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Knowledge and Strategic Partner

3rd National Conference on


SUSTAINABLE
INFRASTRUCTURE
WITH PLASTICS

Knowledge Paper on
Plastic Industry for Infrastructure
February 2017
Knowledge and Strategic Partner

3rd National Conference on


SUSTAINABLE
INFRASTRUCTURE
WITH PLASTICS

Knowledge Paper on
Plastic Industry for Infrastructure
February 2017
Mr. Vinay Mathur
Deputy Secretary General

Message
The plastics industry continues to break into newer spheres of industry, thereby enabling
Indian industry churn out products that are lighter and cost-effective. This industry has been
one of the of the fastest growing industries in the Indian economy. The sector has huge
unrealized potential, as indicated by the present very low per capita consumption levels of
polymers in India which is ~11 kg vis-à-vis 38 kg in China, 65 kg in Europe and the global
average of ~28 kg

I am pleased to know that FICCI, jointly with OPPI and Department of Chemicals &
Petrochemicals, Government of India is organising a conference on the sector with the theme
“Sustainable infrastructure with Plastics”. Indeed the plastics industry is becoming
increasingly important for facilitating sound infrastructure in a very sustainable manner. The
aim of this conference is to debate the issues and potential of this important emerging sector
and determine the way forward. I am confident that the Conference will achieve its objectives
and I wish it all the success.
Mr. Prabh Das
Chairman-FICCI National Petrochemicals Committee
Managing Director & CEO
HPCL-Mittal Energy Limited

The plastic Industry is making significant contribution to the economic developments and
growth of various key sectors in the country, be it Infrastructure, Agriculture, Horticulture,
Healthcare, Automotive or construction industry, to name a few. Infrastructure is a key driver
for the Indian economy. Good transport modes, roads, ports and allied infrastructure are pre-
requisites for the sustained growth of the country. The Government of India is taking every
possible initiative to boost the sector. The effort is being well supported by the Indian Plastic
Industry.

The Indian plastics industry has huge unrealized potential of growth given the presently very
low usage levels compared to the global standards. At the same time, this industry in the
coming decades has to promote sustainable development by investing in technologies that
protects environment and stimulates growth while balancing economic needs and financial
constraints. Plastics wastes challenge has to be managed better. Linkage of plastics waste
management with prospects of recycling industry will be a good idea.

I wish all the success to the conference.


Table of Contents
1. Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05
2. Executive summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07
3. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09
4. Market overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. Key growth drivers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.1. Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.2. Packaging Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.3. Automotive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.4. Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.5. Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6. Modern applications of plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.1. Flexible packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.2. Automotive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.3. Textile fibers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7. Challenges faced by Plastic processing industry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7.1. Highly fragmented plastic processing industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7.2. Environmental hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7.3. Want of newer technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7.4 Price and Currency Volatility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

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8. Key Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8.1. Plasticulture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8.2. Growth in key end-use industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8.3. Growing interest in Bio-Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8.4. Effective Waste Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
9. Opportunities in Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
9.1. PVC – Pipes & Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9.2. Rigid Pipe segment / Agriculture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9.3. Plastic moulded furniture segment: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
10. Government initiatives supporting plastic usage in infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
10.1. Government’s programme of ‘Housing for all by 2022’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
10.2. Swachh Bharat Mission - Boost for plastic products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
10.3. AMRUT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
11. Way Forward. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
13. Sustainable Infrastructure with Plastics (Article). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
14 About Tata Strategic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
15 Tata Strategic Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

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Table of Figures
Figure 1: Applications of Plastic processing industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09

Figure 2: Structure of the Indian Plastic Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figure 3: Plastic Processing in India (MMTPA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Figure 4: Per capita plastic products consumption (Kg/person) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Figure 5: Processes in Plastic Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Figure 6: Plastic products demand growth drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Figure 7: Emerging trends in packaging industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Figure 8: Application break-up of PVC - India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Figure 9: Application break-up of PVC - Global . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

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1. Preface

Manish Panchal Charu Kapoor P S Singh


Sr. Practice Head – Chemical & SCM Principal – Chemicals Head - Chemicals & Petrochemicals
Tata Strategic Management Group Tata Strategic Management Group FICCI
manish.panchal@tsmg.com charu.kapoor@tsmg.com prabhsharan.singh@ficci.com

This report attempts to provide the reader an overview of the Indian plastic processing industry, its
growth prospects, challenges faced, emerging applications of plastics in the market and the growth of
plastic usage in infrastructure.

The Indian Plastic Industry gained momentum in the early 1990's. Further impetus was added with
investments in raw material production from mid 1990's onwards, which fuelled investments in plastic
processing industry as well as downstream machinery sector.

In the last decade, a number of emerging applications of plastics have been developed in many
industries, such as Automotive, Packaging, Agriculture and Infrastructure, which have changed the day
to day lives of the people. The industry has produced better and improved quality of plastics with the
help of new technologies, especially in the packaging industry leading to replacement of several
materials such as wood, metals and glass.

With the government's support, a tremendous growth in the plastic processing sector is envisaged.
Infrastructure is one of the key drivers for the Indian economy. The Government of India is taking every
possible initiative to boost the infrastructure sector with investments of INR 25 lakh crore over the next
3 years in roads, railways and shipping infrastructure. Plastics play an important role in these sectors
through usage in various products like pipes, wires & cables, water proofing membranes and wood PVC
composites. Consequently, higher investments in these sectors will drive the demand for plastics.

We sincerely thank industry leaders, experts and all other participants whose valuable inputs have
helped in developing this report. As always, it was an insightful experience for the team to materialize
this report.

