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PHYSICS

Aakash
STUDY PACKAGE – 02
For – JEE / NEET
Current Electricity
AIEEE Syllabus
Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm’s law, Electrical resistance, Resistances
of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors,
2
CHAPTER
Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors;
Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of
resistance. Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and
emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws
and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge. Potentiometer -
principle and its applications

ELECTRIC CURRENT THIS CHAPTER


1. The rate of flow of electric charge across any cross-section is called COVERS :
electric current.
 Electric Current
dq
(a) Instantaneous electric current I 
dt  Ohm’s law
q  Grouping of resistors
(b) Average electric current Iav 
t
(c) Unit : ampere or A (SI)  Sources of emf : Cell
2. Although electric current is denoted with direction in dc circuits but it is  Grouping of Cells
a scalar quantity. Direction merely represents the sense of charge flow.
 Kirchhoff’s law
Current Density
 Wheatstone Bridge
Current flowing per unit area through any cross-section is called current density.
 Potentiometer
I A
 RC Circuit
I  Heating Effect
J=
A
 Joule’s Law
Unit : A/m2.
It is a vector quantity and directed along the motion of positive charge.  Power in Electric
    Circuits
I = J .A = JA cos (where  is the angle between J & A )
 Maximum Power
Factors on which Current Depends Transfer Theorem
1. Free Charge Density : Number of free electrons per unit volume (n).
 Fuse Wire
(in case of conductors, charge carriers are free electrons only)
2. Drift Velocity : Average velocity with which electrons drift from low
potential end to high potential end of the conductor (vd). Drift velocity is
given by
 e 
v d   E (in terms of applied electric field)
m
I
vd  (in terms of current through the conductor)
neA
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From second relation


I = neAvd. where A is the area of cross-section and “Avd” represents the rate of flow.
vd v e
The term is called mobility of charge carriers, represented by   d  .
E E m
1
(here  mean relaxation time depends on temp.   , T  absolute temperature of the conductor)
T
OHM’S LAW
According to Ohm’s law,
1. Current Density  Electric Field
   
i.e., J  E or J  E
where  is a constant of proportionality called Conductivity (unit –1m–1 or mho/m or siemen/m).
V
2. I
R
1 l l 1
where R = = where  (resistivity) = .
A A 
Hence according to Ohm’s law when R is constant I V
 I~V curve is a straight line (at constant temperature)
3. Ohmic conductors are those for which I-V curve is a straight line or Rs = Rd and
Non-ohmic conductors are those for which Rs  Rd at every point on I-V curve

Colour Code for Resistors

First Digit
Second Digit
Multiplier
Tolerance

Colour Digit Multiplier Tolerance


Black 0 1 -
Brown 1 10 -
2
Red 2 10 -
3
Orange 3 10 -
4
Yellow 4 10 -
5
Green 5 10 -
6
Blue 6 10 -
7
Violet 7 10 -
8
Gray 8 10 -
9
White 9 10 -
Gold - 0.1 5%
Silver - 0.01 10%
No Colour - 20%

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Electrical Resistance and Resistivity


1. Resistance of a conductor is given by

l ml
R 
A ne 2 A
where  is resistivity. Its units is  m.

m
2. Resistivity of a conductor,  = (where m is mass of an electron, n is number density of electrons,
ne 2 
 is average relaxation time).
3. Resistivity is the property of material and does not depend on the dimensions of conductor but depends
on nature and temperature of conductor.
4. For a hollow cylinder of inner radius r1 and outer radius r2, length l and material of resistivity 

l r1 r2
R
( r22  r12 )

Dependence of Drift Velocity


1
1. For same strength of current, v d  [I = neAvd = constant]
A

1
2. For same potential difference, v d  [It is independent of area]
l

Temperature Dependence of Resistivity


1. For Conductors :
t = 0(1 + t), where ‘’ is temperature
Coefficient of resistivity. As R 
 R = R0(1 + t)
At temperature t1, R1 = R0 (1 + t1)
At temperature t2, R2 = R0 (1 + t2)

R2  R1 R2  R1 R2  R1
  = R (t  t ) , R0 = (t  t ) ,  = R t  R t
0 2 1 2 1 12 2 1

2. For Semiconductors : Their resistivity decreases exponentially with temperature.


3. For Insulators : Their resistivity is very high and does not vary appreciably with change in temperature.

Note : If two wires having resistances R1 and R2 and temperature coefficients of resistance a1 and a2 then
the equivalent temperature coefficients of their combination.

