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ELECTROSTATICS

FILL IN THE BLANKS

1. Five identical capacitor, each of area A, are arranged such that adjacent plates are at a distance d apart, the plates

are connected to a source of emf V as shown in the figure. (1984; 2M)

The charge on plate 1 is .... and on plate 4 is ....

2. Figure shows line of constant potential in a region in which an electric field is present. The values of the potential

are written in brackets of the points A, B and C, the magnitude of the electric field is greatest at the point .....

(1984; 2M)

A

B

C

(50V)

(40V)

(30V)

(20V)

(10V)

3. Two small balls having equal positive charge Q (coulomb) on each are suspended by two insulating strings of equal

length L (metre) from a hook fixed to a stand. The whole set-up is taken in a satellite into space where there is no

gravity (state of weightlessness). The angle between the strings is ..... and the tension in each string is .... newtons.

(1986; 2M)

4. Two parallel plate capacitors of capacitances C and 2C are connected in parallel and charged to a potential difference

V. The battery is then disconnected and the region between the plates of capacitor C is completely filled with a

material of dielectric constant K. The potential difference across the capacitors now become ...... (1988; 2M)

5. A point charge q moves from point P to point S along the path PQRS (Fig.) in a uniform electric field E pointing

parallel to the positive direction of the X-axis. The co-ordinates of points, P, Q, R and S are (a, b, 0), (2a, 0, 0), (a,

– b, 0), (0, 0, 0) respectively. The work done by the field in the above process is given by the expression.

(1989; 2M)

P

S Q x

R E

248

6. The electric potential V at any point x, y, z (all in metres) in space is given V = 4x2 volt. The electric field at the

point (1m, 0.2 m) is .... V/m (1992; 1M)

7. Five point charges, each of value + q coulomb, are placed on five vertices of a regular hexagon of side L metre.

The magnitude of the force on the point charge of value – q coulomb placed at the centre of the hexagon is ...

newton. (1982; 1M)

q q

–q

q

q q

TRUE/FALSE

1. The work done in carrying a point charge from one point to another in an electrostatic field depends on the path

along which the point charge is carried. (1981; 2M)

2. Two identical metallic spheres of exactly equal masses are taken. One is given a positive charge Q coulomb and

the other an equal negative charge. Their masses after charging are different. (1983; 2M)

3. A small metal ball is suspended in a uniform electric field with the help of an insulated thread. If high energy X-

ray beam falls on the ball, the ball will be deflected in the direction of the field. (1983; 2M)

4. Two protons A and B are placed in between the two plates of a parallel plate capacitor charged to a potential

difference V as shown in the figure. The forces on the two protons are identical. (1986; 3M)

+ –

–

+ –

+ –

–

+ –

–

+ –

+ –

–

+ –

–

+ B –

+ –

–

+ –

+ Å –

–

+ –

+

+ ––

–

+ –

–

+ V –

5. A ring of radius R carries a uniformly distributed charge + Q. A point charge – q is placed in the axis of the ring

at a distance 2R from the centre of the ring and released from rest. The particle executes a simple harmonic motion

along the axis of the ring. (1988; 2M)

6. An electric line of forces in the x-y plane is given by the equation x2 + y2 = 1. A particle with unit positive charge,

initially at rest at the point x = 1, y = 0 in the x-y plane, will move along the circular line of force. (1988; 2M)

Only One option is correct : (d) same as at a point 25 cm away from the surface

1. An alpha particle of energy 5 MeV is scattered through

180° by a fixed uranium nucleus. The distance of 3. Two equal negative charges – q are fixed at points

closest approach is of the order of : (1981; 2M) (0, – a) and (0, a) on y-axis. A positive charge Q is

(a) 1Å (b) 10–10 cm released from rest at the point (2a, 0) on the x-axis.

The charge Q will :

(c) 10–12 cm (d) 10–15 cm

(1984; 2M)

2. A hollow metal sphere of radius 5 cm is charged such (a) execute simple harmonic motion about the ori-

that the potential on its surface is 10 V. The potential gin

at the centre of the sphere is : (1983; 1M) (b) move to the origin and remain at rest

(c) move to infinity

(a) zero

(d) execute oscillatory but not simple harmonic

(b) 10 V motion

249

4. A charge q is placed at the centre of the line joining 0) and (d, 0) respectively of x-y co-ordinate system.

two equal charge Q. The system of the three charges Then: (1995; 2M)

will be in equilibrium if q is equal to : (1987; 2M) (a) the electric field E at all points on the x-axis has

the same direction

Q Q (b) work has to be done in bringing at a test charge

(a) – (b) –

2 4 from ∞ to the origin

(c) electric field at all point on y-axis is along x-axis

Q Q

(c) + (d) + (d) the dipole moment is 2qd along the x-axis

4 2

5. A solid conducting sphere having a charge Q is 9. A parallel plate capacitor of capacitance C is con-

surrounded by an uncharged concentric conducting nected to a battery and is charged to a potential

hollow spherical shell. Let the potential difference difference V. Another capacitor of capacitance 2C is

between the surface of the solid sphere and that of the similarly charged to a potential difference 2V. The

outer surface of the hollow shell be V. If the shell is charging battery is now disconnected and the capaci-

now given a charge of – 3Q, the new potential differ- tors are connected in parallel to each other in such a

ence between the same two surfaces is :(1999; 2M) way that the positive terminal of one is connected to

(a) V (b) 2V the negative terminal of the other. The final energy of

(c) 4V (d) 2V the configuration is : (1995; 2M)

3

6. Seven capacitors each of capacitance 2µF are con- (a) zero (b) CV 2

nected in a configuration to obtain an effective capaci- 2

10 25 9

tance µF . Which of the following combination will (c) CV 2 (d) CV 2

11 6 2

achieve the desired result be ? (1990; 2M) ur

10. The magnitude of electric field E in the annular region

of a charged cylindrical capacitor : (1996; 2M)

(a) is same through out

(a) (b) is higher, near the outer cylinder than the inner

cylinder

(c) varies as 1/r, where r is the distance from the axis

(d) varies as 1/r2 , where r is the distance from the axis

(b)

11. A metallic solid sphere is placed in a uniform electric

field. The lines of force follow the path (s) shown in

figure as : (1996; 2M)

(c) 1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

(d)

(a) 1 (b) 2

7. Two identical thin rings, each of radius R are coaxially (c) 3 (d) 4

placedadistance R apart. If Q1 and Q2 respectively are

the charges uniformly spread on the two rings, then 12. An electron of mass me, initially at rest moves through

work done in moving a charge q from the centre of one a certain distance in a uniform electric field in time t1 .

ring to that of the other is : (1992; 2M) A proton of mass mp , also, initially at rest, takes time

(a) zero t2 to move through an equal distance in this uniform

(b) q (Q1 – Q2 ) ( )

2 − 1 / 2( 4π ∈0 R ) electric field. Neglecting the effect of gravity, the ratio

t2 /t1 is nearly equal to (1997 1M)

(c) q 2( Q1 / Q2 )/(4πε0 R) (a) 1 (b) (mp /me)1/2

(d) q (Q1 – Q2 ) ( )

2 + 1 / 2 (4π ∈0 R )

(c) (me/mp )1/2 (d) 1836

8. Two point charges + q and – q are held fixed at (–d, charge of 1.11 × 10–10 C distributed non-uniformly on

250

it circumference producing an electric field E every- Q

l =0

l =∞

(1997; 2M)

(a) +2 (b) – 1

(c) – 2 (d) zero

–q –2q

(a) (b)

14. A parallel combination of 0.1MΩ resistor and a 10µF 1+ 2 2+ 2

capacitor is connected across a 1.5 V source of neg- (c) – 2q (d) + q

ligible resistance. The time required for the capacitor to

get charged upto 0.75V is approximately (in second) 19. A parallel plate capacitor of area A, plate separation d

(1997; 2M) and capacitance C is filled with three difference dielectric

(a) infinite (b) loge2 materials having dielectric constant K1, K2 and K3 as

(c) log10 2 (d) zero shown. If a single dielectric material is to be used to

15. A charge + q is fixed at each of the points x = x0 , achieve the same capacitance C in this capacitor then its

x = 3x0 , x = 5x0 .... ∞ . on the x-axis and a charge – q dielectric constant K is given by : (2000; 2M)

is fixed at each of the points x = 2x0 , x = 4x0 , x = 6x0

A/2 A/2

..... ∞ . Here x0 is a positive constant. Take the electric d

potential at a point due to a charge Q at a distance r k1 k2 2

from it to be Q/4πε0 r. Then the potential at the origin d

k3

due to the above system of charges is : (1997; 2M)

q

(a) zero (b) 8πε x ln 2 A = Area of plates

0 0

1 1 1 1

q ln 2 (a) K = K + K + 2K

(c) infinite (d) 4πε x 1 2 3

0 0

1 1 1

16. Two identical metal plates are given positive charges (b) K = K + K + 2K

1 2 3

Q1 and Q2 (< Q1 ) respectively. If they are now brought

close together to form a parallel plate capacitor with 1 K1 K 2

capacitance C, the potential difference between them (c) K = K + K + 2 K3

1 2

is: (1999; 2M)

(a) (Q1 + Q2 )/2C (b) (Q1 + Q2 )/C K1K 2 K 2K 3

(c) (Q1 – Q2 )/C (d) (Q1 – Q2 )/2C (d) K = K + K + K + K

1 2 2 3

17. For the circuit shown, which of the following state-

ments is corret (1999; 2M) 20. Three positive charges of equal value q are placed at

V1= 30 V V2 = 20 V the vertices of an equilateral triangle. The resultant

+ – + – lines of forces should be sketched as in :

S1 S3

C1 = 2pF C2 = 3pF (2001; 1M)

S2

(b) With S3 closed, V1 = V2 = 25V (a) (b)

(c) With S1 and S 2 closed, V1 = V2 = 0

(d) With S1 and S 3 . closed, V1 = 30V, V2 = 20V

18. Three charges Q, + q and + q, are placed at the vertices

of a right angle triangle (isosceles triangle) as shown.

