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CHAPTER-14

ELECTROSTATICS
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. Five identical capacitor, each of area A, are arranged such that adjacent plates are at a distance d apart, the plates
are connected to a source of emf V as shown in the figure. (1984; 2M)
The charge on plate 1 is .... and on plate 4 is ....

2. Figure shows line of constant potential in a region in which an electric field is present. The values of the potential
are written in brackets of the points A, B and C, the magnitude of the electric field is greatest at the point .....
(1984; 2M)

A
B

C
(50V)
(40V)
(30V)
(20V)
(10V)

3. Two small balls having equal positive charge Q (coulomb) on each are suspended by two insulating strings of equal
length L (metre) from a hook fixed to a stand. The whole set-up is taken in a satellite into space where there is no
gravity (state of weightlessness). The angle between the strings is ..... and the tension in each string is .... newtons.
(1986; 2M)

4. Two parallel plate capacitors of capacitances C and 2C are connected in parallel and charged to a potential difference
V. The battery is then disconnected and the region between the plates of capacitor C is completely filled with a
material of dielectric constant K. The potential difference across the capacitors now become ...... (1988; 2M)

5. A point charge q moves from point P to point S along the path PQRS (Fig.) in a uniform electric field E pointing
parallel to the positive direction of the X-axis. The co-ordinates of points, P, Q, R and S are (a, b, 0), (2a, 0, 0), (a,
– b, 0), (0, 0, 0) respectively. The work done by the field in the above process is given by the expression.
(1989; 2M)

P
S Q x
R E

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6. The electric potential V at any point x, y, z (all in metres) in space is given V = 4x2 volt. The electric field at the
point (1m, 0.2 m) is .... V/m (1992; 1M)

7. Five point charges, each of value + q coulomb, are placed on five vertices of a regular hexagon of side L metre.
The magnitude of the force on the point charge of value – q coulomb placed at the centre of the hexagon is ...
newton. (1982; 1M)
q q
–q
q

q q

TRUE/FALSE
1. The work done in carrying a point charge from one point to another in an electrostatic field depends on the path
along which the point charge is carried. (1981; 2M)

2. Two identical metallic spheres of exactly equal masses are taken. One is given a positive charge Q coulomb and
the other an equal negative charge. Their masses after charging are different. (1983; 2M)

3. A small metal ball is suspended in a uniform electric field with the help of an insulated thread. If high energy X-
ray beam falls on the ball, the ball will be deflected in the direction of the field. (1983; 2M)

4. Two protons A and B are placed in between the two plates of a parallel plate capacitor charged to a potential
difference V as shown in the figure. The forces on the two protons are identical. (1986; 3M)
+ –

+ –
+ –

+ –

+ –
+ –

+ –

+ B –
+ –

+ –
+ Å –

+ –
+
+ ––

+ –

+ V –
5. A ring of radius R carries a uniformly distributed charge + Q. A point charge – q is placed in the axis of the ring
at a distance 2R from the centre of the ring and released from rest. The particle executes a simple harmonic motion
along the axis of the ring. (1988; 2M)

6. An electric line of forces in the x-y plane is given by the equation x2 + y2 = 1. A particle with unit positive charge,
initially at rest at the point x = 1, y = 0 in the x-y plane, will move along the circular line of force. (1988; 2M)

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (c) same as at a point 5 cm away from the surface


Only One option is correct : (d) same as at a point 25 cm away from the surface
1. An alpha particle of energy 5 MeV is scattered through
180° by a fixed uranium nucleus. The distance of 3. Two equal negative charges – q are fixed at points
closest approach is of the order of : (1981; 2M) (0, – a) and (0, a) on y-axis. A positive charge Q is
(a) 1Å (b) 10–10 cm released from rest at the point (2a, 0) on the x-axis.
The charge Q will :
(c) 10–12 cm (d) 10–15 cm
(1984; 2M)
2. A hollow metal sphere of radius 5 cm is charged such (a) execute simple harmonic motion about the ori-
that the potential on its surface is 10 V. The potential gin
at the centre of the sphere is : (1983; 1M) (b) move to the origin and remain at rest
(c) move to infinity
(a) zero
(d) execute oscillatory but not simple harmonic
(b) 10 V motion

249
4. A charge q is placed at the centre of the line joining 0) and (d, 0) respectively of x-y co-ordinate system.
two equal charge Q. The system of the three charges Then: (1995; 2M)
will be in equilibrium if q is equal to : (1987; 2M) (a) the electric field E at all points on the x-axis has
the same direction
Q Q (b) work has to be done in bringing at a test charge
(a) – (b) –
2 4 from ∞ to the origin
(c) electric field at all point on y-axis is along x-axis
Q Q
(c) + (d) + (d) the dipole moment is 2qd along the x-axis
4 2
5. A solid conducting sphere having a charge Q is 9. A parallel plate capacitor of capacitance C is con-
surrounded by an uncharged concentric conducting nected to a battery and is charged to a potential
hollow spherical shell. Let the potential difference difference V. Another capacitor of capacitance 2C is
between the surface of the solid sphere and that of the similarly charged to a potential difference 2V. The
outer surface of the hollow shell be V. If the shell is charging battery is now disconnected and the capaci-
now given a charge of – 3Q, the new potential differ- tors are connected in parallel to each other in such a
ence between the same two surfaces is :(1999; 2M) way that the positive terminal of one is connected to
(a) V (b) 2V the negative terminal of the other. The final energy of
(c) 4V (d) 2V the configuration is : (1995; 2M)
3
6. Seven capacitors each of capacitance 2µF are con- (a) zero (b) CV 2
nected in a configuration to obtain an effective capaci- 2
10 25 9
tance µF . Which of the following combination will (c) CV 2 (d) CV 2
11 6 2
achieve the desired result be ? (1990; 2M) ur
10. The magnitude of electric field E in the annular region
of a charged cylindrical capacitor : (1996; 2M)
(a) is same through out
(a) (b) is higher, near the outer cylinder than the inner
cylinder
(c) varies as 1/r, where r is the distance from the axis
(d) varies as 1/r2 , where r is the distance from the axis
(b)
11. A metallic solid sphere is placed in a uniform electric
field. The lines of force follow the path (s) shown in
figure as : (1996; 2M)

(c) 1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
(d)
(a) 1 (b) 2
7. Two identical thin rings, each of radius R are coaxially (c) 3 (d) 4
placedadistance R apart. If Q1 and Q2 respectively are
the charges uniformly spread on the two rings, then 12. An electron of mass me, initially at rest moves through
work done in moving a charge q from the centre of one a certain distance in a uniform electric field in time t1 .
ring to that of the other is : (1992; 2M) A proton of mass mp , also, initially at rest, takes time
(a) zero t2 to move through an equal distance in this uniform
(b) q (Q1 – Q2 ) ( )
2 − 1 / 2( 4π ∈0 R ) electric field. Neglecting the effect of gravity, the ratio
t2 /t1 is nearly equal to (1997 1M)
(c) q 2( Q1 / Q2 )/(4πε0 R) (a) 1 (b) (mp /me)1/2

(d) q (Q1 – Q2 ) ( )
2 + 1 / 2 (4π ∈0 R )
(c) (me/mp )1/2 (d) 1836

13. A non-conducting ring of radius 0.5 m carries a total


8. Two point charges + q and – q are held fixed at (–d, charge of 1.11 × 10–10 C distributed non-uniformly on

250
it circumference producing an electric field E every- Q
l =0

where in space. The value of the integral ∫ − E .dl


l =∞

(l = 0 being centre of the ring) in volt is :


(1997; 2M)
(a) +2 (b) – 1
(c) – 2 (d) zero
–q –2q
(a) (b)
14. A parallel combination of 0.1MΩ resistor and a 10µF 1+ 2 2+ 2
capacitor is connected across a 1.5 V source of neg- (c) – 2q (d) + q
ligible resistance. The time required for the capacitor to
get charged upto 0.75V is approximately (in second) 19. A parallel plate capacitor of area A, plate separation d
(1997; 2M) and capacitance C is filled with three difference dielectric
(a) infinite (b) loge2 materials having dielectric constant K1, K2 and K3 as
(c) log10 2 (d) zero shown. If a single dielectric material is to be used to
15. A charge + q is fixed at each of the points x = x0 , achieve the same capacitance C in this capacitor then its
x = 3x0 , x = 5x0 .... ∞ . on the x-axis and a charge – q dielectric constant K is given by : (2000; 2M)
is fixed at each of the points x = 2x0 , x = 4x0 , x = 6x0
A/2 A/2
..... ∞ . Here x0 is a positive constant. Take the electric d
potential at a point due to a charge Q at a distance r k1 k2 2
from it to be Q/4πε0 r. Then the potential at the origin d
k3
due to the above system of charges is : (1997; 2M)
q
(a) zero (b) 8πε x ln 2 A = Area of plates
0 0
1 1 1 1
q ln 2 (a) K = K + K + 2K
(c) infinite (d) 4πε x 1 2 3
0 0
1 1 1
16. Two identical metal plates are given positive charges (b) K = K + K + 2K
1 2 3
Q1 and Q2 (< Q1 ) respectively. If they are now brought
close together to form a parallel plate capacitor with 1 K1 K 2
capacitance C, the potential difference between them (c) K = K + K + 2 K3
1 2
is: (1999; 2M)
(a) (Q1 + Q2 )/2C (b) (Q1 + Q2 )/C K1K 2 K 2K 3
(c) (Q1 – Q2 )/C (d) (Q1 – Q2 )/2C (d) K = K + K + K + K
1 2 2 3
17. For the circuit shown, which of the following state-
ments is corret (1999; 2M) 20. Three positive charges of equal value q are placed at
V1= 30 V V2 = 20 V the vertices of an equilateral triangle. The resultant
+ – + – lines of forces should be sketched as in :
S1 S3
C1 = 2pF C2 = 3pF (2001; 1M)
S2

