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This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2016 conference.

A Review
R Paper on
Conical Corrugated
C Horn Antennaa
Niraj Tevar Prarthan Mehta Kiritkum
mar Bhatt
Electronics & Communication Electronics & Communication Electronics & Communication
C
C.U.Shah University Dharmsinh Desai University SVITT, GTU
Wadhvan,Gujarat,India Nadiad,Gujarat,India Vasad,Guujarat,India
nirajtevar88@gmail.com mehtaprarthan@gmail.com krbhattec@
@gmail.com

Abstract— This paper presents the reviiew on different hasn’t a good radiation pattern annd also having
types of corrugated waveguides and the antennas for far considerable side lobes. So for more applications,
a it is
ntennas having a
field radiation pattern. This kind of an not useful as a radiation source. So, itt is necessary to
better gain and directivity and the sidee lobe levels are transform it into another mode moore adequate to
comparatively low. The side lobe levelss can be further
radiate. So from this corrugated horn antenna, it
reduced by the applying the concept of co
orrugation to the
walls. The significant disadvantage of TE
T 11 mode, side generates the HE11 mode from this TE111 mode.
lobes and cross-polarization, is reduceed by the HE11
mode. Now a days, working with a new type of The HE11 mode is the major methood of this sort of
corrugated horn antenna, consists on generating the corrugated receiving horn antenna. Thee HE11 mode has
fundamental Gaussian beam directly from the TE11 better far field radiation pattern and itt can be utilized
mode. These antennas are used when high degree of as a part of various applications likee car radar and
symmetry in radiation field and low crross polarization sensors, long range high determinationn gigabyte point
with high gain and pencil beam is requirred. This kind of
to point information transmission, extending from
Gaussian profile horn antenna having loower aperture in
size.
reflector feeder to interchanges, radar, remote sensing,
radio connections, environment thinks about and so on.
Keywords—Corrugated antenna, Gaussian n beam, W-band,
II. CORRUGATION
Automotive radar, horn antenna, TE11 andd HE11 mode

I. INTRODUCTION The general concept of the corrugaation is “Shaped


into alternating parallel grooves and riddges”.
As a result of low air retention, short wave length
and wide accessible recurrence transferr speed, W band,
Which having a frequency range from 75 GHz to 110
GHz, has an extensive variety of utilizaations including
car radar and sensors, likewise utilizedd for short range
reconnaissance, long range high determination
gigabyte point to point information trransmission and
high determination inactive imaging frramework[1][2].
The corrugated horn antenna has a rotationally
symmetrical main beam and low side loobes, that's why Fig. 1 Corrugation
it is mainly useful as a primary radiattor for reflector
antenna for satellite communication eaarth station and Corrugated horns can deliver raadiation pattern
radio telescope. A corrugated horn anteenna has a series having to a great axial symmetry, geneerally consistent
of equally spaced ridges protruding from otherwise beam widths as an element of recurreence, high beam
straight sides. The generator has a mo onomode output efficiency, low cross-polarization leevels, low side
from waveguide, i.e. rectangular and circular levels and back lobe, great return loss,, and moderately
waveguide. The antenna can be excited e in any the same phase center in every siingle cut plane
polarization or combination of polarizaation. Normally, containing the receiving antenna bore sight.
s This is the
the gun diode is built in a rectangu ular waveguide HE11, Hybrid mode. For all polaarizations equal
exciting the TE10 rectangular wavegu uide mode, and boundaries can be produces by the corrrugation, which
with a convectional converter, this mod de can be easily is inside the antenna surface, and deccreases the field
converted to the TE11 circular mode. appropriation in the E and H planes iin the gap. This
prompts a hybrid mixture of TE11 annd TM11 modes
The TE11 mode is applied as input power working
in a circular monomode waveguide. This
T TE11 mode

978-1-4673-9338-6/16/$31.00 2016
c IEEE 889
This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2016 conference.

that acts as a solitary mode, in which both segments GPHAs versus other corrugated horns are mentioned.
spread with the same velocity [6]. The proposed antenna uses the normal corrugated horn
antenna as a mode conversion from TE11 to HE11.The
For some applications the Directivity, gain, side simulation design is shown in the fig.3.
lobe and cross-polarization levels are imperative
configuration parameters. Extra outline parameters are
aperture and weight for the horn antenna, which
should be minimized [7]. There are three fundamental
purposes behind the presence of corrugated Horn
antennas. One of that is, they shows radiation pattern
symmetry, So It can be used as a potential for high
gain reflector antennas with low spill over; besides,
they transmit with low cross-polarization, which is
important key in dual polarization and lastly, they are
having with a very wide bandwidth. The principle
objective of designing horn antenna in the most recent
years was to energize a surely understood HE11 mode
from appropriate mixture of 85% of TE11 mode, and
15% of TM11 mode, with right phase to create a Fig. 3 Simulation Design of Corrugated Horn antenna [7]
Gaussian like radiation pattern. This mode relates to
the fundamental mode of a corrugated conical
waveguide. Includes a progressive coordinating of the
smooth walled monomode circular waveguide to
another corrugated one easily decreased from l/2 to l/4
of a wavelength that is appeared in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 E-plane and H-plane Gain Pattern [7]

