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Period 4 Notes

Linda Tong

Empire of Wealth
American Yawp
Empire of Liberty

Mr. Beck
● 1803 Louisiana Purchase
○ Napoleon sells Louisiana Territory (530 mil acres) for $15 mil (negotiated by
Jefferson and Madison)
○ Napoleon recognized trouble/uselessness of territory across the ocean
○ Controversy: Constitution doesn’t state that presidents can negotiate without
Senate’s approval
○ More than doubles size of US → huge popularity with general public
● 1804 Lewis and Clark

● Barbary Pirates
○ 1804-1816
○ Barbary Pirate Wars
● Chesapeake Incident
● Marbury v. Madison 1803
● 12th Amendment 1804
● Embargo Act of 1807
● Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
● Macon’s Bill #2 1810
○ motivate Great Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the
Napoleonic Wars
● Expansionism
● Moderation
● War of 1812 (Mr. Madison’s War)
○ War Hawks
■ Clay and Calhoun
○ Free seas and trade
○ Impressments
○ Frontier pressures (Canada and Spanish Florida)
○ Tecumseh (Shawnee)
■ General William Henry Harrison
■ Battle of Tippecanoe 1811
● Indians defeated by William Henry of Harrison
● 1812
○ Invasion of Canada
○ USS Constitution

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

○ Oliver Hazard Perry and Great Lakes

○ Chesapeake Campaign and Burning of DC
○ Jackson - Horseshoe Bend and New Orleans
○ Hartford Convention
○ Treaty of Ghent 1814
● Treaty of Ghent
○ Respect
○ Canada is British
○ Federalists end
○ Nullification and secession
○ American Indians Surrender
○ Self sufficiency
○ Nationalism
● Democratic Republicans
○ Local rule
○ Limited government
○ Free trade
○ No monopolies
■ Tariffs
■ High land $
○ south/west
● Whigs
○ American Systems
○ Anti-immigration
○ NE/Mid Atlantic
○ Professionals/Urban
● 1824 - Corrupt Bargain
● 1828 - Jackson- Common Origins Myth
● Peggy Eaton Affair - JC Calhoun
● Indian Removal Act - 1830
○ Bureau of Indian Affairs 1836
○ Cherokee v. Georgia 1831
○ Worcester V. Georgia 1832
○ Roger Taney
● Trail of Tears - 1838
● Nullification Crisis
○ Tariff of Abominations


● Eli Whitney - born in Westboro, Massachusetts in 1765; invented cotton gin (roller with
nails that separated cotton lint from seeds) pg.85
● Northwest Ordinance of 1787 - forbade slavery north of the Ohio River pg.86

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

● John Kay - invented flying shuttle in 1733; made weaving (spinning thread into cloth)
faster pg.88
● James Hargreaves - introduced spinning jenny in 1764, which could spin 8 threads at a
● James Arkwright - invented water frame (spinning jenny powered by water wheel) in
1769 pg.88
● Edmund Cartwright - developed power loom in 1785; led to shift from home production
to factory production
● Samuel Slater - brought machinery for textile mill to America; created first American
cotton spinning mill in 1790 pg.92
● Francis Cabot Lowell - established Boston Manufacturing Company in 1815 pg.95
● Embargo Act of 1807 - Jefferson forbade American ships from dealing in foreign
commerce, and the American navy was deployed to enforce it; devastated New England’s
maritime commerce ⇒ repealed 14 months later pg.95
● Nonintercourse Act - replaced Embargo Act; forbade commerce with both Britain and
France’s America’s largest trading partners pg.95
● Protective tariff - tax on foreign goods to protect domestic market; protects profits in the
short term, but raises prices for domestic goods; opposed by New England shipping
interests and the South pg. 96
● Tariff of Abominations - protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on
May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States pg.97
● Nullification Crisis of 1832 - South Carolina declared that states had the power to rule
federal laws unconstitutional pg.97

Class Notes

Election of 1800
● Peaceful transition of power
● March 4, 1801 → Jefferson’s Inaugural address

Jefferson’s Inaugural Address

Big sketch
● Unity and conciliation → olive branch
● “Sincere consciousness task is above our talents” → will need help
● Minority possesses equal rights
○ Federalist #10
○ Either rely on stable majority (tyranny), or minority will matter and will require
their support

