any one conductor
becomes detached from its termination, neither the conductor nor its functional

*
insulation can come into contact with accessible metal. The attachment of one
conductor to another by tying, lacing, clipping or the like, in such a manner as

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to prevent either conductor coming into contact with accessible conductive

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parts if it becomes detached from its termination, shall be deemed to comply
with this requirement.
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(b) Protection by electrical separation in accordance with AS/NZS 3000.

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(c) Protection by SELV or PELV in accordance with AS/NZS 3000.

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NOTES:
1 To use this decision tree, either follow recommendations of AS/NZS 1768 or refer to local
information such as the number of thunder days per year or other lightning characteristics.
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Assessment should include the relative position of the PV array to other buildings or
structures, etc which may protect the PV array from lightning strikes.
2 A floating PV array is not directly connected to earth and is connected to an application
circuit that is either unearthed or isolated from the PV array.
3 Framework includes all exposed conductive parts in this context.

FIGURE 5.9 PV ARRAY FRAMEWORK EARTHING DECISION TREE

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SECT ION 6 MARK I NG AND S I GNS

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6.1 GENERAL

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All electric equipment shall be marked according to the requirements for marking in

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AS/NZS 3100.
All signs required by Clauses 6.2 to 6.4 shall—
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(a) comply with AS 1319;

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(b) be indelible;

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(c) be legible from at least 0.8 m unless otherwise specified in the relevant Clauses; and
(d) be constructed and affixed to remain legible for the life of the equipment it is attached
or related to.

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NOTE: Examples of signs are given in Appendix G.

6.2 PV ARRAY AND PV SUB-ARRAY JUNCTION BOXES


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A sign containing the text ‘SOLAR D.C.’ shall be attached to PV array and PV sub-array
junction boxes.

6.3 DISCONNECTION DEVICES


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6.3.1 General
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Disconnection devices shall be marked with an identification name or number in accordance


with the PV array wiring diagram.
All switches shall have the ON and OFF positions clearly indicated.
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6.3.2 PV array main switch


The PV array main switch shall be provided with a sign affixed in a prominent location with
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the following text: ‘PV ARRAY MAIN SWITCH’.

6.4 FIRE EMERGENCY INFORMATION


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For PV arrays that are installed on buildings and have a rated power greater than 500 W or
with V OC ARRAY greater than 50 V, a sign shall be installed next to the meter box (if one
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exists) and the building’s main switchboard. This sign shall state ‘Solar Array’ and provide
information on the location of the PV array. This sign shall comply with AS 1319 and be
legible from at least 1.5 m.
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NOTE: In small installations, the location information may be very simple (e.g. ‘on roof’); in
larger installations more information should be provided.
The sign shall also include the following PV array information:
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(a) Open circuit voltage.


(b) Short circuit current.
NOTE: Appendix G contains an example of a suitable sign.

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SECT ION 7 DOCUMEN TAT I ON

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7.1 DESIGN INFORMATION

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The PV system designer should prepare the following documents and a copy should be

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handed to the PV system owner:
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(a) A list of all alarms, both visual and audible, and the action that should be taken when
the alarm is activated.

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(b) A basic circuit diagram that includes the electrical ratings of the PV array, and the

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ratings of all fuses and circuit breakers.
(c) Recommended maintenance for the system.
NOTE: A guide to assist in establishing maintenance requirements and associated documentation

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for PV arrays is provided in Appendix H.

7.2 COMMISSIONING INFORMATION

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A copy of relevant commissioning documents should be supplied to the customer.
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SECT ION 8 COMM ISS I ON I NG TEST S

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8.1 GENERAL

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Commissioning tests are required to ensure that the PV array complies with the safety

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requirements of this Standard.
NOTE: Other commissioning tests that could be carried out on large PV arrays (> 10 kW) are
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indicated in Appendix I.

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8.2 OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE

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8.2.1 General
This test is intended to ensure that wiring polarity and continuity of the PV array are
correct.

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8.2.2 Procedure
The open circuit voltage of every string shall be measured before connecting to other
strings. All PV string open circuit voltages shall be within 5% variation; otherwise the
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connections shall be verified for polarity, continuity and possible faults and repaired. Once
the verification is complete and satisfactory, the PV strings may be connected in parallel.
The same procedure shall be carried out to verify PV sub-array open circuit voltages (if
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relevant) and PV array open circuit voltage before connecting the PV array to the PCU.
NOTES:
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1 All measurements should be made when practicable under stable irradiance conditions.
Conditions close to solar noon are preferable.
2 A guideline on open circuit voltage measurements for large PV arrays (> 20 strings) where
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the environmental conditions may change significantly during measurements is given in


Appendix I.
3 Typically, this voltage should be the number of modules in the string times the voltage of one
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module.

8.3 SOLAR ISOLATION DEVICE TEST


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The operation of the solar isolation device shall be verified, when present.
The testing procedure shall be—
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(a) with the PV array in normal operation under irradiance conditions greater than
500 W/m 2 , operate the solar isolation device according to the instructions posted next
to it and verify that the PV array has been disconnected from the system.
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(b) operate the reset facility according to the installer’s instructions and verify that the
PV array re-connects to the system.
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SECT ION 9 CASE STUD I ES

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9.1 GENERAL

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To assist users of this Standard, Appendix J contains a set of case studies using the

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requirements of this Standard. The diagrams in Appendix J are examples only and are not
exhaustive and numerous other configurations comply with this Standard. The diagrams in
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Appendix J do not contain full design information (e.g. cable size is not shown as no
account has been made for voltage loss in the cables).

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9.2 EXAMPLES
The examples shown in Appendix J cover the following cases:

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Array Features Figure
voltage

24 V Floating array without a battery:

nominal -Case A: less than 4 strings


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-Case B: 4 or more strings J2


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Floating array with a battery:

-Case A: 3 sub-arrays, no fault current protection J3


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-Case B: 3 sub-arrays, no string fault current protection J4

-Case C: multiple strings, no sub-arrays J5


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Earthed array, with battery, multiple strings, no sub-arrays J6

48 V Non-earthed array, without battery, grid connected J7


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nominal Floating array, with battery:

-Case A: 2 sub-arrays, no fault current protection J8


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-Case B: 2 sub-arrays, no strings fault current protection J9

-Case C: multiple strings, no sub-arrays, fault current protection J10


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Earthed array, with battery, multiple strings J11

Low Non-earthed array, without battery, grid connected:


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voltage -Case A: 3 or less strings, no sub-arrays J12


-Case B: 4 or more strings, no sub-arrays J13
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Earthed array, without battery, grid connected, no sub-arrays J14

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APPENDIX A

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CHARACTERISTICS OF PV ARRAYS AND SYSTEMS

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(Informative)

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A1 PV ARRAYS
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A1.1 d.c. vs. a.c. behaviour

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One of the most important characteristics of direct current in relation to safety is that d.c.
arcs, caused by switching or faults, are much more difficult to extinguish than a.c. arcs,

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because there are no zero crossing points in the current flow, as is the case for a.c. currents.
This implies that all switchgear and fault current protection devices in the array need to be
rated for use in d.c. circuits (d.c. switchgear is less readily available and its cost increases
significantly as the d.c. operating voltage increases).