The net electrostatic energy of the configuration is (c) (d)

zero, if Q is equal to : (2000; 2M)

251

21. Consider the situation shown in the figure. The capaci- hexagon such that the electric field at O is double the

tor A has a charge q on it whereas B is uncharged. The electric field when only one positive charge of same

charge appearing on the capacitor B a long time after magnitude is placed at R. Which of the following

the switch is closed is : (2001; 1M) arrangements of charge is possible for P, Q, R, S, T and

U respectively? (2004; 1M)

q

+ – P Q

+ –

+ – S O

U R

+ –

+ –

A B T S

(a) zero (b) q/2 (a) +, –, +, –, –, + (b) +, –, +, –, +, –

(c) q (d) 2q (c) +, +, –, +, –, – (d) –, +, +, –, +, –

22. A uniform electric field pointing in positive x-direction

exists in a region. Let A be the origin B be the point 27. Consider the charge configuration and a spherical

on the x-axis at x = + 1 cm and C be the point on the Gaussian surface as shown in the figure. When calcu-

y-axis at y = + 1cm. Then the potential at the points A, lating the flux of the electric field over the spherical

B and C satisfy : (2001; 1M) surface, the electric field will be due to: (2004; 1M)

(a) VA < VB (b) VA > VB +q1 q2

(c) VA < VC (d) VA < VC

+ a on the x-axis. Another point charge Q is placed at – q1

the origin. The change in the electrical potential en-

ergy of Q, when it is displaced by a small distance x (a) q 2 (b) only the positive charge

along the x-axis is approximately proportional to : (c) all the charges (d) + q 1 and – q 1

(2002; 1M)

(a) x (b) x2 28. Three infinitely long charge sheets are placed as shown

(c) x3 (d) 1/x in figure. The electric field at point P is :

(2005; 1M)

24. Two identical capacitors, have the same capacitance

z

C. One of them is charged to potential V1 and the other

to V2. The negative ends are also connected, the σ z = 3a

.P

decrease in energy of the combined system is : z=0

– 2σ

(2002; 1M) x

–σ z=–a

1 1

(a) C(V12 – V22 ) (b) C(V12 + V22 ) 2σ $ 2σ $

4 4 (a) ε k (b) – ε k

0 0

1 1

(c) C (V1 − V2 ) 2 (d) C (V1 + V2 ) 2

4 4 4σ $ 4σ $

(c) ε k (d) – ε k

25. A metallic shell has a point charge q kept inside its 0 0

cavity. Which one of the following diagram correctly 29. A long, hollow conducting cylinder is kept coaxially

represents the electric lines of forces? (2003; 1M) inside another long, hollow conducting cylinder of

larger radius. Both the cylinders are initially electrically

neutral. (2007; 3M)

(a) a potential difference appears between the two

(a) (b)

cylinders when a charge density is given to the

inner cylinder

(b) a potential difference appears between the two

cylinders when a charge density is given to the

(c) (d) outer cylinder

(c) no potential difference appears between the two

cylinders when a uniform line charge is kept along

26. Six charges, three positive and three negative of equal the axis of the cylinders

magnitude are to be placed at the vertices of a regular

252

(d) no potential difference appears between the two

q

cylinders when same charge density is given to (a) The electric field at point O is directed

both the cylinders 8pe 0 R 2

along the negative x-axis

30. Consider a neutral conducting sphere. A positive point (b) The potential energy of the system is zero

charge is placed of outside the sphere. The net charge (c) The magnitude of the force between the charges

on the sphere is then : (2007; 3M)

(a) negative and distributed uniformly over the sur- q2

at C and B is

face of the sphere 54 pe 0 R 2

(b) negative and appears only at the point on the

sphere closest to the point charge q

(c) negative and distributed non-uniformly over the (d) The potential at point O is

12 pe 0 R

entire surface of the sphere

(d) zero

31. A spherical portion has been removed from a solid 34. A parallel plate capacitor C with plates of unit area and

sphere having a charge distributed uniformly in its separation d is filled with a liquid of direlectric con-

volume as shown in the figure. The electric field inside d

the emptied space is : (2007; 3M) stant K = 2. The level of liquid is initially. Suppose

3

the liquid level decreases at a constant speed v, the

time constant as a function of time t is (2008; 3M)

(c) non-uniform (d) zero only at its centre

a –a

tude are kept at 0,0, and 0,0,

2

, respectively.

2 6e 0 R (15 d + 9vt )e 0 R

(a) (b)

The work done by the electric field when another 5 d + 3 vt 2 d 2 − 3dvt − 9 v 2 t 2

positive point charge is moved from (–a, 0, 0) to

(0, a, 0) is : (2007; 3M) 6e 0 R (15 d − 9vt )e 0 R

(c) (d)

(a) positive 5 d − 3vt 2 d 2 + 3 dvt − 9 v 2 t 2

(b) negative

(c) zero 35. Three concentric metallic spherical shells of radii R, 2R,

(d) depends on the path connecting the initial and 3R, are given charges Q1, Q2, Q3, respectively. It is

final positions found that the surface charge densities on the outer

surfaces of the shells are equal. Then, the ratio of the

q q 2q charges given to the shells, Q1 : Q2 : Q3, is

33. Consider a system of three charges , and (2009; M)

3 3 3

(a) 1 : 2 : 3 (b) 1 : 3 : 5

placed at point A, B and C respectively, as shown in (c) 1 : 4 : 9 (d) 1 : 8 : 18

the fitgure. Take O to be the centre of the circle of

radius R and angle ∠ CAB = 60º (2008; 3M) 36. A disc of radius a/4 having a uniformly distributed

charge 6C is placed in the x-y plane with its centre at

(–a/2, 0, 0). A rod of length, 'a' carrying a uniformly

distributed charge 8C is placed on the x-axis from

x = a/4 to x = 5a/4. Two point charges –7C and 3C are

placed at (a/4, –a/4, 0) and (–3a/4, 3a/4, 0), respectively.

Consider a cubical surface formed by six surfaces

x =± a/2, y = ± a/2, z = ± a/2. The electric flux through

this cubical surface is (2009; M)

253

4. A dielectric slab of thickness d is inserted in a parallel

y

plate capacitor whose negative plate is at x = 9 and

positive plate is at x = 3d. The slab is equidistant from

the plates. The capactior is given some charge. As x

goes from 0 to 3d : (1998; 2M)

x (a) the magnitude of the electric field remains the

same

(b) the direction of the electric field remains the same

(c) the electric potential increases continuously

(d) the electric potential increases at first, then de-

2C 2C

(a) − ε (b) ε crease and again increases

0 0

5. A positively charged thin metal ring of radius R is fixed

10C 12C

(c) ε (d) ε in the x-y plane with its centre at the origin O. A

0 0 negatively charged particle P is released from rest at

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS the point (0, 0, z0 ) where z0 > 0. Then the motion of P

is

More than one options are correct?

(1998; 2M)

1. A parallel plate capacitor is connected to a battery.

(a) periodic for all values of z0 satisfying 0 < z0 < ∞

The quantitites charge, voltage, electric field and en-

(b) simple harmonic for all values of z0 satisfying 0 <

ergy associated with this capacitor are given by Q0 ,

z0 < R

V0 , E0 and U0 respectively. A dielectric slab is now

(c) approximately simple harmonic provided z0 < < R

introduced to fill the space between the plates with the

(d) such that P crosses O and continues to move

battery still in connection. The corresponding quanti-

along the negative z-axis towards z = – ∞

ties now given as Q, V, E and U are related to the

previous one as : (1989; 2M) 6. A non-conducting solid sphere of radius R is uni-

(a) Q > Q0 (b) V > V0 formly charged. The magnitude of the electric field due

(c) E > E0 (d) U > U0 to the sphere at a distance r from its centre :

(1998; 2M)

2. A parallel plate capacitor is charged and the charging (a) `increases as r increases, for r < R

battery is then disconnected. If the plates of the (b) decreases as r increases, for 0 < r < ∞

capacitor are moved further apart by means of insulat- (c) decreases as r increases, for R < r < ∞

ing handles. (1987; 2M) (d) is discontinuous at r = R

(a) the charge on the capacitor increases

(b) the voltage across the plates increases 7. An elliptical cavity is carved within a perfect conduc-

(c) the capacitance increasees tor. A positive charge q is placed at the centre of the

(d) the electrostatic energy stored in the capacitor cavity. The points A and B are on the cavity surface

increases as shown in the figure. Then : (1999; 3M)

(a) electric field near A in the cavity = elecrtic field

3. A parallel plate capacitor of plate area A and plate near B in the cavity

separation d is charged to a potential difference V and (b) charge density at A = charge density at B

then the battery is disconnected. A slab of dielectric (c) potential at A = potential at B

constant K is then inserted between the plates of the (d) total electric field flux through the surface of the

capacitor so as to fill the space between the plates. If cavity is q/ε0 .

