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National BIM Report

National BIM Report 2018

Introduction 03 We would like to thank the following

organisations for supporting this
Richard Waterhouse
report by circulating the survey on
CEO, NBS our behalf:

Platforms. Bridging the gap between construction 04

and manufacturing
Jaimie Johnston helping to reduce the cost of building for the wrong reasons. Our industry
Director, Head of Global Systems, Bryden Wood and operating built assets, and that it needs to find better ways of working.
also reduces the duration of projects. The move to digital will be a major
From UK to the world - 10 However, there is less confidence that factor in how we can get this right.
making BIM work internationally BIM is helping to reduce environmental More clarity is required over ownership
Peter Barker impact, or that it is helping reduce the of product selection and specification
Partner, Ryder UK construction industry trade gap. decisions throughout a project’s
However, where there is criticism, timeline. Furthermore, the quality of
it tends to be about the capacity to workmanship must be documented
National BIM Survey: summary of findings 16
Richard Waterhouse embed and enforce BIM in the so that it can be approved on-site. By
Adrian Malleson
industry, and not about the ambition creating a ‘digital twin’ of the built asset
Head of Research, Analysis and Forecasting, NBS CEO, NBS
to move the industry to BIM Level 2. and recording decisions throughout the
Criticism is about the speed, not the timeline, a transparent environment
CIC BIM Protocol – 2nd Edition 38 direction, of travel. with clear ownership will be created.
Andrew Croft – Beale & Co This is our eighth annual NBS BIM
Report. The first was in 2011, around the Articles in this report give real NBS can and will play a part in this
Dale Sinclair
Director of Technical Practice, AECOM time that Chief Construction Advisor examples of success, and also how the journey. BIM is more than the
Paul Morrell told the industry that Government, industry and academia production of 3D models. Collaboration
BIM was to be mandatory for all public are coming together to help ensure is more than reducing coordination
Welcome to a Digital Built Britain 40 that this mandate has a lasting legacy. problems on-site through clash
sector construction projects from 2016
David Philp
onwards. Over this period, our NBS The BIM Level 2 suite of standards detection at design time. The next
Global BIM/IM Consultancy Director, AECOM and tools is being revised to ensure stage of the BIM journey must focus on
survey has shown that BIM awareness
and adoption have steadily grown. consistency. The first of these is the both the information generated from
Product Identification - the missing link of BIM 44 CIC BIM Protocol, which has been the models and the information linked
How awareness and adoption are enhanced in its second edition, based to the models. For this standardised
Simon Powell
Director, Product Management, BSI defined is, of course, a key factor. on industry feedback. The Digital Built information, structures must be
and For some, it may admittedly just be Britain team as a whole is also pushing followed in terms of the objects in
‘generating and sharing information on. The Centre for Digital Built Britain the model and linked data sources
Adrian Malleson
authored using 3D modelling tools’, has now been created, and the UK BIM such as project specifications. NBS will
Head of Research, Analysis and Forecasting, NBS
but claims of adoption have risen Alliance is continuing to ensure that continue to work with partners in the
from just over 10% in 2011 to over Level 2 is embedded in industry and industry to help set these standards.
The Winfield Rock Report - why we wrote it 48 70% now in 2018. that this set of UK standards is being
and what’s in it promoted across the globe. Whilst this report looks at the industry’s
May Winfield If awareness and adoption are more current attitude to BIM, the industry
Senior Legal Counsel, ENGIE Services Ltd tightly defined as ‘UK Government One example of how the UK is helping will not stand still. Digital transformation
and Level 2’ then the level of adoption is to shape the global BIM world is the will continue. Emerging technologies
Sarah Rock less. However, the figures are still development of ISO 19650, Parts One are continuously providing new
Senior Associate, Gowling WLG (UK) LLP very encouraging, with close to half and Two. This development project opportunities. For example, the
of the industry following PAS 1192-2, is an example of the UK approach move from desktop to cloud
and around two thirds of the industry being developed in partnership with computing is opening up new
using a Common Data Environment the global community to ingrain opportunities around collaboration,
on at least some projects. a standard method of working performance and transparency.
internationally. Articles in this report
Reflecting back on the government show examples of how UK companies BIM Level 2 is the foundation of this
mandate and associated strategy, the are now pushing ahead internationally digital transformation, providing
RIBA Enterprises Ltd © 2018 All rights reserved. No part of this report may be industry is split on how successful these and taking advantage of this position data structures, responsibilities
reproduced or shared in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval
have been. We asked participants for of leadership. and process. Future transformative
system, without permission in writing from the copyright holder. their views on the top-level objectives technology will build upon this
The content of articles contributed by external authors and published in this
of the government strategy and found Looking wider than BIM, it has sadly foundation, helping us to create
report are the views of those authors and do not represent the position of varied perceptions of success. The been a year where construction has a step-change in productivity and
RIBA Enterprises Ltd, NBS or its affiliated companies. industry has confidence that BIM is been on the front page of newspapers quality within the industry.

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National BIM Report 2018

Platforms. Bridging the gap

between construction and
When the Latham Report, ‘Constructing the Team’, was published in 1994,
Michael Latham noted that ‘There is scope for improvements through
The solution is not squeezing the
supply chain – that’s been tried and
correct information. And once
there, they can be assembled by
The residual value of
greater standardisation of components and design details and more off-site has not worked. Nor can there be fewer, more easily trained people. a building is little more
prefabrication’. 24 years later, the wait for those improvements may finally
be coming to an end.
compromise on the performance of
the assets, networks and systems. This produces a new way of working
than half the cost
Much-needed efficiencies can only (see Figure 2), where integrated of its construction.
The unavoidable truth is that Some of the sobering statistics
without innovation, we don’t have are well known. The residual value
be achieved through a fundamental solutions use standard components
configured using standard processes
Around 30% of
shift in process, where construction
the resources to accomplish the huge of a building is little more than half becomes much more like to give bespoke assets. It contrasts building materials
amount of building that the UK needs. the cost of its construction. Around
Jaimie Johnston There’s £600 billion of government 30% of building materials and
manufacturing, and the use of with the traditional model (Figure 1). are wasted and 40%
raw materials is minimised, as is Here, there's fragmentation at every
Director, Head of investment in the pipeline, yet our 40% of working hours are wasted. their processing and handling. The level, and clients become distanced of working hours.
Global Systems, workforce is ageing and short of Yet profit margins are slim, and the components of a construction asset from multiple suppliers or installers
Bryden Wood the skills needed in traditional unpredictability of the process poses can be delivered to the site at the right – the people who are actually
construction processes. risk for everyone from the customer time, in the right sequence with the delivering what they want.
onwards. The collapse of Carillion
shows how real those risks are.

Figure 1 Figure 2

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National BIM Report 2018

Graphs - Government spaces shown mapped on three platforms. Defining the ‘boundaries’ of platforms Uniclass provides the classification The images here show a visualization
requires a rigorous analytical approach. ‘golden thread’ that allows this analysis of the activities/complexes/entities/
The more specific a platform is to a to be undertaken in a consistent way, spaces tables, and the elements/
particular use, the more highly it can be from the highest level (complexes and systems/products tables.
targeted to deliver efficiency benefits. entities) to the most detailed (systems
However, if a platform is too specific and products), and also allows spaces
then it may be constrained by the to be analysed by use (activities). Given
size of the market that it can serve and that the design of platforms must
fail due to inadequate volume. Each consider their means of manufacture
platform therefore requires enough and installation, the ‘Construction aids’ Uniclass provides
application to build sustainable table in Uniclass crucially allows this
volume, while limiting complexity classification to be applied to the the classification
enough to deliver efficiency. assembly stage. ‘golden thread’.

Dashboard 1 - Analysing Government estate using the Uniclass 2015 tables

Looked at in overview like this, the The Autumn Statement was preceded The idea of platforms was first
rationale for change is compelling, by two books by Bryden Wood and introduced in Book 1. They are
yet it's a difficult transition to make. the University of Cambridge Centre sets of components that interact
Much like the switch to containerisation for Digital Built Britain. The first, in well-defined ways to allow a
in transport, widespread benefit ‘Delivery Platforms for Government range of products and services
requires widespread participation, Assets - Creating a marketplace for to be produced. In construction,
which won’t happen on its own. manufactured spaces’, set out a the physical dimensions of a space
That’s why the Government is strategy for implementing the – particularly its clear height and span,
putting the weight of its construction Government’s vision on construction. building height, level of complexity
portfolio and its purchasing power It drew on work for the Ministry of and repeatability – will determine the
behind the drive for innovation. Five Justice and the Education and Skills platform that it can be built on. Many
key government organisations will Funding Agency to develop an different kinds of space can be built
adopt ‘a presumption in favour evidence-based design process on a single platform, and the entire
of offsite construction’ by 2019. and manufacture-led construction government estate on potentially
And in the Autumn Budget, there approach. A second book, ‘Data Driven just three.
was support for innovation and Infrastructure - From digital tools to
skills in the sector. manufactured components’, outlined
a standardised approach across a
range of horizontal infrastructure
projects, illustrated with initiatives
by clients such as Highways England
and Crossrail. Five key government organisations will adopt “a presumption in favour
of offsite construction” by 2019. And in the Autumn Budget there was
support for innovation and skills in the sector.
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National BIM Report 2018

Dashboard 2 - Analysing Government estate using the Uniclass 2015 tables Platforms - Platforms work as part of an integrated, connected process.

