Sie sind auf Seite 1von 27

82

MODULE 5

BASIC EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT


83

Introduction
The Department of Education (DepEd), created by virtue of RA
9155 or Basic Education Act of 2001, has been mandated to protect and
promote the right of all citizens to quality education and to take
appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. In this
regard, the DepEd has to establish maintain and support a complete,
adequate and integrated system of free and compulsory public education
in the elementary level; and free and public education in the high school.
The DepEd will likewise take cognizance of the regional and sectoral
needs and conditions and will encourage local planning in crafting
education policies and programs.
This module lesson focuses its attention in the articulation of the
basic education programs and strategies useful to attain its goal. This
articulation will revolve around these objectives hereto stated as follows;

Objectives:

At the end of this module, students should be able to:


1. Articulate the DepEd basic education’s:
1.1 Vision
1.2 Mission
1.3 Goals and objectives
2. Identify the DepEd basic education delivery system via:
2.1 Elementary education
2.2 Secondary education
2.3 Non-formal education
3. Become familiar with the DepEd’s:
1.1 Basic education restructured curriculum
i. Legal basis
ii. Philosophy
iii. Features
84

iv. Learning areas


1.2 Implication of RBEC to development
i. Teacher education and training
ii. Manpower training and skills development
iii. Employment
iv. Society

Suggested Time Frame: 12 hours

DepEd Vision, Mission and Objectives


As a social organization, DepEd is enlisted to educate the Filipino
children and the youth by adopting a pro-active stance via creativity and
innovativeness of initiating new ideas and demonstrating adequate
competencies to put them into the teaching and learning level of teachers
and learners, respectively.
The vision, mission and objectives clearly convey the direction and
the strategies that DepEd would pursue in making the learners and
stakeholders acquire better understanding knowledge and competencies;
and strengthen their character in search for a better life.

Vision
The DepEd envisions that every learner to be functionally literate,
shall be equipped with life-long skills, the appreciations of the arts and
sports and imbued with the desirable values of a person who is
“Makabayan, Makatao, Makakalikasan at MakaDiyos”.

Mission
In line with the vision, the DepEd mission is to provide quality
basic education that is equitably accessible to all and to lay the
foundations for life-long learning and service for the common goals.
85

Objectives
The objectives of the basic education can be gleaned from the
Education Act (BP232) are as follows:
Elementary Education. The objectives of elementary education can
be stated as:
i. acquire knowledge and develop skills and attitudes, and
values essential for personal development, productive life,
constructive engagement with a changing social milieu;
ii. provide learning experiences that increase the child
awareness of and the responsiveness to the just demand of
the society; and
iii. promote and intensify awareness of identification with and
love for our own nation and the community to which the
learners belong

Secondary Education. As regard this level of education, the


objectives can be spelled out as:
i. continue the general education started in the elementary;
ii. prepare learners for college; and
iii. prepare learners for the world of work.
Non-formal Education. This part of the basic education has these
objectives for the intended learners, viz;
i. eradicate illiteracy and raise the levels of functional literacy
of the population;
ii. provide an alternative means of learning and certification for
out-of-school youth and adult; and
iii. develop among learners the proper values, attitudes and
knowledge to enable them to think critically and act
86

creatively for personal, community and national


development.

DepEd Basic Education Delivery System


An analysis of the objectives of the basic education, it can be
surmised that DepEd strategy is anchored on the provision of universal
access to quality education among learners, including the disadvantage
groups of children with special needs and extremely difficulty
circumstances through formal, informal and non-formal channels.
Through these interventions, DepEd hopes to provide a broad general
education that will assist each individual in the peculiar ecology of his
own society to attain his potential as human being; enhance the quality
of individual and group participation in the basic function of society; and
acquire essential productive and versatile citizen (BP 232, 1982).
Elementary education. The elementary education is the first level
in the Philippine education system. It consists of a primary grades which
starts in grade one (1) to grade four (iv); and an intermediate level,
starting in grade five (v) up to grade six (vi).
Learners belonging to the elementary level start schooling at the
age of six (6) and complete that grade level after six (6) years at the age of
12 years old more or less.
Elementary education in the Philippine is free and compulsory,
Section 2, Article IV of the 1987 Constitution provided that the “state
shall establish and maintain a system of free public education in the
elementary and high school levels without limiting the natural rights of
parents to rear their children, elementary education is compulsory for all
school-aged children.
DepEd has come up with the minimum learning competencies
(MLC) to be achieved by pupils via the 2002 Restructured Basic
Education Curriculum; putting greater emphasis on every learner
87

