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Americal American Psychological Association Style Sample


The American Psychological Association (APA) style is primarily used in the social science disciplines. It is

formatted like Modern Language Association (MLA), and shows many similarities, but is unique in several

key points. This paper discusses the APA in detail. Adressing plagiarism has become a major

challenge in education and educating students in referencing correctly with the APA 6th is one

way of trying to overcome the problem.


APA uses parenthetical (or in-text) citations within sentences, but rather than indicating the author's name

and page number, APA includes author's name and date of publication. The page number, represented with a

p. or a pp., is only added to the citation when using a direct quote (not a summary or paraphrase). If the

author's name is mentioned in the sentence, then place the date of publication in parentheses directly after

the name. If the name is not mentioned include the author's name and date in parentheses at the end of the

source material. And, if you use a direct quote, place the page number after the publication date within the



Note the difference between the following three examples:

Terrence (2007) has presented poignant examples from 150 interviews. However, it has been pointed out

that the research was conducted in a selective, highly biased, way (Strong & Porter, 1998). All of the

interviewees have been called “exceptions to the norm” (Strong & Porter, 1998).

Note the first example paraphrases an author that is named in the sentence, the second example paraphrases

authors that are not named in the sentence, and the third example provides a direct quote (thus the inclusion

of the page numbers) but also does not identify the authors within the sentence. If the authors were identified
within the sentence in the third example, the authors' names would be followed by the year of publication

and only the page numbers would be in the parentheses at the end of the quote.


Finally, the bibliographic page in APA style differs from MLA, what APA calls the Reference page. You

will notice a few immediate differences from the MLA Works Cited format. With APA you include the

initial of the author's first name rather than the complete name, the publication date immediately follows the

author's name in parentheses, and titles of articles are not surrounded with quotation marks. The lists are still

alphabetized by author's last name (or title in the absence of an author) and the first line is flush left while

subsequent lines in the same entry are indented in (approximately 5 spaces or one tab). A good resource to

help you with referencing is Notre Dame’s referencing guide at

lg-box-3040351. There is also a summary downloadable help document available at: In APA Style, you include a reference list rather than a

bibliography with your paper (APA, 2017). A reference list consists of all sources cited in the text of a paper

whereas a bibliography may include resources that were consulted but not cited in the text as well as an

annotated description of each one.


The School of Education, University of Notre Dame Australia, uses the APA 6th referencing style for all

written documents. In addition to in text referencing and the reference list there are a number of formatting

requirements to ensure your essay complies with APA standards. Get to know the APA 6th.
(White*, 2004)(Scalet & Arthur, 2014)


APA. (2017). Bibliography versus reference list. Retrieved from


Scalet, S., & Arthur, J. (2014). Morality and moral controversies: Readings in moral, social and political

philosophy. (9th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Strong, R. L., & Porter, M. (1998). Grammatical combinations. In S, Parker, & K Gibson (Ed.), Language

and literacy (pp. 540-578). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Terrence, H. S. (2007, November 1). Student success in community colleges. West Australian

White*, J. (2004). Should religious education be a compulsory school subject? British Journal of Religious

Education, 26(2), 151-164. 10.1080/01416200420042000181929