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Law Enforcement Administration

(Police Organization and Administration with Police Planning)

1. History of Early Policing (Spanish Era) in The Philippines;

In 1712, the Cabaneros de Seguridad Publica were formed as a mounted riflemen
or cavalry whose duties expanded in 1781 from a special commission as government
custodian of the tobacco monopoly to a distinct group charge with the duties of
a harbor, port, border and river police.
In January 8, 1836, by a virtue of Royal Decree, the Rural Police known as the
Guardilleros were established in each town. The law provided that five percent
(5%) of able bodied male inhabitants of each province was to be drafted in the
police service for a three year tour of duty.
In February 2, 1852, the Guardia Civil was organized with the dual function of
a soldier and a policemen whose duties ranges from the suppression of brigandage
by means of patrolling unsettled territories, detention of petty and local
insurrection, the enforcement of tax collection and was armed as the Spanish
infantry to partially relieve the Spanish Peninsula Troops of their work in
Policing Towns.

2. History of Modern Policing in the Philippines;

In July 31, 1901, the Western Police District formerly the Manila Police
Department was organized and founded.
In August 8, 1901, the Philippine Constabulary was organized. Pursuant to
Commonwealth Act No. 343 dated June 23, 1938, it was put to a status as a
National Police Force.
In October 12, 1939, the Quezon City Police Department was founded.
In June 19, 1947, a Law passed, R.A. 157 creating the National Bureau of
Investigation (NBI) under the department of Justice.
In September 8, 1966, R.A. 4864 was enacted known as the Police Act of 1966.
This law provides the legal guideline in undertaking at a National Level Reform
which contributed to the improvement of police efficiency and performance.
(National Police Commission or NAPOLCOM)
In July 6, 1967, the founding of the PC Metropolitan Command, to assist in
combating criminality in the Metropolitan area.
In August 8, 1975, during the Martial Law Regime of President Ferdinand E.
Marcos, the Integrated National Police was organized by virtue of PD 765. it is
composed of the Philippine Constabulary as the nucleus and the INP forces as
components under the Department of National Defense.
In December 13, 1990, R.A. 6975 the DILG Act created among others the
Philippine National Police, the Bureau of Fire Protection, the Bureau of Jail
Management and Penology and the Philippine Public Safety College under a
reorganized Department of the Interior and Local Government. The law paved way
for the achievement of a Philippine Police Force which is Civilian in Character
national in scope.

3. Fundamental Theories of Police Service;

The Home Rule Theory – Law Enforcers or Policemen are regarded as servants of
the community, who rely for the efficiency of their functions upon the express
needs of the people. In this concept, policemen are civil servants whose key
duty is the preservation of public peace and security. This is practiced in the
United States and in England where the governmental structure follows as
decentralized pattern.
The Continental Theory – In this concept, policemen are regarded as state or
servants of the higher authorities. This theory prevails in European countries
where the governmental organization follows the centralized pattern, e.g. Spain,
Italy and France. The people have no share or little participation with the
duties nor connection with the police organization.

4. Two prevailing concepts which pertain to efficiency of Police Service;

The Old Concept – Police service give the impression of being merely
suppressive machinery. This philosophy advocates that the yardstick of Police
competence is the increasing number of arrest, throwing offenders in detention
facilities rather than trying to prevent them from committing crimes.
The Modern Concept – This thought of Police service regards police as the first
line of defense of the Criminal Justice System, an organ of crime prevention.
Under this concept, police efficiency is measured by the decreasing number of
crimes. It further broadens police activities to cater to social services, and
has for its mission the welfare of the individual as well as that of the
community in general.

5. What are the Principles of Patrol Force Organization?

Organizing by Function – the grouping of similar tasks, jobs, assignments and

functions together and placing them under a single supervisor or command
Simplicity – the plan in organizing should be simple enough to be clearly
understood, yet detailed enough to provide clear lines of authority and
Line and Staff Principle – "line" is in charge with the accomplishment of the
basic police tasks while "staff" is designed to support the line function.
Chain of Command – the vertical hierarchy of command from top to bottom of the
Police Organization. It is otherwise as the "Scalar Principle".
Span of Control – simply entails that there is a limit to the number of person
that one can effectively supervise, thus, the authority to supervise the others
is delegated to the immediate subordinates by a superior officer.
Unity of Command – it entails that only one person should be in command of the
entire organization. Thus, a Police Officer should be responsible to one and
only superior at any given time and situation.

6. What are the Organizational units in the Police Organization?

The Organizational Units in the Police Organization are the functional units
and territorial units.

7. What is composed of Territorial Units?

Post – fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty.

Route – length of streets designed for patrol, also referred to as "line beat"
Beat – are assigned for patrol.
Sector – area containing two or more beats, routes or post.
District – geographical subdivision of a city for police purposes.
Area – a section or territorial division of a large city each comprised of
designated districts.

8. What composed of functional units?

Bureau – largest functional unit.

Division – primary subdivision of a bureau
Section – functional unit within a division that is necessary for
Unit – smallest specialization.
9. What is meant by Organizational Structure?

Organizational Structure refers to a mechanical means of depicting the

relationships that exist between individuals or groups of persons.

10. What are the types of Organizational Structure?

Line Organization – It is an organization wherein the authority and the

responsibility extends in a direct line from top to bottom. Authority is
definite and Absolute.
Functional Organization – It is an organization wherein te functional
responsibility of each functional manager is limited to a particular activity
over which he has control, regardless of who performs the functions. This
involves multi-headed leadership.
Line and Staff Organization – It is the combination of line and functional
organization. Channel of responsibility is to think and provide expertise for
the line units. (this type of structure is used by the PNP)

11. What are the classifications of functions in an organization?

Line Function – refers to the lifeblood or the working force of the Police
Department. Example: patrol, criminal investigation, traffic control etc.
Staff Function – is the one who support the line function. Staff members are
necessarily advisors and highly specialized.
Example: planning, reseach, legal advice, budgetting, etc.
Auxiliary Functions – are involved in logistical operations of the department.
Example: record keeping, training, communication, maintenance, jailing etc.

12. What is meant by Span of Control?

Span of Control – refers to the maximum number of subordinates at a given

position that superior can supervise effectively.

13. What is meant by Scalar Principle?

Scalar Principle – shows the vertical hierarchy of the organization which

defines an unbroken chain of units from top to bottom describing the flow of

14. What is meant by Unity of Command?

Unity of Command – explains that subordinates could only be under the contro of
one superior.

15. What is meant by Chain of Command?

Chain of Command – suggests that communication should ordinarily go upward

through established channels in the hierarchy.

16. What is Distribution of Police Functions?

Patrol Functions (50%)

Criminal Investigation (15%)
Traffic Function (10%)
Vice and Juvenile Related Functions (10%)
Administrative Functions (10%)
Auxiliary Functions (5%)

17. What is Delagation of Authority?

Delegation of Authority – is the division of task of command among the officers
of the various unit. The authority of Chief is limited to to the command of
members within the pyramid of that officer's authority. That officers in turn
delegates the authority given to him to the heads of smaller units. This process
is continued to the lowest level that of execution.

18. Divisions in Delegation of Authority.

Policy Formulation – involve what are to be done in the form of orders or broad
statement of action.
Direction – deals with procedures what is to be done who is to do it, when,
where, and how is to be done.
Supervision – deals with the assistance and guidance given to ensure successful
Execution – deals with the performance of task to be done with commensurate
authority to fulfill the responsibility.

19. What is Command of Responsibility?

Command of Responsibility - An officer of the Police Force who is directly or

immediately in command shall be answerable under the doctrine of Command
Responsibility for any of the following:
Misfeasance – It is the improper performance of some act which might be
lawfully done. In the police service this is equivalent to irregularities in the
performance of duties.
Malfeasance – Also known as misconduct, it is the performance of some act which
ought not to be done.
Nonfeasance – It is the omission of some act which ought to be performed. It is
also reffered to as neglect of duty.

20. What are the Exemptions to the Doctrine of "Command Responsibility"

When the commanding officer was not properly informed of the acts or omission
of his subordinates;
When the commander was properly informed and he conducted an immediate
investigation of such act or omission; and
When he acted upon lawful orders from higher authorities.

21. Who are the Commissioned Officers?

Director General (Chief)

Deputy Director General (1) for Administration and (1) for Operation
Chief Superintendent
Senior Superintendent
Chief Inspector
Senior Inspector

22. Who are the Non-Commissioned Officers?

Senior Police Officer IV

Senior Police Officer III
Senior Police Officer II
Senior Police Officer I
Police Officer III
Police Officer II
Police Officer I

23. Appointment of PNP Officers and Members:

(a) Police Officer I to Senior Police Officer IV. – Appointed by the PNP
Regional Director for Regional Personnel or by the Chief of the PNP for the
National Headquarters personnel and attested by the Civil Service

(b) Inspector to Superintendent. – Appointed by the Chief of the PNP, as

recommended by their immediate superiors, attested by the Civil Service

(c) Senior Superintendent to Deputy Director General. – Appointed by the

President upon recommendation of the Chief of the PNP, with proper
endorsement by the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and subject to
confirmation by the Commission on Appointments; and

(d) Director General. – Appointed by the President from among the Senior
Officers down to the rank of Chief Superintendent in the service, subject to
confirmation by the Commission on Appointments: Provided, That the Chief of
the PNP shall serve a tour of duty not exceed four (4) years: Provided,
further, That, in times of war or other National Emergency declared by the
Congress, the President may extend such tour of duty.
24. What are the Mandatory Requirements in Regular Promotion?

Time In Grade

25. What is Time-In-Grade?

Total period of time a candidate has acquired in a certain grade regardless of

his status of appointment therein. While seniority in rank is the total period
acquired in certain grade in pertinent status.

Time In Grade Requirements:

(a) Superintendent to Sr. Supt. 4 years

(b) Chief Inspector to Supt. 4 years
(c) Sr. Inspector to Chief Insp. 3 years
(d) Inspector to Sr. Insp. 3 years
(e) SPO3 to SPO4 2 years
(f) SPO2 to SPO3 2 years
(g) SPO1 to SPO2 2 years
(h) PO3 to SPO1 4 years
(i) PO2 to PO3 3 years
(j) PO1 to PO2 1 year

(Industrial Security Management)
1. What is Security?

Security – it is the condition of being free from fear, doubt, apprehension,

anxiety and danger. It implies a certainty of safety.

2. What is R.A. 5487?


3. When R.A. 5487 implemented?

R.A. 5487 is implemented in June 13, 1969 and it was amended and codified on
October 8, 1994.

4. Amendments to R.A. 5487.

Presidential Decree No. 11

Presidential Decree No. 100
Presidential Decree No. 1919

5. Who is the Author of R.A. 5487?

Teodolo M. Natividad

6. Who is the father of Security Agency?

Senator Alejandro Almendrast


A. Security Management Staff

Security Director (SD) – Agency Manager/ Chief Security Officer
Security Executive Director (SED) – Asst. Agency Manager/ Assist. Chief
Security Officer
Security Staff Director (SSD) – Staff Director for Operations and Staff
Director for Administrations

B. Line Leadership Staff

Security Supervisor 3 – Detachment Commanders
Security Supervisor 2 – Chief Inspector
Security Supervisor 1 – Inspector

C. Security Guard

Security Guard 1 – Watchman / Guard

Security Guard 2 – Shift-in-Charge
Security Guard 3 – Post-in-Charge

8. What is Physical Security?

PHYSICAL SECURITY – It is the broadest branch of Security. It is defined as a

system of barriers placed between the matters protected and the potential
intruder. It is concerned utilization of physical measures to prevent
unauthorized access to facilities, plants, equipment and safeguard them against
man-man natural hazards.