(a) With S1 closed, V1 = 15V, V2 = 20V


(b) With S3 closed, V1 = V2 = 25V (a) (b)
(c) With S1 and S 2 closed, V1 = V2 = 0
(d) With S1 and S 3 . closed, V1 = 30V, V2 = 20V
18. Three charges Q, + q and + q, are placed at the vertices
of a right angle triangle (isosceles triangle) as shown.
The net electrostatic energy of the configuration is (c) (d)
zero, if Q is equal to : (2000; 2M)

251
21. Consider the situation shown in the figure. The capaci- hexagon such that the electric field at O is double the
tor A has a charge q on it whereas B is uncharged. The electric field when only one positive charge of same
charge appearing on the capacitor B a long time after magnitude is placed at R. Which of the following
the switch is closed is : (2001; 1M) arrangements of charge is possible for P, Q, R, S, T and
U respectively? (2004; 1M)
q
+ – P Q
+ –
+ – S O
U R
+ –
+ –
A B T S
(a) zero (b) q/2 (a) +, –, +, –, –, + (b) +, –, +, –, +, –
(c) q (d) 2q (c) +, +, –, +, –, – (d) –, +, +, –, +, –
22. A uniform electric field pointing in positive x-direction
exists in a region. Let A be the origin B be the point 27. Consider the charge configuration and a spherical
on the x-axis at x = + 1 cm and C be the point on the Gaussian surface as shown in the figure. When calcu-
y-axis at y = + 1cm. Then the potential at the points A, lating the flux of the electric field over the spherical
B and C satisfy : (2001; 1M) surface, the electric field will be due to: (2004; 1M)
(a) VA < VB (b) VA > VB +q1 q2
(c) VA < VC (d) VA < VC

23. Two equal point charges are fixed at x = – a and x =


+ a on the x-axis. Another point charge Q is placed at – q1
the origin. The change in the electrical potential en-
ergy of Q, when it is displaced by a small distance x (a) q 2 (b) only the positive charge
along the x-axis is approximately proportional to : (c) all the charges (d) + q 1 and – q 1
(2002; 1M)
(a) x (b) x2 28. Three infinitely long charge sheets are placed as shown
(c) x3 (d) 1/x in figure. The electric field at point P is :
(2005; 1M)
24. Two identical capacitors, have the same capacitance
z
C. One of them is charged to potential V1 and the other
to V2. The negative ends are also connected, the σ z = 3a
.P
decrease in energy of the combined system is : z=0
– 2σ
(2002; 1M) x
–σ z=–a
1 1
(a) C(V12 – V22 ) (b) C(V12 + V22 ) 2σ $ 2σ $
4 4 (a) ε k (b) – ε k
0 0
1 1
(c) C (V1 − V2 ) 2 (d) C (V1 + V2 ) 2
4 4 4σ $ 4σ $
(c) ε k (d) – ε k
25. A metallic shell has a point charge q kept inside its 0 0
cavity. Which one of the following diagram correctly 29. A long, hollow conducting cylinder is kept coaxially
represents the electric lines of forces? (2003; 1M) inside another long, hollow conducting cylinder of
larger radius. Both the cylinders are initially electrically
neutral. (2007; 3M)
(a) a potential difference appears between the two
(a) (b)
cylinders when a charge density is given to the
inner cylinder
(b) a potential difference appears between the two
cylinders when a charge density is given to the
(c) (d) outer cylinder
(c) no potential difference appears between the two
cylinders when a uniform line charge is kept along
26. Six charges, three positive and three negative of equal the axis of the cylinders
magnitude are to be placed at the vertices of a regular
252
(d) no potential difference appears between the two
q
cylinders when same charge density is given to (a) The electric field at point O is directed
both the cylinders 8pe 0 R 2
along the negative x-axis
30. Consider a neutral conducting sphere. A positive point (b) The potential energy of the system is zero
charge is placed of outside the sphere. The net charge (c) The magnitude of the force between the charges
on the sphere is then : (2007; 3M)
(a) negative and distributed uniformly over the sur- q2
at C and B is
face of the sphere 54 pe 0 R 2
(b) negative and appears only at the point on the
sphere closest to the point charge q
(c) negative and distributed non-uniformly over the (d) The potential at point O is
12 pe 0 R
entire surface of the sphere
(d) zero
31. A spherical portion has been removed from a solid 34. A parallel plate capacitor C with plates of unit area and
sphere having a charge distributed uniformly in its separation d is filled with a liquid of direlectric con-
volume as shown in the figure. The electric field inside d
the emptied space is : (2007; 3M) stant K = 2. The level of liquid is initially. Suppose
3
the liquid level decreases at a constant speed v, the
time constant as a function of time t is (2008; 3M)

(a) zero everywhere (b) non-zero and uniform


(c) non-uniform (d) zero only at its centre

32. Positive and negative point charges of equal magni-


 a  –a 
tude are kept at  0,0,  and  0,0,
2 
, respectively.
 2  6e 0 R (15 d + 9vt )e 0 R
(a) (b)
The work done by the electric field when another 5 d + 3 vt 2 d 2 − 3dvt − 9 v 2 t 2
positive point charge is moved from (–a, 0, 0) to
(0, a, 0) is : (2007; 3M) 6e 0 R (15 d − 9vt )e 0 R
(c) (d)
(a) positive 5 d − 3vt 2 d 2 + 3 dvt − 9 v 2 t 2
(b) negative
(c) zero 35. Three concentric metallic spherical shells of radii R, 2R,
(d) depends on the path connecting the initial and 3R, are given charges Q1, Q2, Q3, respectively. It is
final positions found that the surface charge densities on the outer
surfaces of the shells are equal. Then, the ratio of the
q q 2q charges given to the shells, Q1 : Q2 : Q3, is
33. Consider a system of three charges , and (2009; M)
3 3 3
(a) 1 : 2 : 3 (b) 1 : 3 : 5
placed at point A, B and C respectively, as shown in (c) 1 : 4 : 9 (d) 1 : 8 : 18
the fitgure. Take O to be the centre of the circle of
radius R and angle ∠ CAB = 60º (2008; 3M) 36. A disc of radius a/4 having a uniformly distributed
charge 6C is placed in the x-y plane with its centre at
(–a/2, 0, 0). A rod of length, 'a' carrying a uniformly
distributed charge 8C is placed on the x-axis from
x = a/4 to x = 5a/4. Two point charges –7C and 3C are
placed at (a/4, –a/4, 0) and (–3a/4, 3a/4, 0), respectively.
Consider a cubical surface formed by six surfaces
x =± a/2, y = ± a/2, z = ± a/2. The electric flux through
this cubical surface is (2009; M)

253
4. A dielectric slab of thickness d is inserted in a parallel
y
plate capacitor whose negative plate is at x = 9 and
positive plate is at x = 3d. The slab is equidistant from
the plates. The capactior is given some charge. As x
goes from 0 to 3d : (1998; 2M)
x (a) the magnitude of the electric field remains the
same
(b) the direction of the electric field remains the same
(c) the electric potential increases continuously
(d) the electric potential increases at first, then de-
2C 2C
(a) − ε (b) ε crease and again increases
0 0
5. A positively charged thin metal ring of radius R is fixed
10C 12C
(c) ε (d) ε in the x-y plane with its centre at the origin O. A
0 0 negatively charged particle P is released from rest at
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS the point (0, 0, z0 ) where z0 > 0. Then the motion of P
is
More than one options are correct?
(1998; 2M)
1. A parallel plate capacitor is connected to a battery.
(a) periodic for all values of z0 satisfying 0 < z0 < ∞
The quantitites charge, voltage, electric field and en-
(b) simple harmonic for all values of z0 satisfying 0 <
ergy associated with this capacitor are given by Q0 ,
z0 < R
V0 , E0 and U0 respectively. A dielectric slab is now
(c) approximately simple harmonic provided z0 < < R
introduced to fill the space between the plates with the
(d) such that P crosses O and continues to move
battery still in connection. The corresponding quanti-
along the negative z-axis towards z = – ∞
ties now given as Q, V, E and U are related to the
previous one as : (1989; 2M) 6. A non-conducting solid sphere of radius R is uni-
(a) Q > Q0 (b) V > V0 formly charged. The magnitude of the electric field due
(c) E > E0 (d) U > U0 to the sphere at a distance r from its centre :
(1998; 2M)
2. A parallel plate capacitor is charged and the charging (a) `increases as r increases, for r < R
battery is then disconnected. If the plates of the (b) decreases as r increases, for 0 < r < ∞
capacitor are moved further apart by means of insulat- (c) decreases as r increases, for R < r < ∞
ing handles. (1987; 2M) (d) is discontinuous at r = R
(a) the charge on the capacitor increases
(b) the voltage across the plates increases 7. An elliptical cavity is carved within a perfect conduc-
(c) the capacitance increasees tor. A positive charge q is placed at the centre of the
(d) the electrostatic energy stored in the capacitor cavity. The points A and B are on the cavity surface
increases as shown in the figure. Then : (1999; 3M)
(a) electric field near A in the cavity = elecrtic field
3. A parallel plate capacitor of plate area A and plate near B in the cavity
separation d is charged to a potential difference V and (b) charge density at A = charge density at B
then the battery is disconnected. A slab of dielectric (c) potential at A = potential at B
constant K is then inserted between the plates of the (d) total electric field flux through the surface of the
capacitor so as to fill the space between the plates. If cavity is q/ε0 .
Q, E and W denote respectively, the magnitude of
charge on each plate, the electric field between the A
plates (after the slab is inserted), and work done on the q B
system, in the process of inserting the slab, then :
(1999; 3M)
ε0 AV ε0 KAV 8. For spherical symmetrical charge distribution, variation
(a) Q = (b) Q = of electric potential with distance from centre is given
d d
in diagram. Given that :
V ε0 AV 2  1  q
(c) E = (d) W = 1– V =
Kd 2d  K  4πε 0 R0 for r ≤ R0