R11  R2 2
(a) In series  s 
R1  R2

R1 2  R2 1
(b) In parallel  p 
R1  R2

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Colour code : B B ROY Great Britain Very Good Wife


Effect of Current in Human Body
1. The resistance of a normal human body is 10 k
2. Current of the order of 0.1 A are fatal.
3. Cause of death on receiving a shock is not the heating effect, but interfering of electrical signals with human
nervous system.

Super Conductors
The phenomenon in which resistance of a conductor becomes zero at very low temperatures.
(In graph TC is critical temperature and for Hg. TC = 4.2 K)

T
TC

Superconductors are found to show perfect diamagnetism (Xm = – 1). This is known as Meissner’s Effect. This
effect is used for running of magnetically Leviated Superfast train.

Variation of Resistance with Dimensions of Conductor


1. Variation with length:

l
R= 
A
(a) If a wire is cut to alter its length, then area remains same.
 Rl
(b) If a wire is stretched or folded, area varies but volume remains constant.
 R  l2
For small percentage changes in length by stretching or folding, then,

R 2l
=
R l
2. Variation with area of cross-section or thickness :
(a) If area is increased / decreased but length is kept same.

1 1
 R  or R  2 (r = radius / thickness)
A r
(b) If area is increased / decreased but volume remains same.

1 1
R  or R  4
A2 r
(c) A resistance wire has a resistance R. Half of this wire is stretched to double its length and half is
R R 1 65R
twisted to double its thickness, then R      4   
2 2 16 32

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GROUPING OF RESISTORS (SERIES AND PARALLEL COMBINATION)


1. Series Grouping

R1 R2 R3 RS = R1 + R2 + R3

2. Parallel Grouping

R1

R2 Rp
1 1 1 1
   
Rp R1 R2 R3
R3

Illustrations :
R
nR/n + 1
1. 
nR

R1 R1 R2
R1 + R2
2. 
R2

R1

R2 R3 R2 Rp
3.  
A R1 B R3 1 1 1 1
Rp R1 R2 R3

Cause of flow of Current


The cause of flow of current through a conductor is potential difference applied across its ends. This is achieved
by connecting a source of electric energy (or emf) across the conductor, called cell.

CELL
1. Primary cell :
(a) A cell in which electric energy is produced due to chemical reaction in it during the use of cell.
(b) Chemical reactions are irreversible.
(c) These cannot be charged (exception  lithium cells are primary cells but can be charged)
(d) Examples : Daniel cell, Leclanche cell, Dry cell.
2. Secondary cell :
(a) A cell in which electric energy is first stored in the form of chemical energy and this chemical energy
converts into electrical energy during the use of cell.
(b) Chemical reactions are reversible.
(c) These are charged before use.
(d) These are also known as storage cells.
(e) Examples : Lead-acid accumulator, Ni-Fe alkaline accumulator.

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Defects in Cells
1. Polarisation : Problem arises due to accumulation of hydrogen gas around a positive electrode.
Remedy - Use of depolariser which is basically an oxidising reagent.
2. Local actions : It is due to the presence of impurities in electrodes.
Remedy - Use of amalgamated electrodes.