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A1.2 Series parallel configuration
To reduce mismatch and improve PV array yield, all PV strings within a PV array should be
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of the same technology and have the same number of series connected PV modules (see
Figures 1.1 and 1.2). Also, all PV modules within the PV array should have similar rated
electrical characteristics including short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum
power current, maximum power voltage and rated power (all at STC).
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A1.3 Low fault levels
PV cells (and consequently PV arrays) behave like current sources under low impedance
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faults. Thus in PV arrays without battery storage, currents much greater than normal full
load currents may not flow even under short circuit fault conditions, making short circuit
detection difficult. Therefore, electric arcs can be formed in a PV array with fault currents
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that will not trip a fault current device. The implications for PV array design that arise from
these characteristics are—
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(a) the chances of line-to-line faults, earth faults and inadvertent wire disconnections in
the system need to be minimized; and
(b) earth fault detection and disablement could be required as part of the system
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protection functions depending on the array size and location, to eliminate the risk of
fire and/or electric shock.
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A2 FAULT CURRENT PROTECTION


A2.1 General
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Fault currents due to short circuits in modules, in junction boxes or in module wiring or
earth faults in array wiring, can result in overcurrent in a PV array.
PV modules are current limited sources but because they can be connected in parallel and
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also connected to external sources (e.g. batteries), they can be subjected to overcurrents
caused by either multiple parallel adjacent strings or from external sources or both.
A2.2 Fault current protection rating
To allow for increased irradiance levels, the rating of fault current protection devices has to
be higher than the short circuit current of the circuit to be protected. A 1.25 safety factor is
considered appropriate for all Australian/New Zealand locations. As rated values of
commercially available fuses and circuit breakers will not always match the 1.25 times
short circuit current requirement allowance should be made to accommodate commercially
available equipment.

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It is suggested that the fault current protection rating (I TRIP) be as follows:


1.25 × I SC ≤ I TRIP ≤2 × I SC

*
where

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I SC is the short circuit current of the relevant PV circuit at standard test conditions.

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I TRIP is the rated value of the fault current protection device.
A2.3 Number of strings
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Fault current protection is irrelevant when there are only one to two strings in parallel, and

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there is no battery storage system, provided the PV modules are capable of withstanding a
reverse current equal to their short circuit current.

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If there are more than two strings in parallel then the maximum fault current that can flow
in any one string is equal to the (number of strings –1) times the short circuit rating of one
of the strings. Therefore if there are three or more parallel strings, the PV modules could be

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subjected to reverse currents of two or more times their nominal short circuit current. It is
for this reason that the number of strings able to be connected in parallel without
overcurrent protection in each string, is linked to the reverse current rating of a module (see
Clause 2.4.1).
A2.4 Battery storage
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When battery storage is present, the battery is capable of overloading the PV array wiring
and components if a fault occurs regardless of the number of parallel-connected strings. The
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PV array must be protected against battery currents.
A2.5 Diodes
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Blocking diodes are not a reliable protection against reverse current because they often fail
in short circuit mode. The use of blocking diodes is currently restricted to preventing
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battery discharge to an un-energized PV array at night. Their use should be avoided for
other purposes because they are sources of failures and power loss.
A2.6 Operating temperature
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PV modules can operate well above ambient temperature under normal operating
conditions. A common steady state temperature rise for silicon modules operating at the
maximum power point under 1 000 W/m 2 solar irradiance and with adequate ventilation is
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25 K. The temperature rise can be even higher when irradiance levels are greater than
1 000 W/m 2 and when modules have poor ventilation. The following two main requirements
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on the PV array design derive from this operating characteristic of PV modules:


(a) PV module efficiency reduces as their operating temperature increases (for crystalline
silicon solar cells the maximum power decreases between 0.4 and 0.5% per each
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degree K rise in operating temperature). Therefore adequate ventilation of the PV


array should be a design goal, in order to ensure optimum performance for both
modules and associated components.
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(b) All the components and equipment that may be in direct contact or near the PV array
(conductors, inverters, connectors, etc.) need to be capable of withstanding the
expected maximum operating temperature of the PV array.

A3 PV SYSTEMS
A3.1 Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems with battery storage
These systems have the following characteristics:
(a) The use of batteries makes PV array fault current protection requirements more
stringent as batteries can deliver very high fault currents within the array circuit.

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(b) PV arrays in these systems tend to be extra low voltage (ELV).


(c) Most stand-alone PV inverters on the market include an isolation transformer that
provides separation of the PV array circuits from the a.c. load circuits.

*
(d) Both earthed and unearthed PV arrays may be used.

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A3.2 Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems

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These systems have the following characteristics:
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(a) Generally they do not use batteries for energy storage because the grid behaves as an
infinite bus that can receive or supply power.

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(b) PV arrays in these systems tend to be low voltage (LV).

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(c) A wide range of inverter topologies can be found on the market. Some of them
include an isolation transformer, and some of them are transformerless; some of them
require the PV array to be earthed and some of them require it not to be earthed.

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A3.3 Solar water pumping system
These systems generally have the following features:
(a)
(b)
PV array.
Pump and controller.
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(c) No batteries.
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APPENDIX B

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MECHANICAL SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS

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(Informative)

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B1 GENERAL
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Support structures and module mounting arrangements should comply with applicable

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building codes, regulations and Standards.

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B2 THERMAL ASPECTS
Provisions should be made in the mounting arrangement of PV modules to allow for the
maximum expansion/contraction of the modules under expected operating temperatures,

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according to manufacturers recommendations.
NOTES:
1 Some types of PV modules degrade significantly in performance when inadequate ventilation

2
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causes the modules to operate at high temperature.
The operating temperature of PV modules can be significantly higher than ambient
temperatures. A rough figure for well ventilated crystalline silicon is 25 K temperature
difference at 1 000 W/m 2 and operating at the maximum power point.
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B3 MECHANICAL LOADS ON PV STRUCTURES
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The PV array support structures should comply with AS/NZS 1170.2.