This level of reductionism and Neutral on asset type and material, In construction, pretty much all Within those platforms, connections it was when Apple opened the iPhone The books are all free to download
abstraction is analogous to the they subordinate materials and buildings relate to the human form. and interfaces can be standardised platform to third party developers from the Bryden Wood website:
emergence of the phonetic alphabet. components to the needs of the This means that dimensions such so that just a few designs meet a that use and revenue rocketed.
Early, first order alphabets, such as asset and its users. as ceiling heights or distance from huge range of needs, and many about-us/downloads/123/
Bryden Wood are making all the
Egyptian hieroglyphs, needed large a window fall within predictable components are repeatable. In
These ideas are developed in a new, IP generated on their public sector
numbers of symbols because each ranges, which can be used to define projects for the Ministry of Justice,
third book: ‘Platforms: Bridging the projects available to the Government
had a ‘one-to-one’ relationship with a small number of platforms that it’s possible to construct almost all
gap between construction and to ensure that the platforms we are
the object that it conveyed. This can accommodate a huge range of the complex estate by using a
manufacturing’, which sets out the developing can be used as widely
made written language rather of needs, from a bedroom to a combination of those three platforms.
benefits to construction of the kind as possible. The intention is to create
imprecise, and the communication sports hall.
of platform-based approach, which It’s easy to see why government a network effect, lowering the barrier
of abstract ideas almost impossible.
is common in manufacturing supports this approach. It allows to entry, contributing to wider
Later, second order alphabets used
and software. high-quality, effective assets to be participation and generating greater
phonetic representation, vastly
efficiently produced at lower cost. efficiency for everyone. Platforms can
reducing the characters needed, For example, a car engine, working
Far fewer components are needed, give construction its ‘Uber moment’,
yet communicating much more on a platform – the chassis – to
and those that are can be produced the kind of fundamental, positive shift
accurately. In the same way, a produce a vehicle. Another example
in much higher volumes, creating a that we've seen in so many other
limited ‘alphabet’ of manufacturing is an iPhone, acting as a platform
consistent pipeline with economies industries over the last 20 years.
processes is beginning to emerge for apps, such as Uber, and the
of scale, as well as more dependable All images © Bryden Wood Technology Limited.
for different construction platforms. services that they deliver.
and timely supply. To draw a parallel, All rights reserved.

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National BIM Report 2018

From UK to the world – making

BIM work internationally
Forest City Malaysia under construction

Peter Barker
Managing Director,
BIM Academy
(Enterprises) Ltd
and Partner, Ryder

In 2012, during the early years of UK construction’s digital journey, we

organised a roundtable discussion to speculate on ‘where BIM will be in
The BIM Academy has been
fortunate to have developed into
productivity gains, and have
invested time and resource in
It’s now generally
five years’ time’. a thriving global consultancy and developing their capabilities to accepted that BIM
The group included NBS, Ryder, BIM to BIM than Level 2, and our
research organisation which has
served clients in Australia, Asia,
de-risk poor quality design and give
themselves a competitive edge. These
Level 2 is part of
Academy, Bond Dickinson and Mark
Bew, and a wide-ranging discussion
experiences working outside the
UK have given us some interesting
Europe and the Americas, and we self-motivated paths to adoption have government and
ensued, fuelled by a healthy mix of perspectives on how other regions
have learnt that the digital built delivered value, but the real gear shift
has come when central government or
often private sector
environment is a multi-layered world
optimism and practical scepticism. are making it work for them.
which does not need to be viewed influential government agencies have procurement, and
The discussion was predominantly
UK-centric at a time when the industry
We established the BIM Academy
in 2010 during the economic
through the prism of UK BIM Level 2. put their foot down and prescribed the
adoption of BIM as a catalyst for
the components of
was struggling out of the mire of the
downturn, as a joint venture between
Every region has its own legislative, positive change. The drivers of that this approach have
global financial crisis, and before cultural and contractual drivers,
Brexit and world political instability
Northumbria University and Ryder
with culture perhaps being the most
change often include construction
efficiency, and whole life performance
entered common
Architecture. As an early adopter
had encroached on our lives. One
of BIM design tools, Ryder had seen
significant. In many regions, the improvement and sustainability. parlance, although
closing conclusion that remained vanguard of BIM adoption is often led
with me was that ‘in 2017 we’ll
the significant benefits in productivity,
by the design community – architects,
The UK wasn’t the first government
to take this approach, with precedents
not necessarily
design quality and service which
probably just about be doing what
came from the intelligent use of
engineers, and occasionally cost in Singapore and Scandinavia, for understood by all.
we think we’re doing now’, and I think consultants – who have recognised the example, and many others have now
digital technologies, and together
this sums up where the UK has got to efficiency gains through adoption of followed suit. However, the UK
with like-minded academics from
with BIM. It’s now generally accepted smart tools to visualise, coordinate and Government’s top-down, bottom-up
Northumbria, we wanted to
that BIM Level 2 is part of government analyse design. Doing so maximises approach initiated in 2010 has proved
spread the word and help drive
and often private sector procurement, their fee margins and offers an effective, and has gradually embedded
a traditionally disjointed and
and the components of this approach enhanced service to clients and itself within UK industry consciousness;
dysfunctional construction industry
have entered common parlance, end-users. The more enlightened it is now perceived as business as
into a new era.
although they are not necessarily construction organisations have usual, with a focus on delivering to
understood by all. But there is more likewise recognised the value of BIM Level 2 maturity.

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National BIM Report 2018

BIM Academy team member at Sydney Opera House Aerial view of M+ Museum Hong Kong under construction BIM Academy team on M+ Museum site

However, the growing potential of

data analytics, Artificial Intelligence
(AI), machine-learning, Internet of
Things (IoT) and integration with GIS
platforms means that a narrow focus
on BIM Level 2 is no longer good
enough for the increasingly diverse
21st century digital built environment
where infrastructure, buildings, digital
media and systems must all converge
if we are going to create smarter
cities and communities.
Our experience in markets outside the
UK has given us fascinating insights
into the way that BIM and the digital
built environment are developing
around the world.
One of our first commissions outside
of the UK arose from our tender
success to develop the technical
specification for the BIM for FM
solution at Sydney Opera House.
Beginning in 2013, our support for
this client continued throughout The project also demonstrated Without this leadership, it is often and greater transparency on project This might be dismissed by BIM On a practical level, BIM has delivered
our development of the solution that an informed client, working in left to individual industry practitioners phasing, programme and outturn Level 2 zealots as unsophisticated, great value to the contractor and
in a consortium with Ecodomus and partnership with industry experts, to deploy BIM tactically and often costs. The Authority recognised but these users are seeing greater design team in spatial coordination in
the AECOM BIM team in Melbourne, can achieve positive improvements ad hoc, which can dissipate the the potential for future operational immediate gains in productivity from this densely serviced building. Health
and we have subsequently developed to how their assets are managed. It potential impact. efficiencies through the delivery this approach, rather than focusing and safety have been addressed in the
software tools to refine the has been encouraging to see other of more reliable and complete asset on the output of large volumes of construction logistics planning,
large estate owners follow suit and In 2016, Hong Kong Hospital Authority data through the BIM process, but including by the installation of major
management of the Opera House metadata which, let’s face it, many
recognise BIM as a catalyst for better was about to embark on a $200 billion recognised that these would take a structural elements such as the
asset databases. This project was clients will not need or make use of.
coordinated and effective asset capital programme, which included the little longer to realise. The point here is 40-tonne composite megatrusses
significant in that it represents a public design and construction of 16 new
management systems, and we have that these aspects of BIM, which might Also in Hong Kong, the BIM Academy supporting the central tower and the
sector client who manages a world hospitals over the next ten years. The
been able to support other heritage be regarded by some as standard and was commissioned in 2015 by the ability to promptly deliver combined
heritage building, and recognised the Authority realised that a programme of
building and large estate owners in now common BIM uses, can make a contractor constructing the $400 services drawing outputs, which are
need for a holistic BIM solution to allow this scale and complexity could not be
the UK and Australia in adopting huge impact when recognised and million M+ Museum of Fine Art. The required for statutory and contractual
them to manage their asset data and delivered using traditional methods,
similar approaches. applied by a large influential client with commissioning client, West Kowloon approvals. The team is also working
their building in a more effective way. and commissioned BIM Academy to a major development programme. Cultural District Authority, developed with the client team on how to meet
The approach we adopted started The greatest value is often realised assess the business case and regional The Authority also recognised that a very detailed BIM specification which their aspirations for the future
with understanding the organisational when an informed client has a industry readiness, and determine how performance improvement must be invoked many UK originated Standards integration of COBie outputs into
structure of the Opera House, before strategic understanding of the best to articulate and prescribe their measured as part of their approach. and included COBie deliverables. the Authority’s FM systems.
analysing technical systems and capability of BIM tools and processes, needs to the market. What emerged
resources. This resulted in a bespoke, understands the specific information was a realisation of the huge value to This tactical use of BIM for specific
cost-effective solution, involving a requirements as relevant to their be gained from improved quality of purposes – design coordination, BIM
central 3D geometric representation of
the building linked to multiple existing
organisation, how the technology
can deliver these, and how they
visual communication of design intent
with clinical staff and end-users,
object libraries, construction logistics
planning and cost management (often
It has been encouraging to see other large
asset databases through a web-based can articulate these needs clearly leading to a significant reduction in perceived as the low-hanging fruit estate owners follow suit and recognise BIM as
viewer. The solution is also extendable
to give future functionality, including
to their supply chain. Many of our
commissions involve guiding
periods for design sign-off, reduced
delays and contractual claims from
of BIM) – continues to deliver huge
benefits, particularly on the large,
a catalyst for better coordinated and effective
visual analytics. such clients on this journey. improved coordination of MEP design, complex projects we see in Asia. asset management systems.
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National BIM Report 2018

BIM Academy team on site at Forest City Malaysia

NBS Construction Contracts & Law
Read the results of our fourth major survey into construction contracts and related legal issues.
Some of the key takeaways from the report are:

• Disputes are not going away, and the reasons for them • Traditional procurement methods are still the most
are varied popular followed by Design and Build. The gap between
these is narrowing though
• More than 20 years after the Latham report, bespoke
contracts are still widely used • The majority of respondents agree that a BIM
is contractually binding
• More than a third of all projects started in the past
12 months (from the time of the survey) do not adopt
collaboration techniques

Download today from

The advent Our most recent international

commission is the development of
In conclusion, our experience has
taught us that whilst the UK is globally
of International the digital asset management model respected as a pioneer in the digital
Standards such for the Forest City development in
Malaysia. Led by Chinese developer
built environment, and has led the
way in developing Standards as part
as ISO 19650 will Country Garden, this 25-year project of international groups, each region
help to unify a will create a smart city on reclaimed
land in the Straits of Johor, adjacent
and community is finding practical
applications of digital tools and
common approach, to Singapore. The client is seeking to processes which drive value for
but the economic, develop multidisciplinary federated
models enhanced with structured
their specific needs. The advent
of International Standards such
commercial and asset data, which can be used to as ISO 19650 will help to unify a
cultural dynamics improve future management and
linked with estate-wide systems,
common approach, but the economic,
commercial and cultural dynamics of
of each region potentially through GIS platforms. each region are different. A dogmatic,
are different. The client has understood the
importance of alignment with
one-size-fits-all approach based on
one country’s preferences is neither
internationally recognised Standards, realistic nor sustainable.
and has recognised the value of
applying protocols methodologies
such as PAS 1192 and the Digital
Plan of Work.