9. There are Three Lines of Physical Defense namely;

PERIMETER DEFENSE – such as barriers, perimeters fences or guards at the gate
are considered as the first line defense.
INSIDE PERIMETER DEFENSE – such as doors, floors, windows, walls, roofs, grills
and other entries to a building is referred to as the second line of defense.
STORAGE SYSTEM – such as safes and vaults are considered as the third line of

10. It is considered as first line of defense.

BARRIER – is any structure or physical device capable of of deterring, delaying

illegal access into an installation. If placed to supplement the protection of
an inside or outside perimeter it is used to define limits to the said
installition. They also may referred as perimeter barrier.

11. What are the different kinds of Barriers?

Natural – Are those natural topographic features that lend themselves to

denying or hindering entry to an installation. The presence of rivers, seas,
cliffs, canyons or other terrain difficult to traverse is an ideal natural
barrier. To fully exploit its positive contribution to the security system, the
natural features must be evaluated to determine its positive and negative points
in terms of the denial to access into a facility they may provide.
Structural - A permanent or a semi-permanent structure that lends itself to
hindering access to an installation. It is primarily constructed for two main
purposes, to deny access and to protection from exposure to natural elements.
Human – Is a systematic employment of humans as barriers between the potential
intruder and the matters to be protected. The human barrier would give the alarm
in the event of threat to security, apprehend the unauthorized person, identify
the personnel in entering or leaving the facility or any combination of the
three. However, humans are subject to being influenced by a wide variety of
Animal – An animal barrier is used in partially providing a guarding system or
in augmentation thereto. The cheapest animal used is geese while sentry dogs,
like the German Shepard dogs are usually utilized in the security business. A
sentry dog is valuable due to its keen smell and hearing. A noise or sound
approximately 26 yards are audible to dogs and it can smell scents at least 100
yards away. The sentry dogs are incorruptible character and is completely loyal,
it is a predator by instinct hence guarding qualities are natural. However, its
ability to check identity is its perceived weak point.
Energy Barriers – Popularly utilized is the employment of electrical,
mechanical, electronic energy to impose a deterrent to entry a potential
intruder and to advertise his presence. Protective lighting system and
protective alarms are commonly used.

12. Principles of Physical Security.

There is no impenetrable barrier. If an unfriendly organization is willing to

devote attention, time, money, personnel and devises passing any type of barrier
is conceivable.
Physical Security must be built upon a system of defense in depth. The
accumulation of several barriers or depth after depth will provide a measurable
time delay to intrusion into a facility and it will allow control of any
foreseeable penetration.
Each installation is different. Variable factors such as location, type of
plant, personnel would make any installation distinct even though similar
security measures are adopted.

13. Types of Perimeter.

Inside Perimeter – A line protection adjacent to a protected area and passing
thru points of possible entry, such as doors, windows and tunnels.
Outside Perimeter – A line protection surrounding and removed from a protected
area, such as fence and walls.

14. Types of Perimeter Barrier Openings:

Gates and Doors – When frequently used should be controlled by guards. Inside
the perimeter, it should be locked when inactive use. Preferably the locks
should be changed at least once a year.
Sidewalk or Utility Elevator – These should be manned and locked at times when
not in use for it will provide immediate access to an installation or facility.
Utility Openings – Sewers, air intake, exhaust tunnels should be protected by
bar grills, filter taps particularly if the opening has a cross section of
ninety-six square inches where a man of petit physique may crawl into.

15. What is Fence?

Is an independent structure designed to control physical and/ or visual access

between outside areas and are classified into two types:

1. Solid – A solid fence is constructed of opaque material to deny visual

2. Full View – A full view fence is constructed to permit visual access
but primarily designed for control or physical access to

16. Different types of Locks:

Warded Locks – The simplest form of lock is a ward lock which uses a bolt
containing a notch called talon. The bolt is removed backward or forward by
engaging a key in the talon. It offers little degree of security and is merely
used to afford one for obtaining privacy.
Disc Tumbler Locks – It contains one or more pieces of metal different height
known as tumblers, which intercepts the bolt and prevents it from being moved
until the tumblers are raised or released by action. It is usually installed in
cars and would afford delay of at least 5 to 10 minutes.
Lever Locks – Similar in design with disc tumbler locks, it is commonly
installed in safe deposit boxes and are deemed pick proof since it can be
operated by utilizing a combination by means of dial.
Cylinder Lock – Usually installed at home, also called a night latch and is
operated by a key on the outside and a knob on the inside.
Magnetic Locks – Similar in design with cylinder locks, except that the pins
needs a suitably magnetized key to bring them into alignment and allow the plug
to be turned to release the bolt.
Electro-Magnetic Locks – The doors are closed by magnetism and the plates are
operated by means of electricity. When the power is on and the door is locked,
it can resist a pressure of more than 1,000 lbs.
Combination Locks – For installation in safe and bank vaults, it can have an
intricate system of at least 1 million possible combination consisting of more
than six dials, it affords the maximum delay in terms of efficiency.
Code-Operator Locks – They are key less locks. They are opened by pressing a
series of buttons in proper sequence. In several designs, time locks are
operated when the series is incorrectly entered.
Card Operated Locks – Utilized card which are coded in notched, embedded or
electro-magnetic strips. It is fitted with a recording device which identifies
the user and indicates the time of use.

17. Types of Keys:

Grand Master Key – A key that will open everything in a system involving two or
more master key groups.
Master Key - A key that is capable of opening series of locks.
Sub-Master Key – A key that will open a lock within a particular grouping or
particular area in a given facility.
Change Key – A key to a single lock within a system of locks in an

Note: Under Art 304 RPC, possession of picklocks and other similar tools is
punishable by arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its
minimum period.

While Under Art 305 RPC, such tools, picklocks and genuine keys stolen
from the owner are considered as false keys.

18. What is Padlock?

Is a detachable lock having a sliding harps which passes through a staple ring
and secures fixtures and other storage containers.

19. What is Peterman?

A term used in England for lock pickers, safe combinations crackers and
penetrators or restricted areas.

20. Types of Protected Lighting:

Stationary – This is commonly used to flood areas continuously in a fixed

Standby/Emergency – This system is turned manually or automatically in cases of
power interruption.
Movable – Are manually operated and portable lights used to supplement existing
lighting fixtures in times of darkness.

21. Types of Lighting Equipment:

Floodlights – It projects light in a concentrated beam. It is ideal to use in

illumination of buildings, fences, perimeter areas and boundaries.
Searchlights – Are incandescent lamps which are highly focused and utilized to
pinpoint possible threat areas.
Fresnel Lights – It projects a wide beam illumination in a long and narrow
horizontal stripes, approximately 180 degrees in the horizontal plane and 15 to
30 degrees in the vertical plane.
Street Lights – Widely used in parking areas and produces diffused lights.

22. What is Protective Alarms?

Are devices and contrivance installed inside and outside a facility or

buildings to compliment and provide additional security measure and operates to
advertise entry into sensitive and protective areas. It signals and alerts the
security personnel to intrusions within the compound. The alarm is activated in
cases of tampering into the circuitry or activated upon intrusion.

23. Types of Alarm Detection System:

Central Station System – This type of alarm system utilizes a station located
outside the compound. When the alarm is sounded, the security immediately calls
the attention of law enforcement unit and fire teams as the case may be. The
alarm panel system is located outside the facility but manned by company
Local Alarm System – Once the security has been breached, the siren is sounded
or a light flashes in a remote stations located in the immediate vicinity of the
installation. It would afford response of personnel to the areas wherein
intruders were able to penetrate.
Local Alarm by Chance System – This is similar in function with local alarms
but the response would depend on persons who are alerted within the immediate
vicinity of the place where intrusion was committed, hence it gives no
predictable response.
Proprietary System – This is a system wherein the panel or station is located
inside the premises of the compound. It is fully owned and operated by the
company and response is assured with the least time of delay.
Auxiliary System – The circuitry is directly linked to local police stations
and when activated it immediately notifies said personnel for prompt response.
This system is prone to false alarm and is considered unpopular. However, banks
and other vital establishments are fitted with such devices for response in
cases where the alarm is activated.
Dial Alarm System – This system automatically dials the numbers of personnel
concerned in cases of breach of security. It utilized phone lines thru fiber
optics and expensive alarm system which is easy to install and operate.

24. What is Protective Cabinets?

Referred to as the final line of defense, it is a high security storage area

where papers, plans, cash and other negotiable instruments are kept.

25. Types of Cabinets:

Safe – It is metallic container used primarily for safekeeping of documents and

small items. It should be at least 750 lbs. in weight or anchored to the
building or if lighter. The wall should be at least one inch thick and the door
1 1/2 inch thick.
Vault – It is a heavily constructed fire resistance storage facility installed
four inches higher than the floor and part of the building structure. The door
of vaults should be at least 6 inches thick. The vault wall, ceiling, floor
should be reinforced by concrete at least 12 inch thick. It is normally moisture
and condensation resistant with electrical conduits which should not exceed 1
1/2 inch in diameter. Standard size vaults can store up to 5,000 cubic feet and
fire resistant for at least 6 hours.
File Room – Constructed lighter than a vault but bigger in capacity it is
installed as part of the building which holds up to 10,000 cubic meters of
essential items. At least 12 feet in height, with enough ventilation and fire
proof of at least 1 hour.

26. Types of Security Hazards:

Human Hazard – An act nor condition caused by humans which affects the safe
operation of a facility. They include sabotage, theft, pilferage and espionage.
Natural Hazard – Caused by natural phenomena which results in damage,
disturbance and problems of the normal functions. These include floods, lighting
storms, typhoons and volcanic eruption.

5. What is Patrol?

The activity of roaming around in a given area to maintain peace and order and
ensure public safety;
It is claimed to be the essence of Police Operation;
It is the backbone of the Police Department; It is the single largest unit in
the Police Organization that cannot be eliminated;
It is the form of Police activity that visibly enhances the welfare of the
It is also regarded as the nucleus or operational heart of the Police
Organization; the primary police function.
6. What is the traditional development of Patrol in the Philippines?

Traditional foot Patrolling in the Philippines was initiated in August 7, 1901

by virtue of Act 183, which was known as the Charter of Manila. Later on Bicycle
Patrol is introduced in 1939 by the Manila Police. On the other hand, the first
Automobile Patrol was

Law Enforcement Administration - the process involved in ensuring strict

compliance, proper obedience of laws and related statutes. Focuses on the
policing process or how law enforcement agencies are organized and manage in
order to achieve the goals of law enforcement most effectively, efficiently and

Law - the system of rules that a particular country or community recognizes

as regulating the actions of its members and may enforce by the imposition of

Enforcement - means to compel obedience to a law, regulation or command.

Administration - an organizational process concerned with the implementation of

objectives and plans and internal operating efficiency. Connotes
bureaucratic structure and behavior, relative routine decision-making and
maintenance of the internal order.

Sir Robert Peel - considered a "father of law enforcement".

Sir Robert Peels Nine Principles of Policing

1. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime
and disorder.
2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public
approval of police actions.
3. Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in
voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect
of the public.
4. The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes
proportionally to the necessity of the use of force.
5. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but
by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law.
6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the
law or to restore order only when the expertise of persuasion, advice and
warning is found to be insufficient.
7. Police at all time should maintain a relationship with the public that gives
reality to the historic tradition; the police are the public and the
public are the police. The police being only full time individuals
charged with the duties that are incumbent on all of the citizens.
8. Police should always direct their actions strictly towards
their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary.
9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder not the
visible evidence of police action in dealing with it.

Administration of Police Organization

Police - One of the pillars of the criminal justice system that has the specific
responsibility of maintaining law and order and combating crime within the

- Comes from Latin "politia"-civil administration which itself

derives from the ancient Greek police "city"
Administration - an organizational process concerned with the implementation of
objectives and plans and internal operating efficiency.
Organization - a group of persons working together for a common goal or

Police Organization - a group of trained personnel in the field of public safety

administration engaged in the achievement of goals and objectives that promotes
the maintenance of peace and order, protection of life and property, enforcement
of the laws and the prevention of crimes.

Enforcement - means to compel obedience to a law, regulation or command.

Law Enforcement Agency - pertains to an organization responsible for enforcing

the laws.

