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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Research

Motivation is closely related to the need. Further mention 3 motivation


function that is: 1) Encourage human to do, so as pemenggutak or motor that
release energy. Motivation in this case is the driving force of every activity
undertaken. 2) Determine the direction of action, ie toward the goal to be
achieved. Thus the motivation can provide direction and activities to be done in
accordance with the formulation of its purpose. 3) Selecting the act, which
determines the actions what actions must be done in harmony to achieve the goal,
by setting aside the actions that are not beneficial to that goal. A student who will
face the exam with hope to pass, will certainly do the learning activities and will
not spend the time to play cards or read comics, for not harmonious with the
purpose.Dikitkan with learning activities, motivation has a function as a driver for
students to achieve achievement The existence of learning motivation will make
students melakuka n actions that lead to the achievement of learning achievement.
Sardiman (2011: 85) Creative thinking is used in problem solving . Problem
solving is to use (transfer) existing knowledge and skills to answer unanswered
questions or difficult situations (Ormrod, 2009: 393). The ability to solve
problems is very important because the problems always exist in human life
including children who are still undergoing formal education in school. Learners
can find problems in learning activities at school, for example problems in
determining theme essay, finding mathematical problem solving, or finding
material for practicum activities. The ability to solve a person's problems can be
demonstrated through several indicators, such as being able to identify problems,
have curiosity, work closely, and be able to evaluate decisions. High-level
thinking skills, both critical thinking skills, creative and problem-solving skills
possessed by a person, can not be possessed directly but acquired through
practice. Because this ability is so important, this ability should be trained in all
classroom learning. (Lutfiyah, 2015 ).
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The results obtained from the survey of The United Nations Development
Program (UNDP) report that Indonesia in 2014 was ranked 111th of the 188
participating countries in the Human Development Index Human Development
Index with a score of 0.0684 are in the medium category (Jahan, 2015) .
Furthermore, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study
(TIMSS) survey shows that the average score of Indonesian students' science
achievement is significantly below the international average. Indonesia in 2007
was ranked 35th out of 49 participating countries and in 2011 it was ranked 40th
out of 45 participating countries with a score of 406 still far from the international
score of 500 (Martin et al., 2012). The results have been obtained in international
UNDP studies and TIMSS is reinforced by research conducted by Efendi (2010)
which involves 4203 students throughout Indonesia in relation to physics skills in
TIMSS. The results obtained showed that the average achievement of Indonesian
students in terms of cognitive ( knowing, applying, reasoning ) is still low.
Further, the 2006 PISA ( Program for International Student Assessment) study
focusing on IPA literacy confirms that Indonesian students occupy the 50th
position of 57 participating countries with an average score of 393 (Widi & Eka,
2014).

Interviews that have been conducted with Senior High School N 2 Binjai
Physics Teacher revealed that teachers have not yet assessed the creative thinking
ability of students, whereas the ability to think creatively is very important.
Creative thinking allows students to analyze their thoughts in making choices and
draw conclusions intelligently. Researcher asks teacher to give problem solving
problem to student of class k ethics in giving problem solving student student can
not answer well about matter x newton law material and student have difficulties
in solving it , whereas before, when students were given regular exercises (routine
questions) they could finish it well. From there it can be said that in terms of
mastery of the material, pertained pretty good.

Because initially researchers suspect, that by mastering the material


students can easily developing it so that when faced with problem-oriented
problem solving problems students will be able to solve it. However it turns out
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that it is wrong, because the ability of students in solving problems not necessarily
from the knowledge or mastery of the material it has many other factors influence
it, one of them problem solving is an effort obtain a masala h solution by applying
physical and knowledge involving creativity students think and reason and
effective factors such as student learning motivation ". This fact with interview
results when study introduction to the class X physics teacher, that as a whole the
class X students can not give any ideas or ways other than those contained in
books and explanations from their teachers, students can not provide explanations
in detail when answering a question from the teacher or from his friends, students
can not develop a particular idea (way) in practice questions, and students can not
find a truth questions in the sense that students feel disbelief with the answer.
From the results of the interviews indicate the low ability thinking creative
students and motivation to learn it , so it is suspected the possibility of low ability
problem solving is caused by low ability creative thinking of students and
student learning motivation . To prove the allegations , then done empirical study
(field research) .

In his research arini revelation dkk entitled. "Analysis of Creative


Thinking Ability in Light Material of Students of Class VIII SMP Xaverius Kota
Lubuk linggau ". The purpose of this research is to describe students 'creative
thinking ability in light matter, to know the students' creative thinking ability in
light matter when viewed from cognitive observation and affective observation, to
know the difficulties experienced by students in achieving the indicators of
creative thinking ability, and to determine solution to overcome student
difficulties in achieving the indicators of creative thinking ability in class VIII
SMP Kota Lubuklinggau. The type of this research is descriptive qualitative, with
case study research type. The subject of this research is all students of class VIII
SMP Xaverius Kota Lubuklinggau. Data collection technique in this research is
using technique triangulation that is cognitive observation technique, affective
observation, and interview. Data analysis technique is descriptive qualitative
analysis. The result of the research shows that students' creative thinking ability in
light material of class VIII.D. Xaverius SMP Kota Lubuklinggau is still less
creative (36,68%) based on cognitive observation result with interview result and
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creative enough category (57,74%) based on result affective observation.