NBS, The Old Post Office, St. Nicholas Street, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 1RH
T 0345 456 9594 E W @theNBS
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National BIM Report 2018

National BIM Survey:

summary of findings

Welcome to the eighth NBS National Instead, using BIM is a contractual Secondly, BIM increases the efficiency How successful do you think UK Government’s 2016 BIM Mandate has been?
BIM Report. In this report, we look at condition of working with the UK’s and reduces the cost of construction
the UK Government’s BIM mandate and largest client, central government. for central government, so the 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

the current levels of BIM adoption, as Government can build more for less.
This approach ideally does 4% 37% 44% 14%
well as people's attitudes towards BIM. three things. Finally, success in government
As ever, we hope that you find the projects can be an exemplar to Very successful Quite successful Not that successful Not at all successful
Firstly, BIM will help the Government the private sector, leading to more
findings helpful, and enjoy reading meet its strategic aims, specifically:
the report. We would like to thank all rapid adoption of BIM throughout
• 33% reduction in the initial cost the industry.
those who took the time to complete
Adrian Malleson the survey: without them there would of construction and the whole life The NBS BIM survey allows us
Perceptions of the Government's mandate (% agreement)
Head of Research, be no report. cost of built assets; to gauge how successful the BIM 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Analysis and mandate has been. Four per cent
Thank you also to the professional • 50% reduction in the overall
Forecasting, NBS told us that the mandate had been The Government now 63%
bodies and institutes who publicised the time, from inception to completion,
very successful, with a further 37% requires collaborative
survey to their membership. Having this for new build and refurbished assets; 3D BIM on its projects
viewing it as ‘quite successful’. Many
cross-discipline support for our survey
• 50% reduction in greenhouse noted how the mandate has given The Government is not 62%
helps make sure that the findings are enforcing the Government’s
gas emissions in the built the industry the push towards BIM 2016 BIM mandate
relevant to the wider industry. It is in
environment; and that it needed.
the collaborative spirit of BIM. I think the Government is
on the right track with BIM

• 50% reduction in the trade gap ‘The mandate focused everyone

I’m still not clear on what 41%
The UK Government and BIM between total exports and total on where we should be going.’ I have to do to comply with
imports for construction products the Government’s 2016
In this section, we explore the views ‘It has brought the industry together BIM mandate
and materials.
of the industry on the success of the to a common goal.’ The construction industry 19%
UK Government’s BIM mandate. The findings below support this, is now delivering on the
Government’s 2016
showing that a clear majority think that On the other hand, 58% tell us it BIM mandate
The UK Government’s BIM mandate
BIM will help reduce both construction has either been ‘not that successful’
has been in place since April 2016. (44%) or ‘not at all successful’ (14%).
The mandate requires that all projects costs and the time it takes to go from
funded by central government be inception to completion. Fewer agree When we look at the graph on the
delivered with ‘fully collaborative 3D that BIM will help reduce greenhouse right, we get a sense of why the
BIM’. The mandate is not legislation: gas emissions or reduce our trade gap. government mandate is not
it is not the law that the design But very few disagree with any of universally viewed as successful.
and construction team use BIM. these points. Whilst almost two thirds (63%) agree
that the Government requires BIM
on its projects, a very similar number
(62%) feel that the Government is
Please tell us the role you think BIM will have in our achieving the following...
not enforcing this. For the first time,
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% less than a majority (47%) feel that
the Government is ‘on the right
33% reduction in the initial cost of 72% 24% 4% track’ with BIM. That is still a high
construction and the whole life
cost of built assets percentage, but less than last year
(51%). Just over two fifths are not
50% reduction in the overall time, 65% 28% 7%
from inception to completion, for clear on what they have to do to
newbuild and refurbished assets
comply with the mandate.

Whilst almost two thirds (63%) agree that

50% reduction in greenhouse gas 46% 51% 3%
emissions in the built environment Less than one fifth agree that
‘the construction industry is now
50% reduction in the trade gap
between total exports and total
33% 63% 4%
delivering on the Government’s the Government requires BIM on its projects,
imports for construction products
and materials
2016 BIM mandate’. a very similar number (62%) feel that the
BIM will help BIM won’t make a difference BIM will hinder
Government is not enforcing this.
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National BIM Report 2018

The Government Numbers alone do not always get

to the heart of the issue. We also
3 Local, as well as central, Government
needs to mandate BIM.
BIM Usage and Awareness BIM Usage and Awareness

needs to go deeper asked people to tell us why they

‘The Government should have
'BIM is now a necessity in modern
construction projects.'
and wider in its assessed the success of the
mandate as they did.
required the use of BIM for all public
Almost three quarters of respondents
enforcement of If people felt that the mandate was
projects (at regional, county, and
local authority levels).’ are now using BIM, a 12% increase
the mandate. not successful, this was almost always
‘The BIM mandate should apply
on last year. This is the highest
because the Government wasn’t year-on-year growth since 2014.
to all projects that are funded
seen to be doing enough to promote, Since 2016, the year of the mandate,
with public money including
enforce and embed BIM, and almost a further 20% of the industry
HAs & Local Gov.’
never because the aim of the has adopted BIM.
mandate, to embed BIM in UK ‘There are reports that some Local
Authorities are avoiding BIM and so ‘change takes a long time to happen.’
construction, was seen as a mistake.
it seems Government, in large part, BIM is not yet universal: a quarter
The Government needs to go deeper
does not have a united front on the have yet to adopt BIM, and a
and wider in its enforcement of the
adoption of principles of BIM.’ negligible 1% are unaware of it.
mandate. The following themes come
from a reading of the comments But we’ve come a long way over Aware and Using 74%

that people gave, some of which 4 Changing the UK construction the seven years that we’ve been
industry is difficult. Just aware 25%
are given as illustration: monitoring BIM. Among the design
‘The resistance to change was community, BIM has gone from Unaware 1%
1 The mandate is not being enforced a niche practice to the norm.
immense and in many cases it still is.
‘It is rarely enforced.’ The Government mandate has
'Stakeholders are beginning
‘Government is not enforcing gone some way to improving
to trust in the process.'
the mandate.’ this complacency.’ BIM adoption over time

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
2 Clients, including the Government, 5 The Government needs to
are not sufficiently educated to keep pushing 2018 74% 25% 1%
understand the benefits of BIM. ‘The mandate was the correct
‘The Government missed the initiative, but the Government have 2017 62% 35% 3%

opportunity to support the client stepped back and lost momentum’.

2016 54% 42% 4%
on this journey.’ ‘The Government has not done
‘Government departments need to much to promote its benefits.’ 2015 48% 48% 5%

commit to actually understanding

their own requirements and acting The BIM mandate, then, has not 2014 54% 41% 5%

as an intelligent client.’ been perfectly implemented, but the

39% 54% 6%
Government’s drive for BIM is right. 2013

As the mandate has come into force,

2012 31% 48% 21%
we have seen rising levels of BIM
adoption; it certainly looks to have
2011 13% 45% 43%
set the direction of travel correctly.
'The mandate had to come; without Aware and currently using Just aware Neither aware nor using
it, we would not be thinking of the
future steps. It was not perfect but
the strategy is improving, it is a
non-stop process.'

18 19
National BIM Report 2018

Within your organisation, have you adopted BIM for projects you’ve been Frequency of BIM use Approximately what percentage of projects have you used BIM for in the last
involved in? 12 months?
Last year, for the first time, we
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% asked about the frequency of BIM use. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

A practice may adopt BIM, but not use

Small 66% 34% it on every project. This year, we again Up to 25% 19%
asked those who had adopted BIM
Medium 80% 20% ‘Approximately what percentage of Up to 50% 14%
projects have you used BIM for in 13%
Large 78% 22% the last 12 months?’
Up to 75% 21%
The graph (right) shows the response 29%
Yes No
to this. As last year, 18%, nearly one
in five, use BIM on every project Up to 100% 29%

that they work on. A quarter (fewer 25%

than last year) use BIM on between

100% 18%
Adoption and Practice size Work to existing 75% and 99%, but more than 75%, 18%
of their projects. The number of
'BIM is now an important factor for all larger organisations, which is now The NBS National BIM Survey did
those who have adopted BIM but
filtering down to smaller organisations as well.' not make specific reference to the 2017 2018
who use it only on a minority of
challenges of repair or maintenance
The thought that a practice is ‘just Whilst 80% of practices carrying projects has dropped from a third
work, nor to the importance of historic
too small’ for BIM comes up from out health or education work have (33%) to around a quarter (27%).
conservation. However, a number
time to time, and with it the thought adopted BIM, and 83% of those doing Increasingly, once BIM is adopted, How would you describe your organisation’s future use of BIM?
of respondents took the time to
that BIM is really only useful for large, ‘mixed use’ work, practices carrying it is used for most projects.
explore this issue and highlight
complex projects. out less complex work use BIM too. some of the challenges, particularly 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Sixty seven percent of those practices within historic conservation: Future Use
Smaller practices are less likely to carrying out ‘one-off new house, We currently use BIM 74%

have adopted BIM than others. Eighty ‘Across the UK, there are As in previous years, we ask about
extension, conversion or alteration’
percent of medium practices (16 to 50 approximately 6 million traditionally people’s projected use of BIM: In one year’s time we 91%
have adopted BIM. will use BIM
staff) and 78% of large practices (51+ constructed buildings that were whether they will adopt or continue
staff) have adopted BIM. Yet two thirds It looks like BIM is not just for large erected prior to 1919. BIM, and its to use BIM in the coming years. In three year’s time we 96%

of smaller practices (with 15 or fewer practices or more complex projects. application to the Heritage, needs
will use BIM
Having asked this question for a
staff) describe themselves as having to be considered.’ number of years, we can see that:
In five year’s time we 97%
will use BIM
adopted BIM. It looks like the benefits
of BIM are there for practices of • Each year, more practices will
all sizes. adopt BIM.
• Nearly all practices intend
to adopt BIM.
• Practices don’t always adopt BIM
as quickly as they intend to.
• Once a practice starts using BIM,
it doesn’t intend to go back.