NOTE: Support structures are not usually a problem for small PV systems.
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APPENDIX C

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FAULT CURRENT ANALYSIS

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(Informative)

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C1 GENERAL
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In this appendix, the worst case PV array earth fault conditions are analysed for both
earthed and floating PV arrays. The implications for fault current protection derived from

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the worst case fault current analysis are also discussed.

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The analyses are made for the case of PV strings with four series modules, however they
are valid for any number of series connected PV modules. Also, the earth faults are
considered to be zero impedance faults which is the case when the fault currents are the
highest.

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C2 FLOATING PV ARRAYS

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In floating PV arrays, there is no reference to earth, and therefore a single earth fault does
not produce any fault currents (see Figures C1 and C2). What a single fault does produce is
an earth reference for the PV array circuit, and a path for earth fault current in the event of
a second earth fault or a person touching the live conductors and earth simultaneously.
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FIGURE C1 FLOATING PV ARRAY OPERATING AT MAXIMUM POWER POINT

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FIGURE C2 FLOATING PV ARRAY WITH SINGLE EARTH FAULT

When a single earth fault develops, the PV array currents remain the same, if the system is
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not shut down and provided the PCU does not allow fault currents to pass through its power
circuits from the load side to the PV array side. If there is electrical isolation between the
PV array and a.c. loads, the system can continue operating in most cases but it becomes
unsafe as the PV array is no longer floating, thus increasing the risk of electric shock and
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earth fault currents if a second earth fault occurs.


If a second fault develops in the PV array, the earth loop is closed allowing fault currents to
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flow in the PV array wiring (see Figure C3).


Under the fault conditions of Figure C3, a three-module segment of string number 3 is short
circuited, and the remaining PV modules in string number 3 are connected in parallel with
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strings 1 and 2. This would cause the PV array voltage to drop significantly, most likely
causing the PCU to disconnect itself from the PV array, thus leaving the PV array open
circuited.
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FIGURE C3 FLOATING PV ARRAY WITH DOUBLE EARTH FAULT – CASE I


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The most important observations from the node analysis of this fault case are the following:
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(a) PV module M 3,1 is forward biased with a voltage that is larger than its open circuit
voltage. Thus the module is operating in the second quadrant of its I-V characteristic
(i.e. the current through it is negative and it is forced to dissipate the power delivered
by PV strings 1 and 2).
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(b) As the voltage of strings 1 and 2 drops, their output current increases to
approximately their short circuit value. If standard test conditions are assumed, the
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reverse current through module M3,1 is approximately twice I SC MOD .


(c) The current of the section of the string cable that connects module M3,1 with the
negative bus bar is also twice ISC MOD.
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(d) The reverse current through PV module M 3,1 and through the segment of the string
cable that connects it to the negative bus bar would increase by approximately ISC MOD
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for each additional parallel PV string in the circuit.


(e) If the faults occurred in opposite locations of the PV array (see Figure C4), then PV
module M3,4 would be forced to dissipate the power delivered by strings 1 and 2 and
the segment that connects it to the positive bus bar would be overloaded. This implies
that fault current protection in unearthed PV arrays, when required, has to be installed
in both positive and negative cables of the corresponding circuit.

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*
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FIGURE C4 FLOATING PV ARRAY WITH DOUBLE EARTH FAULT – CASE 2


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C3 EARTHED PV ARRAYS
In earthed PV arrays, there is already a reference to earth and a path for earth fault currents
and therefore a single earth fault, or a person touching an unearthed conductor and earth
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simultaneously, will produce earth fault currents to flow in the PV array.


It should be noted that the worst-case earth fault scenario for earthed PV arrays is identical
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to that presented in Figure C4, the only difference is that the connection to earth of the
negative conductor of the PV array cable is not a fault but an intentional connection.
The node analysis and most of the observations made for the floating case hold true, except
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for the last one. In the earthed case, the PV string cable segments that connect to the
negative busbar cannot be overloaded with one, or multiple, earth faults.
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APPENDIX D

*
EARTHING ISSUES

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(Informative)

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D1 BACKGROUND
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D1.1 Types of earthing

a
AS/NZS 3000 indicates that earthing in electrical installations is for protective and
functional purposes.

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Protective earthing is intended to provide protection against indirect contact and fault
current.
Functional earthing is intended to ensure correct operation of electrical equipment or to

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permit reliable and proper functioning of electrical installations.
D1.2 Purpose of earthing

(a)
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Earthing of electrical installations has the following purposes:
Minimize the risk of electric shock to persons using or servicing the electrical
installation or associated equipment.
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(b) Minimize the risk of fire due to fault conditions.
(c) Reduce the risk of damage to equipment due to induced surges.
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(d) Reduce possible electromagnetic interference.


D1.3 General earthing considerations in a PV system
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In PV systems installations, earthing arrangements may involve—


(a) earthing of the PV array output circuit (system earthing); and
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(b) earthing of exposed conductive parts (system bonding).

D2 EARTHING OF EQUIPMENT CONDUCTIVE PARTS


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Earthing of equipment conductive parts is a safety requirement of many international codes


and Standards and it is thoroughly covered by AS/NZS 3000.
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The general requirement is that all exposed conductive parts, which are not intended to be
energized in normal operation, be earthed as a protective measure against indirect contact.
This is to ensure that all metallic parts remain at earth potential if a fault occurs in the
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insulation.
An exemption to earthing of conductive parts is permitted if the system components and
installation comply with Class II requirements.
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Even when PV installations are Class II compliant, protective earthing of large area
conductive metal parts, which are within arm’s reach, could be advisable.
AS/NZS 3000 also allows for exemptions to protective earthing when the electrical systems
fulfil the requirements of protection by electrical separation and when they fulfil the
requirements of protection by SELV or PELV.

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PV arrays are frequently located high on buildings and therefore it may be advisable to
earth PV frames and structures as they may provide a path to earth for surge currents
induced by nearby lightning strikes. Earthing may also enable the operation of some

*
protective devices, such as fault current and residual current devices, in the event of a fault
to the frame of the PV array.

