Sie sind auf Seite 1von 92

Aircraft

Landing Gear
The Evolution of a System

Gerd Roloff
Systems General

Airbus-Deutschland GmbH

EYDC , GR , April 2002


Contents

• Review of Landing Gear History

• Struts and Shock Absorbers


• Tyres, Wheels & Brakes
• Landing Gear Systems
• Test & Certification

• Landing Gear Design


• Special Purpose Undercarrige

• Discussion

EYDC , GR , April 2002


Landing Gear Data

Weight: 2,5 … 5 % of the MTOW


Cost: 1.5 to 1.75 % of the Aircraft
Maintenance: 20 % of the Airframe DMC
Loads: up to 30,000 kg/wheel
Speeds: over 300 km/h
Rolling distance: up to 500.000 km
Life time of: 60.000 hours / 20 years
In-Service cycle: 20.000 hours (overhaul)

EYDC , GR , April 2002


History

The Beginning - Wright Brothers , 1903

EYDC , GR , April 2002


History

Etrich , 1914 / Albatros , 1918

EYDC , GR , April 2002


History

Messerschmitt Me 20 , 1928
EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Junkers Ju-52/3m , 1932


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Retractable Landing Gear , 1911

EYDC , GR , April 2002


History

Hydraulic powered Landing Gear , He-70 , 1932

EYDC , GR , April 2002


History

Tail Wheel - Type , Focke Wulf Fw 200 , 1936


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Overview of Landing Gear Types

EYDC , GR , April 2002


History

Advantages of the NLG-Type:

• Improved rolling characteristics


• Horizontal floor
• The Pilot has better visibility
• Easier ground handling (e.g. towing)
EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Nose Wheel-Type Landing Gear , Jatho IV , 1908


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

NLG-Type with Twin Wheels , B-29 , 1939


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

NLG-Type with Single Wheels, Me 262 , 1942


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Single Wheels , Convair XB-36 , 1946


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

8-Wheel MLG , Bristol Brabazon , 1946


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Overview Wheel Arrangements


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Tandem Gear , Boeing B-52 , 1954


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Convair B-58 , 1956


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

North American XB-70 , 1964


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Lockheed C-5 Galaxy , 1968


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Boeing B747-100 , 1969


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Concorde , 1969
EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 , 1972


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Airbus A320 , 1987


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Antonow An-225 , 1988


EYDC , GR , April 2002
History

Airbus A340 , 1991


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Landing Gear

General Requirements:

• Comfortable shock absorption


• Short stopping distance (braking)
• High rolling stability during ground manoeuvring
• Small storage volume
• Low drag (specially for fixed landing gears)
• High reliability and safety
• Low maintenance
• Low weight

EYDC , GR , April 2002


Struts and Shock Absorbers

EYDC , GR , April 2002


Struts and Shock Absorbers

NLG (Nose Landing Gear) , Airbus A300


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

MLG (Main Landing Gear) , Boeing B767


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

Overview Strut-Types
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

Telescopic-type MLG , Fokker F-28


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

Lever-type MLG , BAe 146


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

Semi-lever-type MLG , TU 154


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

4 Wheel MLG , Caravelle


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

MLG , A300 MLG , A310 MLG , A340


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

SCT - Supersonic Commercial Transport


MLG with Steering , B777
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

A400M
Aermacchi / Embraer AMX
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

A400M
EF 2000 - Typhoon
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

A400M
Lockheed Martin F-16
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

A400M
Boeing F-18
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

Rubber Shock Absorber


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

Rubber Spring Oleo

EYDC , GR , April 2002


Struts and Shock Absorbers

Oleo-Types
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Struts and Shock Absorbers

EYDC , GR , April 2002


Struts and Shock Absorbers

Active Control Semi-active Damping

EYDC , GR , April 2002


Tyres, Wheels & Brakes

Brake Tyre

Wheel
Brake
Discs

EYDC , GR , April 2002


Tyres, Wheels & Brakes

Bias Tyre Radial Tyre

EYDC , GR , April 2002


Tyres, Wheels & Brakes

NZG = Nearly Zero Growth

NZG Tyre
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tyres, Wheels & Brakes

NLG

MLG

Wheels
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tyres, Wheels & Brakes

Pre-rotated Wheels
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tyres, Wheels & Brakes

Brake Hook , Albatros , 1918


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tyres, Wheels & Brakes

Palmer - Brake Tube


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tyres, Wheels & Brakes

Drum Brake Multi-disc Steel Brake


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tyres, Wheels & Brakes
4 Rotor and
5 Stator C/C

Wear Pin
Temperatur Brake Piston
Sensor Piston
Housing

Carbon Brake
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Braking system

Dunlop Maxaret , 1948


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Braking system

SCT - Supersonic Commercial Transport


Brake Failure
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Braking system

Braking Parachute , Lockheed SR-71


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Braking system

Aircraft Carrier Operations


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Braking system

Aircraft Carrier Operations


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Steering system

Steering Mechanism
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Actuation system

Landing Gear Retraction, Boeing 747


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tests and Certification

• Landing Gear Certification is part of the


Aircraft Certification
• Test are performed at the Suppliers
facilities
• Normally 4 Prototypes are simultanously
used for:
1. Performance Test
2. Fatigue Test
3. Strength Test
SCT4. -Drop Test Commercial Transport
Supersonic

EYDC , GR , April 2002


Tests and Certification

Fatigue Test Strength Test


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tests and Certification

SCT - Supersonic Commercial Transport


Drop Test , MLG , A310
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tests and Certification

Rejected Take-off , B777


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tests and Certification

SCT - Supersonic Commercial Transport


Dynamometer
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tests and Certification

Over-load Tyre Test


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tests and Certification

SCT - Supersonic Commercial Transport


Tyre Failure
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tests and Certification

SCT - Supersonic Commercial Transport


Normal Landing , A330
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tests and Certification

SCT - Supersonic Commercial Transport


Landing under adverse Conditions , B747-400
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Tests and Certification

SCT - Supersonic Commercial Transport


One Engine out Take-off, A340
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Landing Gear Design

Airbus A380-800
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Landing Gear Design

Airbus A380-800
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Landing Gear Design

Airbus A380-800
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Landing Gear Design

A380-800
Airbus A380-800
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Landing Gear Design

Airbus A400M
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Future Trends

• Smart Shock Absorbers


• Integrated Control Units
• Improved Materials for Struts and Brakes
• Maintenance-free components
• More electrical Actuation

EYDC , GR , April 2002


Special Purpose Undercarrige

Otto Lilienthal , 1895


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Special Purpose Undercarrige

EYDC , GR , April 2002


Special Purpose Undercarrige

Multi-wheel arrangement , Ar 232


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Special Purpose Undercarrige

Air Cushion

Aircraft Ground Contact Devices


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Special Purpose Undercarrige

Skid , EC-135
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Special Purpose Undercarrige

Take-off trolley , Ar 234


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Special Purpose Undercarrige

Tracked Gear
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Special Purpose Undercarrige

Skies
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Special Purpose Undercarrige

Aircraft Ground Contact Devices


EYDC , GR , April 2002
Special Purpose Undercarrige

Ekranoplan
EYDC , GR , April 2002
Special Purpose Undercarrige

Seaplane - Amphibian
EYDC , GR , April 2002
The End

EYDC , GR , April 2002