So, whilst over 90% BIM adoption by

this time next year looks unlikely, it
does look achievable within three to
five years. Indeed, extrapolating the The number of those who have adopted BIM,
Sixty seven percent of those practices carrying growth that we’ve seen in BIM since but who use it only on a minority of projects
2015 suggests that we’ll reach 90%
out ‘one-off new house, extension, conversion within the next three to five years. has dropped from a third (33%) to around
or alteration’ have adopted BIM. a quarter (27%).
20 21
National BIM Report 2018

BIM maturity How confident are you in your knowledge and skills in BIM? BIM Levels The government has described there
being different levels of BIM. Are you
As it is a way of working (rather than 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% BIM is not one thing. It is a gradual
aware of these different levels?
a piece of software), BIM requires progression towards greater
skilled, knowledgeable, practitioners. 2018 58% 23% 19% collaboration, and greater sharing
In turn, this requires investment of increasingly standardised project
in training. 2017 55% 22% 23% information. This gradual progression
is described by the four levels of BIM.
'Many practices in the industry 2016 48% 23% 28% Levels 0 to 2 are clearly described,
have started to provide staff with
and you can read an explanation
the appropriate training.' 2015 45% 26% 30% of them on
'Upskilling is required for all
The UK Government BIM mandate
members of the project team.' Confident In between Not confident
requires projects to be at Level 2 BIM.
The graph below shows, year on Level 2 BIM means that designers
year, the confidence levels of people’s design in 3D, the model itself is
knowledge and skills in BIM. The ‘federated’ (centralised, but with
How likely are you to turn to the following sources of information about BIM clear responsibility and ownership
knowledge and skills of the industry
are steadily growing. Fifty eight of its parts), information within
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
percent are now confident (compared it is standardised, and it must be
exportable to common file formats. Yes 88%
to 45% in 2015), and fewer than one NBS 72%

in five (19%) are not. This is not a rapid Level 3 BIM is not fully described No 12%
process, but the skills and knowledge My Colleagues 69%
yet, but it is going to be about having
needed for the UK to make a success more integrated, centrally held project
of BIM are coming into place. The BIM Task Group 62%
models that everyone on the team
The graph (right) shows where can access and modify. It has a focus
Other professional(s) I know 60%
people turn for information about outside my organisation
on the lifetime management of a
BIM. NBS is a well-used resource, building, not just its design.
British Standards 52%
as are other expert organisations. Institution (BSI) The Government is committed to
People value the help of others, Level 3 BIM, and in the 2016 budget
The UK BIM Alliance 52%
whether inside their organisation policy paper, we are told that:
or within their professional network.
As we've seen before, vendors
buildingSMART 46%
‘The government will develop
and re-sellers of software are the next digital standard for the
less often turned to.
A BIM Consultant 42% construction sector – Building
Information Modelling 3 – to save
RIBA 41% owners of built assets billions of
pounds a year in unnecessary costs,
BRE 38%
and maintain the UK’s global
leadership in digital construction.’
A CAD Vendor 35%

Other professional 25%


A CAD Reseller 25%

BIM is not one thing. It is a gradual progression

towards greater collaboration, and greater
sharing of increasingly standardised
project information.
22 23
National BIM Report 2018

We asked those who were aware What level would you say is the highest level of BIM your organisation has Use of Standards BIM is not sufficiently
of the Levels of BIM which was the reached on a project? standardised yet
highest that they had reached on a ‘BIM, in my opinion, only really There is a range of freely available
project in the last year. Twenty one 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% works when everyone uses the standards and Publically Available
percent had reached Level 1, and same practices.’ Specifications (PAS documents)
70% Level 2. Eight per cent told
8% that provide detailed descriptions
70% BIM is collaborative. For collaboration
us that they had reached Level 3 BIM. of elements of BIM, such as the
21% to be effective, it needs to be
As Level 3 BIM has yet to be defined,
1% collaborative production of
governed by shared and agreed ways
this may reflect the sophistication information, or exchanging
Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 of working. This is where standards
of BIM implementation rather employers’ information. Much
come in: they describe the way in
than the fulfilment of a set of work has been done to provide
which collaborative BIM practice
independent criteria. the standardisation that the
should be done. Standards provide a
industry needs.
This brings us to a significant point: Thinking about the projects you were involved in over the last 12 months, shared understanding of what needs
the above are self-descriptions. did you ever to happen, and how. Comparing That said, the industry is not yet
Some doubt whether all those who practice to standards also gives us a convinced that BIM is sufficiently
describe themselves as having
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% way to differentiate between those standardised. Seventy percent of
reached Level 2 BIM really have. who declare that they are ‘doing BIM’ respondents agree with the statement
Work collaboratively 78%
on design but aren’t, and those who truly are. ‘BIM is not sufficiently standardised
Agree 70%
‘I still see many projects claiming to yet’. Sixteen percent ‘neither agree
meet BIM level 2 which simply do not.’ Produce 2D digital drawings 76% ‘Having standards to audit against Neither agree or disagree 16%
nor disagree’. Only 14% disagree.
was important, and the first steps
‘A lot of companies out there claim Disagree 14%
Produce 3D digital models 75% were always going to be exploratory. Some suggested that the number,
to be delivering BIM level 2 but It's imperative that we tie the mandate detail and range of interpretation
plainly aren't!!’ Share models with design 64% and its standards solidly in to the of standards were issues.
team members outside
What, then, are people are actually construction industry now.’
your organisation
‘There are too many different
doing? The graph (right) tells us that Share models inside 57% interpretations of the PAS documents
three quarters or more are working your organisation,
and until they become a British
across disciplines
collaboratively in a 3D environment. Standard, the industry will still be
Use a model from the 50%
Fewer, however, are using models very start to the very end heading in different directions.’
of a project
collaboratively: 64% share models Or that the standards were not well
outside their organisation, and 57% Federate a model that 36%
known enough.
didn’t rely on one piece
across disciplines internally. Half use of software
a model for the entirety of a project. ‘The definition and basic requirements
Pass on the model to those 29% of Level 2 are not well known enough.’
who are responsible for the
'The BIM model is not being used continued management of
by all relevant disciplines within the building or other asset

our organisation.'
Only 29% ‘pass on the model to those
who are responsible for the continued
management of the building.’ This
figure underlines the importance of
our moving towards a vision of Level 3
BIM where buildings are intelligently
maintained using BIM, and where
clients are as engaged as designers in
the creation and use of the model.
'No embedded FM data requirements
from the client for the majority of Standards provide a shared understanding
projects we currently operate.' of what needs to be happen, and how.
24 25
National BIM Report 2018

The survey covered which standards Which of the following standards/publications does your organisation use? When producing drawings or models, BIM resources Software use
people use. which of the following tools do you
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
mainly use? BIM is not just about buying a set When producing drawings and models,
An increasing number, now 44%, use of tools, templates or resources. It is Autodesk, with 66%, remains the most
PAS 1192–2:2013 (‘Specification for PAS 1192-2:2013 44%
about working in new, collaborative popular vendor, followed by Graphisoft.
information management for the ways. But people still need tools,
capital/delivery phase of construction BS 1192:2007 +A2:2016 43%
templates and resources to do that. When we break this down a little
projects using building information This section explores some of those. further, we can see the different
modelling’). Thirty three percent use The new unified plan of 36% packages that people use. Revit,
work stages (for example
PAS 1192-3:2014 (‘Specification for the RIBA Plan of Work 2013) with 44% usage, is the most popular
information management for the package among the respondents,
Uniclass 2015 34%
operational phase of assets using followed by ArchiCAD. In line with
building information modelling’). PAS 1192-3:2014 33%
the adoption of BIM, people are, over
time, increasingly using software
Notably, Uniclass is gaining strong packages that can be used to create
PAS 1192-5:2015 29%
traction, with over a third now using it. models, not just drawings.
A similar number use the unified work CIC BIM Protocol 29%
stages, like the RIBA Plan of Work.
Fewer people use the range of BS 1192-4:2014 28%

standards than have adopted BIM. Autodesk 66% When producing drawings or models, which of the following tools do you
However, the use of standards, PAS The NBS Level of Detail 22% mainly use?
Graphisoft 19%
definitions within the BIM
documents, standardised systems of Toolkit 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Other 8%
classification or descriptions of work The NBS Level of 18%
stages is embedded and, in many Information definitions Nemetscheck 4% Autodesk AutoCAD LT 8%
within the BIM Toolkit
cases, growing. Bentley 2%
The BS 8536 series 15% Autodesk AutoCAD 14%
Adhering to standards is one way (previously ‘Soft landings’) Trimble 1%

of demonstrating good BIM practice. The NBS BIM Object 14% Autodesk Revit (Architecture 44%
Another is to gain certification from Standard /Structure/MEP)

a third party. We asked whether such The BS 8541 series 13% Bentley Microstation 1%
certification adds value. For many,
but not all, it does, with 57% telling Bentley AECOsim 1%
Building Designer
us that it adds to the BIM capacity of
an organisation and 54% that it adds Trimble Sketchup 1%
(formerly Google Sketchup)
to BIM capability on a project. Third party certification adds value by assessing...
Fewer told us that it adds to the Graphisoft ArchiCAD 19%