particularly in grades 1 – 3 to become successful readers; making


Filipino, English, Science and Mathematics as tool subjects; and
Makabayan, an experiential subject area.
DepEd expects that this curriculum would raise the quality of
grade school learners and prepare them for life-long learning and become
functionally literate.
Secondary education. Graduates of elementary schools are
admitted to enroll in school offering secondary education curriculum. At
present, some 5,452 secondary schools are operating in the country.
Almost two-thirds (62%) of these are public schools; and one-third (38%)
are private. These secondary schools definitely provide a strong base for
human resource development by equipping students with skills for
productive endeavor and/or prepare them for tertiary education.
RA 6655 or the Free Public Secondary Education Act has focused
more hopes to parents to send their children beyond elementary
certification level. Prior to the enactment of this Act, secondary education
was the weakest link in the education ladder and graduates have been
often assailed as ill-equipped for life, for college and the world of work
(Sutaria, 1989).
These statistics to be quoted hereto would describe the state of
secondary education in the decade of 90’s, viz… around 4.9 million high-
school age youth who were 13-16 years old, two-third of them or 68
percent are in school. More than half of them, 59 percent were enrolled
in public high school system; and the rest, 41 percent were in private
high schools. Enrolment was increasing an average rate of 3.7 percent
per year or about 4.4 million (Sutaria, 1989).
Educational policies in the early 80’s emphasized quantitative
expansion. This resulted in the quality of output in terms of students
average test scores down to 45 percent and that only half of those who
88

take the NCEE qualify for college, specifically, test scores in science,
mathematics and English.
Overall drop-out rate from public high school is 5.83 percent;
participation rate, 68 percent; and graduation rate/completion rate, 72
percent.
In order to fill in these inadequacies, Sutaria (1989) proposed the
“what should be” which must focus on four goals, namely; i) equity or
calling for raising participation and retention rates by broadening the
access to secondary education; ii) quality or calling for higher standards
and achievement level; iii) values education as mandated by
Constitutional provisions; and iv) greater efficiency of the system in order
that the first three goals are achieved.
Sutaria (1989) further cited requirements to achieve the “what
should be” in terms of:
i) Full implementation of the mandate of RA 6655 or Free
Public Education Act of 1988;
ii) Full implementation of the Secondary Education
Development Plan (SEDP) covering or period of 10 years.
Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP)
was actually a preparation for the entry of the graduates of
the New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) under the
program for decentralized education (PRODED); who were
expected to be in the high school in 1989.
iii) SEDP goals were intended to a) continue the full
development of pupils; b) strengthen the learners
preparation for life, work and college; and c) provide quality
education to all high school-age population. SEDP was
likewise focused to learners a) desirable cultural and moral
values development; b) of critical thinking; c) greater
productivity; and d) the required capability building in
89

terms of teacher’s training, both pre-service and in-service;


upgrading and standardization of facilities and equipment;
policy orientation like financing; school distribution by
type; alternative delivery system; and national-regional-
division and school relationship; e) development premise
anchored on PRODED to bring about a higher quality and
greater number of students inputs into the secondary
system; that new demand to continue on the system by
escalating competitions of a growing technological society;
that an improved system would be able to cope with the
assigned responsibility; and attaining a desirable
performance of secondary education (Gonzalez, 1989).