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2. Executive Summary
The Indian plastic industry is making significant contribution to the economic development and growth
of various key sectors in the country which includes Automotive, Construction, Electronics, Healthcare,
Textiles, and FMCG. The developments in the plastic machinery sector are coupled with developments in
the petrochemical sector, both of which support the plastic processing sector. This has facilitated plastic
processors to build capacities for the service of both the domestic market and the markets overseas.

Today, the plastic processing sector comprises over 30,000 units involved in producing a variety of
items, gaining notable importance in different spheres of activity with per capita consumption
increasing. The plastic processing industry has the potential to contribute in bringing foreign
investments and thus India’s vision of becoming a manufacturing hub.

Our study indicates that plastics processing industry has grown at a CAGR of 10% in volume terms from
8.3 MMTPA in FY10 to 13.4 MMTPA in FY15 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 10.5% from FY15 to FY20
to reach 22 MMTPA.

In value terms, the plastic processing industry has grown at a CAGR of 11% from INR 35,000 Cr. in FY ’05
to INR 100,000 Cr. in FY15.

Current low levels of per capita consumption (11 Kg), increased growth in end use industries, higher
penetration of plastics in various existing applications and ever growing range of new applications
could further propel the growth of plastics in India.

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Moreover, in the last decade, several new applications of plastic products have emerged in several
sectors boosting the industry further. For example, long fiber reinforced thermoplastic for automotive
industry, fibers that can trap infra-red radiations, packaging that can increase the shelf life of products
etc. have created demand for plastics which were in their nascent stage in India.

However, despite having a good growth potential, the plastic processing industry faces many challenges
in terms of environmental myths, lack of advanced technology, limited infrastructure, & high volatility
in feedstock prices. To overcome these challenges, significant efforts will have to be made by all the
stakeholders to realize the real potential of this industry.

The Government of India is taking every possible initiative to boost the infrastructure sector with
investments of INR 25 lakh crore over the next 3 years in roads, railways and shipping infrastructure.
Investments in water and sanitation management, irrigation, building & construction, power, transport
and retail have been encouraged. Plastics play an important role in these sectors through various
products like pipes, wires & cables, water proofing membranes, wood PVC composites and other sectors.
Consequently, higher investments in these sectors will drive the demand for plastics.

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3. | Introduction
Since independence, the plastic industry in India has been playing a predominant role in shaping our
lives. The plastic industry in India has made significant achievements since its beginning by
commencing production of polystyrene in 1957. In
the last decade, with the advent of new and Figure 1: Applications of Plastic
improved products, the industry has gained processing industry
greater importance with the production of better
and improved quality of plastic products.

The plastic industry caters to the entire spectrum Textile Fibers Packaging
of daily use items and covers almost every sphere
of life such as clothing, housing, construction,
furniture, automobiles, household items, Plastic
agriculture, horticulture, irrigation, packaging, Electronics Automotive
Applications
medical appliances, electronics and electrical
items.

The figure below represents the key applications of Infrastructure Agriculture


products of plastic processing.

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As described in Figure 2, the entire chain in the Plastic industry can be classified into:

(A) Upstream sector: Manufacturing of polymers and

(B) Downstream sector: Conversion of polymers into plastic articles

The upstream polymer manufacturers have commissioned globally competitive size plants with imported
state-of-art technology from the world leaders. The upstream petrochemical industries have also
witnessed consolidation to remain globally competitive.

The downstream plastic processing industry is highly fragmented and consists of micro, small and
medium units. There are over 30,000 registered plastic processing units of which about 75% are in the
small-scale sector. The small-scale sector, however, accounts for only about 25% of polymer
consumption. The industry also consumes recycled plastic, which constitutes about 30% of total
consumption.

Figure 2: Structure of the Indian Plastic Industry

High

Polymer Dominated by ~15


Manufacturers large industrial groups

End- User Industries


Concentration

Dominated by ~4,000
Equipment
~200 players unorganized
Manufacturers
Recycling units
Players ~3,500
organized
units
Fragmented with
~30,000 units
Plastics mostly operated by small players
Processors
Low

Flow of equipment Flow of processed plastics


Flow of virgin polymers Flow of recycled plastics

Source: CRISIL, Plastindia Foundation, Kanvic, TSMG Analysis

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There is a good scope for innovative products which will further contribute to growth of the sector in
years to come. The packaging industry has witnessed a complete replacement of old age products with
the new ones.

With India's population similar to China's, but polymer demand at only one-fifth of China's, the Indian
subcontinent's plastics industry has a good potential for growth. Improving standards of living have led
to an increase in consumption of a wide range of consumer goods from packaged foods to automobiles.
Investments in infrastructure and agriculture are also further fueling the demand of plastics and related
products in India.

While the outlook for plastics processing in the Indian subcontinent is positive, the industry still faces
many challenges in terms of inadequate infrastructure & environmental myths.

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4. | Market overview
The plastics processing industry has grown at a CAGR of 10% in volume terms from 8.3 MMTPA in FY10 to
13.4 MMTPA in FY15 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of approximately 10.5% from FY15 to FY20 to
reach 22 MMTPA (Refer Figure 3).

In value terms, the plastic processing industry has grown at a CAGR of 11% from INR 35,000 Cr. in FY05
to INR 100,000 Cr. in FY15.