BIM capability of an individual (45%), 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

or the quality of BIM objects (39%). Nemetscheck Allplan 1%

BIM capability across an 57%
Nemetscheck Vectorworks 3%
BIM capability on a project 54%

Other 8%
BIM capability of 45%
an individual

The quality of BIM objects 39%

26 27
National BIM Report 2018

Common Data Environments, Within the projects you are involved in, do you share information in common Coordinating the project documents Within the projects you are involved in, do you coordinate project
data environment... and models within the project team is specifications with drawing/models
COBie and IFC
one thing. Another is coordinating the
If people want to collaborate, 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% documents and models themselves, 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

they need a shared space in which so that the information they contain
21% 23% 29% 28% 29% 32% 23% 15%
to do so. This is the Common Data is consistent. Central to this is making
Environment (CDE): a shared place For all projects For most projects For some projects Never
sure that the specification and the For all projects For the majority of projects For a minority of projects Never
where the project team can put, hold models agree.
and access information about a built
Conflicting information can threaten
asset. This does not need to be
the realisation of design intent, and
onerous, but there do need to be
Please list the Common Data Environments you use leaves a door to dispute open. Do you use IFC on projects you’ve
agreed and enforced rules governing
been involved with?
how project information is created 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Only 15% never coordinate the
and managed: rules about creation, specifications and the model, but less
access and editing, for example. Viewpoint 32% than two thirds always do. There are
tools to help here: notably the NBS
The graph (top right) shows that
Aconex/Conject 20% plug-ins for Revit or ArchiCAD. They
nearly three quarters use a CDE for
allow direct linkage between the
at least some of their projects, 21%
Asite 14% model and the specification.
for all projects, 23% for most and 29%
for some. As a core part of PAS 1192-2 ‘The statement ‘it's in the model’
Dropbox 12%
is about sharing data within a CDE, is of little help when you're trying
this helps us to see how many, and Autodesk 360 range 12%
to transfer information.’
how often, organisations practise
We have seen that some software
collaborative BIM. Microsoft Sharepoint 6% packages are more popular than
We asked people to list the CDEs others. We’ve also seen that there
they use. This question had a free Bentley Projectwise 5% are a number of packages in use.
text space, and people gave a range As BIM is collaborative, that
of responses. Some used more than Causeway Livelink 2% collaboration cannot rest on the Yes 72%
one tool. The graph (right) shows the adoption of one proprietary piece
No 28%
tools currently being used. Google Drive 2% of modelling software or another.
Instead, collaboration requires an
When creating a CDE, people use
open, non-proprietary data
a range of tools. These can be
environment. This is where IFCs
industry-specific, such as Viewpoint, Agreement with statements
(Industry Foundation Classes) come
Asite or Aconex. For projects of a less
in. Seventy two per cent now use
complex nature, many tell us that they 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
IFCs on the projects that they’ve
are using general tools like Dropbox
been involved in. The use of IFC will be essential to 62% 25% 13%
or SharePoint. achieving Level 3 BIM
IFCs are being adopted now, so
The prevalence of industry-specific Information models only work in 28% 22% 50%
50% disagree that ‘Information the software they were made on
tools indicates that BIM cannot
models only work on the software
be understood as using one tool
they were made on’. They will also Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
or another (Revit or ArchiCAD);
become increasingly important.
instead, it is the coming together
Sixty two per cent describe their
of a wide range of tools and
processes to support collaborative As a core part of PAS 1192-2 is about sharing use as essential to Level 3 BIM.
information delivery. data within a CDE, this helps us to see how As BIM is collaborative, that collaboration
many, and how often, organisations practise cannot rest on the adoption of one proprietary
collaborative BIM. piece of modelling software or another.
28 29
National BIM Report 2018

Another non-propriety data format Do you generate COBie output for BIM Objects Agreement with Statements
is COBie (Construction Operations projects you've been involved with?
Buildings are made of things. BIMs
Building Information Exchange). 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
are made of BIM objects. A BIM object
COBie is there so that the non-
may contain detailed information We need to have access 85%
geometric data that is held within
about the thing that it represents. This to well-structured
a BIM can be easily published. digital objects, not just
can be information about its geometry manufacturers’ objects
It is most commonly used as a
(it both contains geometric information
spreadsheet that contains standard We need manufacturers to 75%
and lets people see what the thing provide us with BIM objects
information about a building.
looks like) and about its properties
When used as a spreadsheet, it
(like weight, or performance).
can be easily shared among the
design and construction team It is very important that the
and, ultimately, with the client. information contained within a BIM Where do you get the BIM objects your organisation uses?
object is accurate, standardised and
'We haven't been required to well formed. Poor quality BIM objects 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
produce a COBie output, it looks make for a poor quality (and so
too complicated to achieve and professionally risky) model.
They are created in-house 65%
and then re-used
I'm not sure that it is useful.'
‘manufacturers are slowly catching They are created as needed 59%
COBie is not universally adopted, for a project
Yes 41% up with producing BIM models.’
but a significant proportion, 41%, Manufacturers provide them 58%
do generate COBie output. If BIM No 59% Designers need manufacturers to for us to use

is to deliver efficiencies throughout provide BIM objects (three quarters We maintain our 51%
the life of a building and not just in agree). They also need generic own in-house library
of BIM objects
the design stages, we need to see objects (85% agree). The NBS
a higher adoption rate. How useful did you find COBie for delivering information about the National BIM Library provides They are included in our
CAD package

'Clients are starting to understand management of the facility? both of these.

We use generic BIM objects 45%
that receiving even a basic level of As more practices and projects use
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
information can provide improved BIM, the need for BIM objects increases. We use the NBS National 44%
savings in FM.' 23% 39% 26% 12%
The most popular ways of getting BIM BIM Library

objects are to create them in-house We use another BIM Library 28%
Of those who do use COBie, almost
Very useful Quite useful Not very useful Not at all useful then re-use (65%), and to create
two thirds (62%) find it useful. The
them as needed for a project (59%). We buy them from 9%
slow rate of adoption may be more specialists outside our
a reflection of models not being used In-house creation of objects organisation

throughout the life of a building, instead (unless they represent bespoke,

of being restricted to the design stages. project-specific items) is inefficient,
Perhaps COBie outputs would be because many practices will be
required more often if clients requested creating the same object. Re-use is
it; this may come as we further embed risky, as information may become out
BIM Level 2. of date or inaccurate. It is better to
use a free, central store of up-to-date
BIM objects. This can be direct from
manufacturers (58%), or from a BIM
library. The NBS National BIM Library is
the most used central store: 44% use
it. Other libraries are less used, at 28%.
If BIM is to deliver efficiencies throughout the life Wherever they are sourced, a majority Re-use is risky, as information may become
of a building, and not just in the design stages, (51%) maintain their own in-house
library of BIM objects.
out of date or inaccurate. Better is to use
we need to see a higher adoption rate. a free, central store of up to date BIM objects.
30 31
National BIM Report 2018

The NBS National BIM library provides Agreement with Statements

Participants told us that quality was BIM Experience
essential with respect to BIM objects.
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Eighty two per cent agree that BIM 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
When asked specifically about NBS
is the future of the design process,
National BIM Library, 67% agreed BIM is the future 82%
Highest quality content 67% and with over three quarters having
that it provides the highest quality of project information
now adopted BIM, it is a future that
content. A majority (53%) agreed I trust what I hear 36%
Greatest ease of use 53% we’re seeing realised.
that it provides the greatest ease about BIM

of use. But there is still work to do. People The UK is the world leader 27%
remain distrustful of what they hear in BIM
Just as the practice of BIM needs to
about BIM (only 36% trust what they
be standardised, so too do the objects We will soon have a clear 22%

How useful do you find the NBS BIM ‘hear about BIM’). understanding of how the
that make up the model. This is why construction industry will

NBS have created the NBS BIM Object Object Standard Only 27% think that the UK is the deliver Level 3 BIM

Standard. Knowing that an object world leader in BIM. That said, many
conforms to the Standard provides an people commented in the free text
assurance of its quality. Over three on how well the UK is doing:
quarters find the BIM Object Standard ‘UK is further ahead with BIM Agreement with Statements
useful. Because all objects on the NBS than most other countries, and the
National BIM Library conform to this Government’s action has spurred
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

standard, their high quality is assured. the UK forward.’ Clients don’t understand 77%
the benefits of BIM
‘We operate in the United States
which is a long way behind the UK Our current contracts 72%
will not be compatible
and NBS in particular when it comes with Level 3 BIM
to the coordination and use of data Using BIM results 67%
associated with materials and in operation and
maintenance savings
manufactured products.’
BIM is just for larger 21%
Few (22%) believe that clarity on organisations
delivering Level 3 will come soon.
Useful 76% Even without Level 3 BIM, the design
Not Useful 14% community already sees that using
BIM can bring benefits beyond the
design stages; 67% see that using
BIM results in operational and
maintenance savings. On the other
hand, 77% agree that clients do
not understand the benefits of BIM.
The need for greater client education,
perhaps led by all kinds of government
clients, has not gone away.
'Clients need to be better trained
to understand what BIM is.'

