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LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE/EPS Fundamentals Course

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1 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Nokia Siemens Networks Academy

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2 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Module Objectives

After completing this module, the participant should be able to:

• Briefly explain the Network Architecture evolution from HSPA to LTE.


• Identify the major subsystems on an LTE/EPS network
• Name the defined Network Elements in an LTE network.
• List the key functionalities for every LTE Network Element.
• Name the standardised interfaces for LTE and understand the protocol
stack implemented in each of them.
• Discuss the different Roaming cases in LTE
• Underline the inter-working principles of LTE with 2G/3G networks,
• Explain the inter-working with non-3GPP networks, in particular cdma2000
HRPD

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3 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution


• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

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4 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution


• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

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5 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
System Architecture Evolution (SAE) in 3GPP

The 3GPP system architecture evolution (SAE) framework


is concerned with the evolved packet core network
architecture.
Targets for System Architecture Evolution:
•Optimization for PS services, No longer CS Core network
•Support for higher throughput (more capacity, higher data
rates)
•Decrease the response time for activation and bearer set-
up (Control plane latency)
•Decrease packet delivery delay (User plane latency)
•Architecture simplification when comparing with existing
cellular networks
•Inter-working with 3GPP access networks
•Inter-working with other wireless access networks

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6 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Network Architecture Evolution User plane
Control Plane

HSPA Direct tunnel I-HSPA LTE


HSPA R6 HSPA R7 HSPA R7 LTE R8

GGSN GGSN GGSN SAE GW

SGSN SGSN SGSN MME/SGSN

RNC RNC

Node B Evolved
Node B Node B +
(NB) Node B
(NB) RNC (eNB)
Functionality

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7 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution


• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

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What is EPS?

EPS architecture is driven by the goal to


optimize the system for packet data transfer.

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9 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
The Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

The EPC provides access to external


packet IP networks and performs a
number of CN related functions (e.g. QoS,
security, mobility and terminal context
management) for idle (camped) and
active terminals
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10 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
The Evolved UTRAN (eUTRAN)

•The eUTRAN performs all radio


interface related functions

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11 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution


• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

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12 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
LTE/EPS Network Elements
Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs.:
TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


HSS

MME: Mobility Management Entity

S6a
PCRF:Policy & Charging Rule Function
MME
X2 Gx or S7
Evolved Rx
Node B S1-MME PCRF
LTE-UE (eNB)
S11
S1-U S5/S8 SGi
cell IMS/PDN
LTE-Uu Serving PDN
Gateway Gateway

SAE
Gateway

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13 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Evolved Node B (eNB) eNB Functions
LTE-UE
Radio Resource Management (RRM)
LTE-Uu Evolved
Node B Radio Bearer Control: setup, modifications and
cell
(eNB) release of Radio Resources
Connection Mgt. Control: UE State Mgmt. MME-UE
Connection
•It is the only network element defined as
Radio Admission Control
part of EUTRAN.
•It replaces the old Node B / RNC eNode B Measurements
Collection and evaluation
combination from 3G.
•It terminates the complete radio interface Dynamic Resource
Allocation (Scheduler)
including physical layer.
•It provides all radio management functions IP Header Compression/ de-compression
•An eNB can handle several cells.
Access Layer Security: ciphering and integrity
•To enable efficient inter-cell radio protection on the radio interface
management for cells not attached to the MME Selection at Attach of the UE
same eNB, there is a inter-eNB interface
X2 specified (optional). It will allow to User Data Routing to the SAE GW.
coordinate inter-eNB handovers without Transmission of Paging Message coming from MME
direct involvement of EPC during this
process. Transmission of Broadcast Info (System info, MBMS)

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14 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Mobility Management Entity (MME)
MME Functions
Evolved HSS
S1-MME MME Control plane NE in EPC
Node B
S6a
(eNB)
S11 Non-Access-Stratum (NAS)
S1-U Signalling
Serving
Gateway Idle State Mobility Handling