Also it’s possible to do this conversion with


Fig. 2 Corrugated Horn antenna with design parameter [7] another GPHA to reduce the size slightly more. Also
by increasing the length of the GPHA with proper
Table 1 Design Parameter for Corrugated Horn Antenna
feeding it by a high purity of HE11 mode, the cross-
polarization level can be decreased to -50dB for the
Parameters Equations satellite applications. In these applications, there is a
trade-off between size and cross-polarization level.
Input Radius of horn antenna (Rin) 0.39 * Ȝ

Horn Antenna length (L) L = 6.5 * Ȝ to 8.5 * Ȝ III. TAPER-CONVERTER PROFILE [8]

Corrugation Depth (d) Ȝ / 2 or Ȝ / 4 According to reference [8],There are different ways


to generate a HE11 corrugated waveguide mode:
Period (P) Ȝ / 3 or Ȝ / 5 Applying linear tapers to get approx. 85% of TE11
mode and 15% of TM11 mode, surface impedance
Duty Cycle (w) P / 2 or P / 3
connectors (from corrugation depth Ȝ/2 to /4),etc. In
Phase centre (Pc) 1.85 * Ȝ their case, they combine two of these techniques, and
defined that by the equations:
Corrugation thickness (Cth) 0.02 * Ȝ


‫ݎ‬ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ܴ௜௡ ඨͳ ൅ ൬ మ ൰ ሺͳሻ
The design of a compact corrugated horn antenna ఈȉ௞ȉோ೔೙
for low side lobe level application using Gaussian
profiled horn antennas is presented. Advantages of

890
This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2016 conference.

‫ݎ‬ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ‫ ݖ‬൏ ‫ܮ‬ൗʹ ʹȉ‫ ݖ‬ଶ


݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ൝  ሺʹሻ
݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ܴ௜௡ ඨͳ ൅ ൬ ൰ ሺ͵ሻ
െ‫ݎ‬ሺ‫ ܮ‬െ ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൅ ʹ ȉ ‫ݎ‬൫‫ܮ‬ൗʹ൯‫ ݖ‬൒ ‫ܮ‬ൗʹ ݇ ȉ ߱଴

in which L indicates the total length. From the ߱଴ ൌ ܽ ȉ ܴ௜௡ ሺͶሻ


calculations of total length the proper output radius
within the range of 0.71 to 0.81 obtain approximately
݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ‫ ݖ‬൏ ‫ܮ‬ൗʹ
by applying the combination of 85% of TE11 and 15% ‫ݎ‬ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ൝  ሺͷሻ
of TM11, the phase will be automatically adjusted. െ݂ሺ‫ ܮ‬െ ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൅ ʹ ȉ ݂൫‫ܮ‬ൗʹ൯‫ ݖ‬൒ ‫ܮ‬ൗʹ

Fig. 6 Generation of HE 11 mode from TE11 mode of Gaussian horn


Antennas [16]

Fig. 5 Design Structure for Corrugated Horn [8]

a taper-converter or corrugated horn antenna


working at 8GHz, The inner radius of monomode
waveguide is 22.032 mm and the output radius of
same is 26.738 mm. For the total length of 100 mm
converter, the considered parameter values for design
is 1/3 corrugation period having with a duty cycle of
50%; The output mode mixture is:

Table 2 Mode Distribution for the Hybrid Mode

MODE % POWER PHASE(°)

TE11 86.7268 -86.2587

TM11 13.0885 -77.6980


Fig. 7 Far Field Radiation Pattern of GPHA [16]

The resultant far field radiation pattern is shown in


IV. GPHA the Fig. 7. In that the far-field pattern of Gaussian
antenna converter TE11 - HE11, with considered the
According to reference [16], the new antenna flare angle value is 1.5, length of the antenna is taken
profile is introduced. Short-horn antennas, which as 4.2Ȝ and the output radius is 1.322Ȝ. In the
having a higher conversion efficiency to a Gaussian profile horn antenna the antenna length and
fundamental Gaussian beam, hence, it has a very low the input aperture radius, in comparing with the
SLL and low cross-polarization levels, and that can be corrugated conical horn antenna, is low.
acquired by the Gaussian profile design concept. The
GPHA, Gaussian Profile Horn Antenna, consists on
generating the fundamental Gaussian beam directly V. CONICAL HORN ANTENNA WITH HORIZONTAL
from the TE11 mode. The equation that defines the [9]
AND VERTICAL CORRUGATIONS
profile of the antenna is as below [8],