Issues that could be gleaned from the SEDP. It appears that the
government during decade of 1980’s, has been addressing the problems
raised in the PCSPE, the SOUTELE and the 1987 constitutional
mandates of improving the secondary education program. The
implementation of the NESC in the elementary level prompted the
initiation of the SEDP under the PRODED, which curriculum was to i)
develop among students an enlightened commitment to national ideas in
terms of moral, spiritual and socio-cultural values and desirable Filipino
heritage; ii) gain knowledge and form desirable attitude for
understanding nature and of man, self understanding and showing their
sense of individuality and family ties; iii) develop skills in higher
intellectual operations in terms of comprehension and expressions
activities and creatively for life situations; iv) acquire work skills,
knowledge and information and work ethics, intelligent choice of career;
and v) broaden and heighten their abilities to appreciate the arts, science
and technology for self-fulfillment and for promoting the welfare of
others.
90

All of these prompted the enactment of the RA 6655, an Act


providing free public secondary education. This Act nationalized all
public high schools and provided that the salaries, benefits of teachers,
maintenance and operating expenses and capital outlay should be
provided by national government.
Non-Formal Education (NFE). Broadly speaking, the non-formal
education is aimed at providing meaningful learning opportunities to the
out-of-school children youth and adults. It is an alternative mode of
education for those individuals who are not in a position to attend a
more formal education mode for one reason or another. It is a
supplement to and an extension of the formal school system.
The objectives of NFE is to i) eradicate illiteracy and raise the level
of functional literacy; ii) provide unemployed and underemployed youth
and adults with appropriate technical / vocational skills to make them
productive and effective citizens; and iii) develop among clientele proper
values and attitudes necessary for personal, community and national
development.
The concept of NFE as an educational activity outside the
established formal system, whether operating separately intended to
serve identifiable learner-clientele and learning objectives, is anchored
these legal bases, viz:
i) the Philippine Constitution of 1935, 1973 and 1987;
ii) PD 6-A or the Philippine Education Development Act of 1972
iii) BP 232 or The Educational Act of 1982; and
iv) PD 1139, creating the position of undersecretary of DECS for
non-formal education

NFE areas of concern. These areas were identified as, viz:


i) functional literacy;
ii) basic vocational/technical skills training;
91

iii) civic citizenship education;


iv) socio-cultural development;
v) sports, physical fitness development;
vi) effective leadership and values education’
vii)mass education

Characteristics of Non-formal education. NFE can be described in


terms of i) immediate and practical mission, ii) doing it outside the school
setting or in situations in which appropriate expertise can be used as a
learning venue; iii) knowledge to acquire can be used in an organized
performance rather than by certificate; iv) non-involvement of highly
organized learning contents or structure; v) voluntary participation; vi)
part-time activity of clientele; vii) non-graded and non-sequential
instruction; viii) less costly than formal education; ix) no prescribed
admission criteria; x) no restriction to any particular curriculum for
study; xi) qualification of mentors is based on demonstrated ability
rather than credentials; and xii) multiplier effect potentials in the
economy and use of appropriate media.
Target clientele. The NFE is usually conducted for these groups of
clientele who are either, i) employed persons; ii) out-of-school youth who
would like to join the mainstream formal education; iii) those who
attended school for four years and those who never attended school; and
iv) technical workers and professionals who need constant upgrading of
skills or new knowledge to improve their qualification and performance.
Approaches and strategies in NFE. NFE has to be conducted in a
manner that learning activities can be conveyed effectively to the
identified groups of clientele. This conveyance can be done using these
approaches as in i) holding of classes in basic vocational and skills
development; ii) individual or group instruction in functional literacy; iii)
seminars, community, assembly, forums, work conferences for
92