• It is a pure signaling entity inside the EPC. Tracking Area updates

• SAE uses tracking areas to track the position of idle UEs. Subscriber attach/detach
The basic principle is identical to 2G/3G LA or RA.
Signaling coordination for
• MME handles attaches and detaches to the EPS system, SAE Bearer Setup/Release & HO
as well as tracking area updates.
• Therefore it possesses an interface towards the HSS Security (Authentication,
Ciphering, Integrity protection)
(Home Subscriber Server) which stores the subscription
relevant information and the currently assigned MME in its Trigger and distribution of
Paging Messages to eNB
permanent data base.
• A second functionality of the MME is the signaling Roaming Control (S6a interface
to HSS)
coordination to setup transport bearers (SAE bearers)
through the EPC for a UE. Inter-CN Node Signaling
(S10 interface), allows efficient
• MMEs can be interconnected via the S10 interface. inter-MME tracking area updates
• It generates and allocates temporary ids for UEs. and handovers

• VLR-like functionality
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Serving SAE Gateway (S-GW)
PCRF
Evolved
S1-MME MME Gxc
Node B (PMIP S5/S8)
(eNB)
S11
S1-U S5/S8

Serving SAE PDN


Gateway Gateway Serving Gateway Functions
Local Mobility Anchor Point:
•The S-GW and PDN Gateway provide the user plane Switching the User plane to a new
connectivity between the access network and the external eNB in case of Handover
packet data network (PDN) Mobility anchoring for inter-3GPP
• It connects towards the eNB via the S1-U interface mobility. This is sometimes referred
to as the 3GPP Anchor function
• The S-GW has some kind of distribution and packet
data anchoring function within EPC. Packet Buffering and notification to
MME for UEs in Idle Mode
• It relays the packet data within EPC via the S5/S8
interface to or from the PDN gateway. Packet Routing/Forwarding
between eNB, PDN GW and SGSN
• A serving gateway is controlled by one or more MMEs
via S11 interface. It support Lawful Interception and
Charging functionalities
•At a given time, the UE is connected to the EPC via a
single Serving-GW
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16 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Packet Data Network (PDN) SAE Gateway (P-GW)
Gx Rx
MME PCRF
S6a
S11
PDN Gateway Functions
S5/S8 SGi
IMS/PDN Mobility anchor for mobility between
3GPP access systems and non-3GPP
Serving PDN SAE
access systems. This is sometimes
Gateway Gateway referred to as the SAE Anchor function

Policy & Charging Enforcement (PCEF)


•The PDN gateway (or P-GW or PDN-GW) provides
Per User based Packet Filtering (i.e.
the connection between the EPC and a number of deep packet inspection)
external data networks.
Charging Support
• It is comparable to GGSN in 2G/3G networks.
• A major functionality provided by a PDN gateway is Lawful Interception support
the QoS coordination between the external PDN and
EPC. IP Address Allocation for UE

• Therefore the PDN gateway has to be connected


Packet Routing/Forwarding between
via S7 to a PCRF (Policy & Charging Rule Function). Serving GW and external Data Network
• If a UE is connected simultaneously to several
Packet screening (firewall functionality)
PDNs this may involved connections to more than
one PDN-GW
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17 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Policy and Charging Rule Function (PCRF)
Rx
MME PCRF
S6a Gxc Gx
S11 (PMIP S5/S8)
S5/S8 SGi
IMS/PDN
PCRF: Policy & Charging
Serving PDN SAE Rule Function
Gateway Gateway
QoS policy negotiation with PDN

•The PCRF major functionality is the Quality of Charging Policy: determines how
Service (QoS) coordination between the external packets should be accounted
PDN and EPC.
PCRF to provide Policy & Charging
• Therefore the PCRF is connected via Rx+ interface Control (PCC) rules every time a
to the external Data network (PDN) new bearer has to be set up.