Figure 3: Plastic Processing in India (MMTPA)

22
10.5%

10%

8.3

FY10 FY15 FY20


Source: Industry reports, TATA Strategic Analysis
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Snapshot of the Indian Plastics Processing Industry

Estimated size of plastic processing in value (FY15) ~INR 1 lakh crore


Market size in volume (FY15) 13.4 MMTPA
Processing Units > 30,000
Technical manpower ( as per CIPET) 11 lakh employees
Growth Rate 10-11%
Per Capita Plastic Consumption 11 kg (World: 28kg)

Plastics are gradually becoming the material of choice for extensive usage due to their unique and
diverse set of properties. With the government policies and initiatives stressing on manufacturing in the
country, competitive rivalry in the sector is bound to grow considerably.

However, due to low penetration levels of plastic products in the Indian market, especially rural
segment, the per capita consumption of plastics is low. As shown in Figure 4, with current per capita
consumption of plastics in the U.S. at 109 kg and in China at 38 kg, India at 11 kg has a long way to go.
The low consumption level indicates an enormous growth potential for the plastics sector.

Figure 4: Per capita plastic products consumption (Kg/person)

109

65

38
32 28

11

USA Europe China Brazil India World

Source: AIPMA and Plastindia, TATA Strategic Analysis

Due to increasing domestic consumption and high potential, India is emerging as one of the focus
destinations for plastics and downstream players worldwide.

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To manufacture finished products, polymers are processed through various types of techniques namely
extrusion, injection moulding, blow moulding and roto moulding. Extrusion process is the most
commonly used process in India and accounts for ~64% of total consumption by downstream plastic
processing industries. Various products manufactured through these processes are highlighted in
Figure 5.

Figure 5: Processes in Plastic Industry

1
Extrusion
• Films & Sheets, Fibres &
Filments Pipe, Conduits &
profiles, other
applications

2
Injection moulding

Classification of plastic • Industrial Household


products by type Injection mouiding
Roto moulding Thermo-ware/Moulded
of process
• Large circular thanks luggage
such as water tanks
4

Blow moulding
• Bottles, containers,
Toys and Housewares

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5. | Key growth drivers
A favorable cost benefit ratio and a versatile range of applications encourages the growth of plastics.
The properties of these materials can be customized to meet specific demands by varying the chemical
properties like molecular weight & side chain branching or by making copolymers and polymer blends.

Major reasons for the growth of the plastic processing industry are growth in the end use segments and
higher penetration of plastics in various industry segments. The following figure illustrates major
growth drivers for various industries-
Figure 6: Plastic products demand growth drivers
Agriculture
• Advanced Agricultural technology
• Distribution channels
• Refrigerated storage

Infrastructure Other growth areas


Plastic
• Building & Construction demand • Industrial/rigid packaging
• Public utilities services growth • Automotive/Appliances
• Mega highway projects drivers • Medical/personal care

Packaging Industry
• Food/Processed food
• FMCG items
• Packaged & fast food industry

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5.1. Agriculture
India supports nearly 18% of world's population with 2.4% land resource and 4% water resource, and
lately the dwindling quality and the vagaries of the availability of these resources are raising serious
questions on the sustainability of the agricultural practice. To counter the problem, efforts need to be
redirected to improve the productivity of the land, efficiency of the supply chain while reducing the
carbon footprint as a result of agricultural practice. Plasticulture, which is use of plastic in agricultural
practice, is an answer to this rallying cry. Plasticulture is a scientific way of carrying out agriculture,
which not only improves the productivity, but optimizes the input resources as well, thereby reducing
the cost.

There has been significant progress in the adoption of Plasticulture techniques in the last decade,
however the low penetration levels suggest it needs to grow at a rapid pace from now. On the demand
side, awareness of the available options and subsidies, its relevance and applicability could improve the
adoption rate. From the supply side, industry needs to take efforts to bring down the capital cost, work
on creating an environment where Plasticulture culture is a norm than exception. Concentrated efforts
in direction of demonstration, spreading Word of mouth, and building credibility by performance &
after-sales services could help shape the industry.

5.2. Packaging Industry


The packaging industry in India is one of the fastest growing industries with influence on all industries,
directly or indirectly. Indian packaging industry has registered a CAGR of 15% in the last five years. The
spending on packaged foods is increasing due to increase in per capita income, urbanization and
growing numbers of working women. There is great growth potential since India's per capita
consumption of packaging is only 4.3 kg whereas neighbouring Asian countries such as China and
Taiwan is about 6 kg and 19 kg respectively. This clearly indicates that the market is under penetrated
and offers a great business opportunity for the Indian plastics packaging industry.

The following factors have played a vital role in the growth of the packaging industry in India over the
years.

A. Retail Growth: Increased presence of global multinational companies has boosted the demand
in the processed food, beverages, cosmetics, consumer products, toiletries and pharmaceutical
space. The manufacturing units, especially the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG)
manufacturers are exploring new markets continuously through newer retail models. This has
widened the market and also increased the demand of packaging of the products.
B. Growth of Smaller Packaging: The current middle class population in India is approximately 30
Cr. which indicate that from affordability point of view, the demand for smaller packaging is
huge. This population is rapidly growing and hence this will drive the growth for packaging
industry. Smaller packaging caters to even the rural population and lower income groups.
C. Changing Lifestyle: Since the concept of globalization has penetrated the Indian market,
significant cultural changes have been witnessed. People today are buying more of branded
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products and thus packaging is playing an important role in creating and sustaining the brand
equity. With a higher per capita income, the demand of personal hygiene products and
convenience products has increased leading to increased demand for plastics.

5.3. Automotive
The Indian auto industry is one the largest in the world and has grown at about 10-11% in the last five
years from 14 million units in FY10 to 23 million units in FY15. The automobile industry accounts for
7.1% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). An expanding middle class, a young population,
and an increasing interest of companies in exploring rural markets have made the two wheelers segment
(with 81% market share) the leader of the Indian automobile market. With growing population,
increasing per capita income and aspirations to own a vehicle, various auto segments have experienced
aggressive growth in the past five years. Given the positive outlook for the automobile industry, there is
high potential for plastic usage to rise in the auto segment.