Because all objects on the NBS National BIM

Library conform to this standard, their high Only 27% think that the UK is the world
quality is assured. leader in BIM.
32 33
National BIM Report 2018

As in previous years, we looked at Agreement with statements Barriers to adoption What are the main barriers to using BIM?
the views of those who have adopted
BIM and compared them to those
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 'It hasn't been requested by the client.' 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

who have yet to. This allows us to Adopting BIM requires 94% We asked those who have yet to Lack of in house expertise 71%
compare anticipation with experience. changes in our workflow,
88% adopt BIM what the barriers to
practices or procedures
We have consistently found that adoption are. These barriers fall No client demand 69%
BIM experience is better than Adopting BIM increases
coordination of construction
into two types: internal, such as
BIM anticipation. documents
a lack of training, expertise, time or Lack of training 61%

‘BIM, not just the software upgrade, Clients will increasingly 66% the investment cost; and external,
insist on us using BIM
including process changes, takes time 29% specifically a lack of client demand Cost 50%

and commitment.’ and projects being too small to

Contractors will increasingly 62%
insist on us using BIM require BIM. No time to get up to speed 47%
Adopting BIM is not easy. Ninety four 32%

percent of BIM users agree that it has The internal barriers are barriers BIM is not relevant to the 43%
Adopting BIM brings 57%
required changes in their workflow, cost efficiencies of investment. Responses from projects we work
practices and procedures, yet only those who have adopted BIM Lack of standardised tools 42%
5% wish that they hadn’t adopted Adopting BIM increases 52% suggest that it is a worthwhile and protocols

BIM, compared to one in five of speed of delivery

40% investment of time and money. The projects we work on are 41%
too small
non-users who would ‘rather not’. It is also likely that the amount of
Adopting BIM increases 42%
No established contractual 40%
‘we are seeing the advantages’ our profitability
‘non-BIM’ work will steadily diminish framework for working
as more clients see BIM’s benefits and with BIM
A majority see that BIM brings Adopting BIM makes it 36% so require it on their projects. Client Lack of collaboration 38%
better document coordination, easier for us to work
40% demand will accelerate as Level 2 BIM
cost efficiencies and faster
becomes further embedded and as Differences in expertise 29%
delivery. Clients and contractors Adopting BIM enables us to 36%
work in new sectors and we define and move towards Level 3. among collaborating
will increasingly insist on BIM. types of projects
49% parties in a project
Not adopting BIM looks increasingly
Nearly two thirds (65%) told Agree User Agree Non-user
risky for a practice. Operating System
specific software

us that they had adopted BIM

Lack of freely available 22%
successfully. Fifty nine percent BIM objects
of those who are yet to adopt BIM
Don’t see the benefit 22%
acknowledge that if they do not,
they’ll get left behind. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Lack of high quality, 21%
information rich, BIM
We have adopted BIM successfully 65% 25% 10% objects

We are not sure that the 17%

If we don’t adopt BIM, we’ll get 59% 23% 18% industry will adopt BIM
left behind
We are unsure of the 15%
Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Government’s commitment
to BIM

Liability concerns 14%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

I’d rather we had not adopted BIM 5% 11% 83%

I’d rather not adopt BIM 21% 28% 51% The responses we have seen from those who
Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
have adopted BIM is that it is a worthwhile
investment of time and money.
34 35
National BIM Report 2018

Respondents In the last twelve months, which of the following project types have you been
involved in?
Including yourself, approximately how many people are employed
in your organisation?
With the Government's
This year's findings are based on BIM mandate in place,
the analysis of the 808 responses
and with three quarters
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

to the survey. The survey was live

in the first quarter of 2018. The Offices 47% 1-2 13%
now using BIM, it
respondents came from a range
of large to small practices and Education 41% 3-5 8% increasingly looks like
organisations, carrying out a range
One-off new house, 41% 6 - 15 13%
BIM is not the future,
of project types. People from a
range of professions responded
extension, conversion
or alteration but the present.
16 - 25 8%
to the survey. The largest group Other private housing 39%
were architects (31%), but other
26 - 50 10%
professions were represented too, Retail 33%
including architectural technologists;
51 - 100 10%
BIM managers and technicians; Mixed use 32%
clients; contractors; civil, structural
101 - 250 9%
and service engineers; surveyors; Industrial 31%

and landscape architects.

251 - 500 4%
Sport and leisure 25%

501+ 23%
Public housing including 25%
social housing

Health 24%

Other private 21% End Note

We still have a long way to go!! Of course, there are other things on
Culture and entertainment 20%
the horizon too: AI, generative design,
Since we've been running the NBS offsite manufacture, 3D printing and
Other public 20%
National BIM report, we've suggested the Internet of Things. All these items
that the future is BIM. With the (and others) have the potential to
Transport 17%
Government's BIM mandate in place, transform the design and construction
and with three quarters now using industries. At the same time, they
BIM, it increasingly looks like BIM is will all rely on the fundamentals of BIM
not the future, but the present. So, being in place: collaborative working,
what is the 'next BIM'? What will next 3D design and rich, standardised
transform the design and construction design information. BIM Level 2
industries? In one sense, the next BIM will increasingly be seen as a
is BIM. Firstly, getting true Level 2 foundational step for the digitisation
BIM used in more projects. Secondly of the industry.
(and this may be the next great
transformation), describing, agreeing
on and implementing Level 3 BIM.
‘I think BIM has helped people to
The respondents came from a range understand that the construction
industry needs radical change.’
of practices and organisations, from large
to small, and carrying out a range of
project types.
36 37
National BIM Report 2018

CIC BIM Protocol – 2nd Edition

Andrew Croft – Beale & Co

The BIM Protocol remains the only standard industry protocol for use Encouraging Collaboration Clarifying the Contractual “ CIC has had a seven-year involvement
on projects using BIM. with being at the leading edge of
The Second Edition also includes Approach to BIM
promoting best practice in BIM,
On 10 April 2018, the Construction Industry Standards obligations in relation to the sharing Despite recent industry progress, which continues with the work of
Industry Council (CIC) published the and publishing of information as part there is also often ambiguity over our BIM Forum. The Second Edition
The Second Edition of the BIM
much-anticipated Second Edition of of a Common Data Environment the contractual approach to BIM. of the BIM Protocol demonstrated
Protocol is very closely aligned with
the BIM Protocol. The original BIM Process, and a collaborative process It is also far too common for there our ongoing commitment to the
PAS 1192-2. For example, the Second
Protocol, which Beale & Company to resolve inconsistencies in relation to be a ‘gap’ between the contractual multi-professional, collaboration
Edition applies to all information,
were also responsible for drafting, to information. Collaboration is position and the approach of the potential of BIM.”
not just models, and the terminology
was first commissioned by the CIC central on any BIM project, and project team, as indicated in the
Dale Sinclair is now more consistent with this Graham Watts OBE
in 2013 as a response to the UK these additional provisions should recent NBS National Construction
Director of Technical standard. In addition, Appendix 1 to Chief Executive of CIC
Government’s BIM Strategy. encourage further sharing of Contracts and Law Survey, in which
Practice, AECOM and the Protocol is now the Responsibility
information to help identify 57% of respondents considered BIM
Chair of the CIC Following significant consultation Matrix (which PAS 1192-2 requires to
inconsistencies at an early stage. to be contractually binding, whereas “ The CIC BIM Protocol is a crucial
BIM Forum with the construction industry, legal be prepared) rather than the Model
only 33% saw specific outputs in component of the UK’s BIM level 2
practitioners and standard contract Production and Delivery Table.
suite of documents. We are delighted
publishing bodies (including the JCT Flexibility and Ease of Use relation to BIM being referred to in
As with the original Protocol, the contracts. The recently published that this latest version updates the
and NEC), the Second Edition reflects The Second Edition is a much more
completion of Appendices 1 and 2 Winfield Rock Report also highlighted protocol in line with comments
significant progress with standards flexible document. For example,
(Information Particulars) of the Second these concerns. If BIM is not clearly made since its inception. This is
and practices in relation to BIM the standard of care required of
Edition is key, and the Protocol includes provided for in the contracts of the an important step forward as we
since 2013. the Project Team Member and the
detailed guidance on this. In addition, project team, there will be a risk that move towards a collaborative
Appendix 2 allows the Employer’s position in relation to intellectual the real benefits of BIM adoption digital future.”
Information Requirements and the BIM property are now driven by the are not achieved. Dale Sinclair
Execution Plan, two key documents underlying contract. This flexibility Director of Technical Practice,
under PAS 1192-2, to be identified and is also demonstrated by the fact Looking forward, as we see an
AECOM and Chair of the CIC
therefore reflected in the contract. that the appendices are now increasingly digitised approach to
BIM Forum
editable documents, so they construction, it is hoped that the
The Second Edition also reflects new Protocol, which is more flexible,
can be easily completed.
other, more recent BIM standards. easier to use and reflects the industry “ We are very glad to see the important
For example, it includes obligations The Second Edition still seeks to approach to BIM, will help provide changes made in the second edition
to assist in relation to the Asset achieve the intention of creating additional clarity in relation to the of the CIC BIM Protocol. These include
Information Model to reflect PAS a minimum set of consistent contractual approach to BIM. clarification as to the duty of care
1192-3, and additional optional obligations across the project and timing of Project Team Member
provisions in relation to security team, without overriding the contributions, reflecting findings
(an increasingly important issue) agreed contractual position. from our research report “Enabling
to reflect PAS 1192-5. For the Protocol to have contractual BIM Through Procurement
effect, it must be incorporated into and Contracts.”
the contract. The Second Edition Professor David Mosey
makes this even clearer: it includes King’s College London
suggested approaches to using the
Protocol with the JCT suite, and refers
to guidance on using the Protocol
with NEC4 contracts, as well as a
standard incorporation clause.
This will also promote the effective
use of the Protocol. Collaboration is central on any BIM project and
these additional provisions should encourage
further sharing of information and help identify
inconsistencies in information at an early stage.
38 39
National BIM Report 2018

Welcome to a
Digital Built Britain
Digital Built Britain: Enabling the information
feed-forward and feed-back loops
(Reproduced by permission of BEIS)
In 2012, at the Government Construction Summit, the Ministry of Justice
(MoJ) announced that it was embarking on the first early-adopter Building
Information Modelling (BIM) project under the Government’s Construction
Strategy. This trial project highlighted the benefits of the intelligent client,
clarity of information requirements, data to support decision-making and
enhanced stakeholder communication in a model-based environment, resulting
in reduced costs, improved predictability and enhanced SME engagement.

