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# TUGAS ARTIKEL BAHASA INGGRIS

## MY AFFILIATION : Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science,

Yogyakarta State University

ABSTRACT.

## CPM (Critical Path Method) and PERT (Evaluation Techniques and

Review Programs) are analytical tools that use different approaches in the
process. Where the CPM method uses a deterministic approach that is, analytical
techniques for planning, scheduling and. With a single estimate for an activity.
The direction of calculation of CPM is forward and calculation. The method used
to predict a time required with a time. PERT also uses other parameters to
quantitatively measure the uncertainty of standard deviations and variance.

Introduction:

## Projects are activities within a certain timeframe with limited resource

allocation and aim to produce a specific product.

## Large-scale project management, such as building construction, requires

careful planning, scheduling, and coordination of interrelated activities. Good
planning and scheduling of a project determines the success of the project.
Planning and scheduling is always an issue in project management because it
will affect the success of a project, especially in meeting the scope of time, scope
of work and the scope of costs (Syahrizal, 2016).

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One of the elements of the planning outcome is project scheduling, which
can provide information about the project schedule and progress of the project in
terms of resource performance in terms of cost, labor, equipment and materials
and the project duration plan with the progress of time for project completion.
Critical Path Method (CPM) and Project Evaluation Review Technic (PERT) are
two project scheduling methods that use different approaches in the process.
Where the CPM method using a deterministic approach whereas PERT method
using the probability approach (Syahrizal, 2016).

In the scheduling of an event, the CPM and PERT methods can be applied
not only to large activities, but can be used for planning and scheduling in simpler
activities, such as planning of NCC activities organized by UNY COOP, as it will
be very useful in planning and scheduling efficient and effective activities.
Therefore, this group will discuss the use of CPM and PERT methods to look at
critical activities and determine how much opportunity the activities are completed
(Ningsih, 2016).

Discussion:

## One example of the application of CPM and PERT in everyday life is to

determine the percentage of chances of completing a task within a certain time
period. For example the preparation of the national cooperative competition
(NCC) which will be held by the UNY COOP. The following assumes some
principal activities that are summarized from the annex of activity per sie:

## A. Preparation of a series of NCC events

B. Create logo and letterhead stamps
C. Creating a budget plan
D. Calculation of costs in the budget
E. Establish conditions, preparation, and participant registration
F. Create a list of consumption based on the order of events
G. Compile a matter of rounds and determine the preliminary and final
rounds

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H. Make proposal of activity, sponsor proposal, and letters of borrowing,
permit, and invitation
I. Making pamphlets and banners as a publication medium
J. Publish events in various media
K. Submit proposals and deliver letters
L. Preparing accommodation and transportation for participants
M. Rent the place and prepare all the preparations

## With the time limit for completion of preparation is 4 months, it can be

calculated by using CPM and PERT to calculate how much chance the
preparation can be completed in 4 months.

The first step we take to analyze the above problem is to determine the time
of the optimistic activity duration estimation activity (a) which is the shortest time
to complete the activity when everything runs smoothly., The estimated duration
of pessimistic activity (b) takes the longest time to complete activity, that is, if
everything is not good, and the estimated duration of habit (m) is the most
frequent timeframe compared to the other when the activity is repeated with
similar conditions.

From the above activities we can create the initial table of the problem where
a, b, and m in days:

## Activitie prodecesso pessimistic time

optimistic time (a) most likely time (m)
s r (b)
A - 25 30 35
B - 8 10 12
C - 4 7 10
D C 17 21 25
E A 26 28 30
F A 27 30 33
G A,B,D 42 45 48
H A,B,D 50 60 70
I E 10 14 18

3
J I 5 7 9
K H 7 10 13
L H 7 10 13
M L 6 10 14

The next step is to determine the expected time which is the expected time
to complete the activity, and determine the variance of each activity. Expected
time is calculated using the formula:

𝑎 + 4𝑚 + 𝑏
𝑡𝑒 =
6

## While the variant can be calculated by using the formula:

𝑏−𝑎 2
𝑉𝑎𝑟 = ( )
6

So from the initial table above we can get the table with value te and var
form:

## Activitie prodecess optimistic most likely time pessimistic

te var
s or time (a) (m) time (b)
A - 25 30 35 30 2.78
B - 8 10 12 10 0.44
C - 4 7 10 7 1
D C 17 21 25 21 1.78
E A 26 28 30 28 0.44
F A 27 30 33 30 1
G A,B,D 42 45 48 45 1
H A,B,D 50 60 70 60 11.11
I E 10 14 18 14 1.78
J I 5 7 9 7 0.44
K H 7 10 13 10 1
L H 7 10 13 10 1

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M L 6 10 14 10 1.78

From the table above we can describe the network of the above problems are:

Then after determining earliest start (ES) and latest completion (LC) we
get the following network images

From the picture above we can conclude that the critical activities of the
above problems are the activities of A, H, L, and M.