recommendations that can be submitted in this study is the teacher should provide
equal opportunities to all students to be able to develop the ability of creative
thinking in the learning process . While salmizah shaleh in his research entitled
Malaysian students' motivation towards Physics learning , The average score
scale for factors that influence the level of learning motivation Physics among
female and male students Woman Man Average Percent Percentage
Understanding 2.71 67.85% 2.77 69.47%
Interests/Preferences 2.84 71.01% 2.74 68.55%
Business/Importance 3.05 76.26% 3.01 75.46%
Selection 2.75 68.86% 2.66 66.67%
Value/Usage 2.99 74.85% 2.98 74.55%
Relationship 3.30 82.51% 3.04 76.02%
Pressure / Tension 3.10 77.65% 3.01 75.29% For interest / preference subscales,
the average score for female students was 2.84, while the male score was 2.74.
These findings suggest that interest / preference plays a more important role in
motivating female students to learn physics than for male students. The results are
slightly different. From previous findings, one generally finds that male students
are more interested in learning physics than female students. sub-scale of business
/ interest, the average score for female students is 3.05, while for male students,
the score is 3.01. These findings suggest that both female and male students are
quite similar Perceptions of Physics effort as subject. In addition, this subscale
also recorded the highest average score for both sexes. Students are generally
influenced by the intrinsic motivation of learning Physics. Most of them agree
with the statement that they must work hard to get good results in Physics,
because of the importance of this subject to pursue a higher level in the field of
science. While Hisdamayanti Djupanda, in his research entitled Analysis of
Student Creative Thinking on Solving Physical Problems of Fluid Materials,
the results of this study of 30 respondents in one class showed the average value
of each aspect of them:
1. Smooth Aspects: 69%
2. Aspect of Dexterity: 76%
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3. Novelty Aspect: 70%


4. Elaboration Aspects: 50%
Overall for the level of creative thinking skills of students, still in the low
category for aspects of Elaboration and Smooth aspects. Average results per
aspect above were taken from 30 respondents. The level of creative thinking has
the highest percentage of flexibility, and the elaboration aspect has the lowest
percent gain. However, in this case each student has a different level of creative
thinking .This study looks at the differences of each aspect in solving physics
problems.
Based on the description on the above background, the authors are interested
to conduct research with the judu: Analysisis Of Motivation Learning Creative
Thinking And Problem Solving Skills Of Newton’ Law Topis Grade X Second
Semester In Senior High School N 2 Binjai.

1.2. Identification of problems

Based on the above background, the problem identified is:

1. low motivation of student learning.

2. low ability of creative thinking of student.

3. Student troubleshooting ability is low.

4. Student interest is low in physics lessons

1.3. Limitation problem

Given the wide scope of the problem and the limitations of the researcher's ability
and time, the researcher needs to make a limitation of the problem in this research,
as follows:

1. The analysis is done by giving questionnaires and instrument questions to the


students to know how the motivation to learn , students' creative thinking ability
and problem-solving abilities.
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2. This research will analyze the way of learning, creative thinking ability and
problem solving ability of newton material law physics .

3. The subject of research is limited to students of X High School N 2 BINJAI,


Even Semester of TP 2017/2018

1.4. Formulation of the problem

The formulation of the problem in this research are:

1. What is the problem solving ability of learning motivation and students'


creative thinking about newton's legal material?

2. What is the effect of creative thinking on problem solving?

3. How influence motivation learn against troubleshooting?

4. How Concurrent (simultaneous) learning motivation influence on the ability to


think creatively in order to troubleshoot a bus?

1.5 Research Objectives

The purpose of this research are:

Know and describe the relationship and motivation of students to creative


thinking and skills to solve newton material physics matter problems .

1.6 Research Benefits

The benefits of this research are:

1. Theoretical benefits: as a study material and input for the further development
of motivational analysis of learning and creative thinking in solving physics
problems for other researchers.

2. Practical benefits

For schools Researchers hope that the results of this study can provide
information to teachers to consider factors that can improve student learning
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outcomes and make students think creatively in every learning and improve
learning motivation and the quality of education in special physics.

b. For students

This research is expected to be used by students as a reference when applying


their knowledge how to motivate themselves to learn creative thinking and
improve knowledge about students problem solving abilities.

c. For researchers

With this research, researchers can add insights and knowledge related to learning
motivation learning ability and creative thinking in solving physics problems.

1.7 Operational Definition

Creativity can be seen from three aspects namely an ability, behavior, and process.
Creativity is an ability to think and discover new things, create new ideas by
combining, changing, or re-applying existing ideas. Creativity is also a behavior
to accept change and novelty, the ability to play with ideas and possibilities,
flexible perspective, and the habit of enjoying things. Creativity is a process of
hard work and continuity in generating better ideas and problem solving, and
always trying to make things better. (Lutfhiyah et al, 2015) .
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CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Learning Motivation
Motivation is closely related to the need. Further mention 3 motivation
function that is: 1) Encourage human to do, so as pemenggutak or motor that
release energy. Motivation in this case is the driving force of every activity
undertaken. 2) Determine the direction of action, ie toward the goal to be
achieved. Thus the motivation can provide direction and activities to be done in
accordance with the formulation of its purpose. 3) Selecting the action, which
determines what actions should be done harmoniously to achieve the goal, by
setting aside the actions that are not beneficial to that goal. A student who will
face the exam in the hope of graduation will undoubtedly do the learning activities
and will not spend his time playing cards or reading comics, because it is not
compatible with the purpose. Related to learning activities, motivation has a
function as a motivator for students to achieve achievement Motivation learning
will make students perform actions that lead to the achievement of learning
achievement. Sardiman (2011: 85)

2.2 Creative Thinking Skills


Measurements to creative thinking skills are made using creativity tests.
The creative thinking test can be verbal, if the task demanded, expressed in words,
or figural, if the task demanded is expressed in the form of an image (Munandar,
2009 )
Creativity tests are generally developed based on the characteristics of
creative thinking ability. The results of creativity test development are then
compared to their degree and grouped into high and low creative thinking levels.
Instrument of measurement of creative thinking ability developed based on
indicator of characteristic ability of creative thinking. According to Munandar
(2009), creativity aspect consist of:
1) Current Thinking Skills ( Fluency )
2) Skillful Flexible Skills (Flexible)
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3) Original Thinking Skills