‘The significant improvement in cost one of the biggest benefits of the

value and carbon performance can UK BIM programme was the
David Philp be achieved through the use of open establishment of communities
Global BIM/IM sharable asset information.’ of practice that were kick-started
Consultancy Director, in response to the BIM mandate,
AECOM At this juncture, BIM Level 2 was
including the UK BIM Alliance and
just starting to evolve, through the
BIM Regions who are helping to
creation of new standards and the
raise awareness and build capacity
stress-testing of a simple hypothesis.
in capability in the marketplace.
As more projects came online,
Since the inception of the Government
realising different value propositions
Construction Strategy (GCS) in 2011,
(both quantitative and, equally
great progress has been made in BIM
importantly, qualitative), it became
implementation. This progress has
evident that getting the foundation
shaped multiple successes in the UK’s
of BIM Level 1 right and its related In support of and to help enable The strategy seeks to digitise the
joint mission to create a Digital Built
need for a common data environment the DBB strategy, the Government entire life cycle of our built assets,
Britain (DBB). DBB will pave the way
(CDE), better information and design announced the launch of The Centre finding innovative ways of delivering
for a programme of digitisation of
management were key. The then for Digital Built Britain (CDBB) in more capacity out of our existing
the built environment and enable:
BIM Task Group also realised the need late 2017: a partnership between social infrastructure, dramatically
a shift into the digital economy; a
for the development of standards the Department for Business, improving the way that these assets
boost in productivity across the built
and guidance on Soft Landings, Energy & Industrial Strategy and the deliver social services to improve
environment through investment in
Security Mindedness and Health University of Cambridge to support capacity and provide better public
digital and manufacturing technologies;
and Safety, all aspects that were this ongoing transformation of the services. So how do we retrofit
a focus on through-life performance; Home of Centre for Digital Built Britain
not envisaged as part of the BIM built environment. The Centre will these assets with the required digital
and better, more certain outcomes.
Level 2 wrapper back in 2011. continue the work of the Digital Built capabilities to ensure that they can
The DBB strategy published in 2015 DBB is an important programme Britain Programme and the UK BIM provide us with relevant services into
Perhaps the most important for the UK Government, with
set out a long-term vision to bring Task Group to support delivery of the future? Doing more with what
change lever pulled was not that demographic and social changes
digital techniques and capabilities to the Government’s Digital Built we already have, enabling a circular
of technology or processes but an putting new demands on our
the life cycle of the built environment. Britain Strategy. economy which keeps up with us
inner shift in mind-set and behaviours: ageing infrastructure, coupled with
It will enable the more efficient reusing and recycling assets to enable
starting with the end in mind, breaking ‘The CDBB Mission: To develop
building of assets and an understanding diminishing resource to fund new citizens to make better use of their
down discipline silos and enabling and demonstrate policy and
of how they are used and consumed infrastructure and the fact that cities and infrastructure, is a key
collaborative working, especially practical insights that will enable
by the users. This data’s feedback 80% of the assets that we consume construct of DBB.
between those who create and the exploitation of new and emerging
loops and analysis will inform the are already with us.
those who maintain assets. technologies, data and analytics
design of better-functioning assets Government recognised the time to enhance the natural and built
Without addressing new attitudes
for the future, and thus better taken to develop BIM Level 2, and if environment, thereby driving up
and including the many players
social outcomes. the UK is to maintain its competitive, commercial competitive and
involved in the built environment,
digitally enabled position and continue productivity, as well as citizen
the HM Government’s BIM Level 2
to grow capability, we need to start quality of life and well-being.’
programme would have been set
for failure. In hindsight, therefore, the journey to create the next chapter
in our digital journey now.

40 41
National BIM Report 2018

Powerfully connected
The Centre is already bringing
together industry, academia and
government to explore how digital
Involving partners from across
industry and government, and
working closely and openly with them
specification software
What is the Home technologies will be used to improve is therefore vital. CDBB deliberately
• Produce outline, performance and full specifications
Nations Working Group the built environment and deliver want a very open system – a network
(HNWG)? value to the economy. The Centre is of people involved in thinking about • Pre-written clauses for over 1,000 systems and 20,000 products
interdisciplinary by nature, and not the future of DBB. While the Centre is • Seamless co-ordination between model and specification
The HNWG brings together the just a technical programme. Alexandra housed at the University of Cambridge,
four UK national BIM Bolton, Assistant Director at the it is open – and running calls and • Access to expert guidance and the latest regulations and standards
programmes with the purpose Centre for Digital Built Britain, notes competitions – to involve academics
of developing consistency of
messaging, and promoting a
that ‘in order to consider the wider from across the UK and internationally
effects of the digital agenda on in different programmes, projects,
shared understanding of the society and the economy, we need initiatives, networks and events.
value proposition afforded by a interaction with the clinical schools,
coordinated approach to a with philosophers, and economists. The Centre also recognises the
digitised UK Built Environment. Identifying the questions to be asked need to build upon a solid BIM Level 2
in order to establish how people want foundation. A key objective of CDBB
The HNWG will provide a
to use the built environment requires is to act as the custodians of the
platform to:
working with a multidisciplinary integrity of the UK BIM and Digital
• Share experiences team, which we are starting to Built Britain Programme across all
in the implementation build – not just in Cambridge, but the levels, and to be recognised both
of BIM Level 2; with other institutions too. Without nationally and internationally as that
this dynamic and widely-informed institution. This has already resulted
• Coordinate the sharing of in the creation of a Home Nations
approach there would be danger
BIM knowledge and collateral Working Group (HNWG). The group
of creating something technically
across programmes; and will also help to support the UK
perfect, but potentially unusable,
or difficult to use’. transition towards ISO19650-1
• Manage the interface between
and -2 with clear and unified
the Centre for Digital Built
messaging to industry.
Britain, and the various
devolved UK Government
BIM and digital built
environment programmes.

For more information about the Centre for Digital Built Britain,
or to register interest in receiving regular bulletins about activities
and events please see:
NBS, The Old Post Office, St. Nicholas Street, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 1RH
T 0345 456 9594 E W @theNBS
42 43
National BIM Report 2018

Product Identification –
the missing link of BIM

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)

Some projects begin with a simple question. In this case, it was ‘Once we
have a BIM, how are we going to know which construction products are in it?’
The answer too seemed simple – you’ve got descriptions of products
in the BIM, so you know what you’ve got.
But: This led to BSI, the NBS and the CPA
• How do you know that that (Construction Products Association)
description is current? coming together to work on a project,
Simon Powell part-funded by Innovate UK, to
Director, Product • Is that product still available? research and develop an identifier
Management, BSI • If it isn’t, what is its ‘equivalent’? for construction products.
Also, it seems fine to initially identify We found that there are many
things by their attributes, but it’s not different kinds of identifier currently
the best way. Attributes can be very in use. Most belong to a firm or
similar. Products can be almost the system, like SKU codes: they identify
same (or ‘equivalent’). If you don’t products, but not publically, and
know exactly which products are in not consistently.
a design, and exactly which products
Others make data publicly accessible,
are in the subsequent completed
like barcodes or QR codes, but the
building, there can be significant
information is not standardised or
trouble ahead.
centrally held. This means that during
Adrian Malleson If even only a small number of its journey through the supply chain,
the specified products have been any typical product will be issued with
Head of Research,
substituted or ‘value engineered’ a number of identifiers by different
Analysis and
out of the final constructed building stakeholders and systems. For anyone
Forecasting, NBS
then the performance of that using those identifiers, it won’t be
building could, and may often, clear which ID is the most useful,
be significantly affected. and of course there’s no assurance There was one identifier that seemed to do a number of things better than
that the data behind those identifiers others: the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). For us, DOIs have three key features:
Other industries suggest another
will always be there in the future
way: it is better to have a simple • Metadata – all DOIs have set, No other identifier has all these
(e.g. if websites, or systems, change
identifier for products that references standard metadata associated with features. DOIs offer permanent
over time).
a ‘single point of truth’, maintained them. The data is all the data that and unambiguous identification of
centrally by the true owner of that is needed to show the uniqueness construction products. They also
information – the manufacturer. of a thing, and to provide some core clearly identify the manufacturer.
services. But no more than that.
DOIs also have a pedigree. In use
• Persistence – DOIs are persistent since the 1990s, DOIs are extensively
both by design and culture. Once used in the publishing and film
a DOI is created, people will always industries. There are millions of
be able to use it to get to the core DOIs in the world, and they are used
metadata. This is very useful when hundreds of millions of times each
thinking about the supply and use month. They are proven to be
If you don’t know exactly which products are in of information throughout the reliable. They are also governed
lifespan of a building. by an International Standard,
a design, and exactly which products are in the ISO 26324:2012.
• Identification – the DOI is
subsequent completed building, there can be a fixed, standardised, machine -
significant trouble ahead. and human-readable identifier.