• This function can be used to check and modify the


QoS associated with a SAE bearer setup from SAE
or to request the setup of a SAE bearer from the
PDN.
•This QoS management resembles the policy and
charging control framework introduced for IMS with
UMTS release 6.
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18 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Home Subscriber Server (HSS)
HSS

MME
S6a
HSS Functions

Permanent and central subscriber


•The HSS functionality was already introduced by database
UMTS release 5. Stores mobility and service data for
• With LTE/EPS the HSS will get additionally data per every subscriber
subscriber for mobility and service handling. Contains the Authentication Center
•Some changes in the database as well as in the (AuC) functionality.
HSS protocol (DIAMETER) will be necessary to
enable HSS for LTE/EPS.
•The HSS can be accessed by the MME via S6a
interface.
• The HSS knows where the attached subscribers are
located (MME accuracy)

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19 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution


• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

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20 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
LTE/EPS Network Interfaces User plane
Control Plane
Control Plane + User plane

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


HSS

MME: Mobility Management Entity


S6a
S10
MME
MME
X2 Rx
Evolved
Node B S1-MME PCRF
(eNB) Gxc Gx
S11
LTE-UE
S1-U S5/S8 SGi
cell PDN

LTE-Uu Serving SAE PDN


Gateway Gateway Gateway

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21 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
LTE Radio Interface and the X2 Interface
Control Plane (CP) User Plane (UP) LTE-Uu

TS 24.301 NAS Protocols


•Air interface of EUTRAN
User PDUs
TS 36.331 (E)-RRC •Based on OFDMA in downlink and SC-
FDMA in uplink
TS 36.323 PDCP
•FDD and TDD duplex methods
TS 36.322 RLC TS 36.300
TS 36.321 MAC
•Scalable bandwidth: from 1.4 up to 20 MHz
TS 36.2xx LTE-L1 (FDD/TDD-OFDMA/SC-FDMA) •Data rates up to 100 Mbps (DL), 50Mbps
(UL)

X2
X2-CP X2-UP
(Control Plane) (User Plane) •Inter eNB interface
User PDUs •Handover coordination without involving the
TS 36.423 X2-AP GTP-U TS 29.281 EPC
SCTP UDP •X2AP: special signaling protocol
TS 36.422 TS 36.424
IP IP •During HO, Source eNB can use the X2
TS 36.421 L1/L2 L1/L2 TS 36.421 interface to forward downlink packets still
buffered or arriving from the serving gateway
to the target eNB.
TS 36.420 •This will avoid loss of packets during inter-
[X2 general aspects & principles)
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eNB handover.
22 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
S1-MME & S1-U Interfaces TS 36.410
[S1 general aspects & principles]

S1-MME S1-MME
•Control interface between eNB and MME (Control Plane)
TS 24.301 NAS Protocols
•MME and UE will exchange non-access
TS 36.413 S1-AP MME
stratum signaling via eNB through this
interface. SCTP
TS 36.412
•E.g.: if a UE performs a tracking area IP
update the TRACKING AREA UPDATE eNB L1/L2 TS 36.411
REQUEST message will be sent from UE S1-U
to eNB and the eNB will forward the (User Plane)
message via S1-MME to the MME. User PDUs

•S1AP:S1 Application Protocol TS 29.281 GTP-U Serving


UDP Gateway
TS 36.414
S1-U IP
L1/L2
•User Plane interface between eNB and serving TS 36.411
gateway.
•It is a pure user data interface TS 36.410
[S1 general aspects & principles]
•Which Serving GW a user’s SAE bearer will
have to use is signaled from the MME of this
user.
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23 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
EUTRAN & EPC connected with S1-flex

Several cases
1
eNB 1 Single S1-MME
Single S1-U

eNB 2 Single S1-MME


2 Multiple S1-US1Flex-U

eNB 3 Multiple S1-MMES1Flex


Single S1-U

3 eNB 4 (Not shown in picture)


- Multiple S1-MMES1Flex
- Multiple S1-US1Flex-U

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24 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
S10 & S6a Interfaces
S6a
S10 (Control Plane)
(Control Plane) S6a Appl.
TS 29.272
TS 29.274 GTP-C DIAMETER
MME MME HSS
UDP TCP/SCTP
IP IP
L1/L2 L1/L2

S10
•Interface between different MMEs
S6a
•Used during inter-MME tracking area
•Interface between the MME and the HSS
updates (TAU) and handovers
•The MME uses it to retrieve subscription
•Inter-MME TAU: The new MME can
and authentication information from HSS
contact the old MME the user had been
(handover/tracking area restrictions,
registered before to retrieve data about
external PDN allowed, QoS, etc.) during
identity (IMSI), security information
attaches and updates
(security context, authentication vectors)
and active SAE bearers (PDN gateways •The HSS can during these procedures
to contact, QoS, etc.) also store the user’s current MME address
in its database.
•Obviously S10 is a pure signaling
interface, no user data runs on it.
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25 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
S11 Interface

MME
S11
S11
(Control Plane)
•Interface between MME and a Serving
GW
TS 29.274 GTP-C •A single MME can handle multiple Serving
UDP GW each one with its own S11 interface
IP •Used to coordinate the establishment of
L1/L2 SAE bearers within the EPC
•SAE bearer setup can be started by the
MME (default SAE bearer) or by the PDN
Gateway.