4) Detailed Skills (Elaborating)
5) Assessing Skills (Evaluating)
Indikator creative thinking by Munandar (2009) presented a detailed at
table below.
Table 2.1 . Indicator of creative thinking skills
No Indicator of creative thinking skills
1 Smooth thinking skills
a. Definition
 Spark lots of ideas, answers, problem solving or questions
 Provide many ways or suggestions to do things
b. Student Behavior
 Asking question
 Answering with a number of answers if you have any questions

2 Flexible thinking skills (flexible)


1. Definition
 Generate varying ideas, answers or questions
 Can see the problem from different angles
2. Student Behavior
 Provides a variety of unusual usage of an object
 Provide various interpretations of a story, picture or problem.
3 Original thinking skills
a. Definition
 Able to give birth to a new and unique phrase
 Think of unorthodox ways to express yourself
b. Student Behavior
 Thinking about issues or things that others never thought of
 Questioning old ways and trying to think of new ways.
4 Detailed Skill (Elaborate)
a. Definition
 Be able to enrich and develop an idea or product
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 Adding or detailing the details of an object, idea or situation so


that it becomes more interesting
b. Student Behavior
 Seek deeper meaning for answers or troubleshooting by taking
detailed steps
 Develop or enrich others' ideas.
5 Skills assessing (Evaluating)
a. Definition
 Define a benchmark of self-assessment and determine whether a
question is correct, a healthy plan or a prudent action
 Be able to take decisions on an open situation]
b. Student Behavior
 Give consideration on the basis of his own point of view
 Analyze a problem or solution critically by asking "Why?"

Torrance (1990) that there are four characteristics of creative thinking, as


a process involving elements of originality, fluency, flexibility and elaboration.
Fourth of the characteristics of creative thinking are defined as:
1. Originality
The category of originality refers to the uniqueness of any given
response. Originality is shown by an unusual, unique and rare response. Thinking
about the future can also stimulate original ideas. The type of questions that are
used to test this ability is the demands of interesting uses of common objects.
2. Elaboration
Elaboration is defined as the ability to decipher a particular object.
Elaboration is a bridge that must be passed by a person to communicate his
"creative" ideas to the community. It is this factor that determines the value of any
idea given to others outside of itself. Elaboration is shown by a number of extras
and details that can be made for simple stimuli to make it more complex. These
additions may be in the form of decoration, color, shade or design.
3. Smoothness
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Smoothness is defined as the ability to create a myriad of ideas (Gilford,


in Filsaime). This is one of the most powerful indicators of creative thinking,
because the more ideas, the more likely it is to gain a significant idea.
4. Flexibility
This characteristic describes an individual's ability to change his mental
device when circumstances require it, or the tendency to view an issue instantly
from multiple perspectives. Flexibility is the ability to overcome mental
hindrances, changing the approach to a problem. Not stuck by assuming rules or
conditions that can not be applied to a problem.
The four characteristics of creative thinking above provide a view of the
creative process, which will help the individual to create creative ideas and solve
certain problems in the life process. From the above description, it can be
concluded that the four characteristics of creative thinking ie fluency, flexibility,
authenticity and elaboration will provide a view of the creative process, which
will help the individual to create creative ideas in solving specific problems. Some
of these characteristics can be used as an indicator to measure one's creative
thinking ability in solving certain problems, for example in the field of
mathematics. These abilities represent the process of being sensitive to one's
understandings, and are the main features of creative thinking that have
developed. In addition to fluency, flexibility, authenticity and elaboration are
human mental sensors.

2.3 Problem Solving Skills


According Dahar (2011 ) that problem solving is one type of high-level
learning because students must have the skills to combine the rules to achieve a
solution. Solving problems means finding the right way to bridge the existing gap
or in other words find a way out to solve the problem at hand. Furthermore Polya
(1985) states the problem solving is to find a way out of a difficulty, a way around
an obstacle, achieve a particular purpose or use of the various exit to solve a
problem. From these definitions it can be concluded that problem-solving skills
are high-level thinking processes undertaken through systematic stages including
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the process of understanding problems, analyzing problems, synthesizing


problems and arriving at the outcome of problem solving as an evaluation process.
A person's ability to solve a problem is determined by his understanding
of the problem. In general, a problem is a situation that satisfies the following
requirements: 1) The situation indicates a gap between expectations and reality, 2)
The situation generates motivation to find a solution and, 3) There is no lightning
tool available to find way out.
Polya description (1985) there are four stages of the process in solving
the problem are:
1. Understanding the Problem (Understanding the problem)
a) Reread the problem
b) Determine the quantity given and desired
c) Recognize the challenges in the problem
d) Mention problems back in different formats (create drawings or
diagrams)
2. Planning a plan
a) Recognize principles, rules and laws on the matter
b) Determine mathematical equations to solve problems
3. Carrying out the plan
a) Using mathematical equations to solve problems
b) Connecting with previous material concepts
4. Check back (Looking back)
a) Check out the troubleshooting steps
b) Examine the unity of results
This study uses the tests given to students aiming to determine the
students' physics problem solving skills. The test form for problem solving skills
used is an essay test. The essay question requires many variations of questions and
answers. The problem-solving technique used is based on Nezu, et al (2007).
Clearly the scoring guidelines for problem solving skills are presented in Table
3.3.
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Table 3.3. Indicator Problem Solving Skills