Objectives - refer to the purpose by which the organization was created. Refer
to the goals of the organization.

Supervision - means the act of watching over the work or tasks of the members of
the organization to ensure that desired results are achieved.

Management - the process of directing and facilitating the work of people

organized in formal groups in order to achieve objectives. Judicious or wise use
of resources (manpower, material, money, equipment, supplies and time).

Hierarchy - represents the formal relationship among superiors and subordinates

in any given organization. Serves as the framework for the flow of authority
downward and obedience upward, through the department.

Authority - the right to command and control the behavior of employees in lower
positions within an organizational hierarchy. Must be viewed in terms of
prescribed roles rather than of individuals. A particular position within
the organization. Carries the same regardless of who occupies that position.

Management/Administrative Functions

1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Directing
4. Controlling
5. Staffing
6. Reporting
7. Budgeting

Principles of efficient Management

* Division of work - work specialization can increase efficiency with the same
amount of effort.

* Authority and Responsibility- authority includes the right to command and the
power to require obedience. One cannot have authority without responsibility.

* Discipline - necessary for an organization to function effectively, however,

the state of the disciplinary process depends upon the quality of its leaders.

* Unity of Command - subordinate should receive orders from one superior only.

* Scalar Chain - the hierarchy of authority is the order of ranks from the
highest to the lowest levels of the organization. Shows the vertical hierarchy
of the organization which defines an unbroken chain of units from top to bottom
describing explicitly the flow of authority.
Organizational Units in the Police Organization
1. Functional Units

Bureau - the largest organic functional unit within a large department;

comprised of several divisions.

Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau.

Section - functional unit within a division that is necessary for


Unit - functional group within a section or the smallest functional group within
an organization.

2. Territorial Units

Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty.

Route - a length of streets designated for patrol purpose, also called line

Beat - an area designed for patrol purposes whether foot or motorized.

Sector - an area containing two or more beat, route or post.

District - a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes, usually

with its own station.

Area - a section or territorial division of a large city each comprised of

designated districts.



POLITEIA – Greek word which means government of the city

POLITIA – Roman word which means condition of the state or government

POLICE – French word which was later adopted by the English language



Policemen are regarded as servants of the community, who rely for the
efficiency of their functions upon the express needs of the people.
 Policemen are civil servants whose key duty is the preservation of public
peace and security.

 Policemen are regarded as state or servants of the higher authorities

 The people have no share or have little participation with the duties nor
connection with the police organization.



 Police service gives the impression of being merely a suppressive

 This philosophy advocates that the measurement of police competence is the
increasing number of arrests, throwing offenders in detention facilities
rather than trying to prevent them from committing crimes.

 Regards police as the first line of defense of the criminal justice
system, an organ of crime prevention.
 Police efficiency is measured by the decreasing number of crimes.
 Broadens police activities to cater to social services and has for its
mission the welfare of the individual as well as that of the community in


 The family of the offended individual was expected to assume
responsibility for justice.
 The family of the victim was allowed to exact vengeance.
 Ancient rulers had elite unit to protect them
 Created the MEDJAYS, a form of police force whose duties include
guarding of The tombs and apprehending thieves
 Introduced the use of dogs as guards and protectors.
 Created the first organized police force called VIGILES OF ROME, or
VIGILES URBANI (watchmen of the city), which had the primary task of
firefighting and policing
 The Vigiles acted as night watch, apprehending thieves, keeping an
eye out for burglars and hunting down runaway slaves, and were on
occasion used to maintain order in the streets
 The Vigiles dealt primarily with petty crimes and looked for
disturbances of the peace while they patrolled the streets
 Created a special unit called PRAETORIAN GUARDS, a special force of
guards used by Roman Emperors as the Emperors' personal guards
 As personal guards of the Emperor, their primary duty was to protect
the Emperor from assassination and other forms of attack against the
 required all males aged 12 and above to join a group of nine to
form a TYTHING
 members of the tything are called a TYTHINGMEN
 A CONSTABLE served as a leader of ten tythings
 The primary task of the things was to protect their village from
thieves and animals
 Tythings were later organized into SHIRES
 A shire was headed by a leader called SHIRE REEVE, which is the
origin of the word “sheriff”
 Their duty was to apprehend offenders
 A parish official charged with controlling crimes
 Appointed to serve for one year
 Duties included organizing watchmen to guard the gates
 During trouble, the watchman would raise a “HUE AND CRY”,
a call to arms where the rest of the parish would stop what
they were doing and come to the aid of the constable.


a. BOWSTREET RUNNERS - a group of men organized to arrest offenders.

 Organized by Henry Fielding, a magistrate in London, in 1749 in
London, England.
 The name was adopted from the name of the street where the office of
Henry Fielding was located.
 When Henry Fielding retired as magistrate, he was replaced by his
blind brother, John Fielding.
 The law that created the first modern police force in London
England, called the Metropolitan Police Service.
 This law was passed through the initiative of Sir Robert Peel, a
member of the Parliament.
 The headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service is the Scotland
Yard, now known as the New Scotland Yard.

SIR ROBERT PEEL - recognized as the father of modern policing system.



 Created in 1845 in New York, USA
 Recognized as the first modern style police department in the US.
 The largest police force in the world
 Modeled after the Metropolitan Police Service of London
 The oldest police department in the US
 The first night watch was established in Boston in 1631.
 Formally founded in May, 1854.

AUGUST VOLLMER - recognized as the Father of Modern Law Enforcement for his
contributions in the development of the field of criminal justice in the US
 Author of the book, Police Administration, which served as the basic guide
in the administration of the police organization in the US
 Was the first police chief of Berkeley, California.

Important Personalities in the Evolution of Philippine Policing

Brig. Gen. Rafael Crame - The first Filipino Chief of the Philippine
Constabulary in 1917.

Col. Antonio Torres - The first Filipino Chief of Police of the Manila Police
Department in 1935.

Col. Lambert Javalera - The first chief of police of the Manila Police
Department after the Philippine Independence from the United States of America
in 1946.

Dir. Gen. Cesar Nazareno - the first chief of the Philippine National Police.

OF 1998 and RA 9708


 Formerly Department of Local Government (DLG)
 reorganized under RA 6975

ORGANIZATION: - consist of:

a) The Department Proper

b) Existing Bureaus and Offices of the DLG
c) local government units (LGU)
1) provincial governors
2) city and municipal mayors
d) The National Police Commission
e) The Philippine Public Safety College
f) Philippine National Police
g) Bureau of Fire Protection
h) Bureau of Jail Management and Penology

 The PPSC, PNP, BFP and BJMP were created under RA 6975

 Headed by the Secretary to be appointed by the President and who

shall serve at the pleasure of the President
 The Secretary shall be assisted by two (2) Undersecretaries and three
(3) Assistant Secretaries
a) Undersecretary for Local Government
b) Undersecretary for Peace and Order
 No retired or resigned military officer or police official may be
appointed as Secretary within one (1) year from date of retirement or
 The Secretary is also the ex officio chairman of the National Police


1. Assist the President in the exercise of general supervision over local
2. Advise the President in the promulgation of policies, rules, regulations
and other issuances on the general supervision over local governments and
on public order and safety;
3. Establish and prescribe rules, regulations and other issuance's
implementing laws on public order and safety, the general supervision over
local governments and the promotion of local autonomy and community
empowerment and monitor compliance thereof;
4. Provide assistance towards legislation regarding local governments, law
enforcement and public safety; Establish and prescribe plans, policies,
programs and projects to promote peace and order, ensure public safety and
further strengthen the administrative, technical and fiscal capabilities
of local government offices and personnel;
5. Formulate plans, policies and programs which will meet local emergencies
arising from natural and man-made disasters; Establish a system of
coordination and cooperation among the citizenry, local executives and the
Department, to ensure effective and efficient delivery of basic services
to the public;
6. Organize, train and equip primarily for the performance of police
functions, a police force that is national in scope and civilian in


 Under RA 6975, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) was in charge
with external security while the DILG was in charge with internal security
 Under RA 8551, the Armed Forces of the Philippines is now in charge with
both internal and external security with the PNP as support through
information gathering and performance of ordinary police functions.

 An agency attached to the DILG for policy coordination

 Shall exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the

"We envision the National Police Commission as a highly dynamic, committed and
responsive administering and controlling body, actively and effectively
facilitating the evolvement of a highly professional, competent, disciplined,
credible and trustworthy PNP"


"To administer and control the Philippine National Police with the end in view
of maintaining a highly professional, competent, disciplined, credible and
trustworthy PNP”


A. Exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the

Philippine National Police (PNP) which shall mean the power to:
1. Develop policies and promulgate a police manual prescribing rules and
regulations for efficient organization, administration, and operation,
including criteria for manpower allocation distribution and deployment,
recruitment, selection, promotion, and retirement of personnel and the
conduct of qualifying entrance and promotional examinations for uniformed
2. Examine and audit, and thereafter establish standards for such purposes on
a continuing basis, the performance, activities, and facilities of all
police agencies throughout the country;
3. Establish a system of uniform crime reporting;
4. Conduct annual self-report surveys and compile statistical data for accurate
assessment of the crime situation and the proper evaluation of the
efficiency and effectiveness of all police units in the country;
5. Approve or modify plans and programs on education and training, logistical
requirements, communications, records, information systems, crime
laboratory, crime prevention and crime reporting;
6. Affirm, reverse or modify, through the National Appellate Board, personnel
administrative actions involving the demotion or dismissal from the service
imposed upon members of the Philippine National Police by the Chief of the
Philippine National Police;
7. Exercise appellate jurisdiction through the Regional Appellate Boards, over
administrative cases against policemen and over decisions on claims for
police benefits;
8. Prescribe minimum standards for arms, equipment, and uniforms and, after
consultation with the Philippine Heraldry Commission, for insignia of
ranks, awards, medals of honor;
9. Issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum in matters pertaining to the
discharge of its own powers and duties, and designate who among
its personnel can issue processes and administer oaths in connection
10. Inspect and assess the compliance of the PNP on the established criteria for
manpower allocation, distribution and deployment and their impact on
the community and the crime situation, and thereafter formulate appropriate
guidelines for maximization of resources and effective utilization of the
PNP personnel;

11. Monitor the performance of the local chief executives as deputies of the
Commission; and
12. Monitor and investigate police anomalies and irregularities.
B. Advise the President on all matters involving police functions and
C. Render to the President and to Congress an annual report of its
activities and accomplishments during the thirty (30)days after the end of
the calendar year, which shall include an appraisal of the conditions
obtaining in the organization and administration of police agencies in the
municipalities, cities and provinces throughout the country,
and recommendations for appropriate remedial legislations;
D. Recommend to the President, through the Secretary, within sixty (60) days
before the commencement of each calendar year, a crime prevention program;
E. Perform such other functions necessary to carry out the provisions of R.A.
6975, as amended, other existing laws and Presidential issuance's, and as
the President may direct.


