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# prepared by

R.Sakthivel Murugan,
Assistant Professor, KCET
• Engineering Analysis
• Analytical Methods (or) Theoretical Analysis
• Numerical Methods (or) Approximate Methods
 Functional Approximation
 Finite Difference Method (FDM)
 Finite Element Method (FEM)
-Rayleigh Ritz Method
-Weighted Residual Method
 Potential Energy is the capacity to do work.
 Total Potential Energy = Internal Potential
Energy
+External
Potential Energy.
 Principle of minimum potential energy
 It is an integral approach method
 Useful for solving Structural Mechanics
Problems.
 It is also known as Variational Approach.
x2

x1

##  Total Potential Energy

π = Strain Energy – Work done by external forces
= U- H
 It should satisfy the geometric boundary
condition.
 It should have at least one Rayleigh Ritz
parameter.
 It should represented as either polynomial or
trigonometrical.
Polynomial  Bar Element
y = a0 + a1 x + a2 x + a3 x + .......
2 3

## Trignometric  Beam Element

Πx 3Πx
y = a1 sin + sin + .....
l l
• Step 1
– Setting an approximation Function
• Step 2
– Determine Strain Energy, U
• Step 3
– Determine Work Done by External Force , H
• Step 4
– Total Potential Energy, π= U-H
• Step 5
– To find Ritz Parameter by Partial Differentiation (step 4 result)
• Step 6
– Determine deflection for beam element
– Determine displacement for bar element
• Step 7
– Determine Bending Moment for beam element
– Determine Stress for bar element
A simply supported beam subjected to
uniformly distributed load over entire span.
Determine the bending moment and
deflection at mid span by using Rayleigh Ritz
method.
Step 1

Step 2
Strain Energy

## Solving this we get ,

Step 3
Work done by External Forces
l
H = ∫ ωydx
0

Step 4

## Total Potential Energy , π= U- H

Step 5
To find Ritz Parameter by Partial
Differentiation

## Solving this we get ,

&

So,
Step 6
Maximum Deflection

Sub x = l/2 in y 
Step 7
Maximum Bending Moment
2
d y
M = EI 2
dx
Solving this we get,
Mmax= -0.124ω2
Thank you