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ICT & Research Methodology By DR. ALIYU RUFAI YAURI
ICT & Research
Methodology
By
DR. ALIYU RUFAI YAURI
Principles of Scientific Reseach  Research is: ◦ “General definition is “finding answers to questions
Principles of Scientific Reseach
 Research is:
◦ “General definition is “finding answers to questions in an organized
and logical and systematic fashion”
◦ Is the same with:
“Research is the systematic approach to obtaining
and confirming new and reliable knowledge”
– Systematic and orderly (following a series of
steps)
– Purpose is new knowledge, which must be
reliable
Types of Research  APPLIED RESEARCH  BASIC RESEARCH  CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH  DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
Types of Research
 APPLIED RESEARCH
 BASIC RESEARCH
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
 EXPLORATORY RESEARCH
 GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH
 HISTORICAL RESEARCH
 PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH  Refers to as Scientific study and Research that That seek to solve
APPLIED RESEARCH
 Refers to as Scientific study and Research that
That seek to solve practical problems.
 Use to find practical solution to day to days problems
such as cure for illness, develop innovative
technology.
 Have commercial value
 It is not just for knowledge acquiring sake
 Examples of Applied research are:
• Improve Agriculture crop production
• Find cure to an illness
• Improve the energy efficiently of home, offices, e.t.c
Basic Research  Refer to as founder mental or pure research  This research is
Basic Research
 Refer to as founder mental or pure research
 This research is driven by scientific curiosity or
interest in a scientific question.
 The main motivation of basic research is to expand
human knowledge
 Not to create or invent something
 There is no commercial value in this research
 Examples of basic research are:
◦ How did Universe was created
◦ How unborn child feed in mother womb
◦ What is the specific genetic code of fruit fly.
Correlation Research  Refers to systematic investigation or statistical study among two or more variables.
Correlation Research
 Refers to systematic investigation or statistical study
among two or more variables.
 Motivation is to determine relationship/ association/
correlation among two or more variables.
 Example Testing Hypothesis: Listening to music
reduce one’s blood BP.
 This can be done in two way: Experimental or survey
Descriptive Research  Research that provide an accurate descriptive of a particular individual, situation or
Descriptive Research
 Research that provide an accurate descriptive of a
particular individual, situation or group.
 Also known as statistical research
 In general, DR deals with everything that can be
counted and studied which has an impact of the life
of people it deals with
 Example:
◦ Finding the most frequent disease that affect the children of
a particular town.
◦ The reader of the research will find a way of preventing his
children from such disease.
Ethnographic Research Refer to investigation of a culture through an in- depth study of such
Ethnographic Research
Refer to investigation of a culture through an in-
depth study of such culture.
 All these researches can be classified into two group:  Qualitative Research  Quantitative
 All these researches can be classified into two
group:
 Qualitative Research
 Quantitative Research
Qualitative Research  Involved dealing with phenomena difficult or impossible to quantify mathematically.  It
Qualitative Research
 Involved dealing with phenomena difficult or
impossible to quantify mathematically.
 It is used to gain an understanding of underlying
reasons, opinions, and motivations
 In-dept understanding of human behavior and the
reason that govern such behavior
 Qualitative data is typically descriptive data
 Qualitative research is useful for studies at the individual level, and to find out,
 Qualitative research is useful for studies at the
individual level, and to find out, in depth, the ways
in which people think or feel (e.g. case studies).
 Qualitative methods examine the why and how of
decision making, not just what, where, when, or
"who"
Quantitative Research  Refer to systematic empirical investigation of any phenomena via statistical, mathematical or
Quantitative Research
 Refer to systematic empirical investigation of any
phenomena via statistical, mathematical or
computational technique
 The main Objective of QR is develop end employ
mathematical models, theories or hypothesis
pertaining a phenomena.
 Quantitative research is about quantifying the relationships between variables. ◦ We measure them, and
 Quantitative research is about quantifying the
relationships between variables.
◦ We measure them, and
◦ construct statistical models to explain what we
observed.
 Goal: Prediction, control, confirmation, test
hypotheses.
 Descriptive research
 Correlation research
Research Question/Problem  The World is filled with several unanswered Questions and un solved problems
Research Question/Problem
 The World is filled with several unanswered
Questions and un solved problems
 Every where we look, we see things that makes us
wonder and we speculates to as questions.
 Asking question lead to the first spark of research.
 Asking question lead to the formulation of
Research Problem
Source of problem(s)
Source of problem(s)
Literature Review
Literature Review

Formulating Research Question(s)/ Problem Statement?

 Research question is an iterative (repeated) process.
 Research question is an iterative (repeated)
process.
At the end of problem formulation the researcher should have:
At the end of problem formulation the
researcher should have:
Conducting a Literature Review • Examine relevant literature in the field. • Summarizing the important
Conducting a Literature Review
• Examine relevant literature in the field.
• Summarizing the important previous papers
• Giving an indication of how your study has developed from
this previous work.
Searching for Topic or Question
Searching for Topic or Question
Searching for Topic or Question
Searching for Topic or Question
Purpose of a Literature Review
Purpose of a Literature Review
Where Do you Find the Research Literature
Where Do you Find the Research
Literature
Evaluation of Published Research
Evaluation of Published
Research
Evaluation of Published Research
Evaluation of Published
Research
Evaluation of Published Research
Evaluation of Published
Research
How to prepare a well-written, complete LR?
How to prepare a well-written,
complete LR?
A Literature Review Search Plan • Evaluate Resources • Select and narrow the topic •
A Literature Review Search Plan
• Evaluate Resources
• Select and narrow the topic
• Learn to use literature search tools
• Plan to locate and scan read articles
• Allow time to extract the major findings
• Final stage - synthesize
How to Write A Good Literature Review?
How to Write A Good Literature
Review?