254
A +q
q
and V = 4πε r for r ≥ R0
0 –q
Then which option (s) are correct : (2006; 5M) D C
O
V
B +q
r 4. Three point charge q, 2q and 8q are to be placed on
r = R0 a 9 cm long straight line. Find the positions where the
charges shold be placed such that the potential energy
(a) Total charge within 2R0 is q of this system is minimum. In this situaion, what is the
(b) Total electrostatic energy for r ≤ R0 is zero electric field at the position of the charge q due to the
(c) At r =R0 electric field is discontinuous other two charges? (1987; 1M)
(d) There will be no charge anywhere except at r =
R0 5. Three particles, each of mass 1 g and carrying a charge
9. Under the influence of the Coulomb field of charge +Q, q, are suspended from a common point by insulated
a charge - q is moving around it in an elliptical orbit. massless strings, each 100 cm long. If the particles are
Find out the correct statement(s). (2009; M) in equilibrium and are located at the corners of an
(a) The angular momentum of the charge - q is equilateral triangle of side length 3 cm calculate the
constant charge q on each particle. (Take g = 10 m/s 2 )
(b) The linear momentum of the charge - q is constant (1988; 5M)
(c) The angular velocity of the charge - q is constant 6. Three concentric spherical metallic shells, A, B and C
(d) The linear speed of the charge - q is constant of radii a, b and c (a < b < c) have surface charge
densities σ, –σ and σ respectively. (1990; 7M)
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (i) Find the potential of the three shells A, B and C.
1. A charge Q is distributed over two concentric hollow (ii) If the shells A and C are at the same potential,
spheres of radii r and R (> r) such that the surface obtain the relation between the radii a, b and c.
densities are equal. Find the potential at the common
7. Two fixed charges – 2Q and Q are located at the points
centre. (1981; 3M)
with coordinates (– 3a, 0) and (+ 3a, 0) respectively in
the x-y plane. (1991; 8M)
2. The figure shows two identical parallel plate capacitors
(a) Show that all points in the x-y plane where the
connected to a battery with the switch S closed. The
electric potential due to the two charges is zero, lie
switch is now opened and the free space between the
on a circle. Find its radius and the location of its
plates of the capacitors is filled with a dielectric of
centre.
dielectric constant (or relative permittivity) 3. Find the
(b) Give the expression V (x) at a general point on the
ratio of the total electrostatic energy stored in both
x-axis and sketch the function V (x) on the whole
capacitors before and after the introduction of the
x-axis.
dielectric (1983; 6M)
(c) If a particle of charge + q starts form rest at the
S
centre of the circle, show by a short quantitative
argument that the particle eventually crosses the
V A C B C circle. Find its speed when it does so.
8. (a) A charge of Q is uniformly distributed over a
spherical volume of radius R. Obtain an expression
3. Two fixed, equal, positive charge, each of magnitude for the energy of the system.
q = 5 × 10–5 C are located at points A and B separated (b) What will be the corresponding expression for the
by a distance of 6 m. An equal and opposite charge energy needed to completely disassemble the
moves towards them along the line COD, the perpen- planet earth against the gravitational pull amongst
dicular bisector of the line AB. The moving charge, its constituent particles?
when it reaches the pointC at a distance of 4 m from Assume the earth to be a sphere of uniform mass
O as a kinetic energy of 4 J. Calculate the distance of density. Calculate this energy, given the product
the farthest point D which the negative charge will of the mass and the radius of the earth to be 2.5
reach before returning towards C. (1985; 6M) × 1031 kg-m.

255
(c) If the same cahrge of Q as in part (a) above is the resulting capacitor. (1996; 2M)
given to a spherical conductor of the same radius
R, what will be the energy of the system? A
(1992; 10M)
K2
9. Two parallel plate capacitors A and B have the same d
spearation d = 8.85 × 10–4 m between the plates. The K1
plate areas of A and B are 0.04 m2 and 0.02m2 respec-
tively. A slab of dielectric constant (relative permittiv-
ity) K = 9 has dimensions such that it can exactly fill
the space between the plates of capacitor B. 13. Two isolated metallic solid spheres of radii R and 2R
(1993; 7M) are charged such that both of these have charge
density σ. The spheres are located far away from ach
A B B other and connected by a thin conducting wire. Find
the new charge density on the bigger sphere.
(1996; 3M)

14. Two capacitors A and B with capacities 3µ F and 2µF


110 V are charged to a potential difference of 100 V and 180
(a) (b) (c)
(i) The dielectric slab is placed inside A as shown in V respectively. The plates of the capacitors are con-
figure (a). A is then charged to a potential differ- nected as shown in the figure with one wire of each
ence of 110 V. Calculate the capacitance of A and capacitor free. The upper plate of A is positive and that
the energy stored in it. of B is negative. An unchanged 2 µF capacitor C with
(ii) The battery is disconnected and then the dielec- lead wires falls on the free ends to complete the circuit.
tric slab is removed from A. Find the work done by Calculate : (1997; 5M)
the external agency in removing the slab from A. C
(iii) The same dielectric slab is now placed inside B,
2µF
filling it completely. The two capacitor A and B are + –
3µF 2µF
then connected as shown in figure (c). Calculate
the energy stored in the system. A 100 V 180 V B

10. A circular ring of radius R with uniform positve charge (i) the final charge on the three capacitors and
density λ per unit length is located in the y-z plane (ii) the amount of electrostatic energy stored in the
with its centre at the origin O. A particle of mass m and system before and after completion of the circuit.
positive charge q is projected from the point

( )
P R 3,0,0 on the positive x-axis directly towards O, 15. A conducting sphere S 1 and of radius r is attached to
an insulating handle. Another conducting sphere S 2 of
with an initial speed v. Find the smallest (non-zero) radius R is mounted on an insulating stand S 2 is
value of the speed v such that the particle does not initially uncharged.
return to P. (1993; 4M) S 1 is given a charge Q brought into contact with S 2 and
removed. S 1 is recharged such that the charge on it is
11. Two square metal plates of side 1 m are kept 0.1 m again Q and it is again brought into contact with S 2
apart like a parallel plate capacitor in air in such a way and removed. This procedure is repeated n times.
that one of their edges is perpendicular to an oil (1998; 8M)
surface in a tank filled with an insulating oil. The plates (a) Find the electrostatic energy of S 2 after n such
are connected to a battery of emf 500 V. The plates are contacts with S 1.
then lowered vertically into the oil at a speed of (b) What is the limiting value of this energy as n → ∞ ?
0.001ms –1 . Calculate the current drawn from the battery
during the process. (Dielectric constant of oil = 11, 16. A non-conducting disc of radius a and uniform posi-
ε0 = 8.85 × 10–12 C2 N–1 m–1 ). (1994; 6M) tive surface charge density σ is placed on the ground
with its axis vertical. A particle of mass m and positive
12. The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with plate charge q is dropped, along the axis of the disc from a
area A and separation d, is C. The space between the height H with, zero initial velcoity. the particle has q/
plates is filled with two wedges of dielectric constant m = 4ε0 g/σ. (1999; 10M)
K1 and K2 respectively (figure). Find the capacitance of (a) Find the value of H if the particle just reaches the
disc.
256
(b) Sketch the potential energy of the particle as a force experienced by the charge q at this moment.
function of its height and find its equilibrium (2003; 4M)
position. 21. There are two large parallel metallic plates S 1 and S 2
17. Four point charges + 8 µC, – 1µC, –1µC and + 8 µC carrying surface charge densities S 1 and S 2 respec-
tively (σ1 > σ2 ) placed at a distance d apart in vacuum.
are fixed at the points – 2 7 / 2 m, – 3 / 2 m, Find the work done by the electric field in moving a
+ 3 / 2 m and + 2 7 / 2 m respectively on the y-axis. point charge q a distance a (a < d) from S 1 towards S 2
A particle of mass 6 × 10–4 kg and charge + 0.1µC along a line making an angle π/4 with the normal to the
moves along the x-direction. Its speed at x = + ∞ is V0 . plates. (2004; 2M)
Find the least value of V0 for which the particle will
cross the origin. Find also the kinetic energy of the 22. A conducting bubble of radius a, thickness t (t < < a)
particle at the origin. Assume that space is gravity has potential V. Now the bubble collapse into a drop-
free. (1/4πε0 = 9 × 109 Nm2 /C2 ). (2000; 10M) let. Find the potential of the droplet. (2005; 2M)

18. A small ball of mass 2 × 10–3 kg having a charge of 1µC 23. A solid sphere of radius R has a charge Q distributed
is suspended by a string of length 0.8 m. Another in its volume with a charge density ? = kr a , where
identical ball having the same charge is kept at the
k and a are constants and r is the distance from its
point of suspension. Determine the minimum horizon-
tal velocity which should be imparted to the lower ball, R 1
so that it can make complete revoltuion. centre. If the electric field at r = is times that at
2 8
(2001; 5M) r = R, find the value of a.
19. Eight point charges are placed at the corners of a cube
of edge a as shown in figure. Find the work done in
disassembling this system of charges. (2003; 2M)
ASSERATION AND REASON
This question contains, statement-I (assertion) and
+q –q
statement-II (reason).
1. Statement-I : For practical purposes, the earth is used
–q +q as a reference at zero potential in electrical circuits.
+q (2008; 3M)
–q Because :
Statement-II : The electrical potential of a sphere of
+q –q radius R with charge Q uniformly distributed on the
Q
20. A positive point charge q is fixed at origin. A dipole surface is given by
r 4πε0 R .
with a dipole moment p is placed along the x-axis
r (a) Statement-I is true, statement -II is true, statement-
away from the origin with p pointing along positive II is a correct explanation for statmeent-I
x-axis Find : (a) the kinetic energy of the dipole when (b) statemen-I is true, statement-II is true; statement-
it reaches a distance d from the origin, and (b) the II is NOT a correct explanaion for statmeent-I
(c) statement-I is true, statement-II is false
(d) statement-I is false, statement-II is true