5.4. Electronics
The Indian electronics market is one of the largest in the world. The main drivers for demand for the
usage of Indian electronic products abroad are technological improvements and cost competitiveness.
The demand for electronics has grown at an estimated 16% in the past five years. In FY15, the demand
stood at USD 136 billion, up from USD 65 billion in FY10. On the other hand, supply is lagging behind at
USD 44 billion in FY15. It has grown at 16% during the same period up from USD 41 billion in FY10. The
growing customer base and the increasing penetration of electronic products in consumer durables
segment have provided enough scope for the growth of plastics in the Indian electronics sector.

5.5. Infrastructure
Infrastructure is a key driver for the Indian economy. This segment is highly responsible for pushing
India's overall development and enjoys focus from government for policies, ensuring timely creation of
world class infrastructure. India's focus on infrastructure over the last decade made the country the
second fastest growing economy in the world. As per the 12th Five Year Plan, India had committed USD 1
trillion in upgrading its ageing infrastructure like Power, Telecom, Roads, Irrigation, Railways, Oil& Gas
and others. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has notified 100% foreign direct investment (FDI) under
automatic route in the construction development sector. The new limit came into effect in December
2014. The Government of India has relaxed rules for FDI in the construction sector by reducing minimum
built-up area as well as capital requirement. It has also liberalised the exit norms. In fact, the Cabinet
has also approved the proposal to amend the FDI policy.

Large investments in sectors such as water and sanitation management, irrigation, building &
construction, power, transport, retail etc. continue to been made. PVC and CPVC plays important role in
the sustainable management of these sectors through various products like pipes, wires & cables, water
proofing membranes, wood PVC composites, food and medicinal packaging.

These huge investments in infrastructure will result in making India a hub for PVC and CPVC product
manufacturing leading to growth in plastics processing sector.
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6. | Modern applications of plastics
The Indian plastic processing sector caters to the requirements of a wide array of applications like
packaging, automobile, consumer durables, healthcare, among others. Following are some of the key
emerging applications that have been noticed.

6.1. Flexible packaging


Plastics replaced many traditionally used packaging materials thereby transforming packaging industry.
Flexible packaging is a sub segment of packaging industry and it is producing revolutionary products.
These products, as shown in Figure 7, focus on enhancing the shelf life of products by keeping intact the
nutritional value of the enclosed product. For example, modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) has also
reduced the cost of old style packaging considerably.

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Figure 7: Emerging trends in packaging industry

Secondary Jute Packaged Glass Active packaging Vacuum


Packs substitution Crates substitution (MAP) Packaging

• Saves storage • Toughest • Saves storage • Laminated jars • Maintains • Multilayered 5-


space packaging space have replaced freshness by 7 layer films
bags widely glass simultaneous are used
• Ease of • Ease of
used to pack containers respiration &
handling handling • Lack of oxygen
materials for permeation
• Cost effective eliminates use
grain, milling • Disposable
solution-lesser • Equilibrium of
and sugar
packaging & packaging pesticides/fum
industry
transportation atmosphere is igation
• Enhanced costs created with
• Shelf life of
storage life appropriate %
• PE laminated almost 3-4
oxygen and
pouch years
carbon dioxide
provides
barrier
properties
during
products shelf
life

6.2. Automotive
Long fiber reinforced thermoplastic (LFRT) is a new product which is used in making automotive
products. It has benefits such as 1) Greater design freedom, 2) Potential for parts consolidation, 3)
Weight reduction, 4) Extreme toughness/Durability, 5) Dimensional stability, 6) Corrosion & chemical
resistance, 7) Elimination of secondary operations like painting and welding and 8) Lower total system
cost.

6.3. Textile fibers


A new kind of fibers have been introduced which trap Infra-red rays and keeps the body warm. It can be
used to make woolen clothes for extremely cold weather.

Another category of fibers is used to make health care fabrics which can regulate the temperature & O2
levels in the body or provide protection against bacteria or are flame retardant.

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7. | Challenges faced by Plastic processing industry
Key challenges faced by the plastic processing industry in India are:

7.1. Highly fragmented plastic processing industry


The Indian plastics processing industry is highly fragmented and small and micro players constitute
majority of the units. Indian Petrochemical Industry is facing intense competition from the Middle East
countries where price of feedstock ranges between one-fifth to one-tenth the prices prevailing in
international markets.

India's plastics market depends on labor intensive equipment which has adversely impacted the
productivity. Unreliable power and high energy costs in India as compared with other countries are also
constraints which hamper capacity utilization.

7.2. Environmental hazards


While the usage and benefits of plastics are manifold, it invariably gets branded as a polluting material.
Plastics, being a polymer derived from crude, are made up of long chains of carbon. It takes years for
them to decompose completely. Improper disposal of plastics leads to ground water pollution,
disturbance in soil microbial activity along with releasing of carcinogenic chemicals in the atmosphere
leading to health issues among people. The other life forms also get affected due to this imbalance in
value chain, with stray cattle feeding on thrown-away plastics. These adverse impacts are alarming the
society and industry to ensure proper disposal of plastics. Both government as well as industry needs to

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come forward to cater to this issue and sensitize the general mass to follow the ritual of recycling waste
plastic products. If plastics can be collected and disposed of or recycled as per laid down
guidelines/rules then the issue of plastic waste can be suitably addressed. There is wide scope for
industries based on re-cycling of plastics waste. This will not only address the issue of environmental
degradation but will also generate capital.