1. One chairperson
2. Four regular commissioners
3. The Chief PNP as ex officio member
 shall serve a term of office of six (6) years without reappointment or
 three of the four regular commissioners shall come from civilian sector
and not former members of the police or military
 the fourth regular commissioner shall come from the law enforcement
sector either active or retired
 at least one (1) of the four regular commissioners shall be a woman
 from among the three regular commissioners from the civilian sector,
the Vice Chairperson shall be chosen
 the Vice Chairperson shall act as the Executive Officer of the
 refer to the organizational structure of the NAPOLCOM

Important dates in the history of modern Philippine Policing

 1901 - ACT no. 175 of the Philippine Commission established the Philippine
constabulary on august 8, 1901.
 1905 - The Philippine constabulary school was established at the sta.lucia
barracks in Intramuros on February 17, 1905.
 1908 - The Philippine constabulary school was transferred to Baguio City.
 1916 - The Philippine constabulary school was renamed academy for officers of
the Philippine constabulary.
 1917 - On December 17, 1917, Brigadier General Rafael Crame from Rizal
Province, became the first Filipino chief of the Philippine constabulary.
 1926 - The academy for officers of the Philippine constabulary was renamed
Philippine Constabulary Academy.
 1936 - The Philippine Constabulary Academy became the present day Philippine
Military Academy.
 1938 - The Philippine Constabulary became the existing and organized national
police force of the country pursuant to commonwealth act no. 343 dated June
23, 1938 and EO no. 389 dated December 23, 1950. This decree integrated local
police forces into the Philippines constabulary operational and
organizational set up.
 1966 - Congress enacted RA no. 4864, the police act of 1966. This law also
created the Police Commission (POLCOM).
 1972 - The POLCOM was reorganized as the National Police Commission.
 1975 - PD 765 was enacted. This law is called the Police Integration Law
of 1975. The Integrated National Police was established with the Philippine
Constabulary as nucleus under the Department of national Defense. The
NAPOLCOM, originally under the office of the President was transferred to the
Ministry of National defense.
 1985 - The National Police Commission was returned to the office of the
President pursuant to E.O 1040.
 1989 - Executive order 379 placed the Integrated national Police directly
under the command, supervision and control of the President. This order
vested the NAPOLCOM with the powers of administrative control and supervision
over the Integrated National Police.
 1990 - RA 6975 was passed on December 13, 1990 establishing the Philippine
National Police under a reorganized Department of the Interior and Local
Government (DILG). A new National Police Commission was created under the
 1998 - Congress passed into law RA no. 8551 on February 25, 1998, otherwise
known as the Philippine National Police reform and reorganization act of
1998. This act strengthened and expanded NAPOLCOM, its authority over the PNP
to include administration of police entrance examination and conduct pre-
charge investigation against police anomalies and irregularities and summary
dismissal of erring police members.



 Functions that carry out the major purposes of the organization,
delivering the services and dealing directly with the public.
 The backbone of the police department.
 Examples of the line functions of the police are patrolling, traffic
duties, crime investigation.
 Functions that are designed to support the line functions and assist in
the performance of the line functions
 Examples of the staff functions of the police are planning, research,
budgeting and legal advice
 Functions involving the logistical operations of the organization
 Examples are training, communication, maintenance, records management,
supplies and equipment management


 Those that perform primary or line functions
 Examples are patrol, traffic, investigation and vice control,
 Those that perform the administrative functions examples are personnel,
finance, planning and training.
 Those that perform auxiliary functions
 Examples are communication, records management, supplies.

 The systematic arrangement of the relationship of the members,
positions, departments and functions or work of the organization
 it is comprised of functions, relationships, responsibilities and
authorities of individuals within the organization


 the oldest and simplest kind; also called military
defined by its clear chain of command from the highest to the lowest
and vice versa
 depicts the line functions of the organization
 orders or commands must come from the higher l level of authority
before it can be carried out
 involves few departments
 structure according to functions and specialized units
 depicts staff functions of the organization
 responsibilities are divided among authorities who are all accountable
to the authority above.
 a combination of the line and functional kind
 combines the flow of information from the line structure with the staff
departments that service, advise, and support them
 generally more formal in nature and has many departments



 the supreme source of government for any particular organization
 the right to exercise, to decide and to command by virtue of rank and
 an organization exists because it serves a purpose.
 provides for the organization’s objectives
 provides the various actions, hence, policies, procedures, rules and
regulations of the org. are based on the statement of doctrines
 comprising behavioral regulations


 dictates that there should only be ONE MAN commanding the unit to
ensure uniformity in the execution of orders
 the maximum number of subordinates that a superior can effectively

Factors affecting the span of control:

a) Leadership qualities of the supervisors

b) Nature of the job and work conditions
c) Complexity of task
d) Education and skill of the employees

 conferring of an amount of authority by a superior position to a lower-
level position.
 the relationship between superiors and subordinates
 serves as the framework for the flow of authority downward and
obedience upward through the department

HIERARCHY - represents the formal relationship among superiors and subordinates

in any given organization
 the assignment of particular personnel to particular tasks


 the designation of certain activities or tasks as ones that must
be performed in a highly. technological, scientific or precise manner
 areas of police specialization include undercover works, crime scene
operations, legal advising, computer work, SWAT operations and others


 the designation of particular persons as having expertise in a specific
area of work
 signifies the adaptation of an individual to the requirements through
extensive training

 the arrangement of officers from top to bottom on the basis of rank or
position and authority.
 dictates that immediate commanders shall be responsible for the
effective supervision and control.


The institution of police in the Philippines formally started

during the Spanish period. The establishment of the police force was not
entirely intended for crime prevention or peacekeeping. Rather, it was created
as an extension of the colonial military establishment.

Ancient Roots

The forerunner of the contemporary police system was the practice

of barangay chieftains to select able-bodied young men to protect their barangay
during the night and were not required to work in the fields during daytime.
Among the duties of those selected were to protect the properties of the people
in the barangay and protect their crops and livestock from wild animals.
Spanish Period

Carabineros de Seguridad Publica – organized in 1712 for the purpose of carrying

the regulations of the Department of State; this was armed and considered as the
mounted police; years after, this kind of police organization discharged the
duties of a port, harbor and river police.

Guardrilleros/Cuardillo – this was a body of rural police by the Royal Decree of

18 January 1836, this decree provided that 5% of the able-bodied male
inhabitants of each province were to be enlisted in this police organization for
three years

Guardia Civil – this was created by a Royal Decree issued by the Crown on 12
February 1852 to partially relieve the Spanish Peninsular troops of their work
in policing towns, it consisted of a body of Filipino policemen organized
originally in each of the provincial capitals of the central provinces of Luzon
under the Alcalde Mayor

American Period

The Americans established the United States Philippine Commission headed by

General Howard Taft as its first governor-general. On January 9, 1901, the
Metropolitan Police Force of Manila was organized pursuant to Act No 70of the
Taft Commission. This has become the basis for the celebration of the
anniversary of the Manila’s Finest every January 9th.
ACT NO 175 – entitled “An Act Providing for the Organization and Government of
an Insular Constabulary”, enacted on July 18, 1901.

Henry T. Allen - Captain of the 6th US cavalry, a graduate of West Point class
1882. Father of the Philippine Constabulary. The first chief of the Philippine
Constabulary in 1901.

ACT NO 183 - created the Manila Police Department, enacted on July 31, 1901.

CAPT GEORGE CURRY - the first chief of police of the Manila Police Department in

Act No 255 – the act that renamed the Insular Constabulary into Philippine
enacted on October 3, 1901

Executive Order 389 – ordered that the Philippine Constabulary be one of the
four services
of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, enacted on December 23, 1940.

Post-American Period

RA 4864 – otherwise known as the Police Professionalization Act of 1966, enacted

on September 8, 1966; created the Police Commission (POLCOM) as a supervisory
agency to oversee the training and professionalization of the local police
forces under the Office of the President; later POLCOM was renamed into National
Police Commission (NAPOLCOM).

Martial Law Period

PD 765 – otherwise known as the Integration Act of 1975,enacted on August 8,

established the Integrated National Police (INP) composed of the Philippine
Constabulary (PC)
as the nucleus and the integrated local police forces as components, under the
Ministry of National Defense
 transferred the NAPOLCOM from the Office of the President to the
Ministry of National Defense

Post Martial Law Regime

Executive Order No 1012 – transferred to the city and municipal government the
supervision and direction over all INP units assigned within their locality;
issued on July 10, 1985

Executive Order No 1040 – transferred the administrative control and supervision

of the INP
from the Ministry of National Defense to the National Police Commission

RA 6975 – otherwise known as the Department of the Interior and Local Government
Act of 1990, enacted on December 13, 1990; reorganized the DILG and established
the Philippine National Police, Bureau of Fire Protection, Bureau of Jail
Management and Penology and the Philippine Public Safety College.

RA 8551 – otherwise known as the Philippine National Police Reform and

Reorganization Act
of 1998, enacted on February 25, 1998; this law amended certain provisions of RA

RA 9708 - law amending the provisions of RA 6975 and RA 8551 on the minimum
qualification for appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system;
approved on 12 August 2009.
 An Act extending for five (5) years the reglementary period for
complying with the minimum educational qualification for appointment to
the PNP and adjusting the promotion system thereof, amending for the
purpose pertinent provisions of RA 6975 and RA 8551 and for other

Familiarize the following:

1. Organize - it means planning the work of the department and of

the personnel in an orderly manner.
2. Oversee - It means that the supervisor ensures that the work that has been
organized and delegated is satisfactorily completed.
3. Delegate - It means giving someone else the responsibility and authority to
do something.
4. Precinct - the primary geographic subdivision of the patrol operation bureau.
5. Post - Fixed geographic location usually assigned to an individual officer.
6. Shift - one of several tours of duty.
7. Beat - the primary subdivision of a sector.
8. Sector - the primary geographic subdivision of a precinct.
9. Unit - subdivision of a section.
10. Squad - a subdivision of a unit.
11. Detail - a subdivision of a squad.
12. Section - a primary subdivision of a bureau with a department wide
responsibility for providing a specific specialized functions.

Remember the ff: Administration of Police Organization

1. Uniform Crime Reporting - A nationwide, cooperative statistical effort of law

enforcement agencies voluntarily reporting data on crimes brought to their

2. Crime spot map - It post the location of murders, rapes, robberies,

carnapping and other major crimes of the locality.

3. Traffic spot map - It post the motor vehicle and pedestrian accident which
occur in the area.

4. Spot map - Useful to indicate the traffic accidents and crime location.

5. Charged out card - Each time any file is issued, a record should be made on a
color charge-out which is often called a Substitution Card or an Out Card
which takes the place of a file that has been removed from the cabinet.

6. Personal records - A file showing the history of each police officer, both
prior and subsequent to joining the force, is indispensable.

7. Correspondence file - This consist of set or records of communications

classified, arranged and filed alphabetically by the subject to which they

8. Modus operandi file - This consist of photographic records of known criminals

and describe the procedure how criminals commit crime.

9. Cross reference - A notation put into a file to indicate that a record is not
stored in that file but in some other location specified therein. It tells
the filer or searcher where to find the needed material.

10. Coding - Making an identifying mark on the item to be stored to indicate

what classifications it is to be filed .
11. The accredited professional organization for criminologists in
the Philippines is the PCAP - Professional Criminologist Association of the

12. The Professional Criminologists Association of the Philippines (PCAP) was

accredited by PRC on March 25, 1990 as the professional organization for
criminologists in the country.

13. The Board of Examiners for Criminology was created on July 1, 1972,
pursuant to Republic Act No. 6506 entitled “An Act Creating the Board of
Examiners for Criminologists in the Philippines and For Other Purposes.”

14. The first Board, constituted in 1987, was composed of

1) Sixto O. de Leon as Chairman
2) Atty. Virgilio B. Andres as member
3) Jaime S. Navarro as member
15. Republic Act No. 6506 - An Act Creating the Board of Examiners for
Criminologists in the Philippines and for Other Purposes.

16. Lourdes W. Aniceto - the present chairman of the board of criminology.

17. Ernesto V. Cabrera - the present member of the board of criminology.


Mandatory Promotional Requirement

1. Educational Attainment
2. Time in Grade
3. Eligibility
4. Mandatory Training Requirement
5. Performance Evaluation Rating
6. Awards and Commendations Received
7. Clearances

Mandatory Training Requirement

1. Senior Superintendent - GSC (General Staff Course, MNSA, or MPSA (Master in

Public Safety Administration)
2. Superintendent - OSEC (Officer Senior Executive Course)
3. Chief Inspector - Officer Advance Course
4. Senior Inspector - Officer Basic Course
5. Inspector - Officer Candidate Course
6. SPO3 to SPO4 - Senior Leadership Course
7. SPO1 to SPO2 - Basic leadership Course
8. PO2 to PO3 - Public safety Basic Course

Performance Evaluation Rating - made by supervisor twice a year. January to

June, July to December

5 – Outstanding
4 - Very Satisfactory
3 – Satisfactory
2 – Fair
1 - Poor

Administration of Police Organization Definition of Terms

Area - a section or territorial division of a large city each composed of

designated districts.
Beat - an area designated for patrol purposes whether on foot or motorized.