ANSWERS
FILL IN THE BLANKS

ε0 AV 2ε AV Q2  3  kq12
1. ,– 0 2. B 3. 180°, 4.  V 5. – qEa 6. – 8 $i 7. (Attraction)
d d 16πε0 L2 K +2 L2
TRUE/FALSE
1. F 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. F

257
OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)
1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (a) 5. (a) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (c)
9. (b) 10. (c) 11. (d) 12. (b) 13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (d) 16. (d)
17. (d) 18. (b) 19. (d) 20. (c) 21. (a) 22. (b) 23. (b) 24. (c)
25. (c) 26. (d) 27. (c) 28. (b) 29. (a) 30. (d) 31. (b) 32. (c)
33. (c) 34. (a) 35. (b) 36. (a)
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)
1. (a, d) 2. (b, d) 3. (a, c, d) 4. (b, c) 5. (a, c) 6. (a, c) 7. (c, d)
8. (a, b, c, d) 9. (a)
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
3
1. Q( R + r ) 2. 3. Maximum distance from O = 8.48 m
5
4πε 0 ( R + r )
2 2

4. (i) Charge q should be at a distance of 3 cm from 2q (ii) Eelctric field = 0 5. 3.17 × 10–9 C

σ σ  a2  σ  a 2 b2 
V = ( a – b + c ), V =  – b + c  V =  – + c  (iii) a + b = c
6. (i) A
ε0
B 
ε0  b  , C 
ε0  c c 
 
Q  1 2  Q  1 2 
7. (a) Radius = 4a, Centre = (5a, 0) (b) Vs = 4πε  –  for x ≤ 3a, Vx = 4πε  – 
0  3a – x 3a + x  0  x – 3 a 3a + x 

Qq 3 Q3 3 GM 2 Q2
for x > 3a (c) v = 8. (a) U = (b) U = – 22
E = 1.5 × 10 J (c) U =
8πε0 ma 20 πε0 R 5 R 8πε0 R
9. (i) CA = 2 × 10– 9F, UA = 1.21 × 10–5 J (ii) W = 4.84 × 10–5 J (iii) U = 1.1 × 10–5 J

qλ CK1 K2 K2 ε0 A
10. vmin = 11. i = 4.43 × 10–9 A 12. CR = in K where C =
2 ε0 m K2 – K1 1 d

5
13. σ 14. (i) q 1 = 90 µC, q 2 = 210µC, q 3 = 150µC (ii) (a) Ui = 47.4mJ (b) Uf = 18 mJ
6

QR   R  
n
qn2 Q2 R =  
a
15. (a) Un = (b)U ∞ = Here q n 1 –  
r   R+r  16. (a) H =
8πε0 R 8πε0 r 2   3

 1 q2 
17. (v0 )min = 3m/s, K = 3 × 10–4 J 18. 5.86 m/s 19. W = 5.824  4πε a 
 0 

ur ( σ1 – σ2 )qa 1/3
21. W = 22. V' = V  q 
qp pq $i
20. (a) KE = (b) F =
2ε0  3t 
23. a=2
4πε 0 d 2 2πε0 d 3  
ASSERTION AND REASION
1. (b)

258
SOLUTIONS

FILL IN THE BLANKS ur  ∂V $ ∂ V $ ∂ V $ 


E = – i+ j+
∂z 
k
∈0 A 6.
 ∂x ∂y
1. C=
d V = 4x2
∂V ∂V ∂V
Therefore, = 8 x and =0=
∂x ∂y ∂z
ur
E = – 8 x $i
ur
or E at (1m, 0.2m) is – 8 i$ V/m

7. Force on – q due to charges at 1 and 4 are equal and


opposite. Similarly, forces on – q due to charges at 2
and 5 are also equal and opposite. Therefore, net force
on – q due to charge at 1, 2, 4 and 5 is zero. Only
unbalanced force is between – q and + q at 3 which

∈0 AV 1 q2 q2
Q1 = c(V − 0) = is equal to and 9.0 × 109 (attraction)
d 4πε 0 L2 L2
Q 4 = C ( 0 − V ) + C( 0 − V ) TRUE FALSE
∈0 AV 1. Electrostatic force is conservative in nature and in
= −2CV = −2
d conservative force field work done is path indepen-
dent.

dV 2. Mass of negatively charged sphere will be slightly


2. is greatest for B. more than the mass of positively charged sphere
dr
because some electrons will be given to the negatively
charged sphere while some electrons will be taken out
3. Due to electrostatic repulsion the charges will move as from the positively charged sphere.
farthest as possible and the angle between the two
string will be 180°. Tension in each string will be equal 3. When X-rays fall on the metal
to electrostatic repulsion between the two charges. ball, some electrons are emited
Thus, from it due to photoelectric effect.
The ball thus gets positively
1 Q×Q Q2 charged and on a positively
T = Fe = 4πε =
0 (2 L )
2
16πε0 L2 charged ball an electrostatic force
in the direction of electric field
4. Total charge will remain uncharged. acts. due to this force ball gets
Hence Q = Q' deflected in the direction of elec-
or 3CV = (KC + 2C)' tric field.
 3 
∴ V' =  V
4. Electric field between the plates of capacitor is almost
K +2 uniform. Therefore, force on both the protons will be
identical. It hardly matters whether they are placed
ur r r near positive plate or negative plate.
5. WFe = F.d ( d = displacement)
ur uur 5. Motion is simple harmonic only when charge – q is not
= ( qE$i).  rs . – rp  very far from the centre of ring on its axis. Otherwise
motion is periodic but not simple harmonic in nature.
= ( qE$i). (–a$i – b$j
6. Electric lines force does not represent the path of the
= – qEa charged particle but tangent to the path at any point
on the line shows the direction of electric force on it

259
and it is not always necessary that motion of the (10)(1) 10
particle is in the direction of force acting on it. ∴ Cnet = = µF
10 + 1 11
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)
1. From conservation of mechanical energy
decrease in kinetic energy = increase in potential energy
1 ( Ze)(2e) 1µ F
or 4π ∈0 rmin = 5 MeV
10µF
= 5 × 1.6 × 10–13 J
7. VC1 = VQ1 + VQ2
+ Ze + 2e (Z = 92)
1 Q1 1 Q1
rmin = 4πε R + 4πε
0 0 R 2

1 2Ze 2 1  Q 
∴ = Q1 + 2 
4πε 0 R 
rmin =
4π ∈0 5 × 1.6 × 10 –13 2
Q2
(9 × 109 )(2)(92)(1.6 ×10–19 ) 2 Q1
=
5× 1.6 × 10–13 R 2
R
= 5.3 × 10–14 m = 5.3 × 10 –12 cm
i.e., rmin is of the order of 10–12 cm. C1 R C2
∴ correct option is (c).
2. Electric potential at any point inside a hollow metallic 1  Q 
Similarly, VC2 = Q2 + 1 
4πε 0 R 
sphere is constant. Therefore, if potential at surface is
2
10 V, potential at centre will also be 10 V.
3. Motion is simple harmonic only if Q is released from ∴ ∆V = VC1 – VC2
a point very far from the origin on x-axis. Otherwise
motion is periodic but not simple harmonic. 1  1 
= ( Q1 – Q2 ) – ( Q1 – Q2 )
4. Since, q is at the centre of two charges Q and Q, net 4πε0 R  2 
force on it is zero, whatever the magnitude and sign of
charge on it. For the equilibrium of Q, q should be =
(Q1 – Q2 )
2(4πε0 R)
( 2–1 )
negative because other charge q will repel it, so q

( )
should attract it. Simultaneously these attractions and
repulsions should be equal. W = q∆V = q (Q1 – Q2 ) 2 – 1 / 2(4πε R)
0

Q q Q 8. The diagramatic representation of the given question


is shown in figure.
1 QQ 1 Qq
= Eq
4πε 0 r 2
4πε 0 ( r / 2) 2
y
E
Q
or q= E–q
4
x
Q
or with sign q= –
4
∴ correct option is (b).
q –q
5. In such situation potential difference depends only on (– d, 0) (d, 0)
ur
the charge on inner sphere. Since, charge on inner The electrical field E at all points on the x-axis will not
sphere is unchanged. Therefore, potential difference V have the same direcion.
will remain unchanged. For – d ≤ x < d, electric field is along positive x-axis
while for all other points it is along negative x-axis.
C1C2 ur
6. In series, C = The electric field E at all points on the y-axis will be
C1 + C2
260
12. Electrostatic force, Fe = eE (for both the particle). But
parallel to the x-axis (i.e., $i )
acceleration of electron, a e = Fe/me and acceleration of
(option c)
proton, a p = Fe/mp
The electrical potential at the origin due to both the
charges is zero, hence, no work is done in bringing a 1 1
S= ae t12 = a p t22
test charge from infinity to the oriign. 2 2
Dipole moment is directed from the –q charge to the
t2 ae mp
+ q charge (i.e., – $i direction). ∴ =
t1 = ap me
9. Q1′ + Q2 ′ = 3CV
l = 0 uruur l =0
Q=CV
1
Q=4CV
2 13. – ∫ . = – ∫l =∞ dV = V (centre) – V (infinity)
Edl
+ – l=∞
+ – but V (infinity) = 0
Q1′
+ l = 0 uruur
∴ – ∫ Edl . corresponds to potential at centre of
l=∞

1 q
ring. and V (centre) = .
4πε0 R

Q2′ (9 × 109 )(1.11× 10–10 )
= ≈ 2 volt
Q1′ Q 2 ′ 0.5
= ⇒ Q 2′ = 2Q1 ′
C 2C
14. Since, the capacitor plates are directly connected to
⇒ 3Q1′ = 3CV ⇒ Q1′ = CV ⇒ Q2 ′ = 2CV the battery, it will take no time in charging.