citizenship training; iv) demonstrative lesson in food processing


conservation, plant propagation, food processing, seed selection; v)
drama presentation and talent search for socio-cultural awareness and
wise use of leisure time; vi) sports competitions for physical fitness and
sports development; and viii) listening groups for schools in the air.
Other techniques for non-formal education are those that relate to
i) democratic-discussion, ii) dialogue; iii) critical analysis of factors in the
environment; iv) self-analysis and reflection; v) acquiring new
information via reading, writing and calculating activities; vi) action
program for community involvement; vii) training in practical skills for
immediate application; viii) sharing experiences; and ix) putting actual
earn-while-you learn projects.
Non-formal education and development. The government sourced-
data revealed that the country’s population as of 2005, stands 80 million
Filipinos, more or less. At the rate of 2.4 percent growth rate, the
population is expected to reach the 100 million mark in about 15 years
or so. Coupled by the sluggish rate of economic development, it has been
forecasted that the number of Filipino school-aged children who will not
fit into the formal education system will substantially increase. In fact,
the figures released in 2003-2004 by DepEd was quite disturbing in
terms of drop-out, viz… that out of the 100 pupil entrants in Grade I,
only 67 of them would complete Grade VI; and 45 of them would finish
high school. Out of the 45 entering high school; only 10-12 of them
would finally obtain a college degree. The question now is “where did the
rest go or what happened to the 88-90 percent original entrants in Grade
1?”
Perhaps along the way, some found gainful employment, and many
of them joined the rank of out-of-school youth/adult who have no skills
which they can use to earn a living or cannot even support themselves.
In most cases, they remained idle and become susceptible to drug
93

addiction, peace and order problems and become a heavy burden in the
nation’s movement toward economic development as they are not
contributing any to the country’s wealth but rather consumers of nations
scarce resources and services.
This situation can be ably addressed by the implementation of NFE
program learning packages in terms of i) agricultural extension and
farmer’s training program, ii) literacy program; iii) occupational training;
iv) youth club with educational purposes; and v) community programs of
instruction in health, nutrition, family planning and cooperatives.

Legal Bases of Philippine Basic Education 2002 Restructured


Curriculum (RBEC)

The goals, objectives, structure and content of the 2002


Curriculum are in compliance with the 1987 Constitution of the Republic
of the Philippines, the 2001 Governance of Basic Education Act, and the
1982 Education Act.
The 1987 Constitution provides the basic state policies on
education, both formal and non-formal.
Article XIV, Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the
right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take
appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.
Article XIV, Section 2 (1). The State shall establish, maintain,
and support a complete, adequate and integrated system of education
relevant to the needs of the people and society.
Article XIV, Section 2 (4). The State shall encourage non-formal,
informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning,
independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those that
respond to community needs.
Article XIV, Section 3 (2) states that the school shall inculcate
patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human
94

rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical


development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship,
strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and
personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden
scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.
The Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001 provides the
general goal of basic education is to develop the Filipino learners by
providing them basic competencies in literacy and numeracy, critical
thinking and learning skills, and desirable values to become caring, self-
reliant, productive, socially aware, patriotic and responsible citizens.
The Governance of Basic Education Act envisions a curriculum
that shall promote the holistic growth of the Filipino learners and enable
them to acquire the core competencies and develop the proper values.
This curriculum shall be flexible to meet the learning needs of diverse
studentry and relevant to their immediate environment and social and
cultural realities.

The Basic Features of the 2002 Restructured


Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC)

Greater emphasis on helping every learner particularly in Grades 1


to 3 to become a successful reader. The subject areas currently offered in
Grades I and II have been reduced to four (4) subjects – Filipino, English,
Mathematics and Makabayan (a learning area composed of Social
Studies, Music, Arts and PE).
New focus of Mathematics in the secondary level is offered in First
Year; Intermediate Algebra in second year; and Geometry in third year.
Emphasis on interactive learning approaches between teachers
and students; between students and self-instructional materials;
95

between students (collaborative learning); and between students and


multi-media assisted instruction.
A stronger integration of competencies and values within and
across the learning areas through the use of integrative teaching
approaches for a more holistic learning where appropriate and relevant.
The integrative approaches to teaching will lead to a more holistic
view rather than fragmented learning within a subject area boundaries of
learning relevant to the lives of the learners. The existing subject areas,
however, maintain their identify to ensure that the integrity of the
discipline is not lost in the process of integrating.
Greater focus on values formation in all the subject areas. Every
teacher is a values education teacher in each subject area value
emphasis used as springboards for values development.
Emphasis on the development of self-reliant and patriotic citizens
as a value oriented area is concerns for the “common good” among
learners.
Emphasis on the use of effective strategies for the development of
critical and creative thinking skills. Here the teachers will continuously
provide opportunities to develop critical and creative thinking skills in
the process of learning.