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D3 EARTHING OF THE PV ARRAY (SYSTEM EARTH)
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D3.1 Options of PV array earthing


There are two basic options regarding PV array earthing—

a
(a) not earthed, in which case the PV array voltage has no reference to earth. In this

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situation the PV array is also called a floating PV array.
(b) earthed, in which case one of the output conductors of the PV array or the centre
tapped in three wire d.c. systems is connected to earth.

ew
Earthing of current carrying conductors in a PV array is a very controversial issue. In
Europe system earthing is not required, and most PV systems there are not earthed. In the
USA, the National Electrical Code requires all PV installations with system voltages above
50 V d.c. to be earthed.
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The main arguments for earthing or not earthing the PV array are ironically the same,
personnel safety and fire safety, thus the controversy.
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The selection of one of these two possible schemes has to do with functional and protective
reasons. Either of the two approaches can achieve an acceptable level of safety in regards to
electric shock, fire hazard, and equipment safety. Each methodology has some advantages
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and disadvantages as explained in the following Clauses.


D3.2 Typical earthing arrangements for PV arrays
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D3.2.1 Unearthed (floating) PV array


In the configuration shown in Figure D1, the PV array voltage is floating and no earth
reference is established.
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FIGURE D1 UNEARTHED (FLOATING) PV ARRAY

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D3.2.2 Negative earthed PV array


In the configuration shown in Figure D2, the PV array is connected to earth in the negative
pole, and therefore the voltage to earth is well defined.

*
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FIGURE D2 NEGATIVE EARTHED PV ARRAY

D3.2.3 Centre tapped earthed PV array


rd
In the configuration shown in Figure D3, the PV array is usually divided into two segments
with the same electrical characteristics (rated power, voltage and current) and the
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centrepoint connected to the neutral of an a.c. system (through a non-isolated inverter)


which is connected to the MEN point and thus the voltages of sections of the array with
respect to earth, are well defined.
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FIGURE D3 CENTRE TAPPED EARTHED PV ARRAY

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D3.2.4 Centre tapped earthed PV array via capacitor


The configuration in Figure D4 provides a.c. coupling to the neutral of an a.c. system

*
(through a non-isolated inverter) which is connected to the earth at the MEN point. The
main difference from Figure D3 is that the centre tapped is capacitively coupled and

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therefore, there is no need to provide a separate centre connection from the PV array. The
capacitive coupling provides a path for transient and a.c. currents but not for d.c current.

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FIGURE D4 CENTRE TAPPED EARTHED PV ARRAY VIA CAPACITOR
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D4 COMPARISON BETWEEN EARTHING SCHEMES
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D4.1 Earth fault behaviour


D4.1.1 Floating systems
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A single fault to earth does not cause a fault current, the PV array can continue operating,
but the earth fault has to be detected and repaired for two reasons:
(a) The earth fault provides a reference to earth in a system which is supposed to be
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floating and, depending on the system voltage, this may pose a shock hazard to
unaware service personnel.
(b) A second earth fault in a conductor at different potential will produce fault currents,
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increasing the risk of fire.


D4.1.2 Earthed system
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A single earth fault can produce fault currents, creating a fire hazard. The PV array can not
continue operating, the earth fault has to be detected and the fault current path disabled. A
fault can be detected by measuring the current in the main earth. Interruption of the fault
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current can generally only be achieved by interrupting the main system earth (not the
equipment earth).
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D4.1.3 Capacitively coupled earth systems


A single earth fault may not cause any d.c. fault currents to flow but this is very dependent
on the inverter topology. The PV array may be able to continue operating, but the power
conditioning unit may not operate correctly after a single earth fault. The earth fault has to
be detected and repaired.

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D4.2 Electric shock hazard


D4.2.1 Floating systems

*
Generally speaking, the shock hazard from direct and indirect contact is low because the PV
array voltage has no reference to earth; therefore there is no path for current in the event

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that a person touches a live conductor and an earthed metal part simultaneously.

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There are counter arguments that indicate possible shock hazards:
(a) PV arrays have some capacitance to earth. The value of the capacitance depends on
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the type of PV modules, the array size and the environmental conditions (e.g. salt
mist in the PV array). This stray capacitance—

a
(i) could build a static charge capable of producing involuntary muscle reactions

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that could cause other injuries to service personnel; or
(ii) may cause significant currents to flow if the array has any high frequency
coupling (such as switching frequency) which is referenced in any way to earth.

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(b) PV arrays may have some leakage current to earth that provides an inadvertent
reference to earth and a path for shock currents.
D4.2.2 Earthed systems
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NOTE: Earthed systems include capacitively coupled systems as the typically large capacitance
could support dangerous shock currents for significant time periods.
Generally there is a high risk of electric shock because the PV array voltage is referenced to
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earth and earthed exposed metal parts are a very good path for shock currents. This risk can
be reduced by using nonconductive junction boxes and enclosures.
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D4.3 Fire hazard


D4.3.1 Floating systems
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Generally, the fire hazard from a single earth fault is low because two faults are required to
produce a fault current that could produce an arc and consequently a fire. It is important
however to detect, and at least install an alarm, so that if a single earth fault occurs, this
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fault may be corrected before a second fault develops.


Another approach to the protection of floating systems is to make them ‘inherently safe’.
This means providing Class II insulation throughout the installation, which may remove the
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need for protection systems, as the likelihood of a fault developing is very small.
D4.3.2 Earthed systems
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A single earth fault produces circulating fault current that can be difficult to interrupt unless
the PV array earthing connection is opened; therefore the risk of fire is greater because
there is a higher probability of d.c. arc formation in the event of a single earth fault.
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D4.3.3 Capacitively coupled earthed systems


Provided there is no failure of the coupling capacitors these are not generally capable of
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producing prolonged d.c. arcs in the event of a single earth fault.

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D5 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
D5.1 Battery systems

*
In PV systems with batteries, it is important to protect the cabling and the PV modules from
possible fault currents, which may flow from a connected battery system into the PV array.

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These fault currents can commonly be in excess of 1 000 A. To protect against possible

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damage from these currents, correctly rated overcurrent protective devices (e.g. fuses or
circuit-breakers) need to be used between the PV array and the battery system. The
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overcurrent protection would normally be rated to carry 1.3 times the I SC of the PV array
and be capable of interrupting the full prospective fault current provided by the battery

a
system (if a short circuit was placed across the terminals of the PV array) and have a
voltage rating of at least the full open-circuit voltage of the PV array.