Q1′ 2 Q2′ 2 C
Ef = +
2C 4C
R
1 4CV 2 3
= CV 2 + = CV 2
2 4 2
V
10. The magnitude of electric field at a distance r from the
λ 15. Potential at origin will be given by
axis is given as E =
q  1 – 1 + 1 – 1 x + ....
2πε 0r
V=  0 
4πε0  x0 2x0 3 x0 4 

q
. 1  1 1 1 
1– 2 + 3 – 4 + ....
=
4πε0 x0  
q ln 2
=
4πε0 x 0
ur ur ur
16. Electric field within the plates E = EQ1 + EQ2

E
1
i.e., E∝
r
Here, λ is the charge per unit length of the capacitor
+Q1 +Q2
11. Electric field lines never enter a metallic conductor (E E1 E2
= 0, inside a conductor) and they fall normally on the
surface of a metallic conductor (because whole surface
is at same potential and lines are perpendicular to
equipotential surface).
261
E = E1 – E2
 KK K2K3 
Q1 Q2 =  1 2 + C = K eqC

= 2Aε – 2 Aε  K1 + K 2 K 2 + K3 
0 0
K1 K 2 K2K3
Q1 – Q2 ⇒ K eq = +
E = 2 Aε K1 + K 2 K 2 + K 3
0
Potential difference between the plates 20. Electric lines of force never form a closed loop. there-
 Q1 – Q2  fore, options (b) and (d) are wrong. Electric lines of
VA – VB = E.d =  d force emanate from positive charge and terminate on
 2 Aε0  negative charge, therefore, option (a) is also wrong.
Q1 – Q2
= 21. Due to attraction with positive charge, the negative
 Aε  charge on capacitor A will not flow through the switch
2 0 
 d  S.

Q1 – Q2 22. Potential decreases in the direction of electric field.


=
2C Dotted lines are equipotential lines.
17. When S 3 is closed, due to attraction with opposite ∴ V A = VC and V A > V B
y
charge, no flow of charge takes place through S3 .
Therefore, potential difference across capacitor plates
remains unchanged so, V1 = 30 V and V2 = 20 V. C
18. Net electrostatic energy of the configuration will be
X
A B
 q.q Q.q Q .q  1
U=  + +  Here, K =
 a 2a a  4πε0 E

–2q q q q q
Q = Q Q
2+ 2 23. x= – a x = 0 x = + a x= – a x = x x = a
A Initial position Final position
K1 ∈0
19. C1 = 2 = K1 ∈0 A 2KQq
d d Ui =
A/2
a
2 d/2 K1 C1 K2 C2 d/2

 1 1 
K 3 ∈0 A Uf = KQq  +
– x 
and
C2 = d/2 K3 C3 K4 C4 d/2
 a + x a
d
1
Here, K=
K 2 ∈0 A 4πε0
C3 =
d ∆U = Uf – Ui

K 3 ∈0 A 2
C4 = or |∆U| = 2KQqx for x < < a
d a3
∈0 A ∴ ∆U ∝ x2
Let =C
d 24. ∆U = decrease in potential energy
= Ui – Uf
C1C2 CC
Ceq = + 3 4
C1 + C 2 C3 + C 4
( )
2
1 1 V +V 
= C V12 + V22 = (2C )  1 2 
( K1C )( K 2C ) ( K 2C )( K3C )
2 2  2 
= +
( K1 + K 2 ) C K2 + K3
( )
1 2
= C V1 – V2
4

262
25. Electric field is zero everywhere inside a metal (con-
q2
ductor) i.e., field lines do not enter a metal. =
Simltaneously these are perpendicular to a metal sur- 54 pe 0 R 2
face (equipotential surfaces).
∈0 A 2∈ A CC
26. According to option (d) the electric field due to P and 34. C1 = , C2 = 0 , C = 1 2
 2d  d C1 + C2
S and due to q and T add to zero. While due to U and  + vt − vt
R will be added up. Hence, the correct option is (d).  3  3

27. At any point over the spherical Gussian surface, net 2d 2d


electric field is the vector sum of electric fields due to + vt + vt
3 3
+ q 1 , – q 1 and q 2 ,
Hence, the correct option is (c). K=2

28. All the three plates will produce electric field at P


along negative z-axis. Hence,
2(∈0 A) 2
 σ Ceq =
ur 2σ σ  $  2d  d 
E p =  2ε + 2ε + 2ε  (–k )  + vt  − vt 
 0 0 0  3  3 
2σ $
= – k 2(∈0 A) 2
ε0
 2d  d 
∴ Correct answer is (b).  + vt  − vt 
Ceq =  3  3 
29. There will be an electric field between two cylinders d 4d 
(using Gauss theorem). This electric field will produce ∈0 A − vt + + 2vt 
3 3 
a potential difference.
 2d  d 
∴ Answer is (a).  + vt  − vt 
 3  3 
30. Charge will be induced on the conducting sphere, but
net charge on it will be zero. 2 ∈0 A 6 ∈0 A
∴ Option (d) is correct. = = A = 1m 2
5d 5d + 3vt
+ vt
31. Inside the cavity, field at any point is uniform and non- 3
zero.
6 ∈0 R
Therefore, correct option is (b). τ = RCeq =
5d + 3vt
32. A = (–a, 0, 0)
B = (0, a, 0)
Q1 Q1 + Q2 Q1 + Q 2 + Q 3
y 35. = =
4πR 2
4π( 2R ) 2
4π(3R ) 2 Q1 +Q2 Q1+ Q2+Q3
Q1
B –Q Q1 + Q2 Q1 + Q 2 + Q3 -Q1
Q1 = = 3R R

A x 4 9 2R
z Q -( Q1 +Q2)
⇒ Q1 : Q2 : Q3 = 1 : 3 : 5
Point charge is moved from A to B ∴ (b)
VA = VB = 0 ∴W= 0
qencl . 1 2C
36. φ = ε = ε (3C + 2C − 7C) = − ε
or the correct option is (c).
0 0 0
33. Distance BC = AB sin 60º ∴ (a)
3
= (2 R ) = 3R OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE
2 OPTION)
1 (q / 3)(2 q / 3) 1. When dielectric slab is introduced capacity gets in-
∴ Fe BC = 4 pe 2 creased while potential difference remains uncharged.
0 ( 3R )
263
∴ V = V0 , C < C 0 ent points are shown in figure. The direction of the
Q = CV ∴ Q > Q0 electric field remains the same. Hence, option (b) is
1 correct. Simlarly, electric lines always flow from higher
U= CV 2 ∴ U > U0 to lower potential, therefore, electric potential increases
2
continuously as we move from x = 0 to x = 3d.
V q qi qi
E= but E and d both are unchanged. Therefore, E – + – +
D
= E0 Therefore, correct options are (a) and (d). – +
– + – +
2 Chargingbatteryisremoved.Thereforeq,= constant – +
Distance between the plates is increased. Therefore C – + – +
decreases – +
q – +
Now, V = , q is constant and C is decreasing. – – +
C +
– E0/k +
Therefore, V should increase. E E0
x = 0 0 x = d x = 2d x = 3d
1 q2 Therefore, option (c) is also correct. The variation of
U = again q is constant and C is decreasing. electric field (E) and potential (V) with x will be as
2 C
follows :
Therefore U should increase. OA || BC and (Slope)OA > (Slope)AB
∴ Correct options are (b) and (d). Because EO–d = E2d–3d and EO–d > Ed – 2d
3. Battery is removed. Therefore, charge stored in the
plates will remain constant. E V E C
B
ε A A
Q = CV = 0 d 2d 3d
d X
V = Constant V0
Now, dielectric slab is inserted. Therefore, C will in- X
O d 3d 2d
crease. New capacity will be,
ε0 KA
C ' = KC = 5. Let Q be the charge on the ring, the negative charge
d
– q is released from point P (0, 0, z0 ). The electric field
Q V at P due to the charged ring will be along positive z-
V '= =
C K axis and its magnitude will be
And new electric field 1 Qz0
E=
V' V 4πε0 ( R + z02 ) 3 / 2
2
E= =
d K .d E = 0 at centre of the ring because z0 = 0
Potential energy stored in the capacitor, Therefore, force on charge P will be towards centre as
1 shown, and its magnitude is
Initially, Ui = CV 2
2 1 Qz0
Fe = qE = Fe = qE . ...(1)
4πε0 (R 2 + z02 )3/ 2
ε AV 2
= 0 Similarly, when it crosses the origin, the force is again
2d
towards centre O.
2 ε AV 2 Thus, the motion of the particle is periodic for all
Finally, Uf = 1 C ' V ' 2 = 1  K ε0 A  V  0 values of z0 lying between 0 and
2 2  d   K  dKd
( )
3/2
Work done on the system will be Secondly, if z0 < < R, R 2 + z02 = R3
ε AV 2  1– 1 
|∆U| = 0   1 Qq
2d  K  Fe = 4πε . 3 .z0 (from Eq. 1)
0 R
∴ correct options are (a), (c) and (d).
i.e., the restoring force Fe ∝ – z0 . Hence, the motion
4. The magnitude and direction of electric field at differ- of the particle will be simple harmonic. (Here negative
264
sign implies that the force is towards its mean position. i.e., charge on them is distributed in above ratio.
6. Inside the sphere r2 R2
or, q 1 = 2 Q and q 2 = Q
1 Q r + R2 r 2 + R2
E= . r
4πε0 R 3 Potential at centre V = potential due to q 1 + potential
due to q 2 .
⇒ E ∝ r for r ≤ R
i.e., E at centre = 0 (r = 0) 1 q1 1 q2
or V = 4πε . r + 4πε . R
Q 0 0
and E at surface = (r = R)
4πε 0 R 2 Q( R + r )
=
Outside the sphere 4πε 0 ( r 2 + R 2 )