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

First Body Paragraph

● Reality of divisiveness → way to work through disagreement
● While majority will needs to prevail, it must be reasonable
○ Tyranny, not representative government
○ Checks within the 3 branches of government
○ People = purveyor/ultimate check on power of government
■ suffrage/election process/rise up and overthrow government
○ Supreme Court (lifetime appointments)
■ Beyond politics
■ Make wise judgements
● If we cannot unite around common set of ideals → dreary and bitter world with no sense
of common purpose
● Differences of ideals have led to oppression and agitation
● Why should we not oppress dissenting voices?
○ Use reason and political discourse rather than violence
○ Even something as significant as dissolving union
■ So repulsive to unity and stability
○ Counter with reason and example
○ persecution → proving them right
○ Do not make martyrs out of the enemy
● People are part of governing process → aligning interest
● Counterargument - representative government is not strong enough
○ Tyrant may force people, but will not be defended by people
● Founding fathers are not angles in the forms of men
○ System will produce good leaders over time
○ Federalist #10
○ There is purpose in doing collective good
● Why do people do good? Is there a way to be truly selfless? How do we create
selflessness? Commented [1]: political philosophy is really interesting
○ External reward (recognition)
○ Internal reward (I feel good)

Body Paragraph #2
● Reasonable (to minority opinions)
○ Does not undo economic system
● Responses to Washington’s concerns
● Individual liberty
● Tl;dr: People expect Jefferson to revamp government, yet he lays out some Federalist
○ Co-opts Federalist positions

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

● Political parties → ran on radical sets to opinions, but make adjustments when elected
and govern moderately
○ Must appeal to political identity ⇒ make shift to bring people in
○ Do not want to lose significant portion of country
○ Eventually Federalist party falls apart → Era of Good Feelings
■ Democratic Republicans run 3 branches for 24 years

Hofstadter - Jefferson: The Aristocrat as Democrat

● Pg. 25
● Pg. 30-31 (accomplishments)
● Pg. 32 (complex)
● Pg. 33 (agrarian vision; aspirational ideals, not reality)

Why title?
● Complex (Rachel)
● Rational vs. moral argument (Erica)
● Lockean ideas (Jake)
● Breaks down preconceived notions
○ opinions opposed w/ background
○ reconcile lofty ideals of liberty with their own lifestyle
● Compromises (BP)
○ Guided by practicality ⇒ accomplish common goal

Why is the mixture of pragmatism and idealism so important? Commented [2]: ??

● Divide between Federalists and Republicans
● Hofstadter is somewhat sympathetic and biased towards Jefferson
● “Not an angel in form of king”
○ Human and flawed
○ Romantic and sexual affair with 14 year old slave → rape
● Cannot reduce founding fathers to caricatures
● JFK dinner for American Nobel laureates - “finest and smartest collection of human
potential except when Jefferson dined alone”
○ Brilliant autodidact
○ Wrote and corresponded voraciously
○ Architect, inventor, engineer, farmer par excellence
○ Did not consider presidency as important part of his life

Jeferson and democracy

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

● Elective despotism
○ Collective human mistake and erring is better than not caring
○ Examples
■ State election - small turnout
■ Presidential election - appx. 60% eligible voters
● Suffrage does not prevent tyranny
● Lethargy → government can get away with anything
● Government is paternalistic in its impulses Commented [3]: what does this mean?
● Democracy requires involvement of people, from whom all political power stems

Agrarian ideal vs. economic reality (pg. 41)

● Cuts spending so significantly that he gets rid of significant amount of taxes
○ Reduces scope of government - less say in average rights of citizens
○ Laissez-faire - government is relatively hands off
○ Does not actively dismantle Hamiltonian System
○ Effective in making changes
● Embargo Act of 1807
○ Disaster
○ Wanted to “punish” world for disrupting American trade → cuts off US economy
from world → sends US economy stumbling into its first crisis
○ Repealed, economy recovers
○ Society and government far more reliant on trade than Jefferson imagined

Jefferson as a person (Beck commentary)

● Weak-willed and private
● Most important not because of Declaration of Independence but because he inhabits
unique moment in American history
● “Angels” are dead (Washington)
● New generation of leaders
○ Crisis over ideals and realities
○ What does it mean to be an active citizen? Who is meant to be an active citizen?
Should the economy grow at the cost of human suffering?
● Political parties matter
● Race and slavery are ignored by government, but dominate the affairs of men
● Physiocrat - old school Enlightenment philosopher
● Jefferson and Adams hated each other (Election of 1796, Election of 1800)
○ Enmity → amity
○ Correspondence reestablishes connection (only 2 left) - died on 7/4, hours apart
● The nation is different (including new leaders such as Madison and Monroe)


Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

Causes of the War of 1812

1. Free seas and trade - not harassed by French and British ships
2. British impressment of sailors
3. Frontier pressure (Canada and Spanish Florida) → desire for more land west of Appalachians
and invasion of Canada → Plains of Abraham (1759)
4. Tecumseh (leader of Shawnee)
a. Organized opposition to American settlement in Indiana
b. 1811 - Battle of Tippecanoe
i. William Henry Harrison

War Hawks
● Democratic Republicans from frontiers
● Secure trade across Atlantic
● Led by Henry Clay and John C Calhoun
● Young
● Felt older people were being too soft

War of 1812
● Not universally supported
○ Madison dragged into Declaration of War
● USS Constitution
○ Ironsides
■ Some naval successes off coast of Nova Scotia
● Many naval battles won on Great Lakes
○ Oliver Perry
● Britain harassed soldiers on Chesapeake River, gut White House, Madison's wife saves
Gilbert Stuart portrait of Washington

Andrew Jackson
● Battle of Horseshoe Bend
● Battle of New Orleans
● Treaty of Ghent (1814) - brings war to close

Hartford Convention (1814)

● How to end war
● Secession and nullification
● Federalists become associated with traitorous desire to end a war (?) Commented [4]: why?

Treaty of Ghent (Outcomes)

● Boundaries and borders stay the same
● No money, relationships, etc.
● For US, War of 1812 is successful because they didn't get destroyed
○ More respect on world stage
● Last time of annexing Canada
○ Firmly British

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

● Nullification and secession

● American Indians surrender
● Disruption of trade (Embargo Act, Non-Intercourse Act)
○ Bad for economy, but also self-sufficiency
○ South - food and raw materials
○ North - manufacturing
● Nationalism

Empire of Wealth, Chapter 5

A Terrible Synergy
● Economic benefit/human suffering (slavery, industrial workers)

● Rise of slave market (pg. 86)
○ More cotton→ more slaves (vicious cycle)
● Involuntary labor
● Sectionalism (pg. 87)
● Northwest Ordinance of 1787] Southern economy required slavery to increase economic
● Separation of 2 economies
● Cash crops prevented Southern trade/industrial growth/diversification (pg. 86)
○ Dependency
● Cotton → textile industry and innovation → economic surge

After independence, Northern states began to outlaw slavery

● Most by 1820, 1830s
● Even Virginia and Maryland found slavery less necessary after decline of tobacco, indigo,
rice, etc.
● 1808 - slave trade clause expires
○ International slave trade comes to an end
● Southern states think cotton production is “the next thing”
○ Use other form of sticky cotton
○ Comes in seed pod - burst by picking season
○ Pillowy cotton entwined by black seed
○ Very labor intensive
■ Picking
■ Seeds must be clung out
● Demand for cotton → expansion of Southern cotton industry → need for labor
○ Northern slaves
○ Slaves being bred and born
○ Smuggling from caribbean

1. HIgh demand, small supply → high prices of slaves → shift to large producers (terrible

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

a. Cannot manumit slaves

b. Even if opposed morally, cannot afford to get out
c. The more expensive slaves are, the more investments required
i. Capital and economy entwined with slavery
2. Cannot diversify economy (no capital left)
a. ⇒ 💥 Slavery is self perpetuating
b. Must protect slavery at all costs because perceived threat is existential
i. Must protect institution and economy
ii. Paranoia and fear of destruction of way of life
iii. Nullification and secession
iv. Slavery apologism
1. Religious, moral, educational, anthropological arguments for slavery
3. Indentured servitude is no longer a reality ⇒ race becomes associated with slavery
a. “Peculiar institution” of american origin Commented [5]: Some (e.g., Kenneth M. Stampp[1])
b. No easy way for anyone way to break cycle without self-destruction see this expression as specifically intended to gloss
over the apparent contradiction between lawful slavery
c. Ingrained race-based system and the statement in the Declaration of Independence
that "all men are created equal". But, in fact, at the time
Eli Whitney - cotton gin this expression became popular, it was used in
association with a vigorous defense of slavery as a
● Easier to process cotton → logically less labor, but really more production good thing. One of the leaders in using the phrase, and
in advancing the argument that slavery was a "positive
● Northern economic growth - Slater’s industrial espionage → higher demand for cotton good", establishing the proper relation between the
races, was John C. Calhoun, most notably in his
● Also very draining on soil Speech on the Reception of Abolition Petitions
○ Must leave fields for nitrogen to reenter field → need more land
○ Crop rotation - nitrogen draining vs nitrogen fixing