891
This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2016 conference.

The new concept is arrived to design the corrugated for W-Band Application” IEEE Antennas and Wireless
horn antenna in a recent years, which is majorly used propagation letters, vol. 13, 2014
[2] Halim Boutayeb and Ke Wu, “Analysis and Design of
as a feeder in communication satellite. Millimeter-Wave Circularly Polarized Substrate Integrated
This type of horn antennas, the usual vertical Travelling-Wave Antennas” Progress In electromagnetics
corrugation are used and the additionally the Research C, Vol. 49, 67{77, 2014
horizontal corrugations are applied at the throat region [3] P. J. B. Clarricoats and A. D. Olver, “Corrugated Horns for
Microwave Antennas” London, IEEE, 1984.
of the antenna as seen in the Fig. 8. This structures
[4] A. D. Olver, P. 1. B. Clarricoats, A. A. Kishk, and L. Shafai,
having more advantages in comparison to the “Microwave Horns and Feeds” London, lee, 1994, Chapter 9.
corrugated horn, like it having a short axial length with [5] A. W. Love, “Electromagnetic Horn Antennas” New York,
minimum calculation complexity and having a good IEEE Press, 1976.
return loss over a wide bandwidth. Due to the different [6] Majid Abbas-Azimi, Farhad Mazlumi, and Fereidoon Behnia,
structural concept the manufactures required to divide “Design of Broadband Constant-Beam width Conical
Corrugated-Horn Antennas” IEEE Antennas and Propagation
it into two parts for vertical and horizontal corrugation Magazine, Vol. 51, No.5, October 2009
and that should be combined with bolt. So alignment [7] Tohid Salimi, Amir Maghoul, and Ali A. Abbasid, “Design of
is the important parameter to prevent narrow radiating a Compact Gaussian Profiled Corrugated Horn Antenna for
slots[9]. Low Side lobe-Level Applications” International Journal of
Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 2, April 2013
[8] Ramón Gonzalo, Carlos del Río and Mario Sorolla
“Generation of the HE11 mode from monomode smooth
circular waveguide”
[9] Jorge Teniente, Aitor Martínez, Belén Larumbe, Asier
Ibáñez, and Ramón Gonzalo, “Design Guidelines of Horn
Antennas That Combine Horizontal and Vertical
Corrugations for Satellite Communications” IEEE
Transactions On Antennas And Propagation, Vol. 63, No. 4,
April 2015
[10] Jorge Teniente, Ramón Gonzalo and Carlos del-Río “Ultra-
wide band corrugated Gaussian profiled horn antenna design”
[11] A. A. Kishk and C.-S. Lim, “Comparative analysis between
conical and Gaussian profiled horn antennas” progress in
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Fig. 8 Design Structure of horn antenna with both horizontal and
vertical corrugations [9]
[12] M. J. Inman, J. M. Earwood, A. Z. Elsherbeni and C. E.
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design” Progress In Electromagnetic Research, PIER 49, 71–
While applying the concept of combining the both 86, 2004
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occurs in terms of length. By using this concept the Telecommunication by Public University of Navarra, July
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length of the antennas can be reduced by the 40 % and [14] H.bernhard schlegel, “Geometry Optimization” by wayne
the specified return loss can be achieved., so, in state university, Detroit, MI, USA
comparison of this antenna to the usual corrugated [15] Dooyeong Yang and You Chung Chung, “Genetic Algorithm
horn antenna the performance is improves and used for Optimization of a Corrugated Conical Horn Antenna” by
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[16] Ramón Gonzalo, Member, IEEE, Jorge Teniente, and Carlos
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VI. SUMMARY Gaussian Profiled Horn Antennas" IEEE transactions on
antennas and propagation, vol. 50, no. 11, November 2002
The paper describes a review of novel design for a
corrugated horn. The suitable corrugated horn has
been designed for the different applications and with
different design structures. The use of Gaussian bean
horn antenna, it can be used for the compact in size.
The horn antenna with horizontal and vertical
corrugation is more useful in terms of reduction in
axial length, less manufacturing complexity with
wider bandwidth.

VII. FUTURE WORKING LINE


This type of horn antenna can be further optimized
so the results can be improved with better return loss,
wider bandwidth.

REFERENCES

[1] Baolin Cao, Hao Wang, Yong Huang, Jie Wang, and Hanyue
Xu, “A Novel Antenna-in-package with LTCC Technology

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