E=
Q
(r ≥ R) 2. Before opening the switch potential difference across
4πε0r2 both the capacitors is V, as they are in parallel. Hence,
energy stored in them is,
1
or E ∝ 1
UA - UB = CV ∴ Utotal = CV2 = U1
2
r2 ...(1)
2
This variation of electric field (E) with distance (r) from
After opening the switch, potential difference across it
the centre will be as follows :
is V and its capacity is 3C
E
1 3
∴ UA = (3C )V 2 = CV 2
1 Q 2 2
E= E∝
1
4πε 0 R 2 r2
In case of capacitor B, charge stored in it is q = CV
R
E∝

and its capacity is also 3C. Therefore,


r
O r=R q2 CV 2
UB = =
2(3C) 6
7. Under electrostatic condition, all points lying on the
conductor are at same potential. Therefore, potential at 3CV 2 CV 2 10 5CV 2
A = potential at B. Hence, option (c) is correct from ∴ Utotal = + = CV 2 = = U f ...(2)
2 6 6 3
Gauss theorem, total flux through the surface of the
cavity will beq/ε0 . Ui 3
From Eqs. (1) and (2) U = 5
f
8. The given graph is of charged conducting sphere of
radius R0. The whole charge q distributes on the
3. Equating the energy of (–q) at C and D :
surface of the sphere.
KC + UC = KD + UD
Here, KC = 4J
9. Force is always directed toward the centre of +Q,
hence net torque on the charge - q is zero.  1 ( q)(–q ) 
r r UC = 2  
As F ≠ 0 so p will change.  4πε0 AC 
Since moment of inertia is changing, ω will not be
constant. –2 × 9 ×109 × (5 × 10–5 ) 2
=
∴ (a) 5
= – 9J
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS KD = 0 and
1. Let q 1 and q 2 be the charges on them.  1 ( q)(–q ) 
σ1 = σ2 UD = 2  
 4πε0 AD 
q1 q2
∴ = –2 × 9 × 109 (5× 10–5 )2
4πr 2
4πR 2 =
AD
q1 r2
∴ q2 = 45
R2 =–
AD
265
Substituting these values in Eq. (1) F = 2Fe cos 30°
45  1 q2  3  1 q2  3
4 – 9 = 0–
AD = 2 .  = 2 . 
 4πε0 a  2  4πε0 a  2
2 2
∴ AD = 9 m

∴ OD = = 3 ×1013 q2 ...(1)
AD 2 – OA2 = (9) –(3) = 8 1 – 9
2 2

= 8.48m θ is the angle of string with horizontal in equilibrium

4. For potential energy to be minimum the bigger charges


shold be farthest. Let x be the distance of q from 2q.
Then potential energy of the system shown in figure l
a
would be : θ r
r
 (2q )( q) (8q)(q) (2q)(8q)   1  30°
U =K + + k =  a a/2
 x ( 9 – x) 9  4πε0 
r (a /2)sec30 °
2 8 cosθ = =
For U to be minimum + should be minimum. l l
x 9– x
a 3
d 2 8  = =
+ 3l 100 3
dx  x 9 – x 
=0
∴ θ = 89°
–2 8 Now, the particle is in equilibrium under three concur-
∴ 2
+ =0 rent force, F, T and mg. Therefore, applying Lami's
x ( 9 – x) 2
theorem :
x 1 F mg
∴ = =
9– x 2 sin(90 + θ) sin(180 + θ)
or x = 3cm 13 2 –3
i.e., distance of charge q from 2q should be 3 cm. or 3 ×10 q = (1 × 10 )(10) cot 89°
Electric field at q : Solving this equation, we get
q = 0.317 × 10–8 C
k ( 2q) k (8q)
E= − =0 or q = 3.17 × 10–9 C
(3 ×10 −2 ) 2 ( 6 × 10 −2 ) 2
6. (i) Potential at any shell will be due to all three charges.
5.
1  qA qB qC 
VA = + +
4πε0  a c 
T
b

θ 1  ( 4πa 2 )( σ) ( 4πb 2 )( − σ) ( 4π c 2 )( σ) 
F =  + + 
4πε 0  a b c 

σ
= (a – b + c )
ε0
mg
1  qA qB qC 
F is the resultant of electrostatic force between two VB = + +
charges. 4πε0  b b c 

q 1  ( 4πa 2 )( σ) ( 4πb 2 )( − σ) ( 4π c 2 )( σ) 
=  + + 
4πε 0  a b c 
a
a
σ  a2 
=  – b + c
ε0  b 
Fe q
30° ° q a
F 30 Similarly,
Fe
266
1  qA qB qC  Q  1 2 
VC = + + V = –
4πε0  c c c  4πε 0  3a – x 3a – x  for x < – 3a

In this region potential will be zero only at x → +


1  ( 4πa 2 )( σ) ( 4πb 2 )( − σ) ( 4π c 2 )( σ)  ∞ Thus, we can summarise it is under.
=  + + 
4πε 0  a b c  (i) At x = 3a, V = + ∞

 a2 b2  (ii) at x = – 3a, V = – ∞
σ
=  – + c
ε0  c c  Q  1 2 
(iii) For x < – 3a, V = –
(ii) Given VA = VC 4πε 0  3a – x 3a + x 

σ  a2 b2 
∴ = ( a – b + c ) == σ  – + c (iv) For – 3a < x < 3a, expression of V is same i.e.,
ε0 ε0  c c 
Q  1 2 
V = –
a2 b2 4πε 0  3a – x 3a + x 

∴ a– b+ c= – +c
c c Q  1 2 
or a +b =c (v) For x > 3a, V = 4πε  x – 3 a – 3a + x 
0 
7. (a) Let P (x, y) be a general point on x-y plane. Electric Potential on x-axis is zero at two places at x = a and
potential at point P would be, x = 9a. The V-x graph is shown below
V = (potential due to Q) + (potential due to – 2Q) V
or

1  Q  1  –2 Q 
V =  +  
4 πε 0  (3 a – x )2 + y 2  4 πε 0  (3 a + x )2 + y 2  –3a a 9a x
    +3a
...(1)
Given V = 0
∴ 4 [(3a – x)2 + y2 ] = (3a + x2 ) + y2
On, simplifying we get (c) Potential at centre i.e., at x = 5a will be,
(x – 5a)2 + y2 = (4a)2 Q 1 2  Q
This is the equation of a circle of radius 4a and centre V =  – = = positive
4πε0  2a 8a  16πε 0 a
at (5a, 0).
Potential on the circle will be zero.
(b) on x-axis potential will be undefined (or say + ∞) at x Since, potential at centre > potential on circumference
= 3a and x = – 3a, because charge Q and – 2Q are on it, the particle will cross the circle because positive
placed at these two points. So, between – 3a < x < 3a charge moves from higher potential to lower potential.
we can find potential by putting y = 0 in Eq. (1). Speed of particle, while crossing the circle would be,
Therefore,
2q( ∆V ) Qq
Q  1 2  v=
V = – m 8πε0 ma
4πε 0  3a – x 3a + x  for – 3a < x < 3a

Here, ∆V is the potential difference between the centre
V = 0 at x = a and circumference of the circle.
V → – ∞ at x → – 3a
and V → + ∞ at x → 3a 8. (a) In this case the electric field exists from centre of
For x > 3a, there is again a point where potential will the sphere to infinity. Potential energy is stored in
become zero so for x > 3a, we can write : electric field with energy density
Q  1 2  1
V = – u= ε0 E 2 (Energy/Volume)
4πε 0  x – 3 a 3a + x  for x > 3a
 2
V = 0 at x = 9a (i) Energy stored within the sphereU(1 )
For x < – 3a, we can write Electric field at a distance r is

267
1 Q Q2 Q2
E = 4πε . 3 .r U = U1 + U2 = +
0 R 40πε0 R 8πε0 R
2
1 ε0  1 Q  3 Q2
u = ε0 E =
2
 . r or U=
20 πε0 R
2 2  4 πε 3
0 R 
Volume of element, dV = (4πr2 ) dV (b) Comparing this with gravitational forces, the gravita-
Energy stored in this volume, dU = U (dV) tional potential energy of earth will be

 1
2 3 GM 2
ε Q  U= –
dU = (4πr dr ) 0
2
 3 
. r 5 R
2  4πε0 R 
by replacing Q2 by M2 and 1 by G.
1 Q2 4 4πε0
dU = . .r dr
8πε0 R 6
GM
R 2 R g=
1 Q R2
∫ dU = 8πε0 . R6 .∫ r
4
∴ U1 = dr
0 0 gR 2
∴ G=
M
=
Q2
40πε 0R 6
r5 [ ] R
0 –3
U= MgR
5

=
Q2
40πε 0R 6
r5 [ ] R
0
Therefore, energy needed to completely disassemble
the earth against gravitational pull amongst its
constitutent particle will be given by
1 Q2 3
U1 = .
40πε0 R E = |U| = MgR
5
(ii) Energy stored outside the sphere (U2 ) Substituting the values, we get
Electric field at a distance r is 3
E= (10m/s 2 ) (2.5 × 1031 kg–m)
1 Q 5
E = 4πε . 2
0 r E = 1.5 × 1032 J
(c) This is the case of a charged spherical conductor of
2
1 ε  1 Q radius R, energy of which is given by
u= ε 0E 2 = 0  . 
2 2  4πε 0 r 2  1 Q2
=
dV = (4πr2 ) dV 2 C

ε  1 Q  
2 1 Q2
 or U=
dU = 4 dV = (4πr 2 dr )  0  2  
. 2 4πε0 R
 2  4πε0 r  
Q2
2 or U=
dU = 1 Q 8πε 0 R
.
8πε0 r 2