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D5.2 Non-isolated inverter systems for PV arrays
When non-isolated inverter systems are used in an installation a number of important issues

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with respect to safety and fault protection need to be considered.
This can have an important influence on the earthing arrangement of the PV array itself. In
general, in systems with isolated inverters, PV arrays can be earthed or unearthed. In

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systems with non-isolated inverters, careful consideration of manufacturer’s instructions
and local Standards and guidelines become very important.
In the simplest case, a non-isolated inverter used in a grid-connected system, which is
referenced to earth on the a.c. side, may not be able to be earthed on the d.c. side without
rd
creating a fault situation. In some situations the installation of centre tapped earthed arrays
or capacitively coupled earthed arrays will be possible and hence provide a reference to
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earth on the d.c. side.


A system with a non-isolated inverter and a PV array that is not earthed may have high
frequency leakage currents through the stray capacitance of the PV array to earth. The
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magnitude of this current depends on the type of inverter internal configuration used. These
high frequency currents may flow in surrounding metallic structures or may induce currents
in persons coming into contact with the glass surface of a PV module. These currents may
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not be enough to cause immediate death by electrocution but may cause enough of a
tingling sensation to cause a reflex reaction leading to a fall, which in turn may be fatal.
The best earthing schemes for non-isolated PV arrays seem to be centre tapped earthing or
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neutral connection via capacitors. Both of these schemes avoid high frequency leakage
currents and are compatible with grid earthing. The scheme that is used is very dependent
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on the topology and type of inverter used and manufacturer’s specifications should be
consulted.

D6 REFERENCES
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1 ENERGIENED. Guidelines for the Electrical Installation of Grid Connected


Photovoltaic (PV) Systems. The Netherlands, 1998.
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2 NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION. National Electrical Code: NEC


2002. Thomas Learning, 2001.
3 IEA PVPS T5-01. Utility Aspects of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Power Systems.
Task V Report, December 1998.
4 CALAIS, M., AGELIDIS, V. and MEINHARDT M. Multilevel Converters for Single
Phase Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems: An Overview. Solar energy. 1999
vol. 66, No. 5, pp 325-335.
5 MEINHARDT M. et al. Multi String Converter with Reduced Specific Costs and
Enhanced Functionality. Solar energy, 2000, vol. 69, Nos. 1-6, pp 217-227.

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APPENDIX E

*
SUGGESTED METHODS OF DETECTION AND AUTOMATIC
DISCONNECTION FOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION

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(Informative)

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E1 FLOATING SYSTEMS
In floating systems, it is possible to detect earth faults by measuring the resistance to earth

a
of each active conductor with respect to earth. This can be achieved by means of an

Ze
insulation monitor suitable for d.c. systems (see Figure 2.1). Some inverter manufacturers
incorporate this feature in their products, in which case there is no need for an external
insulation monitor.

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E2 EARTHED SYSTEMS CONNECTED TO THE LOAD VIA AN ISOLATED
POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM
In earthed systems, earth leakage currents can be measured directly in the main earthing
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conductor of the PV array, or as the current imbalance between current carrying conductors
caused by earth leakage currents. In order to achieve isolation of the PV array and disabling
of the earth fault current path, the isolator must be located between the PV array and the
earthing point of the PV array as shown in Figure 2.1. It is also recommended to install the
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earthing point, the isolation device and the current detection device as close as possible to
the load or the PCU to provide protection of the whole PV array up to the end of the PV
array cable (see Clause 5.1.2).
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E3 GRID CONNECTED SYSTEMS CONNECTED TO THE LOAD VIA A NON-


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ISOLATED POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM


Earth faults on the PV array and isolation of the grid can be achieved by means of a d.c.
sensitive, or type A, RCD installed on the a.c. output of the PCU, as shown in Figure 2.1.
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When used, these devices must comply with AS/NZS 3190, AS/NZS 61008.1 or
AS/NZS 61009.1.
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APPENDIX F

*
LIGHTNING/OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION

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(Informative)

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F1 LIGHTNING PROTECTION
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A lightning protection system has the task of preventing severe damage caused by fire or

a
mechanical destruction if a direct lightning strike occurs on a building or structure.
Lightning protection systems consist of three essential components—

Ze
(a) an air termination system, consisting of metallic masts or rods of sufficient height to
divert lightning currents through their structure;
(b) a down conductor of sufficient cross-sectional area to conduct lightning currents to

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earth; and
(c) an earth termination system.

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For ground mounted or freestanding PV arrays, the need for a lightning protection system
should be assessed in accordance with AS/NZS 1768, and if required, it should be installed
in compliance with that Standard.
The installation of a PV array on a building has a negligible effect on the probability of
rd
direct lightning strikes and therefore it does not necessarily imply that a lightning
protection system should be installed if none is already present. However, if the physical
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characteristics or prominence of the building do change significantly due to the installation


of the PV array, it is recommended that the need for a lightning protection system be
assessed in accordance with AS/NZS 1768, and if required, it should be installed in
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compliance with that Standard.


If a lightning protection system is already installed on the building, it should be verified
that the PV array and associated equipment are within the protection zone of the system in
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accordance with AS/NZS 1768. If the PV array is not within the protection zone of the
existing lightning protection system, additional air termination(s) in accordance with
AS/NZS 1768 should be provided.
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When a PV array is protected by a lightning protection system, the metal structure of the
PV array should be bonded to the lightning protection system, unless the minimum safety
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clearances as specified in AS/NZS 1768 can be achieved.

F2 OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
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F2.1 Equipotential bonding


Damage caused by overvoltage is due to the failure of the insulation between active
components or between active components and earth. The intention of overvoltage
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protection is to equalize all exposed metallic sections of an installation to a common


potential during an overvoltage and to prevent insulation flashover. Equipotential bonding
is therefore a most important overvoltage protection measure.
To avoid the formation of wiring loops between earthed conductors and d.c. cabling,
equipotential bonding conductors should run parallel to, and as close as possible to, the d.c.
cabling. It is also recommended that the bonding conductor is branched to run parallel with
all the d.c. cabling branches.

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F2.2 Wiring loops


To reduce the magnitude of lightning induced overvoltages, the PV array wiring should be
laid in such a way that the area of conductive loops is minimized (see example in

*
Figure 3.1).

