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COURSE NO: CE-4302

COURSE TITLE: GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING-II SESSIONAL


GROUP NO: 03 DATE OF EXPT.:- 08/03/18
EXPERIMENTAL NO: 02 DATE OF SUB.:- 29/03/18

LAB REPORT ON

DETERMININATION OF THE SHEAR STRENGTH PARAMETERS (C AND φ)


OF COHESIONLESS SOIL BY DIRECT SHEAR TEST

PREPARED BY: SUBMITTED TO:


NAME: MD. PARVEJ DR. MD. ABU TAIYAB
STD ID: 131046 PROFESSOR,
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, DUET
CE-4/1(A) &
Mr. Md. ARIFUL ISLAM
LECTURER,
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, DUET

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


DHAKA UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY,
GAZIPUR
COURSE NO: CE-4302

COURSE TITLE: GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING-II SESSIONAL

GROUP NO: 05 DATE OF EXPT.:- ………………….


EXPERIMENTAL NO: ……… DATE OF SUB.:- ………………….
EXPERIMENTAL NAME: ……………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………

PREPARED BY:
NAME: MD. PARVEJ
STD ID: 131046
CE-4/1(A)

SUBMITTED TO:
DR. MD. ABU TAIYAB
PROFESSOR, DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, DUET
&
Mr. Md. ARIFUL ISLAM
LECTURER, DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, DUET

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


DHAKA UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY,
GAZIPUR
NAME OF TEST: TO DETERMINE THE SHEAR STRENGTH PARAMETERS (C &
φ) OF A COHESIONLESS SOIL BY DIRECT SHEAR TEST.

1.1 INTRODUCTION:

The direct shear test imposes on a soil the idealized condition, that is, the failure plane is forced
to occur at a predetermined location. On this plane there are two stresses acting- a normal stress
σn due to an applied vertical load Pv, and a shearing stress τ due to the applied horizontal load
Ph. These stresses are simply computed as:

σn= P/A ………………..…………………… (i)


τ = Ph/A ……………………………………………………. (ii)

Where, A is the nominal area of the sample (or of the shear box) and is not corrected for
lateral displacement under shear force Ph. These stresses are those of coulomb’s equation and
here in terms of effective stress parameters as

………………………………. (iii)
If we obtain above equation is in effective stress parameters but if is not measured
then equation (iii) corrected in terms of total stress parameters c and φ.

As there are two unknown values (C, ) in equation, a minimum of two tests at different values
of normal stress with measured shear stress must be made so that the shear strength

parameters C and can be computed. But three tests should be done to check for test error or

sample anomalies.

For cohesionless materials, the cohesion should be zero by definition and eq. (iii) becomes

……………………………………….…………………………. (iv)

Direct shear test may be categorized as follows:

1. Unconsolidated-Undrained or UU tests: shear is begun before the sample consolidates


under the normal load Pv. If the soil is cohesive and saturated, excess pore pressures
may develop.

2. Consolidated-Undrained or CU tests: the normal force is applied and the vertical dial
gauge movement is monitored until settlement stops before the shearing force is applied.

3. Consolidated-Drained tests or CD tests: the normal force is applied and shear force is
delayed until settlement stops; the shear force is then applied so slowly that the small
pore pressure that develops in the sample can be ignored.

For cohesionless soils, all three of the above tests give about the same results and independent of
saturation state unless at a very high strain rate.

For cohesive soils, soil parameters are influenced by the test method, Degree of saturation and
whether the soil is normally consolidated or overconsolidated.

Figure 1.1 Stress-strain relationships of sand (Direct Shear Test)

1.2 OBJECTIVE

This test is performed to determine the consolidated-drained shear strength of a sandy to silty soil. The
shear strength is one of the most important engineering properties of a soil, because it is required
whenever a structure is dependent on the soil‟s shearing resistance. The shear strength is needed for
engineering situations such as determining the stability of slopes or cuts, finding the bearing capacity
for foundations, and calculating the pressure exerted by a soil on a retaining wall.