Serving
Gateway

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26 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
S5/S8 Interface (3GPP Candidate based on GTP)
S5/S8 3GPP Alternative
Control User
Plane Plane
User PDUs

Serving TS 29.274 GTP-C GTP-U TS 29.281 PDN


Gateway UDP Gateway
SGi
PDN
IP
L1/L2

S5/S8 (3GPP candidate)


•Interface between Serving GW and PDN GW
•S5: If Serving GW and PDN GW belong to the same network (non-roaming case)
•S8:If this is not the case (roaming case)
•S8 = S5 + inter-operator security functions
•Mainly used to transfer user packet data between PDN GW and Serving GW
•Signaling on S5/S8 is used to setup the associated bearer resources
•S5/S8 can be implemented either by reuse of the GTP protocol from 2G/3G or by using
Mobile IPv6 with some IETF enhancements.

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27 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
S5/S8 Interface (IETF Candidate based on PMIPv6)
S5/S8 IETF Alternative
Control User
Plane Plane
User PDUs

Serving MIPv6 PDN


TS 29.275
Gateway TS 29.275 PMIPv6 Tunneling Gateway
SGi
Layer (GRE) PDN
IPv4/IPv6 IPv4/IPv6

L1/L2

S5/S8 (IETF candidate)


•Interface between Serving GW and PDN GW
•S5: If Serving GW and PDN GW belong to the same network (non-roaming case)
•S8:If this is not the case (roaming case)
•S8 = S5 + inter-operator security functions
•Mainly used to transfer user packet data between PDN GW and Serving GW
•Signaling on S5/S8 is used to setup the associated bearer resources
•S5/S8 can be implemented either by reuse of the GTP protocol from 2G/3G or by using
Mobile IPv6 with some IETF enhancements.

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28 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Gx (or S7) & Gxc Interfaces
Gxc (Control Plane) Gx (Control Plane)
Gx Application Gx Application
TS 29.212 TS 29.212
DIAMETER PCRF DIAMETER

SCTP SCTP

IP IP

L1/L2 L1/L2

SGi
IMS/PDN
S-GW S5/S8 P-GW

Gx (Also referred as S7)


Gxc
•Interface between the PDN GW and the
•Interface between the S-GW and the PCRF PCRF (Policy and Charging Rule Function)
(Policy and Charging Rule Function)
•It allows:
• It is only needed in case the S5/S8 interface
is based on PMIP (IETF candidate) the PCRF to request the setup of a SAE
bearer with appropriate QoS
•The reason is that only in this case the S-GW
will perform the mapping between IP service the PDN GW to ask for the QoS of an SAE
flows in S5/S8 and GTP tunnels in the S1-U bearer to setup
interface. The information to do the mapping to indicate EPC status changes to the
comes from directly from the PCRF PCRF to apply a new policy rule.

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29 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Rx & SGi Interfaces Rx
•Interface between PCRF (Policy & Charging
Rx Rules Function) and the external PDN
(Control Plane) network/operators IMS (in general, towards the
Service Domain)
RX Application
TS 29.214 •Standardized in 3GPP TS 29.214: “ Policy and
DIAMETER
Charging Control over the Rx reference point
PCRF SCTP (release 8)”
IP
L1/L2
SGi
•Interface used by the PDN GW to send and
receive data to and from the external data
SGi network or Service Platform
(User Plane) •It is either IPv4 or IPv6 based
Application
•This interface corresponds to the Gi interface
PDN
UDP or TCP in 2G/3G networks
PDN IPv4/IPv6
TS 29.061 •Standardized in 3GPP TS 29.061:
Gateway
L1/L2 “Interworking between the Public Land Mobile
Network (PLMN) supporting packet based
services and Packet Data Networks (PDN)