Q, E and W denote respectively, the magnitude of

charge on each plate, the electric field between the A

plates (after the slab is inserted), and work done on the q B

system, in the process of inserting the slab, then :

(1999; 3M)

ε0 AV ε0 KAV 8. For spherical symmetrical charge distribution, variation

(a) Q = (b) Q = of electric potential with distance from centre is given

d d

in diagram. Given that :

V ε0 AV 2 1 q

(c) E = (d) W = 1– V =

Kd 2d K 4πε 0 R0 for r ≤ R0

254

A +q

q

and V = 4πε r for r ≥ R0

0 –q

Then which option (s) are correct : (2006; 5M) D C

O

V

B +q

r 4. Three point charge q, 2q and 8q are to be placed on

r = R0 a 9 cm long straight line. Find the positions where the

charges shold be placed such that the potential energy

(a) Total charge within 2R0 is q of this system is minimum. In this situaion, what is the

(b) Total electrostatic energy for r ≤ R0 is zero electric field at the position of the charge q due to the

(c) At r =R0 electric field is discontinuous other two charges? (1987; 1M)

(d) There will be no charge anywhere except at r =

R0 5. Three particles, each of mass 1 g and carrying a charge

9. Under the influence of the Coulomb field of charge +Q, q, are suspended from a common point by insulated

a charge - q is moving around it in an elliptical orbit. massless strings, each 100 cm long. If the particles are

Find out the correct statement(s). (2009; M) in equilibrium and are located at the corners of an

(a) The angular momentum of the charge - q is equilateral triangle of side length 3 cm calculate the

constant charge q on each particle. (Take g = 10 m/s 2 )

(b) The linear momentum of the charge - q is constant (1988; 5M)

(c) The angular velocity of the charge - q is constant 6. Three concentric spherical metallic shells, A, B and C

(d) The linear speed of the charge - q is constant of radii a, b and c (a < b < c) have surface charge

densities σ, –σ and σ respectively. (1990; 7M)

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (i) Find the potential of the three shells A, B and C.

1. A charge Q is distributed over two concentric hollow (ii) If the shells A and C are at the same potential,

spheres of radii r and R (> r) such that the surface obtain the relation between the radii a, b and c.

densities are equal. Find the potential at the common

7. Two fixed charges – 2Q and Q are located at the points

centre. (1981; 3M)

with coordinates (– 3a, 0) and (+ 3a, 0) respectively in

the x-y plane. (1991; 8M)

2. The figure shows two identical parallel plate capacitors

(a) Show that all points in the x-y plane where the

connected to a battery with the switch S closed. The

electric potential due to the two charges is zero, lie

switch is now opened and the free space between the

on a circle. Find its radius and the location of its

plates of the capacitors is filled with a dielectric of

centre.

dielectric constant (or relative permittivity) 3. Find the

(b) Give the expression V (x) at a general point on the

ratio of the total electrostatic energy stored in both

x-axis and sketch the function V (x) on the whole

capacitors before and after the introduction of the

x-axis.

dielectric (1983; 6M)

(c) If a particle of charge + q starts form rest at the

S

centre of the circle, show by a short quantitative

argument that the particle eventually crosses the

V A C B C circle. Find its speed when it does so.

8. (a) A charge of Q is uniformly distributed over a

spherical volume of radius R. Obtain an expression

3. Two fixed, equal, positive charge, each of magnitude for the energy of the system.

q = 5 × 10–5 C are located at points A and B separated (b) What will be the corresponding expression for the

by a distance of 6 m. An equal and opposite charge energy needed to completely disassemble the

moves towards them along the line COD, the perpen- planet earth against the gravitational pull amongst

dicular bisector of the line AB. The moving charge, its constituent particles?

when it reaches the pointC at a distance of 4 m from Assume the earth to be a sphere of uniform mass

O as a kinetic energy of 4 J. Calculate the distance of density. Calculate this energy, given the product

the farthest point D which the negative charge will of the mass and the radius of the earth to be 2.5

reach before returning towards C. (1985; 6M) × 1031 kg-m.

255

(c) If the same cahrge of Q as in part (a) above is the resulting capacitor. (1996; 2M)

given to a spherical conductor of the same radius

R, what will be the energy of the system? A

(1992; 10M)

K2

9. Two parallel plate capacitors A and B have the same d

spearation d = 8.85 × 10–4 m between the plates. The K1

plate areas of A and B are 0.04 m2 and 0.02m2 respec-

tively. A slab of dielectric constant (relative permittiv-

ity) K = 9 has dimensions such that it can exactly fill

the space between the plates of capacitor B. 13. Two isolated metallic solid spheres of radii R and 2R

(1993; 7M) are charged such that both of these have charge

density σ. The spheres are located far away from ach

A B B other and connected by a thin conducting wire. Find

the new charge density on the bigger sphere.

(1996; 3M)

110 V are charged to a potential difference of 100 V and 180

(a) (b) (c)

(i) The dielectric slab is placed inside A as shown in V respectively. The plates of the capacitors are con-

figure (a). A is then charged to a potential differ- nected as shown in the figure with one wire of each

ence of 110 V. Calculate the capacitance of A and capacitor free. The upper plate of A is positive and that

the energy stored in it. of B is negative. An unchanged 2 µF capacitor C with

(ii) The battery is disconnected and then the dielec- lead wires falls on the free ends to complete the circuit.

tric slab is removed from A. Find the work done by Calculate : (1997; 5M)

the external agency in removing the slab from A. C

(iii) The same dielectric slab is now placed inside B,

2µF

filling it completely. The two capacitor A and B are + –

3µF 2µF

then connected as shown in figure (c). Calculate

the energy stored in the system. A 100 V 180 V B

10. A circular ring of radius R with uniform positve charge (i) the final charge on the three capacitors and

density λ per unit length is located in the y-z plane (ii) the amount of electrostatic energy stored in the

with its centre at the origin O. A particle of mass m and system before and after completion of the circuit.

positive charge q is projected from the point

( )

P R 3,0,0 on the positive x-axis directly towards O, 15. A conducting sphere S 1 and of radius r is attached to

an insulating handle. Another conducting sphere S 2 of

with an initial speed v. Find the smallest (non-zero) radius R is mounted on an insulating stand S 2 is

value of the speed v such that the particle does not initially uncharged.

return to P. (1993; 4M) S 1 is given a charge Q brought into contact with S 2 and

removed. S 1 is recharged such that the charge on it is

11. Two square metal plates of side 1 m are kept 0.1 m again Q and it is again brought into contact with S 2

apart like a parallel plate capacitor in air in such a way and removed. This procedure is repeated n times.

that one of their edges is perpendicular to an oil (1998; 8M)

surface in a tank filled with an insulating oil. The plates (a) Find the electrostatic energy of S 2 after n such

are connected to a battery of emf 500 V. The plates are contacts with S 1.

then lowered vertically into the oil at a speed of (b) What is the limiting value of this energy as n → ∞ ?

0.001ms –1 . Calculate the current drawn from the battery

during the process. (Dielectric constant of oil = 11, 16. A non-conducting disc of radius a and uniform posi-

ε0 = 8.85 × 10–12 C2 N–1 m–1 ). (1994; 6M) tive surface charge density σ is placed on the ground

with its axis vertical. A particle of mass m and positive

12. The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with plate charge q is dropped, along the axis of the disc from a

area A and separation d, is C. The space between the height H with, zero initial velcoity. the particle has q/

plates is filled with two wedges of dielectric constant m = 4ε0 g/σ. (1999; 10M)

K1 and K2 respectively (figure). Find the capacitance of (a) Find the value of H if the particle just reaches the

disc.

256

(b) Sketch the potential energy of the particle as a force experienced by the charge q at this moment.

function of its height and find its equilibrium (2003; 4M)

position. 21. There are two large parallel metallic plates S 1 and S 2

17. Four point charges + 8 µC, – 1µC, –1µC and + 8 µC carrying surface charge densities S 1 and S 2 respec-

tively (σ1 > σ2 ) placed at a distance d apart in vacuum.

are fixed at the points – 2 7 / 2 m, – 3 / 2 m, Find the work done by the electric field in moving a

+ 3 / 2 m and + 2 7 / 2 m respectively on the y-axis. point charge q a distance a (a < d) from S 1 towards S 2

A particle of mass 6 × 10–4 kg and charge + 0.1µC along a line making an angle π/4 with the normal to the

moves along the x-direction. Its speed at x = + ∞ is V0 . plates. (2004; 2M)

Find the least value of V0 for which the particle will

cross the origin. Find also the kinetic energy of the 22. A conducting bubble of radius a, thickness t (t < < a)

particle at the origin. Assume that space is gravity has potential V. Now the bubble collapse into a drop-

free. (1/4πε0 = 9 × 109 Nm2 /C2 ). (2000; 10M) let. Find the potential of the droplet. (2005; 2M)

18. A small ball of mass 2 × 10–3 kg having a charge of 1µC 23. A solid sphere of radius R has a charge Q distributed

is suspended by a string of length 0.8 m. Another in its volume with a charge density ? = kr a , where

identical ball having the same charge is kept at the

k and a are constants and r is the distance from its

point of suspension. Determine the minimum horizon-

tal velocity which should be imparted to the lower ball, R 1

so that it can make complete revoltuion. centre. If the electric field at r = is times that at

2 8

(2001; 5M) r = R, find the value of a.

19. Eight point charges are placed at the corners of a cube

of edge a as shown in figure. Find the work done in

disassembling this system of charges. (2003; 2M)

ASSERATION AND REASON

This question contains, statement-I (assertion) and

+q –q

statement-II (reason).

1. Statement-I : For practical purposes, the earth is used

–q +q as a reference at zero potential in electrical circuits.