Demand for textiles

● Homespun fabrics not as effective as cotton
● English textiles become commoditized
● Britain expands empire into India and Egypt (more cotton)
○ Demand for US cotton collapses
○ Economic pressure increases → social and political pressures
● Slaves are expensive/difficult to maintain
○ SC - more slaves than non-slaves

● South does industrialize, but slower, harder, later (more competition)
● New England
● Rivers - access to power source
● Access to ports
● Fast-flowing streams in Greater Boston area

Empire of Wealth, Chapter 6
Labor Improbus Omnia Vincit (mainly about transportation innovations)
A) Erie Canal

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

● Significant economic impacts far beyond canal’s individual impact

1. Sets model for other infrastructure projects

a. Investors recoup initial investment within a year because it is so successful
b. Prompts large-scale infrastructure projects with private funding
2. Boon to New York stock market, where capital is raised and shares are traded
3. Connections Hudson River to the Great Lakes (Midwest)
a. Can get goods from OHio river Valley, territories west of the Appalachian Mountains
without having to go overland
b. New York becomes place trade transits through → financial capital of the United
4. General economic simulation
a. Lowered transaction cost → increased demand
b. Provided jobs → more people earning money, can afford to buy things
c. Multiplication Effect of Spending
i. Ex. pack of gum
1. Gum company, store, transporter all benefit
2. Sales tax - state can improve infrastructure
3. A portion goes toward the physical edifice → Employees of the store,
other utilities
4. Consumer spending is a power motivator for economic growth
(consumer confidence, etc.)
5. Spend money on local businesses (taverns, inns) → development of
towns and cities
6. Albany is closer to population center of NY
● Continues divide in diversification of Northern economy vs Deep South
○ North - wage labor - much more resilient in environmental changes
○ South - monocultures; subsistence farming
○ Allows US to become increasingly self-sufficient
○ Could exist without international trade Commented [6]: is this true?

B) Packet ships
● regular, scheduled service, carrying freight and passengers
● Increasing efficiency

C) Turnpike systems
● Private development of roads funded through tolls improve quality
● In order to make road attractive - fast, efficient, safe expedited travel
● Expensive endeavors - want return on investment

D) Buttonwood Agreement → Stock Market

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

● New York Stock and Exchange Board

● 1863 - New York Stock Exchange
● Why public ownership?
○ Raise capital (e.g. increase inventory, etc.) to grow company
○ Decide what portion of company to sell (can keep majority/control)
● Exchange = marketplace where shares are sold
○ Bank determines its approximate worth
○ Price is determined by investor/seller
■ Negotiating happens behind the scenes
○ Brokers broker deals (negotiate price)
■ Price is last price for which stock is sold (typically where it ends up at the
end of the day)
○ Now investors sell to other investors
■ Supply and demand
■ How many people sell their shares, how many people want to buy them
■ Based on investor’s faith in company and success
■ Investors want dividends (portions of profits offered to shareholders)

Election of 1828
● Number of states change requirements to vote = Almost universal male suffrage
● Jackson appeals to working class, poor white men
● Western frontier farmer vs. old privileged East Coast snob (does not understand what
real Americans need)
● “Common Origins Myth” = perception vs. reality
○ candidate who is most capable of connecting with average Aemrican
○ Denigrate overly educated, out of touch rich elite
○ Yet, Jackson was living privileged elite life
■ Largest Western slaveowner
■ Lived at Hermitage
○ Adams did not have massive estate
■ Small farm in Quincy, Massachusetts
○ “Someone factory worker cna have a beer with”
■ Ex. George Bush vs. John Kerry (New England - exeter, Harvard, married
Heinz, etc.)
■ perceptions and reality do not have to line up
○ VP - John C Calhoun
■ Leaves during Peggy Eaton AFfair
■ Shunned by wives (rumor she cheated)
■ Jackson supports Peggy because stress of public negative action took
Rachel’s life

Indian Removal Act (1830)

● Two supreme court cases

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

● Trail of Tears
● Jackson refuses to enforce Worcester v. Georgia; SC is weak and relies on executive

Nullification Crisis
● 1828 - Tariff of abominations - high taxes
● Force Bill - president can use military to enforce law

Democratic Republicans
- Local, limited government
- Do not like monopolies
- Working class in cities/south west

Andrew Jackson and the Rise of Liberal Capitalism

● Jackson appeals to rising middle class
● Relationship between government and capitalism
○ Less gov. restriction → democracy
○ Complete equality is not possible because of capitalist economy, but laissez-faire
allows equal economic growth
○ Government should not pass policies to reinforce existing social constructs but
also should not support underprivileged ⇒ liberth
○ Self-interest of upper classes tied in with government is bad
● Jackson is exemplar of American Dream
○ Western settlers were not incredibly successful in EAst
■ Unsatisfied with lives/looking for opportunity
■ Vehicle for improvement
■ Supporters of Jackson
● Jackson did not contribute to rise of democracy; elected as a result

How does Hofstadter describe Jackson as a person?