No Indicators Measured Response to Problems Score

1 Attitude increases Resolve a problem from each stage 4


problem solving correctly and completely
capacity Solve a problem of every stage right but 3
incomplete
Resolving a problem from each stage is 2
known incorrectly or incompletely
Fixed an issue of each stage incorrectly 1
and incompletely
2 Explain the problem Write down symbols of known and 4
and gather realistic unknown variables correctly and
goals completely
Write down symbols of known and 3
unknown variables correctly but not
complete
Write down symbols of known and 2
unknown variables incorrectly or
incompletely
Write down symbols of known and 1
unknown variables incorrectly and
incompletely
3 Be creative and Write down the concept / principles of 4
generate alternative physics in the form of equations and
solutions determine the math steps to solve the
problem correctly and completely
Write the concept / principles of physics 3
in the form of equations and determine
the math steps to solve the problem
correctly but not complete
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No Indicators Measured Response to Problems Score

Write down the concept / principles of 2


physics in the form of equations and
determine the math steps to solve the
problem incorrectly
Write down the concept / principles of 1
physics in the form of equations and
determine the math steps to solve
problems incorrectly and incompletely

4 Predict and develop a Write the completion correctly and 4


solution plan completely
Write the completion correctly but not 3
complete
Wrote an incorrect solution 2
Wrote an incorrect solution 1
5 Test the solution plan Write the solution correctly and
and determine whether completely and according to the unit
the solution plan is Write the solution correctly and 3
appropriate for completely but not in accordance with
troubleshooting the unit
Write correct but incomplete solutions 2
Writes the wrong unit 1

One of the competencies that must be possessed by students in physics


learning is problem solving ability. Functionally, problem solving is important
because through problem solving physics as an essential discipline can be
developed, and can be adapted to various contexts and everyday problems.
Problem solving ability is also able to improve way of thinking ( way of thinking
). Problems can also challenge the mind and nuances of the puzzle for students so
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as to enhance curiosity, motivation, and perseverance to always engage in physics


learning.

2.4 Newton's law

NEWTON’S LAW
Newton's Law 1

formula : ∑F = 0
Sound: "If the resultant on an object is equal to zero, then the stationary object
will remain stationary and the moving object will remain at a steady pace". Under
this law, you can understand that an object tends to maintain its state. A stationary
object will tend to remain stationary and moving objects will tend to keep moving.
Therefore, Newton's Law I is also referred to as the law of inertia or the law of
inertia. An example of the application of Newton I Law can you observe when
you are in a moving vehicle then suddenly braking, then your body will be pushed
forward. That is what is meant by "the tendency to keep going." Another example
you can observe when you are sitting on a silent vehicle then moves abruptly, then
your body will jerk backwards. That is what is meant by "the tendency to remain
silent". The above examples are event of inertia or inertia. The inertia of an object
is determined by the mass of the object. The greater the mass of the object, the
greater the inertia. Mass is the inertia of an object. The larger the mass of an
object, the larger the force required to make the object accelerate or accelerate. In
addition, the mass of large objects will be more difficult to move from a stationary
position and hard to stop from moving conditions.
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Newton's Law 2

Beep: "The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the total force


acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass. The direction of acceleration is
equal to the direction of the total force acting on it ". Under Newton II Law, you
can understand that an object will increase its speed if given a total force whose
direction is the same as the direction of motion of the object. However, if the
direction of the total force applied to the object is opposite to the direction of
motion of the object, it will decrease the rate of the object or even stop it.
Because speed change or speed is acceleration. Then it can be concluded that the
total force applied to the object can cause acceleration. An example of the
application of Newton II law can you observe when you kick a ball (meaning you
give a force to the ball), then the ball will move with a certain acceleration.
Newton II's law is denoted by the formula:
Where:
f = the total force acting on the object (N)
m= mass of body (kg)
a= acceleration of objects (m / s2)

Newton's Law 3
Beep: "When an object gives force to a second object, it gives the same force as
opposite to the first."
The example of the application is when you hit the table (meaning giving a style
to the table), then the table will give the force back to your hand with the same
magnitude and the opposite direction with the direction of style you give.
Therefore, the bigger you hit the table, the more pain your hands will become
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because the table is doing a style that is also getting bigger in your hands. Look at
the picture below.
Faksi = -Freaksi

A heavy object (w) on the table. The table


will give a normal force reaction (N), so N = W with the opposite direction of
force.

Hanging objects vertically will produce


a straining force (T) that is as large as the mass of the object (W) in the opposite
direction.

When someone weighs (W) up the elevator. When in a state of silence, the
resulting force equals the person's weight (F = W). As the elevator moves up, the
resulting force is greater than the weight of the person (F> W). When the lift goes
down the person's weight is greater than the resulting force (F <W).
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2. 5 Relevant research

The following table shows some relevant research on motivation to learn


creative thinking and problem solving
Creative thinking and problem solving the result of the research are:
No. Name of Journal title Results
researcher
1. Adam malik Enhancing pre- A research on the implementation of
et al. service physics HOT (Higher Order Thinking)
teachers' creative Laboratory has been carried out. This
thinking skills research is aimed to compare the
through HOT lab creativity of pre-service physics
design teachers who receive physics
lesson with HOT Lab and with
verification lab for the topic of electric
circuit. This research used a quasi-
experiment
methods with control group pretest-
posttest design. The subject of the
research is 40 Physics Education pre-
service
physics teachers of UIN Sunan
Gunung Djati Bandung. Research
samples were selected by class
random sampling
technique. Data on pre-service physics
teachers' creative thinking skills were
collected using test of creative
thinking
skills in the form of essay. The results
of the research reveal the average of
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N-gain of creative thinking skills are