+q (2008; 3M)

–q Because :

Statement-II : The electrical potential of a sphere of

+q –q radius R with charge Q uniformly distributed on the

Q

20. A positive point charge q is fixed at origin. A dipole surface is given by

r 4πε0 R .

with a dipole moment p is placed along the x-axis

r (a) Statement-I is true, statement -II is true, statement-

away from the origin with p pointing along positive II is a correct explanation for statmeent-I

x-axis Find : (a) the kinetic energy of the dipole when (b) statemen-I is true, statement-II is true; statement-

it reaches a distance d from the origin, and (b) the II is NOT a correct explanaion for statmeent-I

(c) statement-I is true, statement-II is false

(d) statement-I is false, statement-II is true

ANSWERS

FILL IN THE BLANKS

ε0 AV 2ε AV Q2 3 kq12

1. ,– 0 2. B 3. 180°, 4. V 5. – qEa 6. – 8 $i 7. (Attraction)

d d 16πε0 L2 K +2 L2

TRUE/FALSE

1. F 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. F

257

OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)

1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (a) 5. (a) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (c)

9. (b) 10. (c) 11. (d) 12. (b) 13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (d) 16. (d)

17. (d) 18. (b) 19. (d) 20. (c) 21. (a) 22. (b) 23. (b) 24. (c)

25. (c) 26. (d) 27. (c) 28. (b) 29. (a) 30. (d) 31. (b) 32. (c)

33. (c) 34. (a) 35. (b) 36. (a)

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)

1. (a, d) 2. (b, d) 3. (a, c, d) 4. (b, c) 5. (a, c) 6. (a, c) 7. (c, d)

8. (a, b, c, d) 9. (a)

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

3

1. Q( R + r ) 2. 3. Maximum distance from O = 8.48 m

5

4πε 0 ( R + r )

2 2

4. (i) Charge q should be at a distance of 3 cm from 2q (ii) Eelctric field = 0 5. 3.17 × 10–9 C

σ σ a2 σ a 2 b2

V = ( a – b + c ), V = – b + c V = – + c (iii) a + b = c

6. (i) A

ε0

B

ε0 b , C

ε0 c c

Q 1 2 Q 1 2

7. (a) Radius = 4a, Centre = (5a, 0) (b) Vs = 4πε – for x ≤ 3a, Vx = 4πε –

0 3a – x 3a + x 0 x – 3 a 3a + x

Qq 3 Q3 3 GM 2 Q2

for x > 3a (c) v = 8. (a) U = (b) U = – 22

E = 1.5 × 10 J (c) U =

8πε0 ma 20 πε0 R 5 R 8πε0 R

9. (i) CA = 2 × 10– 9F, UA = 1.21 × 10–5 J (ii) W = 4.84 × 10–5 J (iii) U = 1.1 × 10–5 J

qλ CK1 K2 K2 ε0 A

10. vmin = 11. i = 4.43 × 10–9 A 12. CR = in K where C =

2 ε0 m K2 – K1 1 d

5

13. σ 14. (i) q 1 = 90 µC, q 2 = 210µC, q 3 = 150µC (ii) (a) Ui = 47.4mJ (b) Uf = 18 mJ

6

QR R

n

qn2 Q2 R =

a

15. (a) Un = (b)U ∞ = Here q n 1 –

r R+r 16. (a) H =

8πε0 R 8πε0 r 2 3

1 q2

17. (v0 )min = 3m/s, K = 3 × 10–4 J 18. 5.86 m/s 19. W = 5.824 4πε a

0

ur ( σ1 – σ2 )qa 1/3

21. W = 22. V' = V q

qp pq $i

20. (a) KE = (b) F =

2ε0 3t

23. a=2

4πε 0 d 2 2πε0 d 3

ASSERTION AND REASION

1. (b)

258

SOLUTIONS

E = – i+ j+

∂z

k

∈0 A 6.

∂x ∂y

1. C=

d V = 4x2

∂V ∂V ∂V

Therefore, = 8 x and =0=

∂x ∂y ∂z

ur

E = – 8 x $i

ur

or E at (1m, 0.2m) is – 8 i$ V/m

opposite. Similarly, forces on – q due to charges at 2

and 5 are also equal and opposite. Therefore, net force

on – q due to charge at 1, 2, 4 and 5 is zero. Only

unbalanced force is between – q and + q at 3 which

∈0 AV 1 q2 q2

Q1 = c(V − 0) = is equal to and 9.0 × 109 (attraction)

d 4πε 0 L2 L2

Q 4 = C ( 0 − V ) + C( 0 − V ) TRUE FALSE

∈0 AV 1. Electrostatic force is conservative in nature and in

= −2CV = −2

d conservative force field work done is path indepen-

dent.

2. is greatest for B. more than the mass of positively charged sphere

dr

because some electrons will be given to the negatively

charged sphere while some electrons will be taken out

3. Due to electrostatic repulsion the charges will move as from the positively charged sphere.

farthest as possible and the angle between the two

string will be 180°. Tension in each string will be equal 3. When X-rays fall on the metal

to electrostatic repulsion between the two charges. ball, some electrons are emited

Thus, from it due to photoelectric effect.

The ball thus gets positively

1 Q×Q Q2 charged and on a positively

T = Fe = 4πε =

0 (2 L )

2

16πε0 L2 charged ball an electrostatic force

in the direction of electric field

4. Total charge will remain uncharged. acts. due to this force ball gets

Hence Q = Q' deflected in the direction of elec-

or 3CV = (KC + 2C)' tric field.

3

∴ V' = V

4. Electric field between the plates of capacitor is almost

K +2 uniform. Therefore, force on both the protons will be

identical. It hardly matters whether they are placed

ur r r near positive plate or negative plate.

5. WFe = F.d ( d = displacement)

ur uur 5. Motion is simple harmonic only when charge – q is not

= ( qE$i). rs . – rp very far from the centre of ring on its axis. Otherwise

motion is periodic but not simple harmonic in nature.

= ( qE$i). (–a$i – b$j

6. Electric lines force does not represent the path of the

= – qEa charged particle but tangent to the path at any point

on the line shows the direction of electric force on it

259

and it is not always necessary that motion of the (10)(1) 10

particle is in the direction of force acting on it. ∴ Cnet = = µF

10 + 1 11

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)

1. From conservation of mechanical energy

decrease in kinetic energy = increase in potential energy

1 ( Ze)(2e) 1µ F

or 4π ∈0 rmin = 5 MeV

10µF

= 5 × 1.6 × 10–13 J

7. VC1 = VQ1 + VQ2

+ Ze + 2e (Z = 92)

1 Q1 1 Q1

rmin = 4πε R + 4πε

0 0 R 2

1 2Ze 2 1 Q

∴ = Q1 + 2

4πε 0 R

rmin =

4π ∈0 5 × 1.6 × 10 –13 2

Q2

(9 × 109 )(2)(92)(1.6 ×10–19 ) 2 Q1

=

5× 1.6 × 10–13 R 2

R

= 5.3 × 10–14 m = 5.3 × 10 –12 cm

i.e., rmin is of the order of 10–12 cm. C1 R C2

∴ correct option is (c).

2. Electric potential at any point inside a hollow metallic 1 Q

Similarly, VC2 = Q2 + 1

4πε 0 R

sphere is constant. Therefore, if potential at surface is

2

10 V, potential at centre will also be 10 V.

3. Motion is simple harmonic only if Q is released from ∴ ∆V = VC1 – VC2

a point very far from the origin on x-axis. Otherwise

motion is periodic but not simple harmonic. 1 1

= ( Q1 – Q2 ) – ( Q1 – Q2 )

4. Since, q is at the centre of two charges Q and Q, net 4πε0 R 2

force on it is zero, whatever the magnitude and sign of

charge on it. For the equilibrium of Q, q should be =

(Q1 – Q2 )

2(4πε0 R)

( 2–1 )

negative because other charge q will repel it, so q

( )

should attract it. Simultaneously these attractions and

repulsions should be equal. W = q∆V = q (Q1 – Q2 ) 2 – 1 / 2(4πε R)

0

is shown in figure.

1 QQ 1 Qq

= Eq

4πε 0 r 2

4πε 0 ( r / 2) 2

y

E

Q

or q= E–q

4

x

Q

or with sign q= –

4

∴ correct option is (b).

q –q

5. In such situation potential difference depends only on (– d, 0) (d, 0)

ur

the charge on inner sphere. Since, charge on inner The electrical field E at all points on the x-axis will not

sphere is unchanged. Therefore, potential difference V have the same direcion.

will remain unchanged. For – d ≤ x < d, electric field is along positive x-axis

while for all other points it is along negative x-axis.

C1C2 ur

6. In series, C = The electric field E at all points on the y-axis will be

C1 + C2

260

12. Electrostatic force, Fe = eE (for both the particle). But

parallel to the x-axis (i.e., $i )

acceleration of electron, a e = Fe/me and acceleration of

(option c)

proton, a p = Fe/mp

The electrical potential at the origin due to both the

charges is zero, hence, no work is done in bringing a 1 1

S= ae t12 = a p t22

test charge from infinity to the oriign. 2 2

Dipole moment is directed from the –q charge to the

t2 ae mp

+ q charge (i.e., – $i direction). ∴ =

t1 = ap me

9. Q1′ + Q2 ′ = 3CV

l = 0 uruur l =0

Q=CV

1

Q=4CV

2 13. – ∫ . = – ∫l =∞ dV = V (centre) – V (infinity)

Edl

+ – l=∞

+ – but V (infinity) = 0

Q1′

+ l = 0 uruur

∴ – ∫ Edl . corresponds to potential at centre of

l=∞

1 q

ring. and V (centre) = .