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F2.3 Surge arresters

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F2.3.1 General guide
Surge arresters are a very common method of protecting electrical systems and equipment
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against overvoltages. When these devices are used, the recommendations of AS/NZS 1768
should be observed.

a
Overvoltage protection with surge arresters should be provided when the PV power system

Ze
meets any of the following criteria—
(a) supply of critical loads (e.g. telecommunication repeater stations); or

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(b) the PV array has a rated capacity greater than 500 W; or
(c) the PV array is protected with a lightning protection system.
Many commercial PV inverters and charge controllers are fitted with surge arresters on the
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PV input terminals, and this should be considered when specifying the overvoltage
protection of the PV array.
F2.3.2 Selection
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The preferred type of surge arresters for overvoltage protection of PV arrays are metal-
oxide varistors (MOVs). These devices are voltage dependent resistors that have a high
resistance at normal circuit operating voltage, but their resistance reduces with increased
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surge voltage and current. Spark gap devices are not suitable for use in d.c. circuits as once
conducting, they will not stop conducting until the voltage across their terminals is typically
less than 30 V.
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Because the performance of MOVs deteriorates with repeated operation (their resistance
decreases), it is usual to allow a high safety margin in the selection of the device rating in
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lightning prone areas. Alternatively, facilities should be provided to give an indication of


device failure. The use of thermally monitored MOVs is recommended to avoid excessive
system losses and troubleshooting time caused by device failure.
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F2.3.3 Usage and installation


The following recommendations should be observed for the utilization and connection of
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surge arresters to protect PV arrays:


(a) A surge arrester should be connected between each active conductor of the PV array
cable and earth. Differential mode protection is not required unless the voltage
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protection level (VP) of the surge arresters is greater than 1 100 V.


(b) In subdivided PV arrays, the provision of surge arresters in both active conductors of
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each PV sub-array cable is recommended.


(c) The cable distance between the surge arresters and the PV modules should not exceed
15 m.
(d) Where the PV array cable exceeds 20 m, surge arresters should be connected at each
end of the cable, one set next to the PV array, and the other one next to the power
conditioning unit. In this case, it should be verified that the power conditioning unit is
already fitted with surge arresters.
(e) Junction boxes are a good place to install the surge arresters. Care should be taken to
connect them on the PV module side of any disconnecting devices.

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(f) The common terminal of surge arresters should be connected to both the conductive
PV array frames and structures and to the equipotential bonding system.

*
(g) Cables for connecting surge arresters should be as short as possible and avoid loops
and sharp directional changes

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F2.3.4 Recommended specifications for surge arresters

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The recommended specifications for surge arresters to protect PV arrays from overvoltages
caused by indirect lightning strikes are as follows: (refer to list of parameters for surge
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arrester selection in IEC 61643-12):

a
(a) Maximum continuous operating voltage (VC): VC > 1.3 × V OC STC GEN.

Ze
(b) Maximum discharge current (I max ): I max ≥ 5 kA.
(c) Voltage protection level (V p): VC < V p < 1.1 kV.
F2.4 Shielding

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When the PV array frame is bonded to a lightning protection system, the PV array cable
should be shielded by one of the following methods, and the shielding conductor should be
connected to earth at both ends—
(a) sN
with a metallic cable armour or shield with an equivalent cross-sectional area of
6 mm 2 of copper; or
(b) with a metallic conduit suitable as a bonding conductor; or
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(c) with an equipotential bonding conductor with a cross-sectional area of at least 6 mm2 .
da
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APPENDIX G

*
EXAMPLES OF SIGNS

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(Informative)

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This appendix provides examples of appropriate signs as specified in Section 6.
NOTE: The examples are for the case study of Figure J13 in Appendix J, where the array has an
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automatically operated grid protection device on loss of utility voltage.

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Colour: Black on white

FIGURE G1 EXAMPLE OF SIGN REQUIRED ON PV ARRAY JUNCTION BOX


(CLAUSE 6.2)
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Colour: Black on white


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FIGURE G2 EXAMPLE OF SIGN REQUIRED ADJACENT TO PV ARRAY


MAIN SWITCH (CLAUSE 6.3.2.)
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AS/NZS 5033:2005

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54

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rd
Colour: White on red

Colour: Black on white


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THE MAIN SWITCHBOARD (CLAUSE 6.4)

FIGURE G4 EXAMPLE OF SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE


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FIGURE G3 EXAMPLE OF FIRE EMERGENCY INFORMATION SIGN REQUIRED ON

*
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APPENDIX H

*
MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS

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(Informative)

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H1 SAFETY
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Attention should be given in the maintenance procedures to the following safety


requirements:

a
(a) Emergency shutdown procedure.

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(b) Obey all warning signs.
(c) Shut system down and interrupt PV array currents according to the manual shutdown
procedure.

ew
(d) Split strings into extra low voltage sections (if relevant).
(e) Warn of any live parts that cannot be de-energized during daylight.

H2 PERIODIC MAINTENANCE
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The following maintenance activities could be considered for inclusions in the maintenance
procedures, according to the location, size and design of the PV array:
rd
(a) Safety warnings and manufacturers recommendations.
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(b) Cleaning of the PV array might be periodically required in locations where it is likely
to collect dust or other shading materials.
(c) Periodic inspections should be carried out to check wiring integrity, electrical
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connections, corrosion and mechanical protection of wiring.


(d) Verify open circuit voltage and short circuit current values.
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(e) Verify functioning of earth fault protection (if relevant).


(f) Verify operation of tracking systems (if relevant).
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(g) Measure I-V characteristics (if possible).


(h) Perform seasonal PV array tilt adjustment (if relevant).
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(i) Check PV array mounting structure(s).


(j) Test operation of switches regularly.
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(k) Check for module defects (fracture, moisture penetration, browning, etc.).
(l) Verify status of surge arrestors (if relevant).
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A sample maintenance schedule is shown in Table H1.

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TABLE H1
SAMPLE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

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Sub-system
or Maintenance action 1) Freq 2). Remarks

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component

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Verify:
(a) Cleanliness (accumulation of debris Clean site as required.
Site
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around and/or under array). Quarterly


(b) No shading of array. Trim trees, if required.