7.3. Want of newer technologies


The Indian Plastic processing industry has seen a shift from low output/low technology machines to
high output, high technology machines. There has been some major technological advancement of
global standards leading to achievements. Focus to develop a state-of-the-art R&D is dying down with
more focus on increasing the capacity utilization. Domestic machinery is manufactured as per the
current technology to improve productivity and energy efficiency, in order to enable the processors to
compete globally. Key machineries are imported from Europe, the U.S. and Japan which invite a 7.5%
customs duty resulting in huge losses. India's technical needs are acute in areas like high production
and automatic blow moulding machines, multilayer blow moulding, stretch/blow moulding machines,
specific projects involving high capital expenditure like PVC calendaring; multilayer film plants for
barrier films, multilayer cast lines, BOPP and non-woven depend exclusively on imported
technology/machinery.

7.4 Price and Currency Volatility


Cost of plastic processing is largely correlated to crude oil price which is a major determining factor for
polymer raw materials. It is worthy of note that crude oil prices have experienced a heightened degree
of volatility in the recent past, wherein prices have plummeted to around USD 50/bbl in 2016 from USD
100/ bbl in 2014. Further, with a large number of raw materials being imported into India, currency
volatility also poses as a significant challenge to plastic processors.

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8. | Key Opportunities
8.1. Plasticulture
Plasticulture can play a key role in energy conservation. It essentially stresses on the use of plastics in
agriculture, horticulture, water management, food grains storage and related areas. A multitude of
plastic materials may be employed in plasticulture applications such as water conservation, irrigation
efficiency, crop protection, including farm output practices like crop storage and transportation.
Growing population and decreasing size of arable lands has necessitated the need to employ clean,
green and sustainable practices to save resources and enhance productivity. Usage of plastics in
agriculture can lead to:

• Yield improvement upto 50-60%


• Water savings upto 60-70%
• Prevention of weeds growth
• Soil conservation
• Protection against adverse climatic conditions
• Fertilizer savings upto 30-40%
• Reduction in post-harvest losses
• Conversion – cold desert/wasteland for productive use

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8.2. Growth in key end-use industries
The industries which plastics cater to heavily are FMCG, Construction and Infrastructure and Agriculture.
Increasing population, growing urbanization and shift in lifestyle has pushed these sectors to gain a
high growth in past decade. This has prompted a double-digit growth for plastics in India. With sectors
like pharmaceuticals, personal and home care, etc. emerging in the rural areas and reinforced efforts in
bringing out innovative plastic products, the industry is expecting further uplift in near future.

8.3. Growing interest in Bio-Plastics


Growing interest in green products, healthier lifestyles and growing concern to protect environment is
leading to a shift towards bio-plastics. Bio-plastics are plastics that contain bio-based content, are
biodegradable or both. Many polymers like PLA (Poly Lactic Acid), PHA (Poly Hydroxyalkanoates), Bio
PTT (Poly Trimethyl Terephthalate), Bio PDO (Propanediol) etc. are the part of this upcoming trend.
These plastics are significantly made of renewable materials like bio mass and save up to 40% energy in
production as compared to their petrochemical counterparts. They play a crucial role in further
advancement of the plastic industry and as result businesses are focusing on the adoption of such eco-
friendly products. Large numbers of companies are now looking for the development of alternative
feedstock and make use bio-based raw material for their production.

The market for this product is still in its infancy. High cost of bio-plastics, lack of clear understanding
and infrastructure, limited amount of funding available are acting as constraint to the evolution of this
segment. However, increasing stress on green chemistry is expected to bring down the cost, also
increasing environmental awareness, positive attitude from government, continuous R&D efforts and
shift in consumer preference towards environmental friendly option will lead to the evolution in demand
of this industry.

8.4. Effective Waste Management


Plastic has low energy requirements during production, hence considered to be energy efficient. It
consumes ~25% less energy in production compared to other alternatives. It results in lower emission of
CO2. Thus when compared to glass or aluminium plastics results in lighter environmental footprint.
However, plastic is a sustainable choice only if recycled and disposed of properly. This can be achieved
mainly through segregation of waste at source, promotion of waste management infrastructure and the
increased the use of bio-based plastics.

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9. | Opportunities in Infrastructure
Infrastructure sector is a key driver for the Indian economy. The sector is highly responsible for
propelling India's overall development and enjoys intense focus from Government for initiating policies
that would ensure time-bound creation of world class infrastructure in the countr y.
The plastic industry plays a significant role in this endeavor.

The Indian pipes business has been growing rapidly in the past decade, largely due to increasing
demand for pipes in the irrigation sector and construction industry. Among the several varieties of
pipes available in the market, the demand for plastic pipes such as PVC, CPVC in particular, is on a rise
largely due to

• Gaining popularity of plastic pipes over traditional/ galvanised iron (GI) pipes
• Huge replacement demand
• Flexibility in terms of transportation, less corrosive and long lasting life (25 years v/s 8-10
years of GI pipes)
• Easy installation and competitive price in nature (20-25% cheaper over GI pipes).

Other types of pipes, like steel pipes and ductile iron pipes also have major demand. Across the country,
infrastructural development, urbanization, government's focus on real estate, irrigation is expected to
drive the demand. Construction and agricultural growth have been identified as major factors
facilitating the growth of the pipes industry in the country.