4πε0 R

–

Q2′ (9 × 109 )(1.11× 10–10 )

= ≈ 2 volt

Q1′ Q 2 ′ 0.5

= ⇒ Q 2′ = 2Q1 ′

C 2C

14. Since, the capacitor plates are directly connected to

⇒ 3Q1′ = 3CV ⇒ Q1′ = CV ⇒ Q2 ′ = 2CV the battery, it will take no time in charging.

Q1′ 2 Q2′ 2 C

Ef = +

2C 4C

R

1 4CV 2 3

= CV 2 + = CV 2

2 4 2

V

10. The magnitude of electric field at a distance r from the

λ 15. Potential at origin will be given by

axis is given as E =

q 1 – 1 + 1 – 1 x + ....

2πε 0r

V= 0

4πε0 x0 2x0 3 x0 4

q

. 1 1 1 1

1– 2 + 3 – 4 + ....

=

4πε0 x0

q ln 2

=

4πε0 x 0

ur ur ur

16. Electric field within the plates E = EQ1 + EQ2

E

1

i.e., E∝

r

Here, λ is the charge per unit length of the capacitor

+Q1 +Q2

11. Electric field lines never enter a metallic conductor (E E1 E2

= 0, inside a conductor) and they fall normally on the

surface of a metallic conductor (because whole surface

is at same potential and lines are perpendicular to

equipotential surface).

261

E = E1 – E2

KK K2K3

Q1 Q2 = 1 2 + C = K eqC

= 2Aε – 2 Aε K1 + K 2 K 2 + K3

0 0

K1 K 2 K2K3

Q1 – Q2 ⇒ K eq = +

E = 2 Aε K1 + K 2 K 2 + K 3

0

Potential difference between the plates 20. Electric lines of force never form a closed loop. there-

Q1 – Q2 fore, options (b) and (d) are wrong. Electric lines of

VA – VB = E.d = d force emanate from positive charge and terminate on

2 Aε0 negative charge, therefore, option (a) is also wrong.

Q1 – Q2

= 21. Due to attraction with positive charge, the negative

Aε charge on capacitor A will not flow through the switch

2 0

d S.

=

2C Dotted lines are equipotential lines.

17. When S 3 is closed, due to attraction with opposite ∴ V A = VC and V A > V B

y

charge, no flow of charge takes place through S3 .

Therefore, potential difference across capacitor plates

remains unchanged so, V1 = 30 V and V2 = 20 V. C

18. Net electrostatic energy of the configuration will be

X

A B

q.q Q.q Q .q 1

U= + + Here, K =

a 2a a 4πε0 E

–2q q q q q

Q = Q Q

2+ 2 23. x= – a x = 0 x = + a x= – a x = x x = a

A Initial position Final position

K1 ∈0

19. C1 = 2 = K1 ∈0 A 2KQq

d d Ui =

A/2

a

2 d/2 K1 C1 K2 C2 d/2

1 1

K 3 ∈0 A Uf = KQq +

– x

and

C2 = d/2 K3 C3 K4 C4 d/2

a + x a

d

1

Here, K=

K 2 ∈0 A 4πε0

C3 =

d ∆U = Uf – Ui

K 3 ∈0 A 2

C4 = or |∆U| = 2KQqx for x < < a

d a3

∈0 A ∴ ∆U ∝ x2

Let =C

d 24. ∆U = decrease in potential energy

= Ui – Uf

C1C2 CC

Ceq = + 3 4

C1 + C 2 C3 + C 4

( )

2

1 1 V +V

= C V12 + V22 = (2C ) 1 2

( K1C )( K 2C ) ( K 2C )( K3C )

2 2 2

= +

( K1 + K 2 ) C K2 + K3

( )

1 2

= C V1 – V2

4

262

25. Electric field is zero everywhere inside a metal (con-

q2

ductor) i.e., field lines do not enter a metal. =

Simltaneously these are perpendicular to a metal sur- 54 pe 0 R 2

face (equipotential surfaces).

∈0 A 2∈ A CC

26. According to option (d) the electric field due to P and 34. C1 = , C2 = 0 , C = 1 2

2d d C1 + C2

S and due to q and T add to zero. While due to U and + vt − vt

R will be added up. Hence, the correct option is (d). 3 3

electric field is the vector sum of electric fields due to + vt + vt

3 3

+ q 1 , – q 1 and q 2 ,

Hence, the correct option is (c). K=2

along negative z-axis. Hence,

2(∈0 A) 2

σ Ceq =

ur 2σ σ $ 2d d

E p = 2ε + 2ε + 2ε (–k ) + vt − vt

0 0 0 3 3

2σ $

= – k 2(∈0 A) 2

ε0

2d d

∴ Correct answer is (b). + vt − vt

Ceq = 3 3

29. There will be an electric field between two cylinders d 4d

(using Gauss theorem). This electric field will produce ∈0 A − vt + + 2vt

3 3

a potential difference.

2d d

∴ Answer is (a). + vt − vt

3 3

30. Charge will be induced on the conducting sphere, but

net charge on it will be zero. 2 ∈0 A 6 ∈0 A

∴ Option (d) is correct. = = A = 1m 2

5d 5d + 3vt

+ vt

31. Inside the cavity, field at any point is uniform and non- 3

zero.

6 ∈0 R

Therefore, correct option is (b). τ = RCeq =

5d + 3vt

32. A = (–a, 0, 0)

B = (0, a, 0)

Q1 Q1 + Q2 Q1 + Q 2 + Q 3

y 35. = =

4πR 2

4π( 2R ) 2

4π(3R ) 2 Q1 +Q2 Q1+ Q2+Q3

Q1

B –Q Q1 + Q2 Q1 + Q 2 + Q3 -Q1

Q1 = = 3R R

A x 4 9 2R

z Q -( Q1 +Q2)

⇒ Q1 : Q2 : Q3 = 1 : 3 : 5

Point charge is moved from A to B ∴ (b)

VA = VB = 0 ∴W= 0

qencl . 1 2C

36. φ = ε = ε (3C + 2C − 7C) = − ε

or the correct option is (c).

0 0 0

33. Distance BC = AB sin 60º ∴ (a)

3

= (2 R ) = 3R OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE

2 OPTION)

1 (q / 3)(2 q / 3) 1. When dielectric slab is introduced capacity gets in-

∴ Fe BC = 4 pe 2 creased while potential difference remains uncharged.

0 ( 3R )

263

∴ V = V0 , C < C 0 ent points are shown in figure. The direction of the

Q = CV ∴ Q > Q0 electric field remains the same. Hence, option (b) is

1 correct. Simlarly, electric lines always flow from higher

U= CV 2 ∴ U > U0 to lower potential, therefore, electric potential increases

2

continuously as we move from x = 0 to x = 3d.

V q qi qi

E= but E and d both are unchanged. Therefore, E – + – +

D

= E0 Therefore, correct options are (a) and (d). – +

– + – +

2 Chargingbatteryisremoved.Thereforeq,= constant – +

Distance between the plates is increased. Therefore C – + – +

decreases – +

q – +

Now, V = , q is constant and C is decreasing. – – +

C +

– E0/k +

Therefore, V should increase. E E0

x = 0 0 x = d x = 2d x = 3d

1 q2 Therefore, option (c) is also correct. The variation of

U = again q is constant and C is decreasing. electric field (E) and potential (V) with x will be as

2 C

follows :

Therefore U should increase. OA || BC and (Slope)OA > (Slope)AB

∴ Correct options are (b) and (d). Because EO–d = E2d–3d and EO–d > Ed – 2d

3. Battery is removed. Therefore, charge stored in the

plates will remain constant. E V E C

B

ε A A

Q = CV = 0 d 2d 3d

d X

V = Constant V0

Now, dielectric slab is inserted. Therefore, C will in- X

O d 3d 2d

crease. New capacity will be,

ε0 KA

C ' = KC = 5. Let Q be the charge on the ring, the negative charge

d

– q is released from point P (0, 0, z0 ). The electric field

Q V at P due to the charged ring will be along positive z-

V '= =

C K axis and its magnitude will be

And new electric field 1 Qz0

E=

V' V 4πε0 ( R + z02 ) 3 / 2

2

E= =

d K .d E = 0 at centre of the ring because z0 = 0

Potential energy stored in the capacitor, Therefore, force on charge P will be towards centre as

1 shown, and its magnitude is

Initially, Ui = CV 2

2 1 Qz0

Fe = qE = Fe = qE . ...(1)

4πε0 (R 2 + z02 )3/ 2

ε AV 2

= 0 Similarly, when it crosses the origin, the force is again

2d

towards centre O.

2 ε AV 2 Thus, the motion of the particle is periodic for all

Finally, Uf = 1 C ' V ' 2 = 1 K ε0 A V 0 values of z0 lying between 0 and

2 2 d K dKd

( )

3/2

Work done on the system will be Secondly, if z0 < < R, R 2 + z02 = R3

ε AV 2 1– 1

|∆U| = 0 1 Qq

2d K Fe = 4πε . 3 .z0 (from Eq. 1)

0 R

∴ correct options are (a), (c) and (d).

i.e., the restoring force Fe ∝ – z0 . Hence, the motion

4. The magnitude and direction of electric field at differ- of the particle will be simple harmonic. (Here negative

264

sign implies that the force is towards its mean position. i.e., charge on them is distributed in above ratio.

6. Inside the sphere r2 R2

or, q 1 = 2 Q and q 2 = Q

1 Q r + R2 r 2 + R2

E= . r

4πε0 R 3 Potential at centre V = potential due to q 1 + potential

due to q 2 .