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30 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution


• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

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31 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture – Case 1
Rx+
PCRF

HSS Gx

PDN SGi
Gateway IMS/PDN
Home PLMN
hPLMN

S6a S8
Visited PLMN
vPLMN Case 1:
MME Home Routed Traffic
Evolved •By connecting Serving GW
Node B S1-MME in vPLMN to PDN GW in
(eNB) S11 hPLMN
S1-U •GTP tunnel and MIPv6
cell options over the S8
LTE-Uu Serving interface
Gateway •Also called “Remote
Breakout”.
Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

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32 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
LTE/SAE Roaming Architecture – Case 2
Case 2: “Local Breakout”
• UE can access the PDN network directly from HSS
the vPLMN rather than traffic being routed through
the hPLMN.
•Breakout should depend on the service:
i.e.: internet access local breakout hPCRF Home PLMN
i.e.: access to corporate VPN remote breakout
hPLMN
•S9: PCRF-to-PCRF interface: roaming controlled
by hPLMN policies

S6a S9
Visited PLMN
vPLMN
MME
Evolved Rx+
vPCRF
Node B S1-MME
(eNB) S11 Gx
S5
S1-U SGi
cell IMS/PDN
LTE-Uu Serving PDN
Gateway Gateway

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


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33 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
S9 Interface
S9
(Control Plane)

S9 Application
TS 29.215
DIAMETER

hPCRF SCTP vPCRF


IP

L1/L2

S9
• Interfaces between the hPCRF and the vPCRF is used in roaming cases.
• It is used in the VPLMN for enforcement of dynamic control polices from the hPLMN.
• It is standardized in 3GPP TS 29.215: “ Policy and Charging Control over the S9
reference point (Release 8)”.

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34 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution


• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

For public use – IPR applies


35 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
LTE/EPS Interworking with 2G/3G Networks
GGSN
Gb Gn Gi
GERAN SGSN PDN

S6d: diameter Based


Iu-PS Gr: MAP Based
S4 S3
UTRAN
HSS

S6a

MME
Gx Rx+
Evolved
Node B S1-MME PCRF
(eNB) S11

LTE-UE S1-U S5/S8 SGi


cell PDN
LTE-Uu Serving PDN
Gateway Gateway

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


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36 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
S3 & S4 Interfaces S4
S3 (Control Plane + User Plane)
(Control Plane)
User PDUs
TS 29.274 GTP-C
TS 29.274 GTP-C GTP-U TS 29.281
UDP
UDP
IP
IP
L1/L2 2G/3G
SGSN L1/L2

Serving
MME Gateway

S3/S4
•Interfaces between EPC and 2G/3G packet switched core network domain
•They would allow inter-system changes between EPS and 2G/3G
•The S3 is a pure signaling interface used to coordinate the inter-system change between
MME and SGSN
•The S4 contains user plane and control plane interface and it is located between SGSN
and Serving SAE GW.
•These 2 interfaces are based on the Gn interface between the SGSN and the GGSN.
•This would allow to either forward packet data from EUTRAN via Serving SAE GW to
SGSN (and then to GGSN) or from 2G/3G RAN to SGSN to Serving SAE GW to PDN GW.

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37 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
LTE/EPS Interworking with 2G/3G Networks
GGSN
Gb Gn Gi
GERAN SGSN PDN

S6d: diameter Based


Iu-PS Gr: MAP Based
S4 S3
UTRAN
HSS

Direct Tunnels from S6a


Serving GW to RNC
(User Plane) S12

MME
Gx Rx+
Evolved
Node B S1-MME PCRF
(eNB) S11

LTE-UE S1-U S5/S8 SGi


cell PDN
LTE-Uu Serving PDN
Gateway Gateway

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


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38 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT81922IT01GLA1
S12 Interface
S12
(User Plane)
User PDUs

TS 29.281 GTP-U
UTRAN UDP

IP Serving
Gateway
L1/L2

S12
•Interfaces between EPC and 3G Radio access network
•It would allow inter-system changes between LTE and 3G
•The S12 is the user plane interface used for tunneling user data directly between the
Serving GW and the UTRAN.
•This would allow to forward packet data from 3G RAN to Serving GW to PDN GW.
•It is based on the Gn interface between the SGSN and the GGSN and therefore uses the
GTP-U protocol.