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9.1. PVC – Pipes & Fittings
Currently, in India, approximately 73% of the PVC is consumed by the Pipes & Fittings industries with the
other sectors comprising only 27%. Globally, Pipes & Fittings account for only 43% of the PVC
consumption, showing that PVC applications in India other than Pipes & Fittings are still in the early
stages and are primed for growth. This, along with the relatively low per capita PVC consumption in
India, shows that future prospects for the Indian PVC processing industry are bright. Although, CPVC
pipes and fittings contributed just ~10% to the overall production capacity in FY15, it is the fastest
growing segment of the PVC pipes and fittings industry in India.

Figure 8: Application break-up of PVC - India Figure 9: Application break-up of PVC - Global

Others Pipes &


Others 6%
Flooring 8% 10% Fittings
Floorings 43%
Wires & Cables
3%
5%
Wires &
Films & Cables
Sheets 8%
5%
Films &
Profiles Pipes &
Sheets
3% Fittings
17% Profiles
73%
19%

Source: TATA Strategic Analysis Source: TATA Strategic Analysis

In the past few years, the government of India has initiated many new projects and investments in the
irrigation sector. The government's focus is on rural water management, which will be fulfilled only with
proper infrastructure for the transportation of water to the end-user. This factor will remain as one of
the major drivers for the growth of PVC pipe industry in the country along with the expansion of housing
sector and increasing replacement demand for CPVC.

9.2. Rigid Pipe segment / Agriculture


The Indian agriculture piping industry is highly fragmented due to presence of large chunk of players,
giving tough competition both on product offerings and pricing terms. Also, the main reason for low
yield or margins in this segment is due to the less proportion of fittings in usage, compared to the
plumbing segment. There are few organised players operating with significant presence through wide
distribution network and a strong quality product portfolio.

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• Plastics play a major role in managing water resources. The various applications of plastics in
water management include plastic rain water collection tanks, pipes, profiles; waste water
applications (waste water treatment plants) and plastic pipes for water transportation (PVC,
HDPE, LLDPE, PP, FRP).

• Plastic products in water management are being used as compared to various alternate
competitive materials like metal, cement, due to light and weight durability, rust free,
smoother surface.

• The Ministry of Water Resources is responsible for laying down policy guidelines for water
conservation. PVC pipes and fittings with BIS certification are being used in various
water/sewerage transportation applications in various private/government supplies.

Shifting focus towards premium products: In recent years, the CPVC market has seen some
traction of shifting preference towards branded premium products (in spite of price differentiation
of 30-40%). Strong branding and regular product campaigning through various forums (educating
stakeholders about the products along with small prizes, gifts to encourage them) and wide
distribution network has helped a few players to pocket a large share and create a strong reputation
in the customers' eyes.

9.3. Plastic moulded furniture segment:


India's growing economy of the country has encouraged the spending capacity of the people, which in
turn has boosted the sales of branded furniture items in the market. The growing phase of infrastructure
and real estate markets has also augmented the demand for furniture products in the country. In
addition, the entry of international brands and increasing brand awareness amongst Indian inhabitants
has led to the emergence of furniture retailing in India.

The plastic moulded furniture industry has been growing rapidly in the Indian market and from a stage
of infancy the field has risen to almost 70 million in volume, consuming almost 170 kT of polypropylene
material. The popularity of plastic furniture has grown since it offers features unavailable in
conventional wooden and metal furniture, such as easy maintenance, light weight, durability and
various attractive features (such as shapes, designs). Plastic furniture is essentially based on
composition of polypropylene (PP) which contains polymers to provide rigidity and copolymer to lend
impact. There exist around 30 producers of PP chairs in India though 30% of the top producers generate
almost 75% of the market share.

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10. | Government initiatives supporting plastic
usage in infrastructure
10.1. Government's programme of 'Housing for all by 2022'
Growing urbanisation has led to issues such as land shortage, housing shortfall, congested transit and
stressed existing basic amenities such as water, power and open spaces in towns and cities. To bridge
the demand supply gap and acknowledge the importance of housing issue in the country, the
government has launched a campaign of 'Housing for All by 2022'. Housing shortage coupled with lack
of proper water management system (sewage/drainage) in slums creates ample opportunities for the
piping industry in India. A major application of PVC pipes is in water management for the housing and
agriculture sectors and this can thereby be a strong driver for growth.

10.2. Swachh Bharat Mission - Boost for plastic products


Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) is another flagship programme of the government aimed to stop open
defecation through construction of individual household latrines (IHHL), cluster toilets and community
toilets (especially via PPP mode). Solid and liquid waste management is also an important component of
the programme. According to Census 2011, over 67% of rural households in India lack access to toilets.
In other words, more than 11 crore rural households do not have access to a toilet. Lack of sanitation
and drinking water facilities creates a huge opportunity for PVC pipe manufacturers.

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10.3. AMRUT
The government has also launched its programme - Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban
Transformation (AMRUT) to provide basic services to household and build amenities in cities. The
purpose of AMRUT is to: 1) Ensure that every household has access to a tap with assured supply of water
and sewerage connections. 2) Increase the amenity value of cities by developing greenery and well
maintained open spaces (e.g. parks). 3) Reduce pollution by switching to public transport or
constructing facilities for non motorised transport (e.g. walking and cycling). AMRUT, a flagship
programme to improve the infrastructure of the country could be a future growth driver of the plastic
piping industry.

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11. | Way Forward
Plastics industry is assured to grow at a good rate with the major applications being in FMCG and
consumer goods. There are several factors like low per-capita consumption, manufacturing focus, end
use industry growth, availability of feedstock, increasing urbanization, changing lifestyle and
demographic dividend, promoting growth of plastic across India.

The plastic processing industry has changed our lives in many aspects. It has the potential to continue
to change the way we grow our crops, the way we build our roads, and the way we live everyday life. It
has significant impact on our economy, generation of wealth and in job creation. Plastics processing
industry will need to invest in modern equipment to reduce costs and improve performance and improve
installed capacities to achieve economies of scale so that the Indian subcontinent can reach its full
potential.