9. (i) Capacitor A is a combination of two capacitors CK
R Q2

dr and CO in parallel. Hence
∴ U2 = ∫ dU = . 2
4πε 0 r K ε0 A ε0 A ε A
CA = CK + CO = + = ( K + 1) 0
0 R
d d d
Q2 2
Here, A = 0.02m . Substituting the values, we have
U2 = ...(2)
8πε 0 R
8.85 ×10–12 (0.02)
Therefore, total energy of the system is CA = (9 + 1) F
(8.85 ×10–4 )

268
CA = 2.0 × 10–9 F Using the above formula
Energy stored in capacitor A, when connected with a
1 2πRλ λ
110 V battery is VP = 4πε . =
0 R 2 + 3R 2 4ε0
1 1
UA = CAV 2 = (2 × 10–9 )(110)2
2 2 1 2πRλ λ
UA = 1.21 × 10–5 J VO = 4πε . R = 2ε
0 0
(ii) Charge stored in the capacitor
VO > VP
q A = CA V = (2.0 × 10–9 ) (110)
Potential difference between points O and P is
q A = 2.2 × 10–7 C
Now, this charge remains constant even after battery λ λ λ
is disconnected. But when the slab is removed, capaci- V = V O – VP = = 2 ε – 4 ε = 4 ε
0 0 0
tance of A will get reduced. Let it be C′ A .
1 2
ε 0 ( 2 A) (8.85 × 10 –12 )(0.04) ∴ mv ≥ qV
C'A = = F 2
d 8.85 × 10 –4
C'A = 0.4 × 10–9 F 2qV
Energy stored in this case would be or v≥
m
1 (q A )2
U 'A = 2qλ
2 C 'A or v≥
4ε 0 m
1(2.2 × 10–7 ) 2
=
2 (0.4 × 10–9 )
J qλ
or v≥
2ε 0 m
U 'A = 6.05 × 10–5 J > UA
Therefore, work done to remove the slab would be Therefore, minimum value of speed v should be
W = U' A – UA = (6.05 – 1.21) × 10–5 J

or W = 4.84 × 10–5 J vmin =
(iii) Capacity of B when filled with dielectric is 2ε 0 m

K ε0 A ( 9)(8.85 ×10–12 )(0.02) 11. Let a be the side of the square plate.
CB = = F
d (8.85 ×10–4 ) As shown in figure C1 and C2 are in parallel. Therefore,
total capacity of capacitors in the position shown is
CB = 1.8 × 10–9 F C = C1 + C2
These two capacitors are in parallel. Therefore, net
capacitance of the system is ε a( a – x ) Κε0 ax
C= 0 +
C = C'A + CB = (0.4 + 1.8) × 10–9 F d d
C = 2.2 × 10–9 F
ε0 aV
Charge stored in the system is q = q A = 2.2 × 10–7 C ∴ q = CV = ( a – x + Kx)
d
1 q2
Therefore, energy stored, U = As plates are lowered in the oil, C increases or charge
2 C stored will increase.s

1(2.2 × 10–7 ) 2 dq ε0 aV dx
Therefore, i = = ( K – t ).
U= dt d dt
2 (2.2 × 10–9 )
Substituting the values
or U = 1.1 × 10–5 J
ε0 = 8.85 × 10–12 C2 N-m3
a = 1m, V = 500 volt, d = 0.01 m, K = 1
10. Total charge on the ring is Q = (2πR) λ
Potential due to a ring at a distance of x from its centre dx
and = speed of plate = 0.001 m/s
on its axis is given by dt
1 Q We get current
V (x) = .
4πε 0 R 2 + x 2 (8.85 × 10 –12 )1(500)(11–1)(0.001) A
i=
(0.01)
1 Q
and at the centre is Vcentre = 4πε . R i = 4.43 × 10–9 A
0
269
12 Let length and breadth of the capacitor be l and b 13. Let q 1 and q 2 be the charges on the two spheres
respectively and d be the distance between the plates before connecting them.
as shown in figure. Then, consider a strip at a distance Then q 1 = σ (4πR2 ), and
x of width dx. q 2 = σ (4π) (2R)2 = 16σπR2
Now, QR = x tan θ Therefore, total charge (q) on both the spheres is —
and PQ = d – x tan θ where tan θ = d/l] q = q 1 + q 2 = 20σπR2
Capacitance of PQ Now, after connecting, the charge is distributed in the
ratio of their capacities, which in turn depends on the
K1ε 0 (bdx ) K1ε0 ( bdx)
= ratio of their radii (C = 4πε0 R)
C1 = d – x tan θ d–
xd
l q '1 R 1
∴ =
q '2 = 2R 2
K1ε0 bldx K1ε0 A( dx)
C1 = d (l – x ) = d (l – x ) q 20
∴ q1' = = σπR 2
and C2 = capacitance of QR 3 3

K1ε0 b(d x ) 2q 40
= and q1' = = σπR 2
x tan θ 3 3
Therefore, surface charge densities on the spheres are:
K1ε0 A(d x ) d
C2 = (tan θ = )
xd l q1 ' (20/3)σπR 2 5
σ1 = = = σ
Now, C1 and C2 are in series. Therefore, their resultant 4πR 2
4πR 2 3
capacity C0 will be given by
q2 ' (40/3)σπR 2
5
1 1 1 and σ2 = = σ =
+ 4π (2 R) 16πR
2 6 2
C0 = C1 C2
Hence, surface charge density on the bigger sphere is
1 1 1 σ2 i.e., (5/6)σ.
Then, +
C0 = C1 C2 14. (i) Charge on capacitor A, before joining with an
uncharged capacitor
d (1– x) x.d
= + q A = CV = (100) (3)µC = 300µC
K1ε 0 A( dx) K 2 ε0 A( dx) Similarly, charge on capacitor B
q B = (180) (2) µ c
1 d l–x x 
=  + 
= 360 µC
C0 ε0 A(d x)  K1 K2  Let q 1 , q 2 and q 3 be the charges on the three cpacitors
after joining them as shown in figure alongside (q 1 , q 2
d{K 2 (1– x) K1x} and q 3 are in microcoulombs)
= ε0 AK K2 ( dx) Form conservation of charge
1
Net charge on plates 2 and 3 before joining
ε0 AK1K 2 = net charge after joining
∴ C0 = d{K (1– x ) + K x} dx ∴ 300 = q 1 + q 2 ...(1)
2 1
Similarly, net charge on plates 4 and 5 before joining
ε0 AK1 K 2 = net charge after joining
C0 = d{K l + ( K – K ) x} dx – 360 = – q 2 – q 3
2 1 2
or 360 = q 2 + q 3 ...(2)
Now, q the net capacitance of the given parallel plate Applying Kirchhoff's second law in closed loop ABCDA
capacitor is obtained by adding such infinitesimal
q1 q2 q3
capacitors placed parallel from x = 0 to x = l – + =0
3 3 2
x =l l ε0 AK1 K 2
i..e, CR = ∫ C0 = ∫0 dx or 2q 1 – 3q 2 + 3q 2 = 0 ...(3)
x= 0 d{K 2l + ( K1 – K2 ) x}
Solving Eqs. (1), (2) and (3), we get
K1 K2 ε0 A K2 q 1 = 90 µC
Finally we get CR = ( K – K ) d ln K q 2 = 210 µC
2 1 1 and q 3 = 150 µC
Therefore, final charges on the three capacitors are as
CK1 K2 K2 ε0 A
= K – K in K where C = shown below
2 1 1 d
270
(ii) (a) Electrostatic energy stored before, completing
 R  R 
2
 R  
n
the circuit qn = Q  + + +
 ....   
1 1  R + r  R + r   R + r  
U1 = (3× 10–6 )(100) 2 + (2 × 10–6 )(180)2
2 2
R  R 
n
 1 2 or q n = Q 1 –    ..(1)
 U = 2 CV  r   R+ r 
 
 
= 4.74 × 10–2 J  a (1– r n ) 
or Ui = 47.4 mJ  Sn = 
(b) Electrostatic energy stored after, completing the  (1– r ) 
circuit Therfore, electrostatic energy of S 2 after n such con-
tacts
1(90 × 10 )
–6 2
1(210 × 10 ) –6 2
Ui = +
2 (3× 10 )
–6 2 (2 × 10–6 ) q2
Un = n
2C
1 (150 × 10–6 ) 2  1q2 
+ U =  qn2
2 (2 × 10–6 )  2C  =
2(4πε 0 R )
= 1.8 × 10–2 J
or Uf = 18 mJ
qn2
or Un =
15. Capacities of conducting spheres are in the ratio of 8πε 0 R
their radii. Let C1 and C2 be the capacities of S 1 and where q n can be written from Eq. (2).
S 2 , then
QR 
n –1 
R  R 
C2 R (b) q n = 1 + + ....+ ... +   1
C1 = r R+ r  R+ r R+r 

(a) Charges are distributed in the ratio of their capaci- as n → ∞
ties. Let in the first contact, charge acquired by S 2 , is
q 1 . Therefore, charge on S 1 will be Q – q 1 . Say it is q'1  
QR  1 
q1 q1 C2 R q∞ =   = QR  R + r  = Q R
∴ = = = R+ r 
1 –
R  R + r  r  r
q1 ' Q – q1 C1 r  R+r 
It impleis that Q charge is to be distributed in S2 and
S1 in the ratio of R/r.  a 
 S∞ = 1 – r 
 
 R 
∴ q1 = Q   ...(1)
 R+r q∞2 Q2 R 2 / r 2
∴ U∞ =
In the second contact S 1 again acquires the same 2C 8πε0 R
charge Q.
Therefore, total charge in S 1 and S 2 will be Q2 R
or U∞ =
 R  8πε0 r 2
Q + q1 = Q  1 +
 R + r 
This charge is again distributed in the same ratio. 16. Potential at a height H on the axis of the disc V (P)
Therefore, cahrge on S 2 in second contact. : The charge dq contained in the ring shown in figure.
P (q, m)