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Verify cleanliness (accumulation of dust or Quarterly Clean if necessary

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fungus on array)
Check for visual defects including— Modules with visual defects
(a) fractures; should be further inspected
(b) browning; 1 Yr for performance and safety

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(c) moisture penetration; and to determine the need for
(d) frame corrosion. replacement
Inspect junction boxes for—
(a) tightness of connections;
PV modules (b)
(c)
(d)
water accumulation/build-up;
integrity of lid seals;
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integrity of cable entrance, glands 1 Yr
Any defective seals, clamps
and by pass diodes should
and/or conduit sealing; and be replaced
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(e) integrity of clamping devices.
Verify bypass diodes.
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Verify mechanical integrity of conduits. 5 Yr Any damaged conduit


should be replaced
Verify insulation integrity of cables installed 5 Yr Any damaged cable should
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without conduit. be replaced


Check junction boxes for—
(a) tightness of connections;
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(b) water accumulation/build-up;


(c) integrity of lid seals;
Wiring Any defective seals, clamps
(d) integrity of cable entrance and/or
installation 1 Yr blocking diodes and surge
conduit sealing; and
arresters should be replaced
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(e) integrity of clamping devices


Verify:
(i) blocking diodes
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(ii) surge arresters for degradation


Check earthing connections for—
(a) tightness of connections; and 1 Yr
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(b) corrosion.
Electrical Measure open circuit voltages 1 Yr According to Clause 8.2
characteristics
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Measure short circuit currents 1 Yr


Verify integrity of fuses 1 Yr

Protective Verify operation of CBs and RCDs 1 Yr


devices Verify operation of earth fault protection system 1 Yr According to Paragraph I7
Verify operation of solar array isolation device 1 Yr
Verify tightness and integrity of bolts and other 1 Yr
Mounting fastening devices
structures
Inspect for corrosion 5 Yr
1)
This list of items is not exhaustive but are examples only.
2)
Values for frequency are examples. Frequency will be site dependent.

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H3 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES


Operation and maintenance procedures should include the following:

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(a) A short description of the function and operation of all installed equipment. More
detailed information should be available from the manufacturer’s documentation (see

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Item (d).

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(b) Emergency and maintenance shutdown procedures.
(c) Periodic maintenance requirements including procedures and schedule.
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(d) Equipment manufacturer’s documentation (data sheets, handbooks, etc.) for all

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equipment supplied.

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APPENDIX I

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ADDITIONAL COMMISSIONING TESTS

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(Informative)

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I1 GENERAL
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The commissioning tests outlined in this appendix could be used as part of the tender

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process for large PV arrays (>10 kW).

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I2 OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE MEASUREMENTS
I2.1 General
This procedure gives a guide to open circuit voltage measurements in PV arrays with a

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large number of PV strings (20 or more) and where the environmental conditions and PV
array operating conditions are likely to change significantly during the measurements, due
to the time required for each measurement.
I2.2 Procedure sN
Before closing any switches and installing fuses, the open circuit voltage of each PV string
should be measured. The measured values should be compared with the expected value.
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Where required temperature corrections should be applied according to manufacturer’s
specification. Module temperature should be measured on the back of one of the central
modules of each string. Voltage measurements should be made with an accuracy of ±2%;
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temperature measurements should have an accuracy of ±1°C.


NOTES:
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1 Voltages less than the expected value may indicate one or more modules connected with the
wrong polarity, or a partial line-to-line or line-to-ground fault due to insulation damage
and/or water accumulation inside conduits.
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2 High voltage readings are usually the result of wiring errors.


The measured open circuit voltage of each PV string should be within 3% of the expected
value; if there is a larger difference, the PV string wiring should be checked (see Notes 1
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and 2) and the wiring corrected. Once every string has been verified, and if necessary
corrected, they should be parallel connected via switching devices and/or by installing fuse
elements.
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I2.3 PV Arrays and sub-arrays measurement


Once the installation of the PV strings have been verified and the strings have been
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connected in parallel, the open circuit voltage of each PV sub array (if relevant) and of the
PV array should be measured using the same procedure as with PV strings.
The measured values should be within 3% of the expected value, otherwise the wiring
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should be checked and corrected if necessary. In addition to wrong polarity and insulation
faults, defective surge protection devices could be the cause of lower than expected voltage
readings in the case of PV arrays and sub-arrays.
NOTE: Line-to-ground voltages in bipolar arrays should be relatively balanced around zero with
one line above zero (positive) and one line below zero (negative).
I2.4 Records
The inspecting personnel should prepare a report that includes voltage and temperature
measurements, and states the condition of the PV array wiring after the test, including any
repairs and corrections carried out as a result of the inspections.

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I3 SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT


I3.1 General

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The PV array short circuit current should be measured using the procedure in
Paragraphs I3.2 and I3.3 to further verify that there are no faults within the PV array wiring

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I3.2 Procedure
The measured values of short circuit current of each PV string, PV sub-array (if relevant)
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and of the PV module should be compared with the expected short circuit current value
calculated with the following equation. Current measurements should be made with an

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accuracy of 2%. Irradiance measurements should be made simultaneously with each short

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circuit current measurement; a suitable pyranometer or reference cell should be used to
determine in-plane irradiance.
I SC EXPECTED = n × I SC MOD × (G I/1000) × 0.95

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where
I SC EXPECTED = Expected short circuit current of the segment under test (A)
n
GI
=
=
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Number of parallel connected strings in the segment under test
Plane of array irradiance (W/m2 )
0.95 = Factor to account for mismatch
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NOTES:
1 I SC of the PV array or array segment should be measured with the array not shaded and
under clear sky with noontime conditions.
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2 The short circuit current of crystalline silicon-based PV devices is relatively insensitive to


variations in ambient temperature over a wide operating range (−10 to 40°C), increasing
slightly with increasing temperature.
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3 Other PV cell technologies may be more sensitive to temperature or to other conditions


such as spectral content. Additional constraints may have to be observed or modifications
made to the above equation.
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4 Some PV module technologies have a settling time when the electrical output parameters
are significantly higher than the nominal values. This should be taken into account and
the above equation modified accordingly.
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5 Low I SC measurements can indicate the presence of circulating ground fault currents in
the array due to multiple ground faults or shading.
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6 Higher than expected measurements can indicate an array configuration other than
expected or increased irradiance on the array not being sensed by the pyranometer.
The measured values should be within 5% of the expected value; otherwise the wiring
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should be checked and corrected if necessary. In addition to insulation faults, defective


surge protection devices could be the cause of lower than expected current readings in the
case of PV arrays and sub-arrays.
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I3.3 Records
The inspecting personnel should prepare a report that includes the current and irradiance
measurements, stating the condition of the PV array wiring after the test, including any
repairs and corrections carried out as a result of the inspections.

I4 INFRARED SCAN
A camera that is sensitive to infrared (IR) radiation can be used to detect areas of non-
uniform temperature. Temperature non-uniformities may indicate problems within the
array.