Bureau - largest organic unit within a large department.

Commanding Officer - an officer who is in command of the department, a bureau, a

division, an area, or a district.

Department Rules - rules established by department directors\superiors to

control the conduct of the members of the police force.

District - a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes usually with

its own station.

Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau.

Duty Manual - describes the procedures and defines the duties of officers
assigned to specified post or position.

Formal Organization - is defined as those organizations that are formally

established for explicit purpose of achieving certain goals.

Functional Organization - The functional responsibility of each functional

manager is limited to the particular activity over which he has control,
regardless of who performs the function.

Henry Allen - a captain, first chief of the constabulary.

Informal Organization - are those sharing the basic characteristic of all

organizations arise through the social interactions of individuals or through
family grouping.

Leave of Absence - period, which an officer is excused from active duty by any
valid reason, approved by higher authority.

Length of Service - the period of time that has elapsed since the oath of office
was administered. Previous active services may be included or added.

Line Organization - is the simplest and the oldest types of organization where
responsibility extends in a direct line from top to bottom within the structures
and authority is definite and absolute.

Line and Staff Organization - is a combination of the line and functional types.

Off Duty - the nature of which the police officer is free from specific routine

On Duty - the period when an officer is actively engaged in the performance of

his duty.

Order – an instruction given by a ranking officer to a subordinate.

Organization - It is a form of human association for the attainment of goal or


Patrol Officer - is the backbone of the police department.

PD 765 - created the PC-INP.

Police - is a branch of the criminal justice system that has the specific
responsibility of maintaining law and order and combating crime within the
Police Organization - is a group of trained personnel in the field of public
safety administration engaged in the achievement of goals and objectives that
promotes the maintenance of crimes.

Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty, such as
a designated desk or office or an intersection or cross walk from traffic duty. It
is a spot location for general guard duty.

Ranking Officer- the officer who has the senior rank in a team or group.

RA 4864 - established Napolcom. Known as police act of 1966.

Rafael Crame - first Filipino chief of the constabulary.

Report - usually a written communication unless otherwise specifies to be verbal

reports; verbal reports should be confirmed by written communication.

Route - (line beat) a length of street designated for patrol purposes.

Section - functional units within a division.

Sector - an area containing two or more beat, route, or post.

Sick leave - period which an officer is excused from active duty by reason of
illness or injury.

Special Duty - the police service, its nature, which requires that the officer be
excused from the performance of his active regular duty.

Superior Officer - one having supervisory responsibilities, either temporarily or

permanently, over officers of lower rank.

Suspension - a consequence of an act which temporarily deprives an officer from

the privilege of performing his duties as result of violating directives or other
department regulations.

Sworn Officers - all personnel of the police department who have taken oath and
who possess the power to arrest.

Unit - functional group within a section; or the smallest functional group within
an organization.

Patrol Organization and Operation

Patrol - from French patrouiller - to paddle, paw about, patrol.

- keep watch over an area by regularly walking or traveling around
or through it.
- a person or group of people sent to keep watch over an area.
Patrol officers - are uniformed officers assigned to monitor specific
geographical areas, that is to move through their areas at regular intervals
looking out for any signs of problems of any kind.

History of Patrol

1. Ancient China - law enforcement was carried out by prefect. Prefects were
government officials appointed by local magistrates who reported to higher
authorities such as the governors who in dynasty.

2. Ancient Greece - publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In

Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves (rod-bearers) was used to guard public
meetings to keep order and for crowd control and also assisted with dealing
with criminal, handling prisoners and making arrests.

3. Roman Empire - the army rather than a dedicated police organization provided
security. Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security.
Magistrates such as procurators, fiscals and quaestros investigated crime.
Under the reign of Augustus, 14 wards were created, the wards were protected
by seven squads of 1000 men called vigiles who acted as firemen and night
watchmen. Their duties included apprehending thieves and robbers and
capturing runaway slaves. The vigiles were supported by the urban cohorts who
acted as a heavy duty riot force and Praetorian Guard if necessary.

 Praetorian Guard - bodyguards used by roman emperors.

 Urban cohorts - were created by Augustus to counter balance the enormous
power of the Praetorian Guard in the city of Rome and serve as the police
 Vigiles - (watchmen of the city) - were the firefighters and police of
ancient Rome.
 Ward - a subdivision of a municipality.

4. Medieval England - the Anglo-Saxon system of maintaining public order since

the Norman conquest was a private system of tithing, led by a constable to
enforce the law.

 Tithing - was a grouping of 10 households.

 Constable - is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law

The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdiction.

5. Spain - modern police in Europe has a precedent in the Hermandus or

(brotherhood) - peace keeping association of individuals, a characteristic of
municipal life in medieval Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of
the hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north
united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de compostela in galicia
and protect the pilgrims against robber knights.

6. France - The first police force in the modern sense was created by the
government of King Louis XIV in 1667 to police the city of Paris, then the
largest city in Europe.

7. Britain and Ireland - in England, a system of sheriffs, reeves and

investigative juries to provide basic security and law enforcement.

 Sheriff - is a contraction of the term "shire-reeve" - designated a royal

official responsible for keeping the peace throughout a shire or county
on behalf of the king.
 Reeve - a senior official with local responsibilities under the crown.
ex., chief magistrate of a town or district.
 Shire - traditional term for a division of land in the UK and Australia.
 Jury - is a sworn body of people convened to render impartial verdict
officially submitted to them by a court or to set a penalty or judgment.
 Thief taker - a private individual hired to capture criminal.
 Bow street runners - London's first professional police force.
 Henry Fielding - a magistrate educated at Elton college who founded the
Bow street runners originally numbered just six.
 Statute of Winchester - in 1285, obliged the authorities of every town to
keep a watch at the city gates and arrest all suspicious night walkers.
 Sir Robert Peel - prime minister of England from Dec. 1834 to April 1835
and again From Aug.1841 to June 1846. While home secretary, help create
the modern concept of the police force leading to officers being known as
bobbies in England and peelers in Ireland.
 Patrick Colquhoun - (1745 - 1820) - a Scottish merchant and a magistrate
who founded the first regular preventive police force in England, the
Thames river police.

8. In the US - the first city police services were established in Philadelphia

in 1751, Boston 1838 and New York 1845.

 August Vollmer - first police chief of Berkeley California. He is

sometimes called the father of modern law enforcement in the US.

1. He was the first chief to require that police officers attain college
2. First police chief to create a motorized force placing officers on
and cars so that they could patrol broader areas with greater efficiency.
3. He was also the first to use the lie detector in police work.

 O.W. Wilson - studied under August Vollmer. Became Chief of Police of the
Fullerton police department. He also became chief of police of the Wichita
police department. He introduced the following reforms and innovations:

1. requires new policeman to have college education.

2. use of police car for patrol, mobile radios and use of a mobile crime
3. he believe that the use of a two way radio allowed better supervision of
patrol officers.

What are the 3 main task of supervision?

1. Organize - means planning the work of the department and of the personnel
in an orderly
2. Delegate - means giving someone else the responsibility and authority to
do something. The supervisor confers upon a subordinate officer the same
authority and responsibility that the supervisor possesses to accomplish
the specific task the supervisor remain responsible for the completion of
the delegated task.
3. Oversee - means that the supervisor ensures that the work that has been
organized and delegated is satisfactorily completed.

Community policing - is the process by which an organized group of citizens

devoted a time to crime prevention within a neighborhood. When suspecting
criminal activities, members are encourage to contact the authorities and not to

Beat patrol - the deployment of officers in a given community, area or locality

to prevent and deter criminal activity and to provide day to day services to the

Sting Operations - organized groups of detectives who deceived criminals into

openly committing illegal acts of conspiring to engage in criminal activity.
Hotspots of Crime - the view that a significant portion of all police calls in
cities typically radiate from a relatively few locations.

Models of Policing

1. Neighborhood Oriented Policing - a philosophy of police suggesting that

problem solving is best done at the neighborhood level, where issues
originate not at a far-off central headquarters.

2. Pro Active Policing - aggressive law enforcement style in which patrol

officers take the initiative against crime instead of waiting for criminal
acts to occur.

3. Problem Oriented Policing - a style of police management that stresses pro

active problem solving instead of reactive crime fighting.

4. Community Oriented Policing - programs designed to bring the police and

the public closer together and create more cooperative working environment
between them.

5. Reactive Policing - the opposite of Pro Active policing where the police
wait for crime to occur.

Blue Curtain - describes the secrecy and insulation from others in society that
is a consequence of the police subculture.

Cynicism - the belief that most people’s actions are motivated solely by
personal needs and selfishness.

Civilian Review Board - ex. PLEB - organized citizen groups that examine police

Watchman - style of policing characterized by an emphasis on maintaining public


Fleeing Felon Rule - the oldest standard relating to the use of deadly force.

Beats - designated police patrol areas.

Internal Affairs - unit that investigates allegations of police misconduct.

Deadly Force - police killing of a suspect who resists arrest or presents a

danger to an officer or the community.

Booking - the administrative record of an arrest listing the offenders name,

address, physical description, date of birth, time of arrest, offense and name
of arresting officer. It also includes photographing and fingerprinting of the

Line Up - placing a suspect in a group for the purpose of being viewed and
identified by a witness.

Stop and Frisk - the situation in which police officers who are suspicious of an
individual run their hands lightly over the suspects outer garments to determine
if the person is carrying a concealed weapon. Also called Inquiry of Pat Down.

Foot Patrol - police patrol that takes officer out of cars and puts them in
walking beat to strengthen ties with the community.

Excited Delirium - an overdose of adrenaline that can occur in heated

confrontation with the police.
* Patrol reduces crime by creating an impression of omnipresence.

Responding to Crime - total response time is comprised of four dimensions.

1. Discovery Time - interval between the commission of the crime and its
2. Reporting Time - interval between the discovery of the crime and when it
is reported to the police.
3. Processing Time - interval between receiving the call and dispatching the
officers for service.
4. Travel time - the amount of time it takes for the police to travel to the
scene of the crime.

The Phantom Effect - "residual deterrence" most people believe that the police
is present even when they are not in sight.

Sworn Date - the date that a sworn employee took the oath of office for their

Advantages of Foot/Bicycle Patrol

1. Increased personal contact between the police and citizen.

2. Increased observation ability.
3. Increased ability to gather information
4. Economical

Advantages of Motorized Patrol

1. Increased speed and mobility

2. Increased conspicuousness
3. Availability of additional equipment
4. Increased transportation capability
5. Deceased response time
6. Communications

Basic Preventive Patrol Methods Utilized by an Officer

1. Frequent check and contact with business premises

2. Frequent check of suspicious persons
3. Fluctuating patrol patterns
4. Maintenance of visibility and personal contact
5. Daily individual patrol and community action plan

Factors to be Considered in Becoming Familiar with the Community

1. General population information

2. Appropriate geographical information
3. Recent criminal activity
4. Specific factors that may influence patrol functions

ex. location of hospitals, high crime areas, community habits.

How to Prepare for a Normal Patrol Shift

1. Gathering information through crime reports and briefings

2. Gathering needed materials ex. report forms, citation books
3. Obtaining and checking equipment
4. Planning work around identified priorities
5. Preparing daily patrol and community action plan
What an Officer on Night time Patrol Should be Looking for

1. broken glasses
2. open doors and windows
3. pry marks
4. suspicious vehicles
5. persons on foot
6. differences in normal lighting (on or Off)
7. unusual sounds
8. access to roof tops or upper floors

Definition of Terms

1. Section - a primary subdivision of a bureau with a department wide

responsibility for providing a specific specialized functions.
2. Unit - a subdivision of a section usually small in size with personnel
assigned to perform a specialized activity, one or two employees performing
assigned work.
3. Squad - a subdivision of a unit.
4. Detail - a subdivision of a squad.
5. Precinct -the primary geographic subdivision of the patrol operation bureau.
6. Sector - the primary geographic subdivision of a precinct, supervised by a
7. Beat - the primary subdivision of a sector.
8. Watch/Shift - one of several tours of duty.
9. Post - a fixed geographic location usually assigned to an individual officer.
10. Task Force - an adhoc work group normally established by bureau commander
to respond to a specific incident or series of related incidents. Task Force
assignment is temporary.
11. Chief of Police - overall commander of the department.
12. Chain of Command - a fundamental component of proper supervision. The
chain of command requires that each employee reports and is accountable to
only one direct supervisor.