Type of Cells
1. Daniel cell :
Electrolyte  dil H2SO4; depolariser  CuSO4 solution
positive electrode  Cu and negative electrode  Zn
emf = 1.08 V but not constant due to defects.
2. Leclanche cell :
Electrolyte  NH4Cl (solution); depolariser  MnO2 powder
positive electrode  carbon; negative electrode  Zn
emf = 1.5 V when just prepared.
3. Dry cell :
Electrolyte  NH4Cl (paste); depolariser  MnO2 powder
positive electrode  carbon; negative electrode  Zn
emf = 1.5 V when just prepared.
4. Weston cadmium cell :
Used as standard cell. Electrolyte  CdSO4(solution), depolariser  Hg2SO4 paste,
Positive electrode  Hg with Hg2SO4 paste.
Negative electrode  amalgam of Cd with Hg
emf = 1.0183 V at 20ºC.
5. Lead Accumulator :
Electrolyte  dil H2SO4, positive electrode  Lead dioxide in grids of hard Pb-Sb alloy
Negative electrode  spongy lead in grids of hard Pb-Sb alloy, emf = 2.1/2.0 V.
(a) Standard cell : A cell whose emf is precisely specified and remains constant w.r.t. time is known
as standard cell. e.g., Weston cadmium cell.
(b) Ideal cell : A cell whose internal resistance is zero.

Cell Terminology
1. EMF (E)
The potential difference across the terminals of a cell when no current is being drawn from it.
2. Internal Resistance (r)
The opposition of flow of current inside the cell.
It depends on
(i) Distance between electrodes (r  d)

 1
(ii) Area of electrodes  r  
 A
(iii) Concentration of electrolyte (r  conc.)
(iv) Temperature

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3. Terminal Potential Difference


The potential difference across the terminals of a cell when current is supplied by it.
E = IR + Ir, V = IR I R I

E – V = Ir .... (i)
 E V  V
r = R
 V 
from (i)
E r
when r = 0, E = V
Cell
Here E is emf and V is potential difference. Clearly V < E when the cell supplies current.

Grouping of Cells (Series and Parallel Combination)


1. Series grouping :
E E2 E3
+ – r1 + – r2 + – r3
1
(a) Eequivalent = E1 + E2 + E3 + ....... En
n cells
(b) requivalent = r1 + r2 + r3 + ...... rn
i
(c) Current i 
 Ei

r  Ri
R

(d) (s) If all cells have equal emf E and equal internal resistance r then
nE
i 
nr  R
E
Cases : (i) If nr >> R  i
r
nE
(ii) If nr << R  i E1 r1
R
2. Parallel Grouping : E2 r2
E1 E2 E3
   ...... E3
r r2 r3 r3
(a) Eequivalent = 1
1 1 1
   ........
r1 r2 r3
1 n cell
(b) requivalent = i
1 1 1
   ......
r1 r2 r3
(c) If all cells have equal emf. E and internal resistance r then
Eequivalent = E R

r
requivalent =
n

E
 Current i 
r
R
n
r nE
Cases : (i) If  R  i
n r
r E
(ii) If << R  i 
n R
Note : If polarity of m cells are made reverse in the series combination of n identical cells then
equivalent emf Eequivalent = (n – 2m)E and internal resistance requivalent = nr

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Illustrations :
I R1 R2 I
E ER1 ER2
1. I = R  R , V1 = IR1 = R  R , V2 = R  R V1 V2
1 2 1 2 1 2

V1 R1
 V R
2 2
E, r = 0
I1 R1
2. E = I1R1 = I2R2
I

E E I2 R2
I1 = R , I2 = R
1 2

 If cell is ideal, I1 and I2 are independent of each other.


E, r = 0
E I1 R1
3. I = , I1R1 = I2R2, I = I1 + I2
R1R2
r
R1  R2 I I
I2 R2
IR2 IR1
 I1 = R  R , I2 = R  R
1 2 1 2

I1 R2
  E, r  0
I 2 R1
R nR
V nV V1 V2
4. V = V1 + V2, V1 = , V2 =
n 1 n 1 V
I1 R
I I
nI I
5. I = I1 + I2, I1 = , I2 = nR
n 1 n 1
I2

I I1 I2
E E
6. I , V = E – Ir
R1R2 V R1
r R2
R1  R2 r
V V
I1  , I2 
R1 R2

If R2 is increased, I will decrease, I2 will decrease, V will increase, I1 will increase.

KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS
1. Junction Rule : It is based on conservation of charge.

I I1
I = I1 + I2
I2

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2. Loop Rule : It is based on conservation of energy.


(a) For any closed loop, total rise in potential + total fall in potential = 0.
(b) For any open part from a point A to point B, if VA is potential at A and VB is potential at B, then as
we move from A to B.
VA + total rise in potential + total fall in potential = VB.

Note : By convention rise in potential is taken as positive and fall in potential is taken as negative.

Principle of Wheatstone Bridge I1 R1 A R2


V V
I1  , I2 
R1  R2 R3  R4

R1 R3 R1 R2
Hence if R  R or R  R or R1R4 = R2R3, then I2 R3 B R4
2 4 3 4

No current through R so
R1 R2 R1 R2 V

R 
R3 R4 R3 R4
Similarly, for a capacitive circuit shown here,
C1 C3
If =
C2 C4

C1 C2 C1 C2

C 

C3 C4 C3 C4

METER BRIDGE
Based on Wheatstone bridge principle. It is used to find unknown resistance.
Unknown
R X
D

G
l 100 – l
A B C
E
( )

P R R X
When there is no deflection in G bridge is called balanced and for balanced bridge  , 
Q S l 100 l
 100  l 
 Unknown X  R  
 l 
Note : Location of null point is independent of resistivity or area of cross-section of wire AB.

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INSTRUMENTS
1. Ammeter
(a) Ammeter is a current measuring device.
(b) It is connected in series in the branch in which current is to be measured.
R I
A

(c) An ideal ammeter has zero resistance.


2. Voltmeter
(a) Device to measure potential difference.
(b) Connected in parallel in between the points between which potential difference is required.
V
R

(c) An ideal voltmeter has infinite resistance.

3. Potentiometer
It can measure potential difference without drawing a current from the circuit. Thus it gives accurate reading
and it can measure emf of a cell.
AB = Potentiometer wire of resistance R and length L. EP r Rh
( )
(It has two properties high resistivity and low )
Any two point C and D are separated by length ‘l’. L
A I
 EP  R iR i VAB B
Potential gradient x   C D
   
 r  R  R h L L A L l
(here  - resistivity and A - Area of cross section of potentiometer wire)

Applications
1. Find the emf of a Cell or comparison of emf of two cells

EP r Rh
( )

l1
A B
l2
E1

E2 (< E1)
E1 l1

E2 l 2
If one of the emf is known then
l 
unknown E 2   2 E1
 l1 
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2. Find Internal Resistance of a Cell


Case I :
Key K is kept open, balance point is at length l1.
 E  l1

EP r Rh
( )

l1
A B
E,r G (No deflection)

Rext
K

Case II :
Key K is closed, balance point is at length l2.

E l1
V  l2  
V l2

 internal resistance of given cell is

 E V  l l 
  Rext   1 2  Rext

 V   l2 

EP r Rh
( )

l2
A B
E1r
G
Rext K

Sensitivity of a potentiometer
VAB
Smaller the potential drop per unit length better is the sensitivity. i.e.,  x should be small.
L
This can be achieved by increasing the length of potentiometer wire or decreasing the current through it.

R-C CIRCUIT
1. Charging C R
Key K is closed at t = 0. Current starts flowing and charging of capacitor starts.
At any instant t, q is charge on capacitor. I is current in the circuit. E K

(a) q = q0 [1 – e–t/jRC] where q0 = EC is maximum charge

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q I
–t
E RC
(b) I  e t / RC = I 0 e q0
R I0
0.63q0
 At t = 0, I = E/R
0.37 I0
t t
RC RC
(c) RC = time constant. During charging, in t = RC, q = 0.63q0.

(d) A capacitor behaves like closed switch at t = 0 and open switch at t = .