<0.69>
for pre-service physics teachers who
received lesson with HOT Lab design
and <0.39> for pre-service physics
teachers
who received lesson with verification
lab, respectively. Therefore, we
conclude that the application of HOT
Lab design is
more effective to increase creative
thinking skills in the lesson of electric
circuit.
2. m.sneti nova Students' Students often contend with many
dkk Difficulties in difficulties during solving physics
Solving Physics tasks
Problems at high school. To mitigate the
problem, it is important to determine
the cause of these
difficulties. To accomplish this,
questionnaires for high school
students were prepared.
The goals of the survey were to find
out strategies that students use in
problem solvingand to discover any
methods and steps that help students
to solve the tasks correctly.Results of
the research are summarized in the
contribution. .
3. Rika hermawato Analysis of Creative The purpose of this research is to
et al. Thinking Skills of describe the creative thinking skill of
Class X Students in class X students in the subject of
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the Subject of particle dynamics. The subjects of this


Particle Dynamics study consisted of 25 high school
students. Data were obtained from
preliminary tests, tests of creative
thinking skills and interviews. The
initial test consists of 25 questions.
The test of creative thinking consists
of 8 questions, each containing aspects
of creative thinking skills: fluency,
novelty, flexibility and elaboration
followed by interviews. Research data
is analyzed through qualitative
descriptive approach. Based on the
results of research and data analysis of
research results it can be concluded
that, aspects of novelty and fluency
obtained from the average value per
student problem is in the high
category, and aspects of flexibility and
elaboration are in the category of
being.
4. Muslimah Sari. Analysis of the Based on the results of research that
Masrik Vector has been done, it can be concluded
Masking that the problem solving ability of
Capabilities physics teacher candidate students
Presented in about vectors that are represented in
Different Contexts the context of mathematics and
to Physical Teacher physics is categorized enough. The
Candidates ability of vector problem solving in
the mathematical context of 1 out of
20 subjects was classified as very
high, 7 out of 20 research subjects
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were categorized into either category,


9 out of 20 study subjects were
classified into adequate categories and
3 out of 20 research subjects
categorized into less categories. The
ability of vector problem solving in
the physical context as many as 7 out
of 20 subjects of study were classified
into either category, 9 out of 20
research subjects were categorized
into sufficient categories, 3 out of 20
subjects were categorized into less and
1 in 20 study subjects were
categorized into very less categories.
5. Svetlana ganina The Influence . This study reports the outcomes of a
et al. Of Problem Solving research, the purpose of which was to
On Studying establish how solving dispersed data
Effectivenes problems can affect the studying
I n Physics effectiveness of physics. Data were
collected through pre-tests and post-
tests for studentsand questionnaires
for teachers. The authors of this article
created anew the problem of
superfluous or nonsufficient data that
has been disabled for solving: so-
called dispersed data problems.The
results showed that solving dispersed
data problems increases studying
effectiveness in physics.

6. Herry riski Creative Thinking Developing student's creative thiking


maharani et al Process based on is difficult for teacher, especially
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Wallas Model in when they are still intranstition. This


Solving study aims to evaluate students'
Mathematics creative thinking process based on the
Problem model of
Wallas. This is a descriptive and
qualitative research where data
triangulation is employed. Subjects
are categorized into upper, middle,
and low category after doing creative
thinking ability test. The object of the
study is the existence of how junior
high school students solving
mathematicsproblems. Data were
analyzed through classification, data
representation, and conclusions. The
results showed 1) 23,33% of students
only reached stage preparation, called
low category, 2) 60%
of students reached illumination stage
though students take a long time,
called middle category,
and 3) 16.67% of students have
completed up to verification stage,
called upper category. For students in
low and middle category, they still
need assistance when experiencing
obstacles in thecreative thinking
process, while the upper category
students need enrichment materials.
7. Hasanasy The Analysis of Creative thinking skills are needed in
syabani et al Student's Creative the 21st century learning. According
Thinking Skills in to the P21 platform (Partnership for
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Solving "Rainbow 21st


Connection" century learning), someone will
Problem through survive in the 21st century if they have
Research Based some skills of one of them is creative
Learning thinking skill. By applying Research
Based Learning (RBL), 64 students
were given a problem that is Rainbow
Connection. Through
qualitativeresearch, student results are
analyzed to know the level of their
creative thinking skills. (I) In class A,
28 students have creative thinking
skills level 4, 2 students havecreative
thinking skills of level 3, and 4
students have creative thinking skills
of level 2 (ii) In class B, 20 students
have creative
thinking skills of level 4, 2 students
have creative thinking skills level 3,
and 8 students have creative thinking
skills of level 2.It can be concluded
that the level of students creative
thinking skills in solving Rainbow
Connection problems through RBL
are relatively high.
8. Salmiza Saleh Malaysian students' Based on the results obtained in this
motivation towards study, it can be concluded that in
Physics learning general, though these students have
been found to have a moderately high
motivation to learn Physics, most of
them still have a rather negative
perception of learning Physics in
24

school, compared to other subjects. In


termsof the dimensions of motivation,
it was found that the relationships
subscale has the greatest influence
towards students' motivation to learn
Physics, followed by pressure / stress,
effort / significance, v alue / use,
interest, understanding, and choice.
The show results that there is no
significant
difference between male and female
students' motivation to learn Physics
in schools. However, there is a
significant difference between rural
students 'and urban students'
motivation to learn Physics, whereby
urban students do have a higher
motivation than to rural students.
9. Hiisdamayanti Analysis of Creative The results showed that each aspect of
djupanda et al. Thinking Senior creative thinking has different ways of
High School solving physics problems, especially
Students Solve elaboration aspects of respondents
Physical Problems. showed better results in solving the
problem than the aspect of thinking
the other creative.
25