Learning Areas
The Tool subjects are indispensable learning areas and are basic
tools to learning how to learn. The tool subject areas are the following: i)
Filipino; ii) English, iii) Science (Science and Health for Elementary and
Science and Technology for Secondary)… e.g. 1st year, Integrated Science;
2nd Year, Biology; 3rd Year, Chemistry and 4th Year, Track A – Advanced
Chemistry and Track B, – Physics; and Mathematics… e.g., 1 st Year,
Elementary Algebra; 2nd Year, Intermediate Algebra; 3 rd Year, Geometry;
and 4th Year, Trigonometry.
96

The fifth learning area is called Makabayan to convey that the


unifying principle in the development of love of country, while
recognizing global interdependence. Learning is first contextualized in
relation to the learner’s physical and social environment. The
Makabayan learning area provides for balance between individual and
deeper appreciation of our culture, heritage and history, including the
development of patriotism that is neither hostile nor isolationist towards
other nations. It is also seen as the experiential area where applications
in technology and home economics are ensured.

The 2002 Restructured Curriculum for Elementary Education


Possible Daily Time Allotment
Learning Areas
Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6
FILIPINO 80 80 80 60 60 60
ENGLISH 100 100 100 80 80 80
MATHEMATICS 80 80 80 60 60 60
SCIENCE AND
Within English 40 60 60 60
HEALTH
MAKABAYAN 60 60 60 100 120 120
40 40
40
Social Studies (Civics and Culture) (Geogra (Gov’t &
(History)
phy) Civics)
Edukasyong
Pantahanan at Introduced only in Grades 4–6 40 minutes per day
Pangkabuhayan (EPP)
Musika, Sining at
Edukasyong Integrated in Sibika at Kultura 20 40 40
Pangkatawan (MSEP)
Character Education
Within every learning area
(GMRC)
Total Minutes Daily 320 320 360 360 380 380

The 2002 Restructured Curriculum for Secondary Level

Possible Daily Time Allotment


LEARNING AREAS st
1 year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year
FILIPINO 60
ENGLISH 60
MATHEMATICS 60
SCIENCE AND HEALTH 60
MAKABAYAN 180 min./day for 4 days & 60 min. for 1 day
97

60 60 60
60
Social Studies (Philippin (Asian (World
(Economics
e History) Studies) History)
60 mins./day for 4 days Teknolohiya at
TEPP formerly THE Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan
(TEPP)
Musika, Sining at
60 mins/day for 4 days
Edukasyong Pantahanan
Pangkatawan (MSEP) Music, Arts, PE & Health
Edukasyon sa 60 mins./week as a separate subject & within
Pagpapahalaga (EP) every learning area everyday
Total Minutes Daily 300 – 480 minutes per day

Implications of the 2002 Restructured Basic


Education Curriculum (RBEC)

To Development of Teacher Education and Teacher Training


In whatever manner, the teacher and the learner remain the key
factors in the operationalization of the curriculum in the teaching
learning transactions in the classroom.
*Empowering the learner for lifelong learning implies the
preparation of the teacher to be an effective facilitator of learning and
manager of the conditions for learning in the teaching-learning process
so that the learners are gradually prepared to actively participate in
knowledge construction and to be responsible for their own learning. The
basic feature of the restructured curriculum is strengthening the
development of functional curriculum which will likewise strengthen the
development of functional literacy so that the learners can do self-
regulated learning. Except in Grade 1 and 2, the restructured curriculum
still maintains the identity of the different subject areas in the present
curriculum.
*However, integrative modes of teaching are encouraged towards
more holistic learning. Curriculum integration which utilizes knowledge
98

from the different subject areas repositioned in the context of themes,


issues and concerns, questions or even activities, centers on a
curriculum relevant to the lives of the learners rather than mastery of
fragmented knowledge within subject area boundaries.
*The teaching-learning process today requires more interactive
learning and teaching approaches where students participate more
actively in their learning experiences rather than mere passive recipients
of information. The use of information technology and greater emphasis
on computer literacy in all the learning areas call for continuing
preparation and professional updating in the different areas of interactive
learning.

