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Department Of Manufacturing

Kuliyyah of Engineering

MME 2131

COMPRESSION TEST

MOHAMAD AIDIL IKHWAN BIN MD ELIAS


1010993
SECTION 1
GROUP C
DR IRFAN HILMY
OBJECTIVE

1. To measure compressive modulus of elasticity and yield strength.


2. To observe the difference between compressive failure and tensile failure.

INTRODUCTION

A compression test is a method for determining the behavior of materials under a


compressive load. Compression tests are conducted by loading the test specimen
between two plates, and then applying a force to the specimen by moving the
crossheads together. During the test, the specimen is compressed, and deformation
versus the applied load is recorded. The compression test is used to determine elastic
limit, proportional limit, yield point, yield strength, and (for some materials) compressive
strength.
An axial compression testing is useful procedure for measuring the plastic flow
behavior and ductile fracture limits of materials. Axial compression testing is also useful
for measurement of elastic and compressive fracture properties of brittle or low ductility
materials.

APPARATUS

 3 different lengths of aluminum rods.


 Calipers.
 Universal Testing Machine.

PROCEDURE
1. Prepare all 3 types of test specimens and the ends of this specimen must be smooth
and flat.
2. Take and record the reading of the diameter and the length of the specimens.
3. Switch ON the Universal Testing Machine and activate the INSTRON program. Warm
up the machine to normal operating temperature to avoid errors that might arise
from transient condition.
4. The jaws of the test machine must be change to accommodate for compression test.
The specimen need to place at the center of the bottom plate. Lower the upper plate
close to the specimen.
5. Ensure that there is no gap between the specimen and the upper plate.
6. Set the machine’s working unit to S.I unit. Enter the necessary information about the
specimens such as the compressive range about half of the original length, the speed
and the stop criteria.
7. The load and the extension need to reset to zero and start the experiment and wait
for the machine to prompt the user for future action.
8. Save all the necessary information to the diskette.
9. Return all the tools to their proper places and make sure the machine is TURN OFF
before leave the laboratory.

RESULT
Comp. Stress vs Comp. Strain Graph #1
500

450

400 y = 2.5382x + 88.82


R² = 0.882
350

300
Comp. Stress vs Comp. Strain
250 Graph #1
Linear (Comp. Stress vs Comp.
200
Strain Graph #1)
150

100

50

0
0 50 100 150 200

Comp. Stress vs Comp. Strain Graph #2


800

721.9297
700

628.6836
600 y = 5.8192x + 157.69
544.7799 R² = 0.8733
500
465.4069 Comp. Stress vs Comp. Strain
400 402.6786 Graph #2
Linear (Comp. Stress vs
300 310.0948 Comp. Strain Graph #2)

200

100

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Comp. Stress vs Comp. Strain Graph #3
800
y = 11.366x + 126.57
700 R² = 0.8969
674.5665

600 586.0078

500 515.0854
447.6039 Comp. Stress vs Comp. Strain
400 #2 Graph
385.3471
Linear (Comp. Stress vs Comp.
300 302.8353 Strain #2 Graph)

200

100

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

DISCUSSION

There are two major tests that can be done to material that can be used in
production. There are tensile test and compression test. From the direct meaning, we
know that tensile test is done by expand the material, while compression test id=s done
by compress the material. In this compression test, we can determine the behavior of
materials under crushing loads. Compression test are generally conducted on standard
specimens but may be conducted on any specimen of known cross-sectional area and
the diameter of specimen. In this test, the specimen is compressed to failure in a
relatively short time at a constant rate. The force (load) on the specimen being tested is
measured by the load cell while the strain is obtained from the extensometer attached to
the specimen and the data is collected in a computer control software package.
Compression test can be done on various shape of specimen. The most common
specimen used for compression testing is a right circular cylinder with flat ends. Other
shapes may be used. However, they require special fixtures to avoid buckling.
In this experiment, there are several precautions that should be considered:
 The specimen should be placed at the center of the bottom plate and make sure
there is no gap between the specimen and the upper plate to make sure the
specimen not bent.
 The machines, its controls, its speeds, the action of the weighing mechanism, and the
value of the graduations on the load indicator should be familiarizing before
operating the machine.

RECOMMENDATION

1. Change the old computer to the new one because we need to a diskette to save all
the data.
2. Provide the gloves to avoid from any injuries.
3. Place the specimens properly to the place.

CONCLUSION

After finish this experiment, all of the objectives had been archived successfully
without any errors. When a load is applied to a material, it will experience a compression.
The axial compression test can use for measurement of elastic and compressive fracture
properties of brittle or low ductility materials. Then, we can calculate the compressive of
stress and strain and plotted the diagram. From that, we can know the elastic limit,
proportional limit, yield point, yield strength and compressive strength.

REFERENCES

1. Manufacturing Engineering Lab 1 (MME 2121).


2. Kalpakjian, S. & Schmid, S.R. (2006). Manufacturing Engineering and Technology.
6th Edition, Prentice Hall International.