2.6 Conceptual framework


2.6.1 Motivation to learn
Motivation to learn comes from the word motive that can be interpreted
as the strength contained within the individual, which causes the individual to act
or act. In the learning activity, motivation can be said as the overall driving force
within the students that leads to learning activities, which ensures the continuity
of the learning activities and that gives direction to the learning activities, so that
the objectives desired by the learning subject are achieved (Sardiman, 2001: 71).
Motivation can basically help in understanding and explaining individual
behavior, including the behavior of the individual being studied. There are several
functions of motivation, among others, namely:
a. Encouraging people to do.
b. Determine the direction of the goal, ie towards the goal to be achieved.
c.Collecting the act, which determines the actions that are not
useful for that purpose.
(Sardiman, 2001: 83) The essence of learning motivation is internal and external
motivation in students who are learning to conduct behavioral changes, which in
general with some indicators of learning motivation can be classified as follows:
a. The desire and desire are successful
b.There encouragement and needs in learning
c. There hope and ideals in the future
d. There appreciation in learning
e. It is an interesting activity
f. There a conducive learning environment that allows a student
learn good. (Uno, HB 2006: 23).
Motivation In Learning The role of motivation to learn is very supportive of the
success of learners in learning activities.
2.6.2 Creative thinking
Creative thinking has components including fluency, flexibility,
elaboration, and originality. The ability to think fluency (fluency) has
characteristics such as triggering many ideas, answers, problem solving or
questions, providing many ways or suggestions to do things. The ability to think
26

flexibility has characteristics such as seeing problems from different perspectives,


seeking many alternative solutions, able to change the way or approach a way of
thinking. Elaboration skills have the traits of enriching and developing an idea,
detailing details of an object, idea or situation to make it more interesting.
Original thinking skills have such features as revealing new and unique things that
no one else has ever thought of. Hwang et al (2007) in his research entitled
Multiple Representation Skills and Creativity Effects on Mathematical Problem
Solving Using a Multimedia Whiteboard concluded that elaboration ability, which
is one component of creative thinking, is a key factor that stimulates students to
create their knowledge in the activity solution to problem. The ability to think
creatively also supports individual performance in problem-solving activities .
according to Munandar (2009).

2.6 .3 Problem solving skills

One of the competencies that must be possessed by students in physics


learning is problem solving ability. Functionally, problem solving is important
because through problem solving physics as an essential discipline can be
developed, and can be adapted to various contexts and everyday problems.
Problem solving ability is also able to improve way of thinking. Problems can also
challenge the mind and nuances of the puzzle for students so as to enhance
curiosity, motivation, and persistence to always engage in physics learning.

2.7. Research Hypothesis


Based on the description of the theory and framework above, then that
the hypothesis of this research is as follows:
1. There influence and the relationship between motivation to learn
creative thinking ability and solving physics problem on newton
legal material in Senior High School N 2 binjai.
2. There is an effect of creative thinking on solving student problems.
3. There is the influence of learning motivation and kretaif thinking
simultaneously to the problem solving skills of students of Senior High
School 2 Binjai.
27

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODS

3.1 Research Sites


The research location is located at Senior High School N 2 Binjai
3.2 Data Source
Source of data used in this research are:
3.2.1 Primary Data
1. According Kuncoro (2009: 148) Primary data is data obtained directly
with field surveys that use all the original data collection methods.
Methods that can be used to collect primary data is through the
spread of questionnaires, interviews and observations directly to
individuals or individuals. Primary data in this study was obtained
through the distribution of questionnaires to students Senior High
School N 2 BINJAI.

3.2.2 Secondary Data


According Kuncoro (2009: 148) Secondary data is data that has been
collected by data collection agencies and published to the public data users.
Secondary data in this research, among others, taken from previous researchers
and electronic media (internet) .

3.3 Population and Sample


3.3.1 Population
According Sekaran (2006: 121) population refers to the entire group of
people, events, or things of interest that investigators want to investigate.
Population in this research is class X Senior Highh School N 2 Binjai.
28

3.3.2 Sample
According Sugiyono (2005: 73) sample is part of the number and
characteristics possessed by the population.
According to Arikunto (2006: 134), if the subject is less than a hundred,
better taken all so that his research is population research. But if the number of
subjects is large, it can be taken between 10% - 15% or 20% - 25%.
Because the subject is less than 100, then this type of research is a
population study in which the author takes the entire population into a sample of
research with a total of 50 people.

3.4 Research Variables and Operational Definition


3.4.1 Research Variables
The research variables used in this research are as follows:
a. The independent variable is the variable stimulus / variables that affect other
variables (Sarwono, 2008: 107).
The independent variables in this research are:
Motivation to learn : X1
Think creative : X2
b. The dependent variable is the variable that gives the reaction / response when
connected with the independent variable (Sarwono, 2008: 107).
The dependent variable in this research are:
Solution to problem :Y

3.4.2 Operational Definition


The operational definition of the variables analyzed is as follows:
1. Learning Motivation (X1)

According to Mc. Donald, cited Oemar Hamalik (2003: 158) motivation is a


change in energy in a person characterized by the emergence of feelings and
reactions to achieve goals. With this understanding, it can be said that motivation
is something complex.

Motivation will cause a change in energy that exists in man, so that will bergayut
with psychiatric symptoms, feelings and emotions, to then act or do something. In
29

AM Sardiman (2005: 75) learning motivation can also be interpreted as a series of


attempts to provide certain conditions, so that someone wants and wants to do
something, and if he does not like it, it will try to nullify or circumvent those
feelings of dislike. Sardiman (2011: 83)
suggests the characteristics of motivation that exist in students include:
1) Diligent to face the task (can work continuously for a long time, never stop
before finish).
2) Ductile facing difficulties (not quickly desperate) does not require outside
encouragement to perform as well as possible (not quickly satisfied with
achievements that have been in achievements).
3) Demonstrate interest in various problems.
4) Preferably working independently.
5) Rapid boredom on routine tasks (things that are mechanical, repetitive, and
therefore less effective.
6) Can defend his opinion (if you are sure of something).
7) It is not easy to let go of what is believed.
8) Pleased to find and solve problems problems. If someone has the characteristics
as above, means that someone has a high enough motivation to learn. The
characteristics of motivation to learn as above will be very important in
supporting the learning process.