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I5 PV ARRAY TRACKER OPERATION TEST (IF RELEVANT)


Verify the operation and performance of array tracking mechanisms in accordance with

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I6 PV ARRAY I-V CURVE

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I-V curves of the PV array are a very good indication of the correct installation and
operation of the PV array components. Measurements can be made with programmable
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loads or capacitive loads. Measurements should be made in accordance with IEC 61829.
The Standard contains a procedure to extrapolate the results to STC conditions for

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crystalline silicon PV arrays. For other module technologies only the actual measurements

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should be reported and the test conditions specified.

I7 EARTH FAULT PROTECTION TEST (IF RELEVANT)


I7.1 General

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When present, the earth fault protection system operation and calibration should be verified.
I7.2 Measurements
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Current measurements should be made to an accuracy of ±2%.
I7.3 Procedure
(a) Establish that there is an irradiance level of 500 W/m2 or greater, preferably under
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clear sky conditions.
(b) Set the PV system in normal operation mode.
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(c) Using a variable resistive load, simulate a high impedance earth fault on one of the
unearthed conductors of the PV array cable.
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(d) Decrease the resistance gradually until the earth fault protection device detects the
fault. Record earth fault current level and/or resistance that trigger the earth fault
protection device.
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(e) If the measured values do not comply with those given in Clause 2.6.2 within 5%
deviations, make the required adjustment to the earth fault protection system until
these values are met.
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(f) Carry out the procedure for both the positive and negative conductors with unearthed
PV arrays.
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APPENDIX J

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CASE STUDIES DIAGRAMS

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(Informative)

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J1 GENERAL
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This Appendix contains examples of common configurations for installing PV arrays. It


should be noted that the examples shown in this Appendix are not exhaustive and that many

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other configurations are acceptable.

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J2 NOTES ON CASE STUDIES
(a) For the formulas to determine the minimum current carrying capacity of cables

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see Clause 3.4 and Table 3.1.
(b) For the determination of fault current protection ratings and location see Clause 2.4.
The fault current protection ratings selected in the case studies are the smallest ones

(c)
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likely to be commercially available within the allowable range.
All these case studies are based on crystalline silicon PV modules where IMOD REVERSE
is typically 2.6 × I SC MOD . Thus n p is equal to 3 (see Table 2.1).
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FIGURE J1 24 V NOMINAL, FLOATING ARRAY WITHOUT BATTERY


CASE A: LESS THAN 4 STRINGS

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CASE B: 4 OR MORE STRINGS
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FIGURE J2 24 V NOMINAL, FLOATING ARRAY WITHOUT BATTERY

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CASE A: 3 SUB-ARRAYS, NO FAULT CURRENT PROTECTION


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FIGURE J3 24 V NOMINAL, FLOATING ARRAY WITH BATTERY


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FIGURE J4 24 V NOMINAL, FLOATING ARRAY WITH BATTERY


CASE B: 3 SUB-ARRAYS, NO STRING FAULT CURRENT PROTECION
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CASE C: MULTIPLE STRINGS, NO SUB-ARRAYS


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FIGURE J5 24 V NOMINAL, FLOATING ARRAY WITH BATTERY
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MULTIPLE STRINGS, NO SUB-ARRAYS


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FIGURE J6 24 VOLT NOMINAL, EARTHED SYSTEM WITH BATTERY,
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CONNECTED
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FIGURE J7 48 V NOMINAL, NON-EARTHED ARRAY WITHOUT BATTERY, GRID

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CASE A: 2 SUB-ARRAYS, NO FAULT CURRENT PROTECTION


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FIGURE J8 48 V NOMINAL, FLOATING ARRAY WITH BATTERY


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NOTE: In this case study, the string cables need a higher current rating than the sub-array cables.
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FIGURE J9 48 V NOMINAL, FLOATING ARRAY WITH BATTERY


CASE B: 2 SUB-ARRAYS, NO STRINGS FAULT CURRENT PROTECTION
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NOTE: In this case study, the string cables need a higher current rating than the sub-array cables.
*
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FIGURE J10 48 V NOMINAL, FLOATING ARRAY WITH BATTERY
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CASE C: MULTIPLE STRINGS, NO SUB-ARRAYS, FAULT CURRENT PROTECTION *
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FIGURE J11 48 V NOMINAL, EARTHED ARRAY WITH BATTERY, MULTIPLE STRINGS
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CASE A: 3 OR LESS STRINGS, NO SUB-ARRAYS
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FIGURE J12 LV ARRAY, GRID-CONNECTED WITH NO SYSTEM EARTHING OF PV

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CASE B : 4 OR MORE STRINGS, NO SUB-ARRAYS


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FIGURE J13 LV ARRAY, GRID-CONNECTED WITH NO SYSTEM EARTHING OF PV d
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SUB-ARRAYS
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FIGURE J14 LV, EARTHED ARRAY, GRID CONNECTED, MULTIPLE STRINGS, NO

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Published on 28 January 2009.


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REVISED TEXT

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AS/NZS 5033:2005

Amendment No. 1 (2009)

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AMENDMENT CONTROL SHEET

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SUMMARY: This Amendment applies to the Preface and Clauses 1.1, 1.3, 4.1.2 and 5.4(a)(i).

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NOTES

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*
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a
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Standards Australia
Standards Australia is an independent company, limited by guarantee, which prepares and publishes
most of the voluntary technical and commercial standards used in Australia. These standards are

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developed through an open process of consultation and consensus, in which all interested parties are
invited to participate. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth
government, Standards Australia is recognized as Australia’s peak national standards body.

Standards New Zealand


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The first national Standards organization was created in New Zealand in 1932. The Standards
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Council of New Zealand is the national authority responsible for the production of Standards.
Standards New Zealand is the trading arm of the Standards Council established under the Standards
Act 1988.
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Australian/New Zealand Standards


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Under a Memorandum of Understanding between Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand,
Australian/New Zealand Standards are prepared by committees of experts from industry,
governments, consumers and other sectors. The requirements or recommendations contained
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in published Standards are a consensus of the views of representative interests and also take
account of comments received from other sources. They reflect the latest scientific and industry
experience. Australian/New Zealand Standards are kept under continuous review after publication
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and are updated regularly to take account of changing technology.


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International Involvement
Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand are responsible for ensuring that the Australian
and New Zealand viewpoints are considered in the formulation of international Standards and that
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the latest international experience is incorporated in national and Joint Standards. This role is vital
in assisting local industry to compete in international markets. Both organizations are the national
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Electrotechnical Commission).

Visit our web sites

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