1.3 STANDARD REFERENCE


ASTM D 3080 - Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated
Drained Conditions

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE

The direct shear test is one of the oldest strength tests for soils. In this laboratory, a direct shear device
will be used to determine the shear strength of a cohesionless soil (i.e. angle of internal friction ().
From the plot of the shear stress versus the horizontal displacement, the maximum shear stress is
obtained for a
specific vertical confining stress. After the experiment is run several times for various vertical-
confining stresses, a plot of the maxi mum shear stresses versus the vertical (normal) confining stresses
for each of the tests is produced. From the plot, a straight-line approximation of the Mohr- Coulomb
failure envelope curve can be drawn, f may be determined, and, for cohesionless soils (c = 0), the shear
strength can be computed from the following equation:
=tan

1.5APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Shear box grid plates

2. Base plates

3. Loading plates

4. Loading frame

5. Weights: for normal load


Fig1.2: Direct shear Apparatus
6. Proving ring: force measuring of suitable capacity, fitted with dial gauge accurate to
0.002 mm to measure the shear force.

7. Micrometer dial gauges: accurate to 0.01 mm for both horizontal movement and
vertical compression.

8. Weighting balance

9. Measuring scale.

1.6 PROCEDURE:

1. Dimension of the shear box i.e. length, width and height was measured. X-sectional
area and volume of shear box was also calculated.

2. The weight of sample according to field dry density and relative density of soil was found
out.

3. The shear box, grid plate and base plate was cleaned.

4. Upper and lower part of shear box was fitted with screws and filled the sample in it.

5. Leveled the sample by pressing with level plate and keep grid plate at right angle to
shear plane. Place a porous stone over the grid plate.

6. Shear box was placed with sample in direct shear frame. Loading pad was kept on the box.

7. The upper half of the box was brought in contact with proving ring. The contact was
checked by giving slight movement.

8. The loading yoke was mounted on the ball placed on loading pad. First test is done by
placing 48 KPa load.

9. One dial gauge was mounted on the loading yoke to record vertical displacement and
another dial gauge on the container to record the horizontal displacement.

10. Loading dial gauge and displacement dial gauge was set to zero and give the strain
rate at 0.25mm/minute.

11. The locking screws start the machine was removed. Record the shear load and vertical
displacement at certain increment of shear displacement until the soil sample fails
(means load is decreasing)

12. The machine was stopped; the sample was removed from the shear box.

13. Repeated the test on identical specimens under the change in normal load.

14. Graph between displacement and loading and find peak shear load was drown. Also
plot graph between displacement and vertical displacement to see volume expansion
behavior.

15. From peak shear stress and corresponding normal stress, the line was plotted and
found out cohesion and angle of friction.