2. creative thinking (X2)


Evans (1991) explains that creative thinking is a mental activity to create
continuous (continuous) relationships, so that a "right" combination is found or
until someone gives up. Creative associations occur through the resemblance of
something or through analogical thinking. The association of ideas forms new
ideas . So, think creatively
ignoring established relationships , and creating
relationships. This understanding shows that creative thinking is a mental activity
to find a combination that not known before .
While this research will describe the creative thinking skills of students based on
their aspects, namely :
30

a. aspects of novelty (originality),


b. flexibility,
c. fluency, and
d. elaboration (elaboration ) (park: 2004)

3. Problem solving(Y)
Problem solving is seen as one of the main skills that learners
should have when entering the real world (Mabilangan, 2012). Learners
are given the opportunity to solve problems that prioritize problems in
accordance with life and how to learn. A person who has problem-solving
ability can be classified as a qualified human resource because by having
the ability, one can solve problems from the lightest to the most complex (
Munandar , 20 09 ).
Creativity and problem-solving skills are also capabilities which is
demanded by the world of work today. According to Career Center Maine
Department of Labor (2004), some of the individual characteristics of the
desired workforce are: (1) confidence, (2) motivation for achievement, (3)
master basic skills such as reading, writing, listening, talking, and
computer literacy, (4) mastering thinking skills, such as problem solving,
problem posing, decision making, analthical thinking, and creative
thinking (4) creative thinking), and (5) master interpersonal skills, such as
the ability to work in teams and negotiate.

3.5 Data Collection Techniques


Determination of appropriate data collection techniques is very determine
the scientific truth of a study. In addition, the determination of data collection
methods in accordance with the problems under study will help smooth the
research objectives that have been determined.
To obtain the necessary data, researchers use data collection tools in the
following way:
31

3.5.1 Documentation Study


That is by collecting data and information from books, journals, and
internet related to research.
3.5.2 Test
A test is a tool or procedure used to know or measure something in an
atmosphere, in a prescribed manner and rules (Arikunto, 1990). The test is one of
the key components in a reliable study to capture and collect research data
according to research needs. The tests used in this study are critical thinking skills
(multiple choice questions) and problem-solving skills test (multiple choice
questions).
 The Critical Thinking Skills Tests
The critical thinking skills test in this study consisted of 15 questions in
the form of multiple choice tests given at the beginning of the study. The grid of
critical thinking skills can be shown in Table 3.1
Table 3.2
Test Layout
Grid of the Critical Thinking Instrument Test
Variables Indicator No. Scale Size Data
Item source
The Ability of 1. Provide a Ratio 0-100 Student
Critical simple
Thinking explanation
2. Build basic
skills
3. Conclude

4. Provide
further
explanation
5. Setting
strategies and
tactics
32

 Problem Solving Tests


The student's physics problem solving test in this study consisted of 15
single-choice test questions given at the beginning of the study. In determining a
problem, a grid is needed for the problem. As for the grid problem for the test of
physics problem solving ability can be shown there is table 3.2
Table 3.3
Test Layout
Lattice Test of Problem Solving Ability Test
Variables Indicator No. Scale Size Data
Item source
Troubleshooting 1. Understandin Ratio 0-100 Student
Capabilities g the Problem
2. Create a
settlement plan
3. Implement
the settlement
plan
4. Re-checking

3.5.3 Questionnaire
The data collection in this study was obtained by questionnaire method
that is based on the answers of the respondents on the list of questions spread. The
questionnaire is a set of systematic questions logically related to the research
problem posed by the researcher (Yamin, 2009: 10). The questionnaires
distributed by researchers were 50 questionnaires to 50 respondents. Measurement
of variables is done by semantic differential scale .
The differential scale is the scale for measuring attitudes, but the form is
not a multiple choice, but is arranged in a continuum line where a very positive
answer lies on the right of the line, and a very negative answer lies on the left-
33

hand side of the line, or the like . The semantic-scale scale contains a set of
bipolar characteristics (two poles), such as: good-not good, hot-cold, and so on.
The data obtained through the measurement with the semantic differential
scale is the interval data. The scale of this form is usually used to measure
attitudes or certain characteristics that someone has.
In data processing, to calculate each indicator, it will be used scale
interval, where this scale shows the distance between one with other data that is:

Low
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
High
Information :
1 - 2 = Low
3 - 5 = Medium
6 - 7 = Height

3.5.4 Quantitative Analysis Method


3.5.4 .1 Test Validity
Validity test is used to measure validity or validity of a questionnaire.
Validity is the extent to which the accuracy and meticulousness of measuring
instruments in performing the measuring function (Yamin, 2009: 7).
Validity is a measure that indicates the extent of the validity of an
instrument (Arikunto, 2002: 144).
A measurement scale is called valid when doing what it should and
measuring what should be measured (Kuncoro, 2009: 172).
The high validity of the instrument indicates the extent to which the data
collected does not deviate from the description of the variable in question .
Validity test is done by testing the correlation between the item score and the total
score. Statistically the correlation number for the total that can be obtained must
be compared with the critical value of the correlation value of " Pearson
Corellation ".
34

It is intended to measure the presence or absence of significant


correlation values obtained.
Testing is done by computer software tool SPSS program version 15.0 .
The formula of Pearson Corellation (Arikunto, 2006: 169) is as follows:

𝑛 ∑ 𝑋𝑌 − (∑ 𝑋) (∑ 𝑌)
𝑟𝑥𝑦 =
√{𝑛 ∑ 𝑋 2 − (∑ 𝑋 2 ) {𝑛 ∑ 𝑌 2 − (∑ 𝑌)2 }}

Information .
𝑟𝑥𝑦 : The correlation coefficient between the score of each item and the total item
score .
∑ 𝑥: Number of scores per item .
∑ 𝑦 : Total total score of items.
∑ 𝑥𝑦 : Number of multiplication items with total items.
n : Number of samples.
Criteria testing the validity of research indicator instrument is (Sarwono,
2008: 188):
1. If r count is greater than r table (at the 0.05 or 5 percent
significance level), then the questionnaire is valid.
2. If r count is less than r table (at the 0.05 or 5 percent significance
level), then the questionnaire is not valid.
3.5.4 .2 Test Reliabilitas
Reliabilitas shows the consistency and stability of a score (scale of
measurement). Re li abilitas refers to a certain level of reliability. Re lia bel means
trustworthy, so reliable.
A questionnaire is said to be reliable or reliable if one's answer to a
question is consistent or stable over time.
In the reliability test used alpha croncbach formula (Arikunto, 2006:
178), namely:
35

𝑟 𝑘 1− ∑ 𝑎𝑏2
11= [ ][ ]
𝑘−1 𝜎𝑡2

Information :

r11 : consumer reliability


k : number of questions
𝑎𝑏 2 : the number of grain variations
𝜎𝑡 2 : total variation
To calculate the number of question varian variants, first look for the
variance value for each item of question with the formula:

(∑ 𝑋)2
2−
∑𝑋 𝑛
𝜎2 =
𝑛
Where :
𝜎2 : the value of the variance of the item
n : the number of respondents
x : the value of the selected score
To make it easier to test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire
will be helped by the program Statistic Product Service Solution (SPSS) Version
15.0 .

3.6. Data analysis technique


3.6.1. Classic assumption test
The classical assumption test is performed to test a model that is
appropriate or not used in the study. The classical assumption test used in this
research are:

3.6.1.1. Normality test


That is a test that aims to determine the frequency distribution of data
whether distributed normally in multiple regression models used .
36

3.6.1.2. Multicoleanity Test


Multicoleaniritas test aims to test the correlation between independent
variables in the regression model used. No multicoleanirity will result in
inaccuracy in estimation.

The model is said to be free from multicoleaniritas if:


1. By looking at the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) count. A
regression model is said to be free of multicoleaniritas if its VIF is not more
than 10 and the tolerance value is about 1 or close to 1.
2. The value of R2 indicates a value smaller than the simultaneous
correlation coefficient (R).
3.6.1.3. Test Heterokede sitas
The heterokedes test aims to test whether in a regression model there
is a variance inequality of the residual of an observation to another observation. If
the residual variance of another observation remains, then it is called
homocedasticity, and also different variance is called heteroked sitas . The most
recent model is no heterokede sitas .
3.6.2. Multiple Regression Analysis
Multiple regression analysis is used to determine the effect of the
independent variable and variab el bound is forward- thinking creatively (X1) and
learning (X2) towards solving the problem (Y). In addition, multiple regression
analysis is also used to determine the extent of influence between the independent
variables and dependent variables.
The multiple regression equation can be written as follows:
Y = a + b1X 1 + b2X 2 + e
Information :
Y : Dependent Variable (Job Satisfaction)
a : Constants
X1 : Promotion of Position
X2 : Compensation
e : Error
37

3.6.3 Simultaneous Significant Test (F Test)


F test is performed to test whether the independent variable (X1, X2) has
significant influence on the dependent variable (Y) simultaneously. The way used
is to compare the value of F table with F arithmetic . If the value of F arithmetic >F table

then the hypothesis is accepted, so it can be said that the independent variable
from the regression model can explain the dependent variable simultaneously.
Conversely, if F arithmetic <F table then the hypothesis is rejected, thus it can be said
that the independent variable of the multiple linear regression model is unable to
explain the dependent variable.
Test F to test the hypothesis proposed hypothesis formulation as follows:
H 0 : : 𝛽1= 𝛽2 = 0, meaning free variables (X1, X2) simultaneously no significant
effect on the variable Y.
H a : 𝛽1 ≠ 𝛽2 ≠ 0, means the independent variables (X1, X2) simultaneously
there is a significant influence on the variable Y.
The formula used to determine the level of significance of variables X1
and X2 together to variable Y used the formula F test regression (Sugiyono, 2005:
190):

𝑅2
𝑘
=
(1− 𝑅2 )/(𝑛−𝑘−1)
Where :
R : Coefficient of multiple correlation
k : The number of independent variables
n : Number of sample members

3.6.4 Test t (Partial)


To test partially whether the independent variable (X1, X2) has a
significant influence on the dependent variable (Y) with the formulation of the
hypothesis as follows:
38

H 0 : 𝛽1= 𝛽2 = 0, meaning free variables (X1, X2) there is no significant influence


on the dependent variable ( Y ) .
H a : 𝛽1 ≠ 𝛽2 ≠ 0 ,means the independent variables (X1, X2) there is a
significant influence on the dependent variable (Y).
Criterion of decision making:
H 0 received if t arithmetic <t table , on
H a is accepted if t count > t table , on

The formula used to test each of these hypotheses with the formula t test partial,
namely:

𝑟 √𝑛−2
Thitung =
√𝑛−𝑟 2

To facilitate data processing, SPSS For Windows Version 15.0 is used. .

3.6.5 Determination Analysis (R 2 )


Analysis of determination (R 2)
is used to measure the contribution of a
percentage contribution of independent variables studied in the form of creative
thinking (X1) and learning (X2) towards solving the dependent variable (Y)
together - the same where 0 ≤ 𝑅2 ≤ 1.. This means that the value of R2 is 1 or
close to 1 , the more powerful the influence of the independent variable on the
dependent variable . Conversely, if the value of R 2 is
close to zero, the weaker the
influence of the independent variables on the dependent variable, to facilitate data
processing then used SPSS ( Statistical Product and Service Solutions) program
for Windows Version 15.0.