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Then the last step will be done is to calculate the probability of completion
time. First we will calculate the mean duration and variance of the duration of the
project from critical activity by summing the te and var of all critical activities

## variance of the duration of the project = 2.78 + 11.11 + 1 + 1.78 = 16.66

then from the variance of the duration of the project we can obtain standard
deviation by rooting the variance of the duration of the project and obtained

## standar deviasi= √16.66 = 4.082

Then by using the central limit theorem, the critical path is normally
distributed. So the probability of preparing for the event is over in 4 months is

## 𝐶𝑃 − 110 120 − 110

𝑃(𝐶𝑃 ≤ 120) = 𝑃 ( ≤ ) = 𝑃(𝑍 ≤ 2.45) = 0.9928
4.082 4.082

## This means the probability of the project being completed in 4 months is

99.28%

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Conclusion:

From the above completion it can be concluded that the preparation of NCC
event which will be held by kopma may be completed within 4 months by 99.28%,
prioritizing doing critical activities namely: Compilation of NCC series of events,
making activity proposal, sponsor proposal, and letter - lending, licensing, and
invitation letters, preparing lodging and transportation for participants, and renting
premises and preparing for all preparations.

Suggestions
The use of CPM and PERT is not only for major project planning but, in
any project planning, both methods are highly recommended. Because both
methods can estimate the time of completion of a project based on effective and
efficient resources.

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Attachment
Target Job Panitia Inti NCC 2017

## August September Oktober November

Sekretary
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Proposal for the place /
Hotel
Proposal for the
Rektorat
Proposal of activities
for participants
Proposal for the
Preparing attendance
data every meeting
Lending and licensing
documents (trophies)
LPJ
Ministerial Letter of
Ministry of
Cooperatives

## August September Oktober November

Treasurer 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

8
Budget plan

## help calculate the cost

of renting the premises

determine HTM

prize

## create and collect

budget plans per sie

filing of funds to the
rectorate

## August September Oktober November

Sie Event
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Accountability one for
communication with
LO on day H

Composition of events
in Seminar or Juknis

for seminar
participants, rank 1, &
LCC the same or not

## speakers and seminar

themes

specify the
participant's

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dresscode, committee,
invited guests

ranking of events 1 or
juknis

arrangement of LCC
events and technical
guidelines

## structuring room decor

/ plotting place / lay out

Oprec MC seminar,
LCC and rank 1

## form the champion

category = the
champion can be
anything

technical
announcement of the
champions

## August September Oktober November

Sie Registration
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
registration
requirement

## determine the target of

participants each
month

10
create a registration
flow

create participant
database

payment confirmation

online registration
mechanism

2017 caliphate receipts

## Sie Supplies August September Oktober November

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

## booking where the

assistant sekre and
chairman

## check sound, chair,

table, camera,
handycamp, red carpet
etc.

## Borrow Bel for LCC

List of Equipment
Ranking 1

11
Sie Problem August September Oktober November

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

round

problem

## type of multiple choice

question or what

technical preliminary
round

## LO August September Oktober November

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

ngelist at least 20
hotels / inns around
UNY (name, fare,
distance, amenities)

on day H for day
mobility H (prioritize
existing motor)

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car rental for
penjemputaan

## make a list of arrivals

and return participants

## Sie Consumption August September Oktober November

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

## create a snack list

based on the event

discounts

## Sie PR August September Oktober November

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

## Ngelist invited guest

invite

Pamphlets or hardfile
information

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format

## contact when inviting

office, rectorate,

## Sie PDD August September Oktober November

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

Cap Logo

coming soon

welcome banner

backdrop according to
stage size

banner publication
front kopma

## pamphlet oprec field

committee (staff)

decal

seminar sertfikat

sertfikat ranking 1

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LCC certificate

frames in IG

PPT welcome

Photo booth

## Sie Sponsorship August September Oktober November

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

print proposal
sposorship

supplier

logo

## Sie Kominfo August September Oktober November

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

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Make IG

ngelist kopma se
indonesia and PT

## publication of the event

for the participants'
curiosity

pj drescode committee

in medsos

Create PJ publications
online

## Create a Profile every

Sie and Organizer to
with photos

memento

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References
Syahrizal and Muhammad Rizki R. 2016. Evaluation of Time Scheduling and
Project Costs By PERT and CPM Methods. University of North Sumatra Prasetya

Ningsih, Inka Kartika, Elly Nu'ma Zahroti and Dwi Trisana Wardanis. 2016. Health
Management Methods CPM and PERT. Airlangga University

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