1.6 OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:

Experiment Name : Direct Shear Test


Experiment Date : 08/03/18

Student‟s Name : Md. Parvej


Student‟s ID : 131046
Year/ Semester : 4/1(A)
Section/ Group : 03

Visual Classification: Sand

Shear Box inside Diameter: 62.75mm


Area (A) :0.003m2
Shear Box Height : 30.25mm
Soil Volume : 93.8cm3
Direct Shear Test(Group-01)
Plate Diameter 62.75 mm Normal force 441 N
2
Area 0.0031 m Normal stress, 142.67 Kpa
penetration Displacement load reading load Shearing Stressverticle reading v. defor
0 0 0 0 0.0 0 0
10 0.1 3 2.55 0.8 0 0
20 0.2 23 19.55 6.3 0 0
30 0.3 68 57.8 18.7 0 0
40 0.4 121 102.85 33.3 -0.5 -0.005
50 0.5 162 137.7 44.5 -1 -0.01
60 0.6 225 191.25 61.9 -1.5 -0.015
70 0.7 252 214.2 69.3 -1.75 -0.0175
80 0.8 282 239.7 77.5 -1.75 -0.0175
90 0.9 314 266.9 86.3 -1.5 -0.015
100 1 338 287.3 92.9 -0.5 -0.005
110 1.1 356 302.6 97.9 0.5 0.005
120 1.2 380 323 104.5 4 0.04
130 1.3 395 335.75 108.6 5 0.05
140 1.4 410 348.5 112.7 7 0.07
150 1.5 424 360.4 116.6 10 0.1
160 1.6 436 370.6 119.9 12 0.12
170 1.7 445 378.25 122.4 13.5 0.135
180 1.8 452 384.2 124.3 15 0.15
190 1.9 459 390.15 126.2 18 0.18
200 2 464 394.4 127.6 20 0.2
210 2.1 468 397.8 128.7 22 0.22
220 2.2 471 400.35 129.5 23 0.23
230 2.3 475 403.75 130.6 26 0.26
240 2.4 476 404.6 130.9 28 0.28
250 2.5 476 404.6 130.9 29 0.29
260 2.6 476 404.6 130.9 30 0.3
270 2.7 478 406.3 131.4 32 0.32
280 2.8 478 406.3 131.4 34 0.34
290 2.9 478 406.3 131.4 35 0.35
300 3 478 406.3 131.4 37 0.37
310 3.1 478 406.3 131.4 39 0.39
320 3.2 478 406.3 131.4 40 0.4
330 3.3 477 405.45 131.2 42 0.42
340 3.4 475 403.75 130.6 43 0.43
350 3.5 474 402.9 130.3 45 0.45
360 3.6 471 400.35 129.5 46 0.46
370 3.7 465 395.25 127.9 48 0.48
380 3.8 458 389.3 125.9 49.5 0.495
390 3.9 456 387.6 125.4 50 0.5
400 4 452 384.2 124.3 50 0.5
410 4.1 450 382.5 123.7 51 0.51
Direct Shear Test (Group-02)
Plate Diameter 62.75 mm Normal force 344 N
Area 0.003090987 m2 Normal stress, 111.29 Kpa
penetration Displacement load reading load Shearing Stress verticle reading v. defor
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
10.0 0.1 82.0 69.7 22.5 -0.1 0.0
20.0 0.2 120.0 102.0 33.0 -0.4 0.0
30.0 0.3 142.0 120.7 39.0 -0.6 0.0
40.0 0.4 170.0 144.5 46.7 -1.2 0.0
50.0 0.5 185.0 157.3 50.9 -1.3 0.0
60.0 0.6 200.0 170.0 55.0 -0.4 0.0
70.0 0.7 220.0 187.0 60.5 0.1 0.0
80.0 0.8 240.0 204.0 66.0 0.3 0.0
90.0 0.9 250.0 212.5 68.7 1.1 0.0
100.0 1.0 260.0 221.0 71.5 2.2 0.0
110.0 1.1 275.0 233.8 75.6 2.3 0.0
120.0 1.2 282.0 239.7 77.5 3.3 0.0
130.0 1.3 290.0 246.5 79.7 6.1 0.1
140.0 1.4 295.0 250.8 81.1 6.1 0.1
150.0 1.5 300.0 255.0 82.5 9.1 0.1
160.0 1.6 305.0 259.3 83.9 10.1 0.1
170.0 1.7 310.0 263.5 85.2 12.5 0.1
180.0 1.8 311.0 264.4 85.5 17.0 0.2
190.0 1.9 314.0 266.9 86.3 19.0 0.2
200.0 2.0 316.0 268.6 86.9 19.5 0.2
210.0 2.1 317.0 269.5 87.2 22.0 0.2
220.0 2.2 319.0 271.2 87.7 23.5 0.2
230.0 2.3 320.0 272.0 88.0 25.0 0.3
240.0 2.4 320.0 272.0 88.0 26.0 0.3
250.0 2.5 321.0 272.9 88.3 27.0 0.3
260.0 2.6 321.0 272.9 88.3 28.5 0.3
270.0 2.7 321.0 272.9 88.3 30.0 0.3
280.0 2.8 321.0 272.9 88.3 31.0 0.3
290.0 2.9 321.0 272.9 88.3 33.1 0.3
300.0 3.0 320.0 272.0 88.0 35.0 0.4
310.0 3.1 320.0 272.0 88.0 36.0 0.4
320.0 3.2 320.0 272.0 88.0 37.0 0.4
330.0 3.3 319.0 271.2 87.7 38.0 0.4
340.0 3.4 319.0 271.2 87.7 39.0 0.4
350.0 3.5 317.0 269.5 87.2 39.6 0.4
360.0 3.6 315.0 267.8 86.6 40.1 0.4
370.0 3.7 315.0 267.8 86.6 40.7 0.4
380.0 3.8 313.0 266.1 86.1 41.1 0.4
390.0 3.9 311.0 264.4 85.5 41.5 0.4
400.0 4.0 308.0 261.8 84.7 42.2 0.4
410.0 4.1 307.0 261.0 84.4 42.2 0.4
Direct Shear Test (Group-02)
Plate Diameter 62.75 mm Normal force 344 N
Area 0.003090987 m2 Normal stress, 111.29 Kpa
penetration Displacement load reading load Shearing Stress verticle reading v. defor
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