 R  R   R  R  
2
q2 = Q  1 +    =Q  +   x H

 R + r  R + r   R + r  R + r  
Similarly, O
dr
 R  R   R  
2 3 r

q3 = Q  +  +   a

 R + r  R + r   R + r  
dq = (2πr dr)σ

271
Potential of p due to this ring static potential energy + gravitational potential energy
dq ∴ U = qV + mgH
1
dV = . where x = H 2 + r 2 Here V = potential at height H
4πε0 x
σq
U = [ a2 + H 2 – H ]+ mgH ...(2)
. (2πrdr ) σ = σ 2 ε0
1 rdr
dV =
4πε0 2 ε
H +r
2 2 0 H 2 + r2 At equilibrium position
∴ Potential due to the complete disc –dU
F= =0
r =a dH
VP = ∫r =0 dV differentiating Eq. (2) w.r.t. H
σ r =a
∫  1  
rdr
= q 1
2ε 0 r =0 or mg + σ    (2 H ) – 1 = 0
H +r
2 2
2ε0   2  a 2 + H 2 
σ  2
VP = a + H2 – H   
2ε0   H
∴ mg + 2mg  2 – 1 = 0
Potential at centre, (O) will be  a + H 2 

σa 2H
VO = 2ε H= 0 or 1 + –2 = 0
0 a +H2
2
(a) Particle is released from P and it just reaches point O.
Therefore, from conservation of mechancial energy— 2H
Decrease in gravitational potential energy = increase in or =1
a2 + H 2
electrostatic potential energy
(∆KE = 0 becauseKi = Kf = 0) H2 1
∴ mgH = q [VO – VP ] or =
a +H
2 4 2

 q  σ    or 3H = a 2
2
or gH =     a – a + H + H 
2 2
...(1)
  0 
m 2 ε   a
or H=
q 4ε0 g 3
=
m σ From Eq. (2), we can write
U – H equation as

∴ 2ε0 m = 2g U = mg (2 a2 + H 2 – H)
(Parabolic variation)
Substituting Eq. (1), we get
U = 2mga at H = 0
gH = 2g [a + H – a2 + H 2 ]
U
H
or = (a + H ) – a2 + H 2
2
2mga
H
or a +H
2 2
= a+ 3mga
2
H
a 2 + H2 = a +
2
or + aH H
2 a
O H=
3 2 3
or H = aH
4 a
and U = Umin = 3 mga at H = 3
4
or H= a and H = 0
3 Therefore, U-H graph will be as shown
∴ H = (4/3)a a
(b) Potential energy of the particle at height H = Electro- Note that at H = , U is minimum
3
272
a  27 2 3 2
Therefore, H = is stable equilibrium position ⇒  2 + x  = 4 + x 
3   2 

17. Inthefigureq = 1µC = 10–6 , q 0 = + 0.1µC = 10–7 C and This equation gives x = ± 5 m
m = 6 × 10–4 kg and Q = 8 µC = 8 × 10–6 C 2
y The least value of kinetic energy of the particle at
+ 27 / 2µ B +Q infinity should be enough to take the particle upto x
+ 3 / 2µ A –q 5 5
O
V0 m
=+ m because at x = + m
x P q0 2 2
− 3 / 2µ C –q
E=0
− 27 / 2µ D +Q ⇒ Electrostatic force on cahrge q is zero or Fe = 0

Let P be any point at a distance x from origin O. Then 5


For at x > m, E is repulsive (towards positive x-
2
3
AP = CP = + x2
2 5
axis) and for x < m, E is attractive (towards
2
27
+ x2
BP = DP = negative x-axis)
2
Electric potential at point P will be 5
Now, from Eq. (1) potential at x = m
1 2
2KQ 2 Kq
where K = 4πε = 9 × 10 Nm2 /C2
9
V = –
BP AP 0  
 8 1 
  V = 1.8 ×104  – 
 8 × 10–6  27 5 3 5
10–6   2 +2 +
∴ V = 2× 9 × 10   2 2 
9
– 
 27 3 2
 2 +x +x 
2
 2  V = 2.7 × 104 volt

5
  Applying energy conservation at x = ∞ and x = m
2
 8 1 
V = 1.8 ×10  
4
– ...(1) 1 2
 27 3 2 mv0 = q 0 V ...(2)
 2 +x +x 
2
2
 2 
∴ Electric field at P is 2q0V
∴ v0 =
m
dV   –1  27 
–3/2
E=– = 1.8 ×104 (8)   + x 2  Substituting the values
dX   2  2 
2 ×10–7 × 2.7 ×104
v0 =
 1 3
–3/2  6 × 10–4
2
–  + x   (2x)
v0 = 3m/s
 2 2  
∴ Minimum value of v0 is 3m/s
E = 0 on x-axis where – x = 0 or From Eq. (1), potential at origin (x = 0) is
8 1  
=
 27 
3/2
3
3/2  8 
2 1
 + x2   +x  V0 = 1.8 × 104  – 
 2   2   27 3
 2 2 

(4) 3 / 2 1
⇒ = 3/2 = 2.4 × 104 V
 27 2
3/2 3 2
 +x   +x  Let K be the kinetic energy of the particle at origin.
 2  2  Aplying energy conservation at x = 0 and at x = ∞
273
1 2 1
K + q 0 V0 = mv0 or mg (2l) = m (u 2 – v2 )
2 2
or u 2 = v2 + 4gl
1 2
But mv0 = q 0 V [from Eq. (2)] Substituting the value of v2 from Eq. (1) we get
2 u 2 = 2.4 + 4 (10) (0.8) = 34.4m2 /s 2
K = q 0 (V – V0 ) ∴ u = 5.86 m/s
K = (10–7 ) (2.7 × 104 – 2.4 × 104 ) Therefore, minimum horizontal velocity imparted to the
K = 3 × 10–4 J lower ball, so that it can make complete revolution, is
5.86 m/s
5
Note : E = 0 or Fe on q0 is zeor at x = 0 and x x = ±
m 19. For potential energy of the system of charges, total
2
number of charge pairs will be 8 C2 or 28 of these 28
of these x = 0 is stable equilibrium position and pairs 12 unlike charges are at a separation a, 12 like
5 charges are at separation 2 a and 4 unlike charges
x =± is Unstable equilibrium postion.
2 are at separation 3 a. Therefore, the potential energy
of the system
18. Given : q = 1µC = 106 C
m = 8 × 10–3 kg and l = 0.8 m 1  (12)( q)(–q) (12)(q )( q) (4)( q) – ( q) 
U = + +
Let u be the speed of the particle at its lowest point 4πε 0  a 2a 3a


and v its speed at high point.
Fe  1 q2 
= –5.824  . 
 4πε0 a 
v T=0  
mq The binding energy of this system is therefore,
l
q  1 q2 
|U| = 5.824  
 4πε0 a 
 
u
At highest point three forces are acting on the particle. So, work done by external force in disassembling, this
(i) Electrostatic repulsion system of charges is

1 q2  1 q2 
= W = 5.824  . 
Fe =
4πε 0 l2
(outwards)  4πε0 a 
 
20. Applying energy conservation principle, increase is
(ii) weight W = mg (inwards)
kinetic energy of the dipole = decrease in electrostatic
(iii) Tension T' (inwards)
potential energy of the dipole.
T = 0, if the particle has just to complete the circle and
∴ Kinetic energy of dipole at distance d from origin
the necessary centripetal force provided by W – Fe i.e.,
= Ui – Uf
r ur r ur
mv 2 or KE = 0 – (– p . E ) = p . E
= W– Fe
l
 1 q $ qp
= ( p$i).  i =
1 1 q2  πε 2 
 4πε 0 d
2
or v2 =  mg –   4 0 d
m  4πε0 l 2 
(b) Electric field at origin due to the dipole,
 ur 1 2 p $ ur r
0.8 9.0 × 109 × (106 ) 2  E= i ( E axis ↑↑ p )
v2 =  2 × 10 –3 × 1 0 –  m2 /s 2 4πε 0 d 3
2 ×103  (18) 2 

∴ Force on charge q
or v2 = 2.4m2 /s 2 ...(1)
Now, the electrostatic potential energy at the lowest ur ur pq
F = qE= $i
and highest points are equal. Hence, from conserva- 2πε0 d 3
tion of mechanical energy
Increase in grvaitational potential energy = Decrease 21. Electric field near a large metallic plate is given by E
in kinetic energy, = σ/ε0 . In between the plates the two fields will be in

274
opposite direction. Hence,
( K ) 
Va 
σ1 – σ2 
Enet = = E0 (say) V' = K
ε0
(3a2 t )1 / 3
Now, W = (q) (potential difference)
= q (E0 a cos 45°) 1/3
a
or V' = V  
 σ – σ2   a   3t 
= ( q)  1  
 ε0   2  R/2

∫ 4pr drkr
R
23. At r = ; qencl = 2 a
(σ1 – σ2 )qa 2
= 0
2 ε0
R/2 a +3
 r a +3  4pk  R 
= 4pk   =  
 a + 3  a +3  2 
22. Let q be the charge on the bubble, then
0
Kq 1
V= (Here K = ) At r = R
a 4πε0

′ 4pk q 1 qencl
Va qencl = ( R ) a+ 3 ; encl 2 = ;
∴ q= a +3 4pe 0r 8 4pe0 R 2
K
a +3
Let after collapsing the radius of droplet becomes R, R 4 1 R a +3
then equating the volume, we have   =
2
2
R 8 R2
4 3
(4πa 2 )t = πR 2 a+ 3 = 32
3
a +3=5
∴ R = (3a 2 t)1/3
a = 2
Kq
Now, potential of droplet will be V' =
R ASSERTION AND REASION
1. No solution is required.

275