Police Operational Planning

Police Operational Planning - the act of determining policies and guidelines for
police activities and operations and providing controls and safeguards for such
activities and operations in the department. Involves strategies or tactics,
procedures, policies or guidelines.

Operational Planning - the use of rational design or pattern for all

departmental undertakings rather than relying on chance in an operational
environment. The preparation and development of procedures and techniques in
accomplishing each of the primary tasks and functions of an organization.

Police Operational Planning - the act of determining policies and guidelines

for police activities and operations and providing controls and safeguards for
such activities and operations in the department. Involves strategies or
tactics, procedures, policies or guidelines.

Operational Planning - the use of rational design or pattern for all

departmental undertakings rather than relying on chance in an operational
environment. The preparation and development of procedures and techniques in
accomplishing each of the primary tasks and functions of an organization.

Police Planning - an attempt by police administrators in trying to allocate

anticipated resources to meet anticipated service demands. The systematic and
orderly determination of facts and events as basis for policy formulation and
decision making affecting law enforcement management.
Planning - the determination in advance of how the objectives of the
organization will be attained; involves the determination of a course of action
to take in performing a particular function or activity. The process of
developing methods or procedures or an arrangement of parts intended to
facilitate the accomplishment of a definite objective. The process of deciding
in advance what is to be done and how it is to be done.

Plan - an organized schedule or sequence by methodical activities intended to

attain a goal or objectives for the accomplishment of mission or assignment. A
method or way of doing something in order to attain objectives and provides
answers to the 5Ws and 1H.

Strategy - a broad design or method or a plan to attain a stated goal or


Tactics - are specific design, method or a course of action to attain a

particular objective in consonance with strategy.

Procedures - are sequences of activities to reach a point or to attain what is


Policy - a course of action which could be a program of actions adopted by an

individual, group, organization or government or the set of principles on which
they are based.

 Case Operational Plan (COPLAN) - a definite target - specific activity

conducted in relation to an intelligence project under which it is
affected. Several case operations may fall under one intelligence
project.- refers to a preparatory plan on how to carry out a case
operation which is the last resort to pursue intelligence objectives when
normal police operations fail.

 Command Post/Holding Area - area where case conferences, briefings and

debriefings are being conducted by the responding agencies.
 Dragnet Operation - is a police operation purposely to seal off the
probable exit points of fleeing suspect from the crime scene to prevent
their escape.

Management or Administrative Functions

1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Directing
4. Controlling
5. Staffing
6. Reporting
7. Budgeting

Guidelines in Planning

1. What - mission/objective
2. Why - reason/philosophy
3. When - date/time
4. Where – place
5. How - strategy/methods

Characteristics of a Good Plan

1. A Plan must have a clearly defined objective

2. A Plan must be simple, direct and clear
3. A Plan must be flexible
4. A Plan must be attainable
5. A Plan must provide standards of operation
6. A Plan must be economical in terms of resources needed for

Types of Plan

1. Procedural/Policy Plan
2. Operational Plan
3. Tactical Plan
4. Administrative/Management Plan
5. Extra-Departmental Plan


Characteristics of a good plan – SMART

a. Simple
b. Measurable
c. Attainable
d. Realistic
e. Time Bound


1. Scalar Principle
a. Unity of Command
b. Span of Control
c. Delegation of Authority
d. Chain of Command

2. Five Approaches in Planning

a. Synoptic Planning
- Feasibility study
- Acceptability study
- Cost effective analysis
b. Must and Wants analysis
c. Incremental Planning
d. Trans-active Planning
e. Advocacy Planning


1. Types of Plans
a. Policy/Procedural Plan
b. Tactical plan
c. Operational Plan
d. Extra-Office Plan
e. Management Plan

2. Henry Fayol - (1841 - 1926) - concern was efficiency and Effectiveness of the
entire organization characterized by five specific functions.
a. Planning
b. Organizing
c. Commanding
d. Coordinating
e. Controlling

3. Five M of management
a. Manpower
b. Machine
c. Money
d. Means/Method
e. Material

Intelligence and Secret Service

Definition of Terms:

Intelligence Agency - is a government agency responsible for the collection,

analysis or exploitation of information and intelligence in support of law
enforcement, national security, defense and foreign policy objectives.

Intelligence Officer - is a person employed by an organization to collect,

compile and analyze information which is used to that organization.

Counter Intelligence - refers to effort made by intelligence organizations to

prevent hostile or enemy intelligence organization from successfully gathering
and collecting intelligence against them.

Human Intelligence - category of intelligence derived from information collected

and provided by human sources.

Dead Drop/Dead Letter Box - is a method of espionage trade craft used to pass
items between 2 individuals using a secret location and thus not require to meet

Live Drop - 2 persons meet to exchange items or information.

Dead Drop Spike - is a concealment device used to hide money, maps, documents,
microfilm and other items.

Cut-Out - is a mutually trusted intermediary, method or channel of

communication, facilitating the exchange of information between agents.

Espionage/Spying - involves a government or individual obtaining information

that is considered secret of confidential without the permission of the holder
of the information.

Agent Handling - is the management of agents, principal agents and agent

networks by intelligence officers typically known as case officers.

Case Officer - is an intelligence officer who is trained specialist in the

management of agents and agent network.

Agent - acts on behalf of another whether individual, organization or foreign

government, works under the direction of a principal agent or case officer.
Cryptography - is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication
in the presence of third parties called adversaries.

Eaves Dropping - Is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of

others without their consent.

Propaganda - is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the

attitude of a community toward some cause or position.

Flip - apprehended criminals who turn informants.

Snitches - jail house informants.

Means of Information Gathering

1. Overt
2. Covert

Intelligence Cycle - is the process of developing unrefined data into polished

intelligence for the use of policy makers.

1. Direction - intelligence requirements are determined by a decision maker

to meet his/her objective.
2. Collection - is the gathering of raw information based on requirements.
3. Processing - converting the vast amount of information collected into a
form usable by analyst.
4. Analysis - conversion of raw information into intelligence. It includes:
1) Integrating
2) Evaluating
3) Analyzing data and preparing intelligence product.
5. Dissemination - is the distribution of raw or finished intelligence to the
consumer whose needs initiated the intelligence requirement.
6. Feedback - is received from the decision maker and revised requirement

Evaluation - systematic determination of merit, worth and significance of

something or someone using criteria against a set of standards.

Collation - is the assembly of written information into a standard order.

Crime Triangle
1. the offender
2. the victim
3. the location
Crime Intelligence - information compiled, analyzed and/or disseminated in an
effort to anticipate, prevent, or monitor criminal activity.

Strategic Intelligence - information concerning existing patterns or emerging

trends of criminal activity designed to assist in criminal apprehension and
crime control strategies for both short and long term investigative tools.

Tactical Intelligence - information regarding a specific criminal event that can

be used immediately by operational units to further a criminal investigation
plan tactical operations and provide for officer safety.

Open Source - refers to any information that can be legitimately obtained e.

free on request, payment of a fee.

Source - the place or person from which information is obtained.

Intelligence Assessment - is the development of forecasts of behavior or

recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organization based on a
wide range of available information sources both overt and covert.

Intelligence Analysis - is the process of taking known information about

situations and entities of strategic, operational, or tactical importance,
characterizing the known and with appropriate statements of probability. the
future actions in those situations and by those entities.

Cryptanalysis - from the Greek word Kryptos-hidden and Analyein-to loosen or to

unite - is the art of defeating cryptographic security systems and gaining
access to the contents of encrypted messages without being given the
cryptographic key.
Remember the ff: Intelligence and Secret Service

Methods of reporting information

A. Evaluation of reliability of information - indicated by a letter as follows:

A - completely reliable

B - usually reliable - informant is of known integrity

C - fairly reliable

D - nor usually reliable

E - Unreliable

F - reliability not judge - no adequate basis estimating the

reliability of the source.

B. Evaluation of accuracy of information - indicated by numerals as follows:

1 - confirmed by other agencies

2 - probably true

3 - possibly true

4 - doubtfully true

5 – improbable

6 - truth cannot be judged

A. Four Axioms of intelligence

1. Intelligence is crucial to Intel security

2. Intelligence is crucial to all types of operations
3. Intelligence is the responsibility of all intelligence agencies
4. Intelligence of the government must be superior to that of the enemy.

B. Intelligence - product resulting from the collection, evaluation analysis,

integration and the interpretation of all available information.

- is processed information.

C. Data + analysis = Intelligence

D. Police intelligence - used in the preparation and execution of police plans,

polices and programs.

1. Sun Tzu - The Chinese general who wrote The Art of War in about 400 b.c.
2. Smoking-bolt operation - A covert snatch operation in which a special entry
team breaks into an enemy installation and steals a high-security device,
like a code machine, leaving nothing but the "smoking bolts."
3. Information - unprocessed information or raw data.
4. Intelligence information - Information gathered or received which is of
intelligence interests.
5. Intelligence community - It is an integrated and neatly organized entity
composed of units or agencies which have intelligence interest and
6. Informant - is anyone who can furnish information.
7. Rolling car pickup - A clandestine car pickup executed so smoothly that the
car hardly stops at all and seems to have kept moving forward.
8. Terms:
1. Wanted list - It is for crime suspects with warrant of arrest.
2 Methods Of Collecting Information

1. Overt/Open – overt info. Are obtained from open and easily available sources
like magazines, reports and files.
2. Covert/Close

3 Defined Objectives Of Police Intelligence

1. To assist the commander in the success of the team

2. Discover and Identify criminal activities
3. To assist in the apprehension of criminals

3 Types Of Channels In Special Communication Systems

1. Regular
2. Secondary
3. Emergency

4 Phases/Steps of Informant Recruitment

1. Selection
2. Investigation
3. Approach
4. Testing

Area of Interest – subject of information gathering (person, place, things or an


Briefs – the form in which the finished product of intelligence is presented to

the commander in the police department.

Bugging – the placement of a hidden microphone in a particular room to obtain


Burned – the agent was identified and known.

CIA – established in 1946.

Ciples – are fundamental guides to action, broad statement of truth from which
others are derived.

Classification/Types Of Police Intelligence

1. Strategic Intelligence
2. Counter Intelligence
3. Line Intelligence

Coding – is the process of putting the codes and ciphers to plain text message.

Collate – to bring together and compare the truthfulness of the information.

Collection – to accumulate knowledge on a subject or area of interest.

Cooperative Members of the Community - a rich source of information on criminals,

criminal activities and even subversive groups.

Criminal Syndicate – it is a stable business with violence applied and directed at

unwelcome competitors.

Criminal World – the social organization of criminals having its own social

Cryptoanalysis – is the process of putting the plain text message to codes and

Cryptograph – the art and science of making, devising, inventing, or protecting

codes and cipher.

Counter Intelligence – type of intelligence activity which deals with defending

the organization against it criminal activities.

Counter Intelligence Security Measures

1. Physical Security – a system of barrier placed between the potential

intruder and the material to be protected.
2. Personnel Security – includes all security measures designed to prevent
unsuitable individuals of doubtful loyalty from gaining access to classified
matter, securing facilities and to prevent the appointment, employment, or
retention as employees of such individuals.
3. Operational Security – measures taken in conducting operations or action in
a secure and efficient manner.
4. Security Survey/Inspection – conducted in order to assist the chief of
office in determining the security measures required to protect key
installation from possible sabotage, espionage, subversion and unauthorized
disclosure of or access to classified defense information or materials.
5. Community Security – is the protection resulting from all measures designed
to deny unauthorized person information of value which may be derived from
the possession and study of communications or to mislead unauthorized
persons and the interpretation of the result of such study.