10.0 0.1 82.0 69.7 22.5 -0.1 0.0
20.0 0.2 120.0 102.0 33.0 -0.4 0.0
30.0 0.3 142.0 120.7 39.0 -0.6 0.0
40.0 0.4 170.0 144.5 46.7 -1.2 0.0
50.0 0.5 185.0 157.3 50.9 -1.3 0.0
60.0 0.6 200.0 170.0 55.0 -0.4 0.0
70.0 0.7 220.0 187.0 60.5 0.1 0.0
80.0 0.8 240.0 204.0 66.0 0.3 0.0
90.0 0.9 250.0 212.5 68.7 1.1 0.0
100.0 1.0 260.0 221.0 71.5 2.2 0.0
110.0 1.1 275.0 233.8 75.6 2.3 0.0
120.0 1.2 282.0 239.7 77.5 3.3 0.0
130.0 1.3 290.0 246.5 79.7 6.1 0.1
140.0 1.4 295.0 250.8 81.1 6.1 0.1
150.0 1.5 300.0 255.0 82.5 9.1 0.1
160.0 1.6 305.0 259.3 83.9 10.1 0.1
170.0 1.7 310.0 263.5 85.2 12.5 0.1
180.0 1.8 311.0 264.4 85.5 17.0 0.2
190.0 1.9 314.0 266.9 86.3 19.0 0.2
200.0 2.0 316.0 268.6 86.9 19.5 0.2
210.0 2.1 317.0 269.5 87.2 22.0 0.2
220.0 2.2 319.0 271.2 87.7 23.5 0.2
230.0 2.3 320.0 272.0 88.0 25.0 0.3
240.0 2.4 320.0 272.0 88.0 26.0 0.3
250.0 2.5 321.0 272.9 88.3 27.0 0.3
260.0 2.6 321.0 272.9 88.3 28.5 0.3
270.0 2.7 321.0 272.9 88.3 30.0 0.3
280.0 2.8 321.0 272.9 88.3 31.0 0.3
290.0 2.9 321.0 272.9 88.3 33.1 0.3
300.0 3.0 320.0 272.0 88.0 35.0 0.4
310.0 3.1 320.0 272.0 88.0 36.0 0.4
320.0 3.2 320.0 272.0 88.0 37.0 0.4
330.0 3.3 319.0 271.2 87.7 38.0 0.4
340.0 3.4 319.0 271.2 87.7 39.0 0.4
350.0 3.5 317.0 269.5 87.2 39.6 0.4
360.0 3.6 315.0 267.8 86.6 40.1 0.4
370.0 3.7 315.0 267.8 86.6 40.7 0.4
380.0 3.8 313.0 266.1 86.1 41.1 0.4
390.0 3.9 311.0 264.4 85.5 41.5 0.4
400.0 4.0 308.0 261.8 84.7 42.2 0.4
410.0 4.1 307.0 261.0 84.4 42.2 0.4
Direct Shear Test(Group-03)
Plate Diameter 62.75 mm Normal force 245.25 N
2
Area 0.0031 m Normal stress, 79.34 Kpa
penetration Displacement load reading load Shearing Stress verticle reading v. defor
0 0 0 0 0.0 0 0
10 0.1 9 7.65 2.5 -1 -0.01
20 0.2 23 19.55 6.3 -1.2 -0.012
30 0.3 39 33.15 10.7 -1.6 -0.016
40 0.4 62 52.7 17.0 -3.1 -0.031
50 0.5 76 64.6 20.9 -4.8 -0.048
60 0.6 89 75.65 24.5 -6 -0.06
70 0.7 103 87.55 28.3 -6.5 -0.065
80 0.8 112 95.2 30.8 -6.5 -0.065
90 0.9 115 97.75 31.6 -6.5 -0.065
100 1 126 107.1 34.6 -7 -0.07
110 1.1 141 119.85 38.8 -8.9 -0.089
120 1.2 154 130.9 42.3 -9.1 -0.091
130 1.3 167 141.95 45.9 -9.1 -0.091
140 1.4 176 149.6 48.4 -9.1 -0.091
150 1.5 188 159.8 51.7 -9.1 -0.091
160 1.6 199 169.15 54.7 -8.9 -0.089
170 1.7 209 177.65 57.5 -8 -0.08
180 1.8 217 184.45 59.7 -7 -0.07
190 1.9 226 192.1 62.1 -6 -0.06
200 2 231 196.35 63.5 -5 -0.05
210 2.1 238 202.3 65.4 -4 -0.04
220 2.2 244 207.4 67.1 -3 -0.03
230 2.3 248 210.8 68.2 -1.5 -0.015
240 2.4 251 213.35 69.0 0.3 0.003
250 2.5 255 216.75 70.1 1 0.01
260 2.6 257 218.45 70.7 3 0.03
270 2.7 261 221.85 71.8 4.5 0.045
280 2.8 262 222.7 72.0 6 0.06
290 2.9 265 225.25 72.9 7.5 0.075
300 3 267 226.95 73.4 9 0.09
310 3.1 269 228.65 74.0 10.1 0.101
320 3.2 270 229.5 74.2 12 0.12
330 3.3 270 229.5 74.2 13 0.13
340 3.4 271 230.35 74.5 14.5 0.145
350 3.5 272 231.2 74.8 16 0.16
360 3.6 272 231.2 74.8 17.5 0.175
370 3.7 272 231.2 74.8 19.8 0.198
380 3.8 272 231.2 74.8 22.2 0.222
390 3.9 272 231.2 74.8 21.5 0.215
400 4 272 231.2 74.8 23.8 0.238
410 4.1 270 229.5 74.2 25 0.25
DIRECT SHEAR TEST
Name of Test: Direct shear Test Date of Testing: 11-Sept.-2012
Location of Test: Soil Mechanics Lab, IISc, Bangalore, India.
Description of Soil: Red sand Tested By: Group 2
Shear Specimen Data
Sample Dimension:
Side = 6x6 cm Max Density (γ)max. = 17 KN/m3
Ht. = 2.9 cm Min. Density (γ)min.= 14.87 KN/m3
Area = 36 cm2 Relative Density (Dr) = 70 %
Volume = 104.4 cm3 Dry Density (γd) = 16.29 KN/m3
Wt. of sample = 170.07 gm
Normal Load Applied (σn)= 50 Kpa
Vertical
Vertical Dial Horizontal Displacement Horizontal
Horizontal Dial Load Dial
Gauge Reading Displacement (∆V)= Diff. of Shear Force =
Gauge Reading Gauge
(Vertical ∆H = dial gauges (III)*2.04
(Displacement) Reading
Displacement) (I)*0.01 mm reading N/DIV.
(II)*0.002 mm
(I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI)
