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Statistical Planning

E-Learning Material: TLE IV Web Design

EDDE 221 Design and Evaluation of Multimedia Educational Materials • UPOU • September 27, 2010

raa • email: • UPOU 1

Statistical Planning
E-Learning Material: TLE IV Web Design


National Orthopedic Hospital - School for Crippled Children (Banawe Branch)

Miss Ramos is the TLE teacher handling Computer Education.

These photos were taken last September 1, 2010.

I went back to NOH-SCC Main to observe the TLE class of Miss Ramos. Some of her
students answered the survey questionnaire. However, I was advised to come back
after a week to get more feedbacks. The e-learning material that I developed
concentrated only on one lesson, Web Design. It is part of the TLE-ICT subject
recommended for the fourth year high school students (Philippines). Since NOH-SCC

is a special school, they do not have so many students just like in a regular school.
They only have one (1) section of six (6) fourth year high school students. I also
checked the data posted regarding the number of high school students in another
branch of NOH-SCC, in Sta. Lucia, they also have only six (6) senior students. They
also have one (1) TLE teacher.

More Data
I also checked with DepED NCR if they have data about number of special schools
and teachers in the National Capital Region. I did get some data such as the total
number of TLE teachers in NCR, public special schools with secondary education, and
number of enrollment in public special schools (secondary). If I need more data from
the different regions, I was advised to go to the DepED Main Office in Pasig City.

NCR Basic Education Data Map (September 2, 2010)

These data are necessary for statistical planning. A statistician can help out in
determining the number of samples, design of the survey questionnaire, and
appropriate statistical analysis.

Statistical Planning
To clarify some of my questions
regarding statistical analysis, I also
asked the opinion of another
statistician in UP Manila’s College
of Public Health, Department of
Epidemiology and Biostatistics. I
went to their office last September
3, 2010.

I was able to get a clearer picture of

how to improve my evaluation tool
upon consultation with Miss April
Furia. She also suggested the Likert
scale instead of Yes or No response
checklist in a survey questionnaire
format. She also made a comment
about Not Applicable or Do Not
Know in the choices as not really
giving an accurate answer. It is
difficult to interpret because it can
mean Yes or No. She recommended
the exclusion of NA or Do Not
Know in the response selection.

For small sample size like in NOH-

SCC Banawe, it is highly
recommended to make a descriptive
analysis. I can just relay the
response of the respondents
regarding the e-learning material.
For example, there are three out of
four respondents who evaluated the
e-learning material as acceptable educational material. I have to set the level of

acceptability if there is no prescribed standard.

For example, my level of acceptability is 99%
Yes per question. This is called Item Analysis.
However, according to Ms. April, I can also
make different levels of acceptability
depending on my requirement. For example,
apart from 99% Yes, I also want to have
another group with a level of acceptability of
95% Yes, another group with 90% Yes,
another one with 85% Yes, or 80% Yes. It
would really depend on my purpose. Let us
say I am going to use the e-learning material
commercially, such as tutorials with a fee per
hour, I’ll set my Yes at 100% for selected
items or criteria (example, navigational tool) while 90% Yes for font design. For
public use (which is free), I can set 100% Yes for navigational tool while the rest of
the items can have 85% Yes for approval rating. Sophisticated statistical tools are not
really required for small sample size. I can also set a level of approval rating per
respondent. For example, the initial requirement is 45 Yes out of the 51 questions per
respondent would qualify the e-learning
material as acceptable for school use.
For the next level, I can also set that I
must have five (5) approvals out of the
six (6) respondents to determine that the
e-learning material is usable as well as
useful and there is no need to revise.
Hence, the multimedia educational
material can contribute to the learning
needs of the senior students and TLE
teacher of NOH-SCC Banawe (Main).
Can I also implement the same e-
learning material in another NOH-SCC
unit? How about in all special schools in
NCR? Will it be usable and useful
nationwide? How about selling it to private special schools in the Philippines?
According to Ms. April, I can use different statistical tools according to my objectives.
To make a decision whether to revise the multimedia educational material or not to
suit a bigger population, a different set of statistical planning would be needed. For
example, establish first the objectives of what do I need to obtain such as levels of
acceptability for my e-learning material. Another objective would be to determine if
there is a difference between the evaluation of the students and the TLE teachers.
Instead of Yes or No, I can use Likert scale to determine the degree of affirmation or
negation such as Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. I will not
use Neutral, Do Not Know, or Not Applicable in the answer selection. Results from
the NOH-SCC Main can serve as my pilot test to determine the usability and
usefulness of the same e-learning material or revise it first for the next batch of
evaluation. With the help of a statistician, a stratified sampling and probability
proportional to size would be used to determine the target respondents such as senior
students in special schools and TLE teachers in special schools. All data should be
given to the statistician to get the accurate sample size and respondents. Ideally, all
respondents should be surveyed but due to time constraints as well as budget, we use
statistical analysis to get sample respondents that would yield valid and reliable results
for the whole population. In the Philippine setting, the schools are grouped by district,

by city, by province, and by region. With the complete data (senior students in special
schools, TLE teachers in special schools), the statistician can compute for the random
number generation to determine the sample respondents. Afterwards, further statistical
tests can be used to interpret the results such as Test of Association (Fisher, Chi-
square) besides frequency distribution, ratio of proportion (percentages), or measure of
central tendency (mean, median, and mode). What I did in the pilot test regarding the
level of acceptability can also be applied in bigger population. More statistical tools
are needed to determine a valid sample size to represent the whole population and
accurate interpretation of the results whether the multimedia educational material is fit
for use for all senior students and TLE teachers of the whole province or all regions.
Otherwise, the e-learning material should be revised as suggested by the results and in
compliance with the objective of iterative design which is continuous improvement.