44 45
National BIM Report 2018

Pilot Below are some examples: DOIs and compliance

Quality and legal compliance are
Having established which is the right DOIs in BIM
obviously critical for product
identifier, the project moved on to As BIM moves into the life of a
manufacturers. The safety and
piloting its application. building, there is an increasing risk
performance of buildings are
that data within a model may go out
At this point, we’d like to mention determined by the products that they
of date. By including a DOI in a BIM,
the kind assistance of the project’s are composed of. These attributes are
current product information (like
steering group, made up of a range of key differentiators in the market for
availability or compliance) can be
industry experts and representatives construction product manufacturers.
directly accessed from the centrally held
from the International DOI Foundation This means that they are keen to find
metadata. Indeed, where information
(consisting of those existing agencies ways to demonstrate their compliance
is part of the DOI metadata, it will
who already issue DOIs), who gave with schemes and standards to those
always be centrally available.
much knowledgeable help and advice.
DOI outputs at each design stage
using and selecting their products.
The DOI metadata collected through
Providing the tools and content to support
We implemented DOIs through
a web-based application. This
It’s not always clear which products
that formed part of the design make
this system allows a manufacturer to
display information and evidence
you throughout the BIM workflow
application allowed: it into the final building. By having around compliance, including details
Our integrated suite of BIM tools and content support you through
• Manufacturers to upload data about a list of DOIs at each relevant RIBA of specific standards or schemes, plus
their products to create DOIs; stage (as a minimum, stages 4 and 6, any supporting certification. This the BIM workflow, enabling you to make the right decisions and
• Users to get metadata about a
generated from a specification), helps the user or customer with deliver outstanding projects in an informed, collaborative and
changes in products can be product comparison and selection, efficient way.
product from its DOI; and
programmatically detected, and, and also helps the manufacturer
• DOIs to take you to the relevant through the available metadata, differentiate their superior quality
information on a website, when details of substitution/value product from others.
they are clicked on. engineering given. Stage 00 Strategy Stage 02 Concept Stage 03 Definition
Putting together the website was, DOIs with other identifiers Project Completion to Stage 01 Brief Develop your concept to Stage 04 Design
however, only the first stage. By DOIs can both embed and be Use the free NBS BIM design using BIM objects Use NBS Create to
At the start of the research programme, Toolkit to ease collaboration from NBS National specify the performance
working with industry, we were able embedded in other forms of
we said that ‘the DOI for construction on your Level 2 BIM project, BIM Library – the UK’s of systems and then
to develop a wide set of illustrative identification. DOIs complement,
products must be a system that is of by defining who is doing fastest-growing BIM develop your full
use cases for DOIs. Or, to put it rather than rival, other IDs. Equally
real use to the sector’. During the what and when to ensure library and the only source specification, including
another way, once we had the the DOI’s metadata can capture
programme, we found not only that the the client’s requirements of objects guaranteed easy access to the latest
website, we could see that DOIs other IDs, so can act in future as a
technical implementation of DOIs for are met. to meet the NBS BIM regulations and standards
could be readily used to solve central ID lookup across the product
construction products is feasible, and Object Standard. in the Construction
some long-standing issues in the supply chain.
that the DOIs are useful and attractive Information Service.
construction industry.
DOIs can also be embedded to the market, but also that more and
within existing documents, assets more potentially valuable applications Stage 04 Design
or identifiers. As an example, we are being identified, as awareness Synchronise your CAD Stage 05 Build and
have successfully embedded DOIs in increases and as we speak to more model and specification Commission to Stage 06 Stage 06 Handover and
radio-frequency identifications (RFIDs). people throughout the construction with the NBS Plug-in Handover and Closeout Closeout to Stage 07
This means that an RFID can be supply chain. for Autodesk Revit. Where product decisions Operation and End of Life
attached to a product (RFIDs are now are left to the contractor, Hand the model over to
small and cheap). By using a reader, or they have the latest those maintaining the built
just a mobile phone, the RFID can be manufacturer content at asset who will benefit from
read to give the persistent information their fingertips using BIM the populated facilities
about the tagged product – invaluable, objects that are linked to management properties
for example, to a facilities manager NBS Plus specifications. contained within the
looking to identify and replace an in standardised NBS
situ product within their building. BIM objects.
46 47
National BIM Report 2018

The Winfield Rock Report –

why we wrote it and
what's in it
Levels Standards Standard form contracts
The UK Government’s BIM mandate The lawyers acknowledged the The report reviews many of the
that came into force in April 2016 has existence of other standards commonly used standard form
been widely accepted to imply or mean applicable to BIM; however, given contracts used in BIM-enabled
achieving BIM Level 2. However, each the time available to research and projects, although again, we were
of the 44 interviewees of the Winfield write this report (in addition to our unable to analyse every available
Rock Report provided different day jobs), we focused solely on standard form contract in detail
definitions of ‘BIM’ and ‘Level 2’. the 1192 suite. in the time and scope available.

May Winfield With the prevalence of the seemingly There were differing views about the It was discovered that interviewees
Senior Legal Counsel, magic, standalone contract term standards. Some interviewees found again diverged in their views. Some
‘You will achieve BIM Level 2’ (or them too rigidly applied, with one liked the flexible approach of the JCT
ENGIE Services Ltd
similar) without further detail, this interviewee noting that it had become and NEC, whereas others felt their
wide variation in understanding a badge of honour to know them off provisions were too ‘light a touch’.
could give rise to a real risk of by heart. Conversely, others found the This is despite the introduction of
misunderstandings and unintentional standards too loose or vague. However, more extensive BIM provisions in
disputes. Would issuing a formal the interviewees were in general the JCT 2016 and NEC4, compared
definition be the solution? agreement that the standards were to their previous iterations.
certainly an essential starting point.
The NEC4’s introduction of universal
The report also briefly considers terminology in their Option X10,
ISO 19650, which deals with BIM which is intended to cover the BIM
After reviewing too many contracts containing vague obligations and internationally and is expected process, drew concerns at the
undefined terms such as ‘The project will be delivered to BIM Level 2’, to be issued soon. introduction of even more acronyms
Sarah Rock and encountering disputes resulting from incomplete or vague BIM and terminology in an industry where,
Senior Associate, documentation, we felt that it was time to do something proactive as a couple of interviewees put it, the
to move things forward to support the legal side of BIM. ‘jargon in BIM is horrific’ and lawyers
Gowling WLG
are ‘bamboozled’ by it.
(UK) LLP With only one reported case remotely Reporting on the findings of both
touching on BIM, we set out to tackle the online survey and the one-to-one We interviewed senior representatives
this issue head on in September 2017. interviews, the report is intended from JCT and NEC, who provided
The research consisted of an online to provide a thorough and detailed enlightening explanations of their
survey on the use of BIM and BIM review of the legal community’s respective approaches to BIM, which
documentation, which received understanding and position on BIM; we summarise in the report.
158 responses. it is believed to be the first of its kind
in the UK.
We also interviewed 44 key industry
players, consisting of a mix of clients, At the BIM Show Live launch, we took
contractors, consultants, academics, the audience through some of the
and both in-house and private practice findings and our suggested strategy
lawyers, to take a more detailed look to overcome the legal hurdle, and to
at the current position. assist with the wider implementation
and understanding of BIM.
The Winfield Rock Report was
launched in association with the The report considers the position
UK BIM Alliance at BIM Show Live on levels, standards, standard form
on 28 February 2018. We have been contracts, BIM-specific documents The report considers the position
humbled by the positive responses and the legal community generally.
so far, with the report being described We summarise some of the main on levels, standards, standard form
as a ‘very important piece of work’, findings here. contracts, BIM-specific documents
‘much needed’ and a ‘seminal piece
of work’ which ‘sets the benchmark’. and the legal community generally.
48 49
National BIM Report 2018

Are you BIM ready?

Place your products as BIM objects directly in front of construction professionals
at the time of specification.
BIM-specific document Legal community Conclusion The NBS National BIM Library is the UK’s fastest-growing BIM library. It leads the
The interviewees generally agreed There appears to be a perception that Taking into account the survey results way in authoring high quality BIM objects for manufacturers, which designers can
that the Employer’s Information lawyers lack a sufficient understanding and interviewees’ opinions, as well as use throughout their project work.
Requirements is a fundamental of BIM, viewing it as a technical matter our own further research, we made
document, as it sets out what the and thereby remaining uninvolved in two recommendations to progress
client envisages and wants from the the review and completion of BIM BIM within the legal community.
BIM process at the outset. However, documentation. We heard stories
The first is the establishment of a
experiences of the quality and content of BIM Protocols being inserted
collaborative forum for lawyers and
of the EIR varied widely – with some into contracts with incomplete
those who instruct them to meet,
EIRs being incomplete or no EIRs appendices, or an EIR referring
network and learn from each other
being provided at all. to the CIC BIM Protocol but this
via events and other avenues. We
document not in fact appearing
There were differing and strongly have set this up as BIM4Legal, and
in the contract documentation.
held beliefs as to whether a BEP you (and your lawyers) can register
should be a contract document, partly One lawyer suggested to us that interest at
due to its changing nature and partly these issues may be due to the legal and follow @bim4legal for updates
due to the administrative burden of community’s perception of BIM as on future events.
enforcing such a moving document. ‘CAD on steroids’. Indeed, the authors
The next recommendation was the
have heard BIM being referred to
Could some of the issues and preparation of a non-exhaustive Legal
as ‘simply fancy CAD’.
concerns with both the EIR and BEP Questions Checklist; as a guideline NBS BIM Object Standard Authoring Certifying Availability
be resolved by the issue of standard There was, however, sympathy among and starting point, for lawyers new Our NBS experts can Create your own BIM Your BIM objects are
We will author or certify
form precedents for each? While the industry that there was a lack of to BIM, on the questions to ask author your BIM objects objects and our experts hosted on NBS National
your objects to meet the
no industry-wide, accepted standard readily available resources, such as their clients to obtain necessary NBS BIM Object Standard to meet the trusted will assess them to certify BIM Library and made
precedents exist at present, it is guidance and training, for lawyers information to draft and advise on – created to enable greater NBS BIM Object Standard. that they meet the NBS available within the NBS
rumoured that standard forms may to get up to speed on BIM from BIM-enabled contracts, negotiations collaboration and provide We work closely with you BIM Object Standard. BIM Toolkit where they can
be issued in the near future. a legal and contractual perspective. and other related issues. This Legal consistency to all BIM to determine what product Detailed guidance is be accessed by thousands
Questions Checklist can be found objects and your assurance information to include. available for manufacturers of architects and other
The interviewees were overall The legal community was further
in the Appendices of the Winfield of high quality. who wish to create their specifiers working on
complimentary of the CIC BIM limited by their clients’ instructions:
Rock Report. own BIM objects. BIM Level 2 projects.
Protocol, although there were the clients may equally not be
concerns about certain clauses: sufficiently BIM-aware, and unable
in particular the priority of to provide sufficient clarity of what
documents clause, and elements they want in terms of risk allocation
Integration Exposure Analytics
of the copyright provisions. and the scope of the BIM process.
Designers can locate, Choosing NBS National See at a glance how your
Where this is the case, it is virtually
download and use your BIM Library to host your BIM objects are performing
impossible for lawyers to draft
BIM objects in their BIM objects will maximise with our analytics tool.
terms without clear and precise
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