0 2038 0 0 0 0
25 2035 17 0.25 0.006 34.68
50 2025 29 0.50 0.02 59.16
75 2016 36 0.75 0.018 73.44
100 2016 44 1.00 0 89.76
125 2015 50 1.25 0.002 102
150 2015 55 1.50 0 112.2
175 2015 59 1.75 0 120.36
200 2015 59 2.00 0 120.36
225 2018 60 2.25 -0.006 122.4
250 2018 61 2.50 0 124.44
275 2035 61 2.75 -0.034 124.44
300 2044 61 3.00 -0.018 124.44
350 2068 59 3.50 -0.048 120.36
400 2101 57 4.00 -0.066 116.28
450 2109 55 4.50 -0.016 112.2
500 2110 54 5.00 -0.002 110.16
550 2110 53 5.50 0 108.12
600 2110 53 6.00 0 108.12
Direct Shear Test(Combined)
Group No 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Normal force,N 147.00 245.25 344.00 441.00 147.00 245.25 344.00 441.00
Normal stress,kPa 47.56 79.34 111.29 142.67 47.56 79.34 111.29 142.67
penetration v. defor v. defor v. defor v. defor Shearing StressShearing StressShearing Stress Shearing Stress
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
10.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 2.5 22.5 0.8
20.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.9 6.3 33.0 6.3
30.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.9 10.7 39.0 18.7
40.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.5 17.0 46.7 33.3
50.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 21.4 20.9 50.9 44.5
60.0 0.6 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0 26.9 24.5 55.0 61.9
70.0 0.7 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0 27.5 28.3 60.5 69.3
80.0 0.8 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0 29.7 30.8 66.0 77.5
90.0 0.9 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0 30.8 31.6 68.7 86.3
100.0 1.0 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0 31.9 34.6 71.5 92.9
110.0 1.1 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0 33.5 38.8 75.6 97.9
120.0 1.2 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0 35.5 42.3 77.5 104.5
130.0 1.3 0.0 -0.1 0.1 0.1 36.6 45.9 79.7 108.6
140.0 1.4 0.0 -0.1 0.1 0.1 37.7 48.4 81.1 112.7
150.0 1.5 0.0 -0.1 0.1 0.1 39.3 51.7 82.5 116.6
160.0 1.6 0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.1 39.9 54.7 83.9 119.9
170.0 1.7 0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.1 41.2 57.5 85.2 122.4
180.0 1.8 0.1 -0.1 0.2 0.2 42.1 59.7 85.5 124.3
190.0 1.9 0.1 -0.1 0.2 0.2 42.3 62.1 86.3 126.2
200.0 2.0 0.1 -0.1 0.2 0.2 42.6 63.5 86.9 127.6
210.0 2.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.2 43.2 65.4 87.2 128.7
220.0 2.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.2 43.7 67.1 87.7 129.5
230.0 2.3 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.3 44.0 68.2 88.0 130.6
240.0 2.4 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.3 44.3 69.0 88.0 130.9
250.0 2.5 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.3 44.7 70.1 88.3 130.9
260.0 2.6 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.3 44.8 70.7 88.3 130.9
270.0 2.7 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.3 45.4 71.8 88.3 131.4
280.0 2.8 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 45.4 72.0 88.3 131.4
290.0 2.9 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.4 45.4 72.9 88.3 131.4
300.0 3.0 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.4 45.4 73.4 88.0 131.4
310.0 3.1 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.4 45.4 74.0 88.0 131.4
320.0 3.2 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.4 45.4 74.2 88.0 131.4
330.0 3.3 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.4 45.4 74.2 87.7 131.2
340.0 3.4 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.4 45.4 74.5 87.7 130.6
350.0 3.5 0.2 0.4 0.5 74.8 87.2 130.3
360.0 3.6 0.2 0.4 0.5 74.8 86.6 129.5
370.0 3.7 0.2 0.4 0.5 74.8 86.6 127.9
380.0 3.8 0.2 0.4 0.5 74.8 86.1 125.9
390.0 3.9 0.2 0.4 0.5 74.8 85.5 125.4
400.0 4.0 0.2 0.4 0.5 74.8 84.7 124.3
410.0 4.1 0.3 0.4 0.5 74.2 84.4 123.7