Counter Surveillance – if a surveillance team is watched by the supervisor or a

designated unknown individual to know if the team is doing its job as planned or
is being watched by companions of the subject.

Covert Operation – if the information is obtained without the knowledge of the

person against whom the information or document may be used or if the method or
procurement is done not in an open manner.

Detection of Criminal – the primary purpose of police counter intelligence.

Decipher – to reconvert the cipher into plain text message.

Documentary Security Classifications

1. Top Secret
2. Secret
3. Confidential
4. Restricted

Encipher – conversion of plain text message to ciphers.

Evaluation – it is the critical appraisal of information as a basis for its

subsequent interpretation which includes determining the pertinence of information
and the reliability of the source.
- to judge the information as to its truthfulness or

Financial Gain – the most common reason why an informer is giving information.

Frederick The Great – father of organized military espionage.

Information – are knowledge, data, news, opinion or the like transmitted from one
person to another.

Integrate – to make the entire or all the information the subject matter.

Interpret – to explain the meaning or to expand the information from the unknown
to known.

Intelligence – product resulting from the collecting information concerning an

actual and potential situation and condition relating to foreign activities and to
foreign or enemy held areas.

- Product resulting from collection, evaluation, analysis, integration,

and interpretation of available information concerning area of interest.

Interpretation – determining the significance of the information with respect to

what is already known and it draws conclusions as to the probable meaning of the
evaluated information.

Kinds Of Surveillance

1. Surveillance of place
2. Tailing or shadowing
3. Undercover investigation or Roping

Line Intelligence – types of intelligence which is of immediate nature and

necessary for more effective police planning and operation.

Method of Casing

1. Personal Reconnaissance – the most effective

2. Map Reading
3. Research Work
4. Operational Data Research

Military Intelligence – it is an evaluated and interpreted information concerning

an actual or possible enemy or theater of operations including weather and terrain
together with the conclusions drawn there from.

Need To Know Principle – in intelligence dissemination, even a ranking law

enforcer who has no business on the classified information is not furnished the

OB File – identification, location, and knowing the intents of criminal

syndicates, notorious characters and even people with subversive desires must be
made available for use.

Order Of Battle – an intelligence document describing the identity, strength,

command structure and disposition of the enemy/criminals.

Organized crime – it is the combination of two or more persons for the purpose of
establishing criminal activity.

Overt Operation – if the information or document are procured openly without

regard as to whether the subject of the investigation becomes knowledgeable of the
purpose for which it is being gathered.

Parker – internal affairs is my defense and intelligence is my offensive arm.

Police Counter Intelligence – it is the detection, prevention, or neutralization

of any activity inimical to the harmony and best interest of the police

Police Intelligence – an evaluated and interpreted information concerning

organized crime and other major police problems.

Reconnaissance – to gather specific or detailed information at a particular time

and place.

Roping – undercover assignment, form of investigation in which the

investigator assume a different and unofficial identity/cover story in order to
obtain information.

Safe House – a clandestine place where the intelligence agent and his superior

Schulmoister – Napoleon's secret military agent.

Security Inspection – conducted in order to determine degree of compliance with

established security policies and procedures.

Stool Pidgeon – an individual who sells information to different groups of law


Strategic Intelligence – intelligence which is primarily long range in nature with

little or no immediate practical value.

Sun Tzu – he was the writer of the book “Art of War”.

Surveillance – to gather general information over a wide area and takes a longer
time frame.

Tactical Interrogation – a process or method to obtain information from a captured


Walshingham – protector of queen Elizabeth.

Wilhelm Von Stieber – a CIA intelligence officer who spied for soviet union from
1985 – 1994, he had perpetrated the costliest breach of security in the agency's
2. Watch list - It is for those without warrant of arrest.
3. Target list - It is for organized crime groups.
4. PIR - Priority Intelligence requirement
5. OIR - Other intelligence requirements
6. SOR - Specific order request

9. R.A. 8551 - Placed PNP as support to the AFP in Counter insurgency operations
thru intelligence gathering.

10. The intelligence cycle (PNP Directorate for Intelligence)

1. Directing
2. Collecting
3. Processing
4. Dissemination and use
Industrial Security Management

RA no. 5487 - (as amended by PD no. 11) - Private security agency law.

Private Detective Agency - is any person who for hire or reward or on commission
conducts or carries on or holds himself out as conducting or carrying on
a detective agency or detective service.

Private Detective - any person who is not a member of a regular police agency or
armed forces who does detective work for hire, reward or commission.

PADPAO - Philippine Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operators.

Watchmen/Security Guard - person who offers or renders personal service to watch

or secure either residential or business establishment or both or any building,
compound or area for hire or compensation or as an employee thereof.

Security Agency - any person, association, partnership or corporation who

recruits, trains, muster, furnishes, solicit individuals or business firms,
private or government owned or controlled corporation to engage his services or
those of its watchmen.

Who May Organize Security Agency

1. Any Filipino Citizen or a corporation, partnership or association.

2. With a minimum capital required by law.

 In case of corporation, association, or partnership - must be 100 % owned

and controlled by Filipino citizen.
 No person shall organize or have interest in more than one agency.

Qualification of an Operator or Manager of a Security Agency:

1. At least 25 years of age
2. College graduate and/or commissioned officer in the inactive service of
the AFP
3. Good moral character
4. No previous record of any conviction of any crime/offense involving moral
5. Not suffering from any of the following disqualifications:

1. dishonorably discharged or separate from the AFP

2. mentally incompetent
3. addicted to the use of narcotic drugs
4. habitual drunkard
 An elective or appointive government employees who may be called upon on
account of the function of their respective offices in the implementation
and enforcement of the provision of RA 5487 and person related to such
government employees by affinity or consanguinity in the third civil
degree shall not hold any interest, directly or indirectly in any security
guard agency.

Basic Qualification of a security Guard

1. Filipino citizen
2. High school graduate
3. Physically and mentally fit
4. Not less than 21 nor more than 50 years old
5. At least 5'4" in height
6. Not suffering from any disqualification under RA 5487

 Veterans shall be given priority in employment as security guard or

private detective.
 Person convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude shall not be
employed as security guard or private detective.
 Private detective, detective agency, security guard, security agency must
first obtain license from the PNP.
 Employees employed solely for clerical or manual work need not be
 The license shall be displayed at all times in a conspicuous and suitable
place in the agency office.
 The PNP shall exercise general supervision over the operation of all
private detective and security guard agencies.
 The City/Municipal Mayors has the power as director of the City/Municipal
civil defense to deputize private detective and security guards to help
maintain peace and order or prevent or arrest law violators in case of
emergency or in times of disaster or calamity. They shall take orders from
the Chief of Police for the duration of the fire, inundation, earthquakes,
riots or other emergency.
 A security guard or security agency is entitled to possess firearms.
 Firearm must not be higher than .45 caliber.
 Agency is entitled to possess firearm not exceeding one firearm for every
security guard in its employ.
 Security guard is entitled to possess not more than one riot gun or
 Firearms shall be carried by the security guard only during his tour of
duty in proper uniform within the compound of the establishment except
when he escorts big amount of cash or valuables in or out of
said compound.
 The Chief PNP shall prescribe the uniform, ornaments, equipment and
paraphernalia to be worn by the security guards.
 Uniforms must be different from the PNP/AFP.
 Salary of security guard - not lower than the minimum wage prescribe by

Limitations and Prohibitions on a Security Agency

1. No agency operating in the City of manila and suburbs may employ more than
1000 watchmen or security guards.
2. No agency operating in other cities and first class municipalities may
employ more than 500 watchmen or security guards.
3. No agency operating in municipalities other than first class may employ
more than 200 watchmen or security guards.
4. No person, corporation, partnership or association may organize more than
one agency in any one city or municipality.
5. No agency shall offer, render or accept services to gambling dens or other
illegal enterprises.
6. The extent of the security service being provided by any security agency
shall not go beyond the whole compound or property of the person
or establishment requesting the security service except when they escort
big amount of cash.

Who can Issue rules and regulations to carry out the purpose of RA 5487? ans.
the chief PNP, in consultation with the Philippines Association of Detective and
Protective Agency Operators.

What are the penal provisions for violation of RA5487 or its implementing
rules? ans.
1. Suspension, fine or cancellation of license to operate with the forfeiture
f bond filed with the Chief PNP.
2. Imprisonment ranging from 1 to 4 years and fine, in the discretion of the

Physical security - describes the measures that are designed to deny access to
unauthorized personnel from physically accessing a building, facility, stored
information and guidance on how to design structures to resist potentially
hostile acts.

- a system of barriers placed between a potential intruder and the

material or installation to be protected.

Security - the predictable state or condition which is free from harm, injury,
destruction, intimidation or fear. Freedom from fear or danger or defense
against crime.

Physical Security System - a barrier or system of barriers placed between the

potential intruder and the matter to be protected. Protective device against
hazards, threats, vulnerability and risks.

Purpose/Goals of Physical security

1. deter potential intruders - ex. warning signs, perimeter markings

2. distinguish authorized from unauthorized people - ex. using pass card
3. delay or prevent intrusion attempt - ex. wall, door lock, safe
4. detect intrusion and monitor/record intruders - e. CCTV, intrusion alarm
5. trigger appropriate incident responses - ex. security guards

How to deter potential intruders

1. install warning signs -

2. build fences
3. put vehicle barriers
4. install vehicle height restriction
5. implement restricted access point
6. install sight lighting and trenches

How to distinguish authorized from unauthorized people - access control at the:

1. gates
2. doors
3. locks
How to detect intrusion

1. install alarms
2. install intrusion detection monitor
3. install video monitoring system - ex. Cctv

Vigiles (in Rome) - origin of the watchmen although their principal duty was as
a fire brigade.

Notable security guards:

1. Frank Wills - detected the Watergate burglars ultimately leading to the

resignation of US president Richard Nixon.

Target hardening - the reduction in criminal opportunity, generally through the

use of physical barriers, architectural design and enhanced security measures of
a particular location.

Defensible Space - the range of mechanisms that combine to bring an environment

under the control of its residents.

Demography - the study of the characteristics of population groups.

Principles of Physical Security

1. An intruder must be able to acquire access to the property in order to

2. The type of access necessary will depend upon a number of variable factors
and therefore may be achieved in a number of ways.
3. There is no impenetrable barrier.
4. Security is built upon a system of defense in depth resulting to accumulated
delay time which may lead to the apprehension of the intruder.
5. Each installation is different from the others.

2 Kinds of Barriers

1. Natural
2. Artificial

5 Types of Barriers

1. Human
2. Animal
3. Natural
4. Energy/Electrical/Electronic
5. Structural

3 Line of Defense

1. Perimeter Barrier - 1st line of defense.

2. Building Exterior - 2nd line of defense.
3. Interior Controls - 3rd line of defense.

Perimeter Barrier - main purpose is to deny or impede access or exit of

unauthorized persons.

Other Purposes

1. It defines the boundary of the property to be secured.

2. It creates a physical and psychological deterrent to unauthorized entry.
3. It delays intrusion, thus facilitating apprehension of intruders.
4. It assists in a more efficient and economical employment of guards.
5. It facilitates and improves the control of pedestrian and vehicular


1. Types of Fencing (solid/full view)

2. The top guard
3. Types of Protective Alarms Systems
4. Types of Protective and Emergency Lighting's
5. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security Systems/Energy Barriers

Building Exterior - Components:

1. Walls
2. Doors
3. Windows
4. Roof Openings
5. Fire Escapes
6. Protective Alarm Systems
7. Protective and Emergency lightings
8. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security Systems/Energy Barriers

Interior Controls - Components:

1. ID Systems
2. Protective Alarm Systems
3. Protective Emergency Lighting's
4. Communication Systems
5. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security Systems/Energy Barriers
6. Restricted Areas (storage areas/utilities)
7. Access Control
8. Key Control
9. Emergency Plans
10. Guards

Natural barriers or features - such as cliffs, ravines, and rivers which delay
or make more difficult to entry of intruders.