Values formation which is integral to the teaching of the different
subjects all the more becomes an important preparation in the pre-
service training area. There is a need also to strengthen the teachers’
capability in the use of strategies, in developing the critical and creative
thinking skills of the learners.
Having said all of these, an invitation is issued to teacher training

institutions to continue to train teachers who:
1. can teach reading effectively so that children can all become
successful readers by Grade III.
2. are effective facilitators of learning and managers of the conditions
for learning through the use of more interactive and integrative
modes of teaching so that education can be holistic.
3. can effectively utilize strategies for developing critical and creative
thinking skills or higher order thinking skills.
4. can not only model values, but who can contribute towards the
gradual unfolding of standards and principles for the learners
which serves as anchors in the development of principles and
spiritual Filipino learners.


Lifted from the 2002 Restructured Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC)

99

5. can contribute towards the development of the individual and


collective talents (multiple intelligences) of our children and who
can translate these in the teaching and learning process.
*The restructured curriculum is a curriculum development in
process. Teachers will be given initial prototype materials to enrich the
teaching-learning processes and to demonstrate the translation of
philosophy and the objectives of the restructured curriculum. Teachers
and their support systems, the supervisors and principals including
teacher education institutions are given flexibility to design the learning
activities during the pilot year. After which best practices toward
improving the educational interventions in the restructured curriculum,
must be shared to everybody.
The restructured curriculum allows everyone to explore and apply
the infinite possibilities in improving the quality of educations through
the teaching-learning interventions and the creativity and innovations of
the teachers and all the instructional support systems in the educational
system.

To the Learners Education and Skills Development Training.


*The ideal Filipino learner in our rapidly changing world is one who
is empowered for lifelong learning is an active maker of meaning and can
learn whatever s/he needs t known in any new context. Such as
empowered learner is competent in learning how to learn and has life
skill so that she/he become a self-developed person who is makabayan
(patriotic), makatao (mindful of humanity), makakalikasan (respectful of
nature), and maka-Diyos (Godly). This is the vision of Philippine basic
education, both formal and non-formal.

The DepEd curriculum stands on the conviction that functional
literacy in its comprehensive meaning is the ability that is most essential
for lifelong learning in our risky new world. Filipino learners who attain

Lifted from the 2002 Restructured Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC)
100

functional literacy will have developed sufficient self-discipline, which


can lead to sustainable accomplishments when combined with our
people’s innate adaptability to change. With functional literacy, Filipino
learners can do self-regulated learning, and with enough motivation, they
on their own can seek sources of knowledge (for example, the library or
the internet), read instructional materials, and conduct explorations on
other subject matters or topics that interest them.
The curriculum aims at empowering the Filipino learner to be
capable of self-development throughout one’s life and to be patriotic,
benevolent, ecologically aware, and Godly. This overall aim entails the
acquisition of life skills, a reflective understanding and internalization of
principles and values, and the development of the person’s multiple
intelligences. Thus, in the restructured curriculum, training in like skills,
the identification and analysis of values, and the recognition of multiple
intelligences permeate all the learning areas.

To the graduates employment.


After having gone through the RBEC from grades school up to the
high school, the graduates can self-actualize their learning in various
ways. Becoming functionally literate and equipped with life skills,
appreciative of the arts and sports; and spiritually fulfilled, individual
learners training in Makabayan courses are initiated to entrepreneurship
and employment either in the basic industries, manufacturing or
agriculture sectors.
The training they underwent for literacy in languages, science and
technology and proficiency in numeracy will enable them to pursue
higher education which will prepare them to assume a leadership role in
the development of the nations patrimony or train in middle level skills
that are needed to man the middle level industries… the vanguard in the
economic development of the country.
101