Shear Normal
Group
Stress,kPa Stress,kPa
1 131.4 142.67
2 88.3 111.3
3 74.8 79.34
4 45.4 47.56
140.00

120.00

100.00
Shear Stress , kPa

80.00
Normal Stress =47.56kPa
60.00 Normal Stress =79.34kPa
Normal Stress =111.29kPa
40.00
Normal Stress =142.67kPa
20.00

0.00
0 1 2 3 4 5
Displacement, mm

Fig 1.3:- Shear Stress Vs Horizontal Displacement Curve

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3
Change of Height,mm

Normal Stress
=47.56kPa
Normal Stress
0.2
=79.34kPa
Normal Stress
=111.29kPa
0.1

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

-0.1

-0.2
Horizontal Displacement, mm
Fig 1.4:- Change of Height vs Horizontal Displacement Curve
160

140

120
y = 1.1207x
R² = 0.9594
Shear Stress, kPa

100

80

60
Ø=480
40

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Normal Stress, kPa

Fig 1.5:- Shear Stress Vs Normal Stress Curve

1.7 RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

From figure 3, it is found that the shear strength parameters, angle of internal friction (φ) is 48
degrees and cohesion (C) is zero. From this values it is found that soil is purely cohesion less.

From figure 1, we can see the volume expansion characteristics of soil sample under shear load at
three different normal loading, it can be seen that first, the soil is compressed (volume decreases)
and then after highest loosest state, it again expanded so volume is increasing.