⇒ E ∝ r for r ≤ R

i.e., E at centre = 0 (r = 0) 1 q1 1 q2

or V = 4πε . r + 4πε . R

Q 0 0

and E at surface = (r = R)

4πε 0 R 2 Q( R + r )

=

Outside the sphere 4πε 0 ( r 2 + R 2 )

E=

Q

(r ≥ R) 2. Before opening the switch potential difference across

4πε0r2 both the capacitors is V, as they are in parallel. Hence,

energy stored in them is,

1

or E ∝ 1

UA - UB = CV ∴ Utotal = CV2 = U1

2

r2 ...(1)

2

This variation of electric field (E) with distance (r) from

After opening the switch, potential difference across it

the centre will be as follows :

is V and its capacity is 3C

E

1 3

∴ UA = (3C )V 2 = CV 2

1 Q 2 2

E= E∝

1

4πε 0 R 2 r2

In case of capacitor B, charge stored in it is q = CV

R

E∝

r

O r=R q2 CV 2

UB = =

2(3C) 6

7. Under electrostatic condition, all points lying on the

conductor are at same potential. Therefore, potential at 3CV 2 CV 2 10 5CV 2

A = potential at B. Hence, option (c) is correct from ∴ Utotal = + = CV 2 = = U f ...(2)

2 6 6 3

Gauss theorem, total flux through the surface of the

cavity will beq/ε0 . Ui 3

From Eqs. (1) and (2) U = 5

f

8. The given graph is of charged conducting sphere of

radius R0. The whole charge q distributes on the

3. Equating the energy of (–q) at C and D :

surface of the sphere.

KC + UC = KD + UD

Here, KC = 4J

9. Force is always directed toward the centre of +Q,

hence net torque on the charge - q is zero. 1 ( q)(–q )

r r UC = 2

As F ≠ 0 so p will change. 4πε0 AC

Since moment of inertia is changing, ω will not be

constant. –2 × 9 ×109 × (5 × 10–5 ) 2

=

∴ (a) 5

= – 9J

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS KD = 0 and

1. Let q 1 and q 2 be the charges on them. 1 ( q)(–q )

σ1 = σ2 UD = 2

4πε0 AD

q1 q2

∴ = –2 × 9 × 109 (5× 10–5 )2

4πr 2

4πR 2 =

AD

q1 r2

∴ q2 = 45

R2 =–

AD

265

Substituting these values in Eq. (1) F = 2Fe cos 30°

45 1 q2 3 1 q2 3

4 – 9 = 0–

AD = 2 . = 2 .

4πε0 a 2 4πε0 a 2

2 2

∴ AD = 9 m

∴ OD = = 3 ×1013 q2 ...(1)

AD 2 – OA2 = (9) –(3) = 8 1 – 9

2 2

shold be farthest. Let x be the distance of q from 2q.

Then potential energy of the system shown in figure l

a

would be : θ r

r

(2q )( q) (8q)(q) (2q)(8q) 1 30°

U =K + + k = a a/2

x ( 9 – x) 9 4πε0

r (a /2)sec30 °

2 8 cosθ = =

For U to be minimum + should be minimum. l l

x 9– x

a 3

d 2 8 = =

+ 3l 100 3

dx x 9 – x

=0

∴ θ = 89°

–2 8 Now, the particle is in equilibrium under three concur-

∴ 2

+ =0 rent force, F, T and mg. Therefore, applying Lami's

x ( 9 – x) 2

theorem :

x 1 F mg

∴ = =

9– x 2 sin(90 + θ) sin(180 + θ)

or x = 3cm 13 2 –3

i.e., distance of charge q from 2q should be 3 cm. or 3 ×10 q = (1 × 10 )(10) cot 89°

Electric field at q : Solving this equation, we get

q = 0.317 × 10–8 C

k ( 2q) k (8q)

E= − =0 or q = 3.17 × 10–9 C

(3 ×10 −2 ) 2 ( 6 × 10 −2 ) 2

6. (i) Potential at any shell will be due to all three charges.

5.

1 qA qB qC

VA = + +

4πε0 a c

T

b

θ 1 ( 4πa 2 )( σ) ( 4πb 2 )( − σ) ( 4π c 2 )( σ)

F = + +

4πε 0 a b c

σ

= (a – b + c )

ε0

mg

1 qA qB qC

F is the resultant of electrostatic force between two VB = + +

charges. 4πε0 b b c

q 1 ( 4πa 2 )( σ) ( 4πb 2 )( − σ) ( 4π c 2 )( σ)

= + +

4πε 0 a b c

a

a

σ a2

= – b + c

ε0 b

Fe q

30° ° q a

F 30 Similarly,

Fe

266

1 qA qB qC Q 1 2

VC = + + V = –

4πε0 c c c 4πε 0 3a – x 3a – x for x < – 3a

1 ( 4πa 2 )( σ) ( 4πb 2 )( − σ) ( 4π c 2 )( σ) ∞ Thus, we can summarise it is under.

= + +

4πε 0 a b c (i) At x = 3a, V = + ∞

a2 b2 (ii) at x = – 3a, V = – ∞

σ

= – + c

ε0 c c Q 1 2

(iii) For x < – 3a, V = –

(ii) Given VA = VC 4πε 0 3a – x 3a + x

σ a2 b2

∴ = ( a – b + c ) == σ – + c (iv) For – 3a < x < 3a, expression of V is same i.e.,

ε0 ε0 c c

Q 1 2

V = –

a2 b2 4πε 0 3a – x 3a + x

∴ a– b+ c= – +c

c c Q 1 2

or a +b =c (v) For x > 3a, V = 4πε x – 3 a – 3a + x

0

7. (a) Let P (x, y) be a general point on x-y plane. Electric Potential on x-axis is zero at two places at x = a and

potential at point P would be, x = 9a. The V-x graph is shown below

V = (potential due to Q) + (potential due to – 2Q) V

or

1 Q 1 –2 Q

V = +

4 πε 0 (3 a – x )2 + y 2 4 πε 0 (3 a + x )2 + y 2 –3a a 9a x

+3a

...(1)

Given V = 0

∴ 4 [(3a – x)2 + y2 ] = (3a + x2 ) + y2

On, simplifying we get (c) Potential at centre i.e., at x = 5a will be,

(x – 5a)2 + y2 = (4a)2 Q 1 2 Q

This is the equation of a circle of radius 4a and centre V = – = = positive

4πε0 2a 8a 16πε 0 a

at (5a, 0).

Potential on the circle will be zero.

(b) on x-axis potential will be undefined (or say + ∞) at x Since, potential at centre > potential on circumference

= 3a and x = – 3a, because charge Q and – 2Q are on it, the particle will cross the circle because positive

placed at these two points. So, between – 3a < x < 3a charge moves from higher potential to lower potential.

we can find potential by putting y = 0 in Eq. (1). Speed of particle, while crossing the circle would be,

Therefore,

2q( ∆V ) Qq

Q 1 2 v=

V = – m 8πε0 ma

4πε 0 3a – x 3a + x for – 3a < x < 3a

Here, ∆V is the potential difference between the centre

V = 0 at x = a and circumference of the circle.

V → – ∞ at x → – 3a

and V → + ∞ at x → 3a 8. (a) In this case the electric field exists from centre of

For x > 3a, there is again a point where potential will the sphere to infinity. Potential energy is stored in

become zero so for x > 3a, we can write : electric field with energy density

Q 1 2 1

V = – u= ε0 E 2 (Energy/Volume)

4πε 0 x – 3 a 3a + x for x > 3a

2

V = 0 at x = 9a (i) Energy stored within the sphereU(1 )

For x < – 3a, we can write Electric field at a distance r is

267

1 Q Q2 Q2

E = 4πε . 3 .r U = U1 + U2 = +

0 R 40πε0 R 8πε0 R

2

1 ε0 1 Q 3 Q2

u = ε0 E =

2

. r or U=

20 πε0 R

2 2 4 πε 3

0 R

Volume of element, dV = (4πr2 ) dV (b) Comparing this with gravitational forces, the gravita-

Energy stored in this volume, dU = U (dV) tional potential energy of earth will be

1

2 3 GM 2

ε Q U= –

dU = (4πr dr ) 0

2

3

. r 5 R

2 4πε0 R

by replacing Q2 by M2 and 1 by G.

1 Q2 4 4πε0

dU = . .r dr

8πε0 R 6

GM

R 2 R g=

1 Q R2

∫ dU = 8πε0 . R6 .∫ r

4

∴ U1 = dr

0 0 gR 2

∴ G=

M

=

Q2

40πε 0R 6

r5 [ ] R

0 –3

U= MgR

5

=

Q2

40πε 0R 6

r5 [ ] R

0

Therefore, energy needed to completely disassemble

the earth against gravitational pull amongst its

constitutent particle will be given by

1 Q2 3

U1 = .

40πε0 R E = |U| = MgR

5

(ii) Energy stored outside the sphere (U2 ) Substituting the values, we get

Electric field at a distance r is 3

E= (10m/s 2 ) (2.5 × 1031 kg–m)

1 Q 5

E = 4πε . 2

0 r E = 1.5 × 1032 J

(c) This is the case of a charged spherical conductor of

2

1 ε 1 Q radius R, energy of which is given by

u= ε 0E 2 = 0 .

2 2 4πε 0 r 2 1 Q2

=

dV = (4πr2 ) dV 2 C

ε 1 Q

2 1 Q2

or U=

dU = 4 dV = (4πr 2 dr ) 0 2

. 2 4πε0 R

2 4πε0 r

Q2

2 or U=

dU = 1 Q 8πε 0 R

.