● Trusted popular decision
● More than one perspective → act in interest of the most people
● Combination of landed gentry and lawless fronteirman

How do Jackson’s opponents view him?

● Violent, always in duel
● Hypocrite
○ Large landowner/rep interest of poor farmers
● No ideological purity → more pragmatic
● Guilty of inconsistency
● Rise through society came naturally?
● Not member of Virginia Dynasty; nothing except popular support

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

Rotation of office
● People working in executive branch lose jobs at end of presidency
● Total refresh of government

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

Yawp Outline
Chapter 7

The Early Republic

I. Introduction
II. Free and Enslaved Black Americans and the Challenge to Slavery
III. Jeffersonian Republicanism
IV. Jefferson as President
V. Native American Power and the United States
VI. The War of 1812
VII. Conclusion

Chapter 8

The Market Revolution

I. Introduction
● Growth of America as commercial nation
1. Move from subsistence farming
2. Northern factories and cities
3. Middle class
4. Cash economy
● Negative impacts
○ Acceleration of American slavery
○ Laborers bound to whims of markets and bosses
○ Growing lower-class of propertyless workers
○ Series of depressions “panics”
○ Entrapment in cycles of poverty
○ Poor working conditions

II. Early Republic Economic Development

III. The Decline of Northern Slavery and the Rise of the Cotton Kingdom
IV. Changes in Labor Organization
V. Changes in Gender Roles and Family Life
VI. The Rise of Industrial Labor in Antebellum America
VII. Conclusion

● Transportation Revolution - Innovations included new construction of roads, additions of

canals, and the expansion of the railroad
● Internal Improvements - The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in
and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government
should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

● National Road - The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during
1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping
route and an important connection between the North and the West.
● Erie Canal - This connected New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. It
allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern
manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
● telegraph - A device for rapid, long-distance transmission of information over an electric
wire. It was introduced in England and North America in the 1830s and 1840s.
● Mechanical Reaper - Machine invented by Cyrus McCormick that could harvest wheat
● Steamboat - developed by Robert Fulton this was revolutionary because goods could go
up river.
● Corporations - businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock
● Dartmouth v. Woodward - 1816- A Supreme Court case, under John Marshall. The state
of New Hampshire tried to turn private university Dartmouth into a public school. The
Supreme Court decided that Dartmouth's charter was a contract between private parties,
and could not be interfered with by the government.
● Cotton Gin - Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now
cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more
slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
International Slave Trade - Ended in 1808 during Jefferson's presidency; domestic slave
trade continues
● Internal Slave Trade - By 1815, between 1830 and 1840 nearly 250,000 slaves were
taken across state lines. Most of the slaves came from the upper south (Virginia and
Maryland) and went to the lower south (Alabama, Louisiana)
● Putting out system - cottage industry, in which raw cotton was distributed to peasant
families who sun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their own homes
● Lowell Factories - Single white women from the country side were hired as workers and
the textile mills provided housing, supervision, and courses.
● Wage Workers - these are "free labor" or those who choose where they work and get
paid for it.
● Unions - A group of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher
● Separate Spheres - Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women,
especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives,
mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and
● Romantic Childhood - The idea that children are good and they are the closest to God
companionate marriage - marriage built on love, intimacy, and personal choice rather
than social obligation
● Irish Immigration - Caused largely by the potato famine in Ireland. Irish immigrants came
and received much discrimination due to their Catholic faith as well as exploitation in
factories and working to dig canals.

Period 4 Notes
Linda Tong

● Nativism - A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones. It is a

reaction to Irish Immigration.

Chapter 9
Democracy in America

I. Introduction
II. Democracy in the Early Republic
III. The Missouri Crisis
IV. The Rise of Andrew Jackson
V. The Nullification Crisis
VI. The Eaton Affair and the Politics of Sexuality
VII. The Bank War
VIII. The Panic of 1837
IX. Rise of the Whigs
X. Anti-Masons, Anti-Immigrants, and the Whig Coalition
XI. Race and Jacksonian Democracy