2. Discharging + –
+ – R
+ –
Key K is closed at t = 0 + –
+ –
q0
(a) q = q0e–t/RC
K

q0
(b) I = –I0e–t/RC where, I 0  q
RC
q0
(c) RC = time constant ()

at t = 0, q = q0
0.37 q0
at t = RC, q = 0.37 q0 0.135 q0
t
at t = 2RC, q = 0.135 q0 RC 2RC

(d) The charge and potential difference both decay exponentially like radio-active decay with half life
= 0.693 RC

HEATING EFFECT OF CURRENT

Joule’s Law
When I current is passed through a device having resistance R, then the amount of heat produced in time t
H = I2Rt in joules
I 2Rt
 H in calories
J
where J = mechanical equivalent of heat = 4.186 or 4.2 J/cal

Electric Power
Let a charge dq flows through a device from a to b, (from higher potential to lower potential).
V
I
Device
a b

E
Decrease in potential energy dU = Vdq = VIdt
dU
Power associated with this flow =  VI
dt
Rate of electrical energy transferred to the device = VI

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Unit of power is volt-ampere (V × A).


 1 watt = 1V × A

Rating of an Appliance : A device is rated as P watt, V volts. This means that when the device is connected
to V volt, it will consume a power P.
V2
Resistance of the device R  is constant, while both P and V are variable.
P
Generally if a voltage more than the rated voltage is applied, the device may get destroyed (like a bulb may fuse).

Power in a D.C. Circuit


V = Potential difference across the device
I = Current through the device
Results
1. Total power supplied by the cell = EI I
Device
(equals to rate of consumption of chemical energy)
2. Source of power is chemical energy stored in the cell.
3. Rate of heat loss inside the cell = I2r I
4. Net power output = EI – I2r = (E – Ir) I = VI E r
5. Power delivered to device = VI V
6. When the device is purely resistive like a bulb, then
V2
V = IR,  P = VI = I 2 R =
R
Applications
1. Series combination I
P1 = I 2 R1, P2 = I 2 R2, P3 = I 2 R3 R1 R2 R3
 P1 : P2 : P3 :: R1 : R2 : R3
V
PTotal = P1 + P2 + P3 = I2 [R1 + R2 + R3]
r=0
V2
=
R1  R2  R3

nV 2
Note : For n identical resistors, PTotal 
R

2. Parallel combination R1
2 2 2
V V V R2
P1  , P2  , P3 
R1 R2 R3
1 1 1 R3
P1 : P2 : P3 :: : :
R1 R2 R3
V
V2 V2 V2
PTotal =   r=0
R1 R2 R3

1 1 1 1 1
= V 2   where   
R  R R1 R 2 R 3

nV 2
Note : For n identical resistors, PTotal 
R

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3. Short circuit
V
(a) When switch ‘S’ is open I 
3R
R R R
V2
Total power =
3R
V2 V
S
Power dissipated in each resistor is
9R
(b) When switch S is closed (third resistor’s short circuited)

V
I
2R R R R
V2
Total power =
2R
V2 V S
Power dissipated in each resistor is
4R

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem


In an electrical circuit, the maximum power can be drawn from the battery when external resistance is same
as the internal resistance of the battery. Power drawn in the external resistor is

E 2R dP (R  r )2  2R (R  r ) I
E r
P  I 2R  2
  E2 0
(R  r ) dR (R  r ) 4

 R=r
R
Results :

E2
1. Power in external resistor is .
4r
P
E2 Pmax
2. Dissipated power in internal resistance is .
4r
E2
3. Total power supplied by the cell is .
2r
r=R R
4. Efficiency of the circuit is 50 %.

Fuse Wire
1. Made of lead and tin alloy.
2. Has low melting point.
3. Current capacity (current at which it blows)

r3
I2 

(a) I  r3/2,

1
(b) I ,

(c) I is independent of length of fuse wire.
4. Time taken to melt the fuse wire t  A2 or t  r4, ‘t’ is also independent of length.
5. A fuse wire is connected in series with main supply.



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