With Government's current campaign on 'Make in India' which has a special focus on the chemical
industry and aims to turn the country into a global manufacturing hub, a tremendous growth in the
plastic processing sector is expected especially in downstream industries. The government should not
hesitate to provide better infrastructure and favorable policies. With a step already being take in that
direction, plastics are bound to find tremendous use in the infrastructure space.

With adequate support from Government and growth in end use demand, our study indicates that the
market for plastic processing industry in India is expected to grow at a CAGR of 10.5% from FY15 to reach
22 MMTPA by FY20.

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12. | References
1. CRISIL Research and reports

2. Indian Broadcasting Foundation articles

3. Business Standard articles

4. Indian Mirror's articles on “Indian Plastic Industry at a Glance”

5. Money Control's article on “Current Scenario & Way Forward for Indian plastic industry”

6. Nelive article on ”A competitive analysis of plastic industry”

7. Knowledge papers and Whitepapers on plastics and petrochemicals published by Federation of


Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) Chemicals & Petrochemicals statistics at a glance :
2016

8. Report on Indian Plastic Industry 2015 - 2016, Plastindia Foundation

9. Plastindia's report on plasti-culture and Indian plastic industry

10. IBEF website

11. Plasticnews article – “Plastic consumption to double in India by 2016”

12. Expansion of refineries may boost plastic processing units

13. AIPMA Plastic News 2015

14. IRR (Indian Retail Reports)

15. Central Institute of plastic Engineering report on growth of plastic industry

16. TATA Strategic Management Group's databases

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13. | Sustainable Infrastructure with Plastics
Plastics have permeated every facet of human life viz. agriculture and water consumption, building
construction, communication, small and bulk packaging, education, medicine, transportation, defence,
consumer durable to name a few. One of the reasons for great popularity of plastics is due to tremendous
range of properties exhibited by them because of their ease of processing. Hence, the demand for
plastics has been increasing in modern living.

Plastics In Construction

Plastics are widely used in construction, building and


infrastructure. Construction and utility parts in buildings are often
partly or completely polymeric . This can be as wall panels, roofing
materials, piping systems, seals, coatings and a large number of
other products.

To conserve wood, the Govt. of India in 1988 had issued a directive to promote wood substitutes,
including plastics in all Government and institutional purchases for furniture, Door & Window frame and
Shutters. China, faced with similar situation, issued a directive to the effect that Door & Window frames
in all Government buildings should be of PVC plastic only.

Plastics In Transportation

Owing to their light weight, plastics reduce transportation costs


and, therefore, atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. Public and
private transportation vehicles can now contain up to 23 per cent
plastics typically as parcel shelves, door liners, steering wheels,
electrics and electronics, and recent aircraft such as the Boeing
Dreamliner is designed from up to 50 per cent plastics.

Plastic Tracks

Trains are vital to economies around the world. Rail Pads made of plastics and track systems withstand
heavy loads and harsh conditions longer. The reliability of a rail system is only as good as the reliability of
its tracks. Plastic sleepers are more durable and efficient when compared to the traditionally used
sleepers made from wood and concrete.

Besides the rail pads and sleepers, many other plastic items like safety rail, ladder, advanced composite
toilet module are used in Railways. Similarly a large number of FRP products are also used in Railway
coaches.

Agriculture & Plasticulture


Plastics find applications in Agriculture / Horticulture as stated below:-
• Drip Irrigation
• Plastics Lining of Water Storage Pond Knowledge and Strategic Partner

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• Prevention of Soil Erosion
• Plastic Film for Mulching
• Water Lifting
• Water Conveyance and Distribution
• Plastics As An Aid To Improve Cultural Practices of Crops
• Plantation/ Nursery Bags
• Seed Bed Cover
• Soil Sterilization
• Improvement in Ground Nut Crop Through Mulching

Agriculture and infrastructure to drive demand for plastic pipes in India

The PVC plastic pipes market is likely to experience the highest growth, supported by growing demand
from sectors such as water supply, agriculture.

Potable water supply, wastewater treatment, agriculture and chemical sectors are expected to propel the
demand for plastic pipes in India by manifold.

The Indian plastic pipe market is forecast to grow at a CAGR of 10.4 percent till 2021. The major growth
drivers for this market are the growth of government infrastructural spending, increasing residential and
commercial construction, industrial production, irrigation sector, and replacement of aging pipelines.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) are the major raw materials used to
manufacture pipe.

Within the Indian plastic pipe market, agriculture sector is expected to remain the largest application.
The growth of residential and commercial construction and the growth in infrastructure development
especially in the agriculture sector in the country are expected to spur growth for this segment over the
coming years.

According to the report, emerging trends, which have a direct impact on the dynamics of the market, are
the usage of anti-microbial plastic pipes to improve hygiene, consumption of CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl
chloride) piping system in various applications of plastic pipes, and increasing consumption of
multilayer plastic pipe in gas distribution in the Indian plastic pipe market.

Can Plastic Pave The Way to Greener Global Infrastructure?

The Dutch city of Rotterdam announced that it was considering a proposal to replace a stretch of its roads
with what may become the world's first all-plastic avenue. Proposed by KWS Infra, a subdivision of the
Dutch firm VolkerWessels, the project, simply dubbed “PlasticRoad,” will use entirely recycled materials
reclaimed from ocean dumps and incineration plants. The raw materials will then be used to create Lego-
like building blocks, which the company claims may prove cheaper, easier to work with, and more durable
than the asphalt used in existing boulevards.
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Small, interlocking, and fully recycled plastic blocks have been on
the mass construction market since the early 2000s, allowing
almost anyone to incorporate such materials into their projects.