8πε0 r 2

∞

9. (i) Capacitor A is a combination of two capacitors CK

R Q2

∫

dr and CO in parallel. Hence

∴ U2 = ∫ dU = . 2

4πε 0 r K ε0 A ε0 A ε A

CA = CK + CO = + = ( K + 1) 0

0 R

d d d

Q2 2

Here, A = 0.02m . Substituting the values, we have

U2 = ...(2)

8πε 0 R

8.85 ×10–12 (0.02)

Therefore, total energy of the system is CA = (9 + 1) F

(8.85 ×10–4 )

268

CA = 2.0 × 10–9 F Using the above formula

Energy stored in capacitor A, when connected with a

1 2πRλ λ

110 V battery is VP = 4πε . =

0 R 2 + 3R 2 4ε0

1 1

UA = CAV 2 = (2 × 10–9 )(110)2

2 2 1 2πRλ λ

UA = 1.21 × 10–5 J VO = 4πε . R = 2ε

0 0

(ii) Charge stored in the capacitor

VO > VP

q A = CA V = (2.0 × 10–9 ) (110)

Potential difference between points O and P is

q A = 2.2 × 10–7 C

Now, this charge remains constant even after battery λ λ λ

is disconnected. But when the slab is removed, capaci- V = V O – VP = = 2 ε – 4 ε = 4 ε

0 0 0

tance of A will get reduced. Let it be C′ A .

1 2

ε 0 ( 2 A) (8.85 × 10 –12 )(0.04) ∴ mv ≥ qV

C'A = = F 2

d 8.85 × 10 –4

C'A = 0.4 × 10–9 F 2qV

Energy stored in this case would be or v≥

m

1 (q A )2

U 'A = 2qλ

2 C 'A or v≥

4ε 0 m

1(2.2 × 10–7 ) 2

=

2 (0.4 × 10–9 )

J qλ

or v≥

2ε 0 m

U 'A = 6.05 × 10–5 J > UA

Therefore, work done to remove the slab would be Therefore, minimum value of speed v should be

W = U' A – UA = (6.05 – 1.21) × 10–5 J

qλ

or W = 4.84 × 10–5 J vmin =

(iii) Capacity of B when filled with dielectric is 2ε 0 m

K ε0 A ( 9)(8.85 ×10–12 )(0.02) 11. Let a be the side of the square plate.

CB = = F

d (8.85 ×10–4 ) As shown in figure C1 and C2 are in parallel. Therefore,

total capacity of capacitors in the position shown is

CB = 1.8 × 10–9 F C = C1 + C2

These two capacitors are in parallel. Therefore, net

capacitance of the system is ε a( a – x ) Κε0 ax

C= 0 +

C = C'A + CB = (0.4 + 1.8) × 10–9 F d d

C = 2.2 × 10–9 F

ε0 aV

Charge stored in the system is q = q A = 2.2 × 10–7 C ∴ q = CV = ( a – x + Kx)

d

1 q2

Therefore, energy stored, U = As plates are lowered in the oil, C increases or charge

2 C stored will increase.s

1(2.2 × 10–7 ) 2 dq ε0 aV dx

Therefore, i = = ( K – t ).

U= dt d dt

2 (2.2 × 10–9 )

Substituting the values

or U = 1.1 × 10–5 J

ε0 = 8.85 × 10–12 C2 N-m3

a = 1m, V = 500 volt, d = 0.01 m, K = 1

10. Total charge on the ring is Q = (2πR) λ

Potential due to a ring at a distance of x from its centre dx

and = speed of plate = 0.001 m/s

on its axis is given by dt

1 Q We get current

V (x) = .

4πε 0 R 2 + x 2 (8.85 × 10 –12 )1(500)(11–1)(0.001) A

i=

(0.01)

1 Q

and at the centre is Vcentre = 4πε . R i = 4.43 × 10–9 A

0

269

12 Let length and breadth of the capacitor be l and b 13. Let q 1 and q 2 be the charges on the two spheres

respectively and d be the distance between the plates before connecting them.

as shown in figure. Then, consider a strip at a distance Then q 1 = σ (4πR2 ), and

x of width dx. q 2 = σ (4π) (2R)2 = 16σπR2

Now, QR = x tan θ Therefore, total charge (q) on both the spheres is —

and PQ = d – x tan θ where tan θ = d/l] q = q 1 + q 2 = 20σπR2

Capacitance of PQ Now, after connecting, the charge is distributed in the

ratio of their capacities, which in turn depends on the

K1ε 0 (bdx ) K1ε0 ( bdx)

= ratio of their radii (C = 4πε0 R)

C1 = d – x tan θ d–

xd

l q '1 R 1

∴ =

q '2 = 2R 2

K1ε0 bldx K1ε0 A( dx)

C1 = d (l – x ) = d (l – x ) q 20

∴ q1' = = σπR 2

and C2 = capacitance of QR 3 3

K1ε0 b(d x ) 2q 40

= and q1' = = σπR 2

x tan θ 3 3

Therefore, surface charge densities on the spheres are:

K1ε0 A(d x ) d

C2 = (tan θ = )

xd l q1 ' (20/3)σπR 2 5

σ1 = = = σ

Now, C1 and C2 are in series. Therefore, their resultant 4πR 2

4πR 2 3

capacity C0 will be given by

q2 ' (40/3)σπR 2

5

1 1 1 and σ2 = = σ =

+ 4π (2 R) 16πR

2 6 2

C0 = C1 C2

Hence, surface charge density on the bigger sphere is

1 1 1 σ2 i.e., (5/6)σ.

Then, +

C0 = C1 C2 14. (i) Charge on capacitor A, before joining with an

uncharged capacitor

d (1– x) x.d

= + q A = CV = (100) (3)µC = 300µC

K1ε 0 A( dx) K 2 ε0 A( dx) Similarly, charge on capacitor B

q B = (180) (2) µ c

1 d l–x x

= +

= 360 µC

C0 ε0 A(d x) K1 K2 Let q 1 , q 2 and q 3 be the charges on the three cpacitors

after joining them as shown in figure alongside (q 1 , q 2

d{K 2 (1– x) K1x} and q 3 are in microcoulombs)

= ε0 AK K2 ( dx) Form conservation of charge

1

Net charge on plates 2 and 3 before joining

ε0 AK1K 2 = net charge after joining

∴ C0 = d{K (1– x ) + K x} dx ∴ 300 = q 1 + q 2 ...(1)

2 1

Similarly, net charge on plates 4 and 5 before joining

ε0 AK1 K 2 = net charge after joining

C0 = d{K l + ( K – K ) x} dx – 360 = – q 2 – q 3

2 1 2

or 360 = q 2 + q 3 ...(2)

Now, q the net capacitance of the given parallel plate Applying Kirchhoff's second law in closed loop ABCDA

capacitor is obtained by adding such infinitesimal

q1 q2 q3

capacitors placed parallel from x = 0 to x = l – + =0

3 3 2

x =l l ε0 AK1 K 2

i..e, CR = ∫ C0 = ∫0 dx or 2q 1 – 3q 2 + 3q 2 = 0 ...(3)

x= 0 d{K 2l + ( K1 – K2 ) x}

Solving Eqs. (1), (2) and (3), we get

K1 K2 ε0 A K2 q 1 = 90 µC

Finally we get CR = ( K – K ) d ln K q 2 = 210 µC

2 1 1 and q 3 = 150 µC

Therefore, final charges on the three capacitors are as

CK1 K2 K2 ε0 A

= K – K in K where C = shown below

2 1 1 d

270

(ii) (a) Electrostatic energy stored before, completing

R R

2

R

n

the circuit qn = Q + + +

....

1 1 R + r R + r R + r

U1 = (3× 10–6 )(100) 2 + (2 × 10–6 )(180)2

2 2

R R

n

1 2 or q n = Q 1 – ..(1)

U = 2 CV r R+ r

= 4.74 × 10–2 J a (1– r n )

or Ui = 47.4 mJ Sn =

(b) Electrostatic energy stored after, completing the (1– r )

circuit Therfore, electrostatic energy of S 2 after n such con-

tacts

1(90 × 10 )

–6 2

1(210 × 10 ) –6 2

Ui = +

2 (3× 10 )

–6 2 (2 × 10–6 ) q2

Un = n

2C

1 (150 × 10–6 ) 2 1q2

+ U = qn2

2 (2 × 10–6 ) 2C =

2(4πε 0 R )

= 1.8 × 10–2 J

or Uf = 18 mJ

qn2

or Un =

15. Capacities of conducting spheres are in the ratio of 8πε 0 R

their radii. Let C1 and C2 be the capacities of S 1 and where q n can be written from Eq. (2).

S 2 , then

QR

n –1

R R

C2 R (b) q n = 1 + + ....+ ... + 1

C1 = r R+ r R+ r R+r

(a) Charges are distributed in the ratio of their capaci- as n → ∞

ties. Let in the first contact, charge acquired by S 2 , is

q 1 . Therefore, charge on S 1 will be Q – q 1 . Say it is q'1

QR 1

q1 q1 C2 R q∞ = = QR R + r = Q R

∴ = = = R+ r

1 –

R R + r r r

q1 ' Q – q1 C1 r R+r

It impleis that Q charge is to be distributed in S2 and

S1 in the ratio of R/r. a

S∞ = 1 – r

R

∴ q1 = Q ...(1)

R+r q∞2 Q2 R 2 / r 2

∴ U∞ =

In the second contact S 1 again acquires the same 2C 8πε0 R

charge Q.