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Module Contents

• Network Architecture Evolution


• LTE/EPS Network Subsystems
• LTE/EPS Networks Elements
• LTE/EPS Network Interfaces
• LTE/EPS Roaming Architecture
• LTE/EPS inter-working with 2G/3G networks
• LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP access technologies

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LTE/EPS inter-working with Non-3GPP Access
Technologies
•Inter-working with non-3GPP Access Networks (ANs) was one
of the key design goals for LTE
•There is a separate architecture specification (3GPP TS
23.402: “Architecture enhancements for non-3GPP access
(Release 8)” to reach this goal.

There are 2 sets of LTE/EPS inter-working principles:


1.- Generic and loose Inter-working solution for any non-3GPP
Access Network (AN).
2.- Specific and tighter inter-working solution for cdma2000
HRPD

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LTE/EPS Interworking with Non-3GPP Access
Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

The P-GW keeps


Evolved
Node B HSS the role of mobility
(eNB) anchor point
S6a
cell MME Gx
LTE-Uu S1-MME Rx+
PCRF

S1-U
S11
S5 SGi
PDN

Serving SAE PDN


Gateway Gateway Gateway
• S2 interface provides
connectivity to a non-3GPP
access network (e.g. S2a S2b
WLAN, WiMAX, 3gpp2,
Fixed,…) Trusted Un-Trusted
Non-3GPP Non-3GPP
Access Access
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S2a Interface
S2a based on: S2a based on:
Proxy Mobile(PM) IPv6 Mobile IPv4 Foreign Agent (FA) Mode

Trusted Non-3GPP User Plane Control Plane User Plane Control Plane Serving
Gateway Gateway
User PDUs User PDUs (LTE)
IPv4/IPv6 IPv4/IPv6 IPv4

Tunneling layer PMIPv6 Tunnelling layer UDP

IPv4/IPv6 IPv4

L1/L2 L1/L2

TS 29.275

S2a
•It provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between trusted non-
3GPP IP access and the PDN Gateway.
•S2a is based on Proxy Mobile IP.
•To enable access via trusted non-3GPP IP accesses that do not support PMIP, S2a also
supports Client Mobile IPv4 FA mode.
•S2a is standardized in 3GPP TS 29.275: “ PMIP based Mobility and Tunneling Protocols
(Release 8)”.
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SAE/EPS Interworking with cdma2000 HRPD AN
E-HRPD AN HSGW
A10/A11
PDN
PCF/
RNC
BTS

cdma2000 E-HRPD Network STa


S101 S103

HSS
SWx 3GPP
AAA
MME Server
S6a
Gx
Evolved S1-MME Rx+
Node B PCRF
(eNB)
S11
LTE-UE S1-U S5/S8 SGi
cell PDN
LTE-Uu Serving PDN
Gateway Gateway

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


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S101 & S103 Interfaces
S103
S101 (User Plane)
(Control Plane) HSGW Serving
(cdma2000) User PDUs Gateway
E-HRPD S101-AP (LTE)
Access MME UDP
UDP
Network IP GRE

L1/L2 IP

L1/L2

TS 29.276
TS 29.276

S101/S103
•Interfaces between EPC and cdma2000 HRPD
•They would allow inter-system changes between LTE and cdma2000
•The S101 is a pure signaling interface used to coordinate the inter-system change between
the MME and the PCF/RNC
•The S103 is the user plane interface and it is located between the Serving GW and the
HSGW.
• Both of them are standardized in 3GPP TS 29.276: “Optimized handover Procedures and
Protocols between EUTRAN and cdma200 HRPA (Release 8)”.

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SAE/LTE Interworking with cdma2000 Networks
eHRPD A11
HSGW
Access PDN

Network

S103 S2a
Cdma2000 Network (eHRPD) HSS

S101

S6a
MME
Gx
Evolved S1-MME Rx+
Node B PCRF
(eNB)
S11
LTE-UE S1-U S5/S8 SGi
cell PDN
LTE-Uu Serving PDN
Gateway Gateway

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


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