If the labor sectors pronouncement regarding dearth of


appropriately trained manpower in many sectors of our economy is true,
the RBEC can specifically supply the trained manpower as the
curriculum basically designed along that direction of learners needs…
functional literacy, life skills, self-actualization, preparation for world of
work.
To the society
Students after schooling would have to return to their respective
community. Whether they are going to settle for good or they are going
elsewhere, whatever knowledge and skills acquired or attitude developed
while in school are tools very useful in their participation to improve the
people and the community.
The outcomes of RBEC in developing highly employable graduates
can be gauged by their ability to produce wealth in terms of
compensation from employment, entrepreneurship and other mode of
income generating activities. As these highly trained graduates earn
sufficient compensation, they can invest their extra income in business,
deposit their money in banks and indulge in the purchase of basic
provision for the members of the family… like food shelter, education,
medicine, clothing and perhaps some affordable luxuries.
These wealth creating ventures are cyclic phenomena. An
investment in business helps create employment among people; amount
of money deposited in the bank would, in certain extent, build-up bank
portfolio available for commercial and industrial loan packages; and
develop other wealth creating ventures like small and medium
entrepreneur (SME), etc.
All of these are viewed as contributions by graduates who are
products of the RBEC, a curriculum that contributes to the development
of knowledge, skills and attitude of an actively participating citizenry.
102

Self Activity 4
1. Prepare a brief historical account of our educational development
spanning from the pre-hispanic period up to the present and note
down the important contribution of each era to the Philippine
development in terms of:
1.1 literacy rate of the Filipino
1.2 manpower development
1.3 rate of employment; and
1.4 economic development
2. Examine the DepEd vision, mission and goals. Determine how these
are reflected in the curricular program of the basic education.
3. Scrutinize closely the 2002 Restructured Basic Education curriculum.
List down your observation regarding the important features of the
curriculum that will show graduates readiness either to proceed to
further schooling or enter the world of work.
4. If you were a principal in any level of the DepEd basic education
program, how will you operationalize the integrated teaching
requirements of the 2002 Restructured Basic Education Curriculum
so that teachers can properly employ it in teaching their respective
disciplines/subject areas. The integrative teaching approaches
referred to in this case are thematic teaching, content-based
instruction focusing inquiry and generic competency model
5. What implications can you deduce from the 2002 Restructured
Curriculum with regards to:
5.1 improving the teachers preparation (both pre-service and in-
service education);
5.2 learner’s education and skills development;
5.3 graduates possible employment; and
5.4 societal concerns.
103

Self Activity Quiz 4 (SAQ4)


1. What are the approaches used by the DepEd to deliver its basic
education program?
2. What are the levels of school a learner has to go through in the
elementary level? Describe each level.
3. In the 2002 Restructured Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC),
what learning areas are considered tool subjects, and experiential
subjects?
4. Due to declining quality of the Philippine education what are the
four goals to be focused in order to meet the inadequacies of the
DepEd basic education program.
5. Why is DepEd adopting a non-formal education (NFE) program?
What does it aim to accomplish in making NFE as part of the basic
education program?
6. What are the legal basis of the DepEd basic education program?
7. What are the basic features of the 2002 RBEC?

Answers to Self Quiz 4 (ANQ4)


1. DepEd delivers its basic education program via the elementary
schools system, secondary school system and the non-formal
education system.
2. The elementary is consisted of the primary level and the
intermediate level. The primary level starts in grade one (1) up to
grade four (iv); and intermediate level, grades five (v) to six (vi)
Learners belonging to elementary level start schooling at the
age of six (6) and complete that grade level after six (6) years at the
age of 12 year old more or less.
After completing a certification in elementary level, learners
are admitted in the secondary level. It consist of four (4) years and
104

learners basically complete this level after 4 years or at the age of


16 or 17 at least.
3. The RBEC identified Filipino, English, Mathematics and Science as
tool subjects; and Makabayan an experiential subject.
4. The goals that have to be focused in order to arrest the declining
quality of the Philippine education can be cited as i) equity or
raising participation and retention rate by broadening the access
to secondary education; ii) quality or higher standards and
achievement level; iii) values education; and iv) greater efficiency of
the system in order that the first three goals are achieved.
5. DepEd adopts non-formal education as part of its delivery system
in order to provide meaningful learning activities to out-of-school
youth and adult. As an alternative mode of education for those
individuals who cannot attend a more formal education mode, i) it
aims to raise the level of functional literacy; ii) training of OSY and
adult with technical and vocational skills to make them productive
citizens; and iii) to develop the learners values, and attitudes
needed for personal, community and national development.
6. The legal basis of the DepEd basic education program can be cited
as i) the 1987 Constitution of the Philippine; ii) the 2001
Governance of Basic Education Act; and iii) 1982 Education Act.
7. The basic features of the 2002 RBEC can be cited as i) greater
emphasis on helping every learner particularly Grades 1 to 3 to
become successful reader; ii) new focus of Mathematics in the
secondary level; iii) emphasis on interactive learning approaches;
iv) a stronger integration of competencies and values within and
across learning areas with the use of integrative teaching
approaches; iv) greater focus on values education in all subjects; v)
development of self reliant and patriotic citizen; and vi) he use of
105