Multiple companies had developed several variations on plastic


bricks--some of which poured like concrete and others that stacked
like it--often for use in low-cost and emergency housing. In China,
Malaysia, and Taiwan, experimentation with these bricks proved
that they cost up to 30 percent less than traditional construction
materials, providing greater insulation, resiliency in the face of
disasters, and reusability if a building was torn down.

Recently Welsh company Affresol launched a line of affordable homes and modular buildings that utilized
recycled plastic as raw material.

Yet while people have long made things like manhole covers out of recycled plastics, it appears that no
one had made a wholly plastic road. Many companies, especially out of India, had started adding
shredded plastic to asphalt to help local roads withstand the wear and tear of erosion in the early 2000s.
But even partially plastic asphalt only recently became cost-effective, possibly helping to limit
experimentation in plastic road technologies versus other construction uses.

Recycled plastic materials have proven up to three times more durable than asphalt. They should be able
to withstand temperatures from -40 to 176 degrees Fahrenheit without cracking, preventing erosion.
Instead--as the roads will be hollow--they will provide space for safe water retention. All told, this
should allow a plastic road to last three times as long as a normal road (surviving 50 years at least rather
than at the outside). Since the roads will be constructed out of pre-existing plastics, their construction
will put far less carbon into the air than asphalt and require less polluting maintenance in the long run.
As they can be recycled again into a new road when they break down, the environmental cost of replacing
them will be minimal.

Thus, Plastics enable Sustainable Infrastructure.

The article is authored by:


Mr. Deepak Lawale
Secretary General
Organization of Plastics Processors of India

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14. | About Tata Strategic
Founded in 1991 as a division of Tata Industries Ltd,
Tata Strategic Management Group is the largest
Indian own management consulting firm. It has a 50
member strong consulting team supported by a
panel of domain experts. Tata Strategic has
undertaken 500+ engagements, with over 100
clients, across countries and sectors.

It has a growing client base outside India with


increasing presence outside the Tata Group. A
majority of revenues now come from outside the
group and more than 20% revenues from clients
outside India.

Tata Strategic offers a comprehensive range of


solutions covering Direction Setting, Driving
Strategic Initiatives and Implementation Support

Our Offerings: We offer End to End Solutions …with tangible Results / Benefits

Strategy Revenue Enhancement Operational Efficiencey Organization

• Competitive Strategy: • Adjacent Products • Supply Chain • Strategy-Culture


Entry/Growth • Underserved Segments Optimization Alignment
• M & A Support • Sales Effectiveness • Workforce Productivity • Change Management
• New Biz Models • Customer Journey • Thoughput • Family Governance
• Profit Enhancement • Route to Market Service Levels • Talent Management

Drive Implementation & Change to derive Benefits

• Revenue • Profit • Cycle Time


• Term sheet • Voluem • Service level
• Market Share • Key Milestones • Costs

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15. | Tata Strategic Contacts
Manish Panchal
Sr. Practice Head – Chemicals & SCM
E-mail: manish.panchal@tsmg.com
Phone: +91 22 6637 6713

Charu Kapoor
Principal – Chemicals
E-mail: charu.kapoor@tsmg.com
Phone: +91 22 6637 6756

Report co-authored by Nihaal Jelkie (nihaal.jelkie@tsmg.com), TATA Strategic Management Group.

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NOTES
NOTES
NOTES
Industry’s Voice for Policy Change

Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry


Established in 1927, FICCI is the largest and oldest apex business organisation in India. Its history is closely interwoven
with India's struggle for independence, its industrialization, and its emergence as one of the most rapidly growing
global economies.
A non-government, not-for-profit organisation, FICCI is the voice of India's business and industry. From influencing
policy to encouraging debate, engaging with policy makers and civil society, FICCI articulates the views and concerns of
industry. It serves its members from the Indian private and public corporate sectors and multinational companies,
drawing its strength from diverse regional chambers of commerce and industry across states, reaching out to over
2,50,000 companies.
FICCI provides a platform for networking and consensus building within and across sectors and is the first port of call for
Indian industry, policy makers and the international business community.

Organization of Plastics Processors of India


Organization of Plastics Processors of India (OPPI) was established in 1984 to promote healthy growth of plastics in
India. The members of OPPI form the backbone of Indian Plastic Processing Industry, contributing more than 40% of the
total plastics processed in India. OPPI is involved in evolving policies with the government for growth of Indian Plastics
Industry.
Organization of Plastics Processors of India (OPPI) has entered into MoUs with all leading Plastic Associations in the
world. Organization of Plastics Processors of India conducts member-centric activities / programmes. The basic objective
of all such activities is to help the members in their lines of production and also help them in business development.

Contacts
Mr. P. S. Singh Mr. Deepak Lawale Ms. Rinky Sharma
Head-Chemicals & Secretary General Research Associate
Petrochemicals Division Organization of Plastics Processors of India Chemicals & Petrochemicals
FICCI 404/405, Golden Chambers, FICCI
Federation House, 1 Tansen Marg New Link Road, Federation House, 1 Tansen Marg
New Delhi-110001 Andheri (West), Mumbai - 400053. INDIA New Delhi -110001
Tel: +91-11-23316540 (Dir) Tel.: +91-22-66923131/32 T: 011-23487473 (Ext: 473)
Email: prabhsharan.singh@ficci.com Fax: +91-22-26736736 Email:rinky.sharma@ficci.com
Email: oppi@vsnl.com