Therefore, total charge in S 1 and S 2 will be Q2 R

or U∞ =

R 8πε0 r 2

Q + q1 = Q 1 +

R + r

This charge is again distributed in the same ratio. 16. Potential at a height H on the axis of the disc V (P)

Therefore, cahrge on S 2 in second contact. : The charge dq contained in the ring shown in figure.

P (q, m)

R R R R

2

q2 = Q 1 + =Q + x H

R + r R + r R + r R + r

Similarly, O

dr

R R R

2 3 r

q3 = Q + + a

R + r R + r R + r

dq = (2πr dr)σ

271

Potential of p due to this ring static potential energy + gravitational potential energy

dq ∴ U = qV + mgH

1

dV = . where x = H 2 + r 2 Here V = potential at height H

4πε0 x

σq

U = [ a2 + H 2 – H ]+ mgH ...(2)

. (2πrdr ) σ = σ 2 ε0

1 rdr

dV =

4πε0 2 ε

H +r

2 2 0 H 2 + r2 At equilibrium position

∴ Potential due to the complete disc –dU

F= =0

r =a dH

VP = ∫r =0 dV differentiating Eq. (2) w.r.t. H

σ r =a

∫ 1

rdr

= q 1

2ε 0 r =0 or mg + σ (2 H ) – 1 = 0

H +r

2 2

2ε0 2 a 2 + H 2

σ 2

VP = a + H2 – H

2ε0 H

∴ mg + 2mg 2 – 1 = 0

Potential at centre, (O) will be a + H 2

σa 2H

VO = 2ε H= 0 or 1 + –2 = 0

0 a +H2

2

(a) Particle is released from P and it just reaches point O.

Therefore, from conservation of mechancial energy— 2H

Decrease in gravitational potential energy = increase in or =1

a2 + H 2

electrostatic potential energy

(∆KE = 0 becauseKi = Kf = 0) H2 1

∴ mgH = q [VO – VP ] or =

a +H

2 4 2

q σ or 3H = a 2

2

or gH = a – a + H + H

2 2

...(1)

0

m 2 ε a

or H=

q 4ε0 g 3

=

m σ From Eq. (2), we can write

U – H equation as

qσ

∴ 2ε0 m = 2g U = mg (2 a2 + H 2 – H)

(Parabolic variation)

Substituting Eq. (1), we get

U = 2mga at H = 0

gH = 2g [a + H – a2 + H 2 ]

U

H

or = (a + H ) – a2 + H 2

2

2mga

H

or a +H

2 2

= a+ 3mga

2

H

a 2 + H2 = a +

2

or + aH H

2 a

O H=

3 2 3

or H = aH

4 a

and U = Umin = 3 mga at H = 3

4

or H= a and H = 0

3 Therefore, U-H graph will be as shown

∴ H = (4/3)a a

(b) Potential energy of the particle at height H = Electro- Note that at H = , U is minimum

3

272

a 27 2 3 2

Therefore, H = is stable equilibrium position ⇒ 2 + x = 4 + x

3 2

17. Inthefigureq = 1µC = 10–6 , q 0 = + 0.1µC = 10–7 C and This equation gives x = ± 5 m

m = 6 × 10–4 kg and Q = 8 µC = 8 × 10–6 C 2

y The least value of kinetic energy of the particle at

+ 27 / 2µ B +Q infinity should be enough to take the particle upto x

+ 3 / 2µ A –q 5 5

O

V0 m

=+ m because at x = + m

x P q0 2 2

− 3 / 2µ C –q

E=0

− 27 / 2µ D +Q ⇒ Electrostatic force on cahrge q is zero or Fe = 0

For at x > m, E is repulsive (towards positive x-

2

3

AP = CP = + x2

2 5

axis) and for x < m, E is attractive (towards

2

27

+ x2

BP = DP = negative x-axis)

2

Electric potential at point P will be 5

Now, from Eq. (1) potential at x = m

1 2

2KQ 2 Kq

where K = 4πε = 9 × 10 Nm2 /C2

9

V = –

BP AP 0

8 1

V = 1.8 ×104 –

8 × 10–6 27 5 3 5

10–6 2 +2 +

∴ V = 2× 9 × 10 2 2

9

–

27 3 2

2 +x +x

2

2 V = 2.7 × 104 volt

5

Applying energy conservation at x = ∞ and x = m

2

8 1

V = 1.8 ×10

4

– ...(1) 1 2

27 3 2 mv0 = q 0 V ...(2)

2 +x +x

2

2

2

∴ Electric field at P is 2q0V

∴ v0 =

m

dV –1 27

–3/2

E=– = 1.8 ×104 (8) + x 2 Substituting the values

dX 2 2

2 ×10–7 × 2.7 ×104

v0 =

1 3

–3/2 6 × 10–4

2

– + x (2x)

v0 = 3m/s

2 2

∴ Minimum value of v0 is 3m/s

E = 0 on x-axis where – x = 0 or From Eq. (1), potential at origin (x = 0) is

8 1

=

27

3/2

3

3/2 8

2 1

+ x2 +x V0 = 1.8 × 104 –

2 2 27 3

2 2

(4) 3 / 2 1

⇒ = 3/2 = 2.4 × 104 V

27 2

3/2 3 2

+x +x Let K be the kinetic energy of the particle at origin.

2 2 Aplying energy conservation at x = 0 and at x = ∞

273

1 2 1

K + q 0 V0 = mv0 or mg (2l) = m (u 2 – v2 )

2 2

or u 2 = v2 + 4gl

1 2

But mv0 = q 0 V [from Eq. (2)] Substituting the value of v2 from Eq. (1) we get

2 u 2 = 2.4 + 4 (10) (0.8) = 34.4m2 /s 2

K = q 0 (V – V0 ) ∴ u = 5.86 m/s

K = (10–7 ) (2.7 × 104 – 2.4 × 104 ) Therefore, minimum horizontal velocity imparted to the

K = 3 × 10–4 J lower ball, so that it can make complete revolution, is

5.86 m/s

5

Note : E = 0 or Fe on q0 is zeor at x = 0 and x x = ±

m 19. For potential energy of the system of charges, total

2

number of charge pairs will be 8 C2 or 28 of these 28

of these x = 0 is stable equilibrium position and pairs 12 unlike charges are at a separation a, 12 like

5 charges are at separation 2 a and 4 unlike charges

x =± is Unstable equilibrium postion.

2 are at separation 3 a. Therefore, the potential energy

of the system

18. Given : q = 1µC = 106 C

m = 8 × 10–3 kg and l = 0.8 m 1 (12)( q)(–q) (12)(q )( q) (4)( q) – ( q)

U = + +

Let u be the speed of the particle at its lowest point 4πε 0 a 2a 3a

and v its speed at high point.

Fe 1 q2

= –5.824 .

4πε0 a

v T=0

mq The binding energy of this system is therefore,

l

q 1 q2

|U| = 5.824

4πε0 a

u

At highest point three forces are acting on the particle. So, work done by external force in disassembling, this

(i) Electrostatic repulsion system of charges is

1 q2 1 q2

= W = 5.824 .

Fe =

4πε 0 l2

(outwards) 4πε0 a

20. Applying energy conservation principle, increase is

(ii) weight W = mg (inwards)

kinetic energy of the dipole = decrease in electrostatic

(iii) Tension T' (inwards)

potential energy of the dipole.

T = 0, if the particle has just to complete the circle and

∴ Kinetic energy of dipole at distance d from origin

the necessary centripetal force provided by W – Fe i.e.,

= Ui – Uf

r ur r ur

mv 2 or KE = 0 – (– p . E ) = p . E

= W– Fe

l

1 q $ qp

= ( p$i). i =

1 1 q2 πε 2

4πε 0 d

2

or v2 = mg – 4 0 d

m 4πε0 l 2

(b) Electric field at origin due to the dipole,

ur 1 2 p $ ur r

0.8 9.0 × 109 × (106 ) 2 E= i ( E axis ↑↑ p )

v2 = 2 × 10 –3 × 1 0 – m2 /s 2 4πε 0 d 3

2 ×103 (18) 2

∴ Force on charge q

or v2 = 2.4m2 /s 2 ...(1)

Now, the electrostatic potential energy at the lowest ur ur pq

F = qE= $i

and highest points are equal. Hence, from conserva- 2πε0 d 3

tion of mechanical energy

Increase in grvaitational potential energy = Decrease 21. Electric field near a large metallic plate is given by E

in kinetic energy, = σ/ε0 . In between the plates the two fields will be in

274

opposite direction. Hence,

( K )

Va

σ1 – σ2

Enet = = E0 (say) V' = K

ε0

(3a2 t )1 / 3

Now, W = (q) (potential difference)

= q (E0 a cos 45°) 1/3

a

or V' = V

σ – σ2 a 3t

= ( q) 1

ε0 2 R/2

∫ 4pr drkr

R

23. At r = ; qencl = 2 a

(σ1 – σ2 )qa 2

= 0

2 ε0

R/2 a +3

r a +3 4pk R

= 4pk =

a + 3 a +3 2

22. Let q be the charge on the bubble, then

0

Kq 1

V= (Here K = ) At r = R

a 4πε0

′

′ 4pk q 1 qencl

Va qencl = ( R ) a+ 3 ; encl 2 = ;

∴ q= a +3 4pe 0r 8 4pe0 R 2

K

a +3

Let after collapsing the radius of droplet becomes R, R 4 1 R a +3

then equating the volume, we have =

2

2

R 8 R2

4 3

(4πa 2 )t = πR 2 a+ 3 = 32

3

a +3=5

∴ R = (3a 2 t)1/3

a = 2

Kq

Now, potential of droplet will be V' =

R ASSERTION AND REASION

1. No solution is required.

275

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