effective strategies for the development of critical and creative


thinking skills.

Summary

This lesson module would explain the delivery system of the DepEd
basic education program. As an entry point, discussion started with the
Basic Education Act of 2001 or RA 9155. This Act mandates the
protection and promotion of the rights of all citizens to quality education
and taking appropriate steps to make education accessible to all.
RA 9155 further spelled out the vision, mission, goals and
objectives of DepEd that would set clearly the direction and strategies to
pursue in making the learners acquire knowledge and competencies and
strengthen their character in search for better life.
In compliance with the mandates of RA 9155, DepEd has come up
with a delivery system that provides a complete, adequate and integrated
system of free elementary education, free secondary education and non-
formal education system that would serve the OSY and adult who cannot
fit in the formal system of education.
The module also divulged that the learning activities have been
concretized in the 2002 Restructured Basic Education Curriculum
(RBEC). The RBEC identifies the main focus of Filipino, English,
Mathematics and Science as the tool subjects; and Makabayan, the
experiential subjects.
Integrative teaching has been linkpin for the meaningful delivery of
the learning activities of the RBEC. As educational movements, it shifts
the focus of instruction from discrete subjects towards issues in the real
world. This integrated teaching mode suggested four models… thematic
teaching contents-based instruction, focusing inquiry and generic
competency model.
106

References Used

Aquino, G. V. Fundamentals of Effective Teaching Navotas, Rizal:


Navotas Press.

Bago, A. 2001. Curriculum Development: The Philippine Experience.


Manila: Dela Salle University Press.

Bernardo, A. 1998. The Learning Process: The Neglected Phenomenon in


Science and Mathematics, Education Reforms in the
Philippines. Science Education in the Philippines: Challenges
for Development. (National Science Education Compress,
November 27-28, 1998).

Colambo, F. et al. 2000. Philippine Agenda For Educational Reform.


Pasig City: The PACER Report, April, 2000.

Gonzales, E. 1989. Secondary Educational Development Program.


Philippine Education: Visions and Perspective. Metro Manila:
National Bookstore, Inc.
107

Guerrero, J.S. 1989. Thrusts, Reform Programs in Elementary


Education: Implications to Teacher Education. Visions and
Perspective. Metro Manila: National Bookstore, Inc.

Hargreaves, A. et al. 2001. Learning to Change: Teaching Beyond


Subjects and Standards. San Francisco, USA: Jossey-Bass.

Kemp, D. 1998. Pathways and Priorities for Lifelong Learning, Education


for 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region. Canberra:
Australia National Commission for UNESCO.

Lazear, D. 1998. Eight Ways of Knowing: Teaching for Multiple


Intelligences. United States of America: Illinois Press.

Muhi, E. T, et. al. 1986. Dynamics of Development: The Philippine


Experience. Metro Manila: National Bookstore, Inc.

Perez, Jr. C. B. 1989. Education and Development: The Role of Technical


Vocational and Non-formal Education. Philippine Education:
Visions and Perspective. Metro Manila: National Bookstore,
Inc.

Roldan, A. 2001. Present Realities in Reading Education. DECS


Curriculum Summit, August 3, 2001.
Sutaria, M.C. et. al., 1989. Philippine Education: Visions and
Perspective. Metro Manila: National Bookstore, Inc.

Tendero, A. P. et al. 1984. Philippine Development Issues: An Inquiry.


Metro Manila: National Bookstore, Inc.

_________ The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum. Department of


Education, DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue, Pasig City,
March 6, 2002.
108