Barriers - any line of boundary and separation, natural or artificial, places,

or serving as limitation or obstruction. Anything that bars, keep out, obstruct
progress, or prevents encroachment or intrusion.

Structural barriers - features constructed by man regardless of their original

intent that tends to delay the intruder. ex. walls, ceilings, locks, safe,

Human barriers - guards, charges of quarters, office personnel, shop workers

etc. who stand between the intruder and the matter to be protected.

Animal barriers - usually guard dog. ex. trained German shepherds used as
guards, goose, and turkeys can also be included.

Energy barriers - usually electrical or electronics devices used to provide

assistance to guard personnel. ex. protective lightings, anti-intrusion devices.

Full view fence - it is designed primarily to prevent physical access between

two areas. Constructed in such a way that visual access is permitted through the

Physical Security Features:

1. Natural barriers - natural terrains features must be considered from the
stand point of their values to intruder as cover and concealment. Normally
the first type considered very often we have to accept and work around
2. Fences
a. solid fence - one is constructed in such a way that visual access
through the fenced structure is denied.
b. full view fence - constructed in such a way that usual access is
permitted through the fence.

Advantages of a full view fence

1. removing patrols and stationary guards are able to keep area surrounding
of the installation under observation.
2. it does not create shadows which would provide cover and concealment for
the intruder.

Disadvantages of a full view fence

1. It allows visual access to the installation, its personnel, its guard and
its activities.
2. It allows the intruders to become familiar with the movements and the
time schedule of the guard patrols thereafter allowing him to pick the
time for attempting penetration which would most advantageous to the

Advantages of solid fence

1. Denies visual access of the installation of the intruder.

2. Denies the opportunity for the intruder to become familiar with the
personnel, activities and the time schedule of the movements of guards in
the installations.

Disadvantages of solid fence

1. It prevents the guards from observing the area around the installation.
2. It creates shadows which may be used by the intruder for cover and

Minimum acceptable requirements for fence used security barriers

1. Height - 8 feet at a minimum.

2. Slack at the bottom - not to exceed 2 inches. If the fences are not tight
then it should extend even closer to the ground.
3. Wooden fence post - minimum horizontal dimension of 4X4 inches.
4. Steel fence post - the round type should at least be 2 inches at the
smallest diameter.
5. Fence post - should be set in concrete or in firm soil using commercial
drive anchors to a depth of 3 feet and the maximum distance post is 10
6. Fence top (Top Guard) - there should be something on the top of the fence
to deter persons attempting to go over fence. ex. use of barb wire
overhang. The arms holding the barbwire should be extended at 45 degree
angle in the direction of the expected
7. Fence area - it should be declared trees and vegetation and debris of
other materials which would offer concealment of the intruder or would aid
him in scaling the fence.
8. Fence Gates - gates should be limited to the no. necessary for efficient
and sage operation of the installation.
9. Fence Opening - all opening in the fence in excess of 96 inches must be
locked barbed or screen in such a way that they may be interlocked and
opened from the inside and only by selected personnel.
10. Multiple fence - is used should at least be 10 feet apart and the
overhang on the top of the inner fence should point inward.

4 Basic functions that must be accomplished by the guard system

1. Detect intruders
2. Sound alarms
3. Apprehend unauthorized personnel
4. Identify authorized personnel

Personnel Control Identification

2 Types of identification

1. Personal Recognition - is the most effective

2. Artificial Identification - badges, passes etc.

System of Employment of Personnel Control Identification

1. Pass system - a method used by security to screen visitors or person

admitted into building premises.
2. Single pass or Badge system - the least expensive and the least secure.
3. Group pass and Badge system - one ID for one group.
4. Multiple pass system - separate pass is required for access to various
areas in need ex. color coding
5. Spot magnetized identification passes - a code may be placed in the device
and when passes through a machine, the code on the device is read, if it
contains wrong code or no code at all, it will alarm.
6. Access list - it contains the names of authorized persons or personnel and
is checked against identification cards such as drivers licenses, draft
registration etc.

Visitor control - the measures used would depend on the sensibility of the
installation but could include the following:

1. Escort - expensive but most secure

2. Time traveled - if there is a long delay or time lapse between the
departure and arrival, the visitor may be required to show cause for the
3. Visitors’ logs - should contain identifying data, reasons of visit, time
in an hour etc.
4. Visitors’ entrances - separate access for visitors and separate for

Utility and maintenance personnel - escort system could be used. If these people
visit the installations on a regular basis some of the systems previously could
be used.

Package control - there should be provisions made to check packages being taken
in and taken out.

Photography - extreme caution must be exercised in areas where classified

information is displayed to preclude unauthorized taking of pictures of the

Vehicular control and identification

* Most common identification is for registering at the headquarters or gates and

putting of sticker on the windows of the vehicles.

* For visitors, the following systems are used:

1. Escort
2. Driver pool - the most secure but the most expensive. In this system, car
is driven by qualified driver employed by the installation from
the entrance to its destination and after the conclusion of the business
of the is driven back to the installations entrance.
3. Time travel - used in less sensitive installations
4. Grid system - a very complicated system. The installation is divided into
grid ad squares like a map. Each square is given a no. or
letter designation. The visitor is then given a map and shown the route to
take to his destination and should not deviate from the prescribed route,
otherwise he could be stopped and questioned by the guards.
5. Search of vehicles - sign should be put at the entrance to the
installation that any vehicle
entering is subject to search anytime.

Types of Protective Alarm Systems

1. Central station system - the control station is located outside the

installations. When the alarm is sounded by a subscriber, the central
station notifies the police or protection agency.
2. Property system - the control system is located inside the installations
with its own fire fighter, law enforcer, ambulance, or bomb disposal unit.
3. Local alarm - the signaling is near the alarm itself. When the intruder
enters the installation, the alarm goes off scaring the intruder. Purpose
is just to
scare not to apprehend intruder.
4. Auxiliary alarm - the installation owned the protective alarm with a unit
in the nearest police station so that in case of need, direct call is

Kinds of Alarms

1. Intrusion alarm - any detecting devices using electric and their

combinations to signal an alarm when actuated.
2. Laser beam alarm - a laser emitter floods the wall or fence with a beam so
that when this beam is disturbed by a physical object, an alarm is
3. Photocell alarm - an invisible or visible beam is emitted and when
disturbed, it activates an alarm or mechanical device that opens a door or
lift movable barriers, activated by light.

Basic component of an alarm system

1. Annunciation - the heart of the system of the detecting device and is the
component that
activates the triggering unit.
2. Transmission - it transmit what is detected.
3. Triggering device - the one which emits those aural or visual signals or

Security Survey - The detailed check and audit of what an installation or plant
does not have in relation to its protection from hazards.
Security Inspection - a process where physical examination is conducted to
determine compliance with established security policies and procedures as a
result of security survey.

Purpose of Security Survey

1. To determine existing state or condition of security

2. To locate weaknesses and possible defense
3. To determine degree of protection required

Security hazards - an act or condition which result in a situation conductive to

a breach of the protection system and the subsequent loss or compromise of
defense, information, company secrets, or damage to property, personnel, or

Hazards - exposure to loss or injury.

Two General Categories of Security Hazards

1. Human hazard - caused by human action. Ex. sabotage, pilferage, theft

2. Natural Hazard - caused by natural phenomena.

Types of Human Hazards

1. Human carelessness
2. Accident
3. Disaffection
4. Disloyalty
5. Subversion
6. Sabotage
7. Espionage
8. Pilferage
9. Theft
10. Vandalism

Protective Security - measures taken by an installation or unit to protect

against sabotage, espionage or subversion and at the same time provide freedom
of action in order to provide the installation or unit with the necessary
flexibility to accomplish its mission.

3 Aspects of Security

1. Physical Security - measures taken to prevent physical access or entry to

an installation.
2. Personnel Security - measures taken to insure that only authorized
personnel have access to classified documents or information.
3. Document and Information Security

Types of Security

1. Physical Security - the most broad.

2. Industrial Security - security of business installations and industrial
3. VIP Security - protection of high level officers and important personnel.
4. Bank Security - security of money and assets stored or in transit.
5. Hotel Security - security for hotel guest and their personal belongings
and property as well as properties of the hotel.
6. Document security - protection of vital records from loss or unauthorized
7. Communication Security - measures to prevent or delay the unauthorized
person in gaining information through communication.

Physical Security

 Protective barrier - is the physical type of security.

 Barrier - any structure or physical device capable of restricting,
deterring, delaying illegal access into installations.
 Perimeter barrier - a medium or structures which define the physical
limits of an installation or area to restrict or impede access thereto.
Any physical barrier used to supplement the protection of the inside
 Inside Perimeter - a line of protection adjacent to the protected area
and passing through points of possible entry into the area. ex. doors
and windows
 Outside perimeter - a line of protection but somewhat removed from the
protected area. ex.fence

Types of Perimeter Barrier Opening

1. Gates and Doors

2. Elevators
3. Air intakes, Exhaust tunnels
4. Clear Zone
5. Top Guard
6. Guard Control Stations
7. Tower
8. Barrier maintenance
9. Sign and Notices

Protective Alarms - supplemental physical barriers in a form of sound that cause

alarm installed indoors or outdoors in an installation.

Types of Alarm Systems

1. Metallic foil wire

2. Ultrasonic Detection Device
3. Vibration Detection Device
4. Microwave Motion Detection Device
5. Audio Detection Device
6. Photo Electric or Electric Eye

Kinds of Alarms

1. Bill Traps
2. Foot Rail Activator
3. Knee or thigh button
4. Foot button
5. Double squeeze button

Protective Lighting - provide illumination on areas to be secured that adds

psychological deterrence.

Types of protective Lighting

1. Stationary luminary - consist of series of fixed luminaries to flood given

area continuously
Example: glare protection type
2. Standby Lighting - provides continuous lighting through manual operations.
3. Movable Lighting - stationary or portable manually operated search lights.
4. Emergency Lighting - duplication of existing lighting system that is
utilized in the event of electric failure.

Types of Lighting Equipment

1. Street lights - used in parking areas

2. Search Lights - highly focused incandescent lamps used to pinpoint
potential trouble spot.
3. Flood Lights - project light in a concentrated beam used in boundaries and
4. Fresnel Lights - wide beam units primarily used to extend illumination in
long horizontal strips to protect approaches to perimeter barrier.

Protective Locks and Keys

1. Lock - a mechanical, hydraulic, electrical or electronic device designed

to prevent entry into a building, room, container or hiding place and to
prevent the removal of items without the consent of the owner.
2. Padlock - portable and detachable lock having or sliding hasp that passes
through a staple ring.
3. Peterman - A term used in England for lock picker, safe cracker and
penetrators of restricted areas or rooms.

Types of Locks

1. Lever locks - used in cabinets, drawers, safe deposit box.

2. Disc-Tumble Locks - used in car doors.
3. Warded Locks - offer little security, used only to provide privacy.
4. Combination Locks
5. Card Operated Locks
6. Electromagnetic Locks
7. Code operated Locks

Types of Keys

1. Master Key - a special key of opening a series locks.

2. Grand Master Key - a key that will open everything in a system involving
two or more master key groups.
3. Change Key - a key to a single lock within a master keyed system.
4. Sub Master Key - a key will open all lock with a particular area or
grouping in a given facility.

Types of Security Cabinets

1. Safe
2. Vault
3. File Room

Protective Cabinets - considered as the third line of defense against

unauthorized persons.

Key Control - a system of controlling keys devised and regulated for disposal,
storage and withdrawals.

Close-in Security Formations

1. One Man Security - 360 degrees coverage.

2. Two Man Security - Each guard has 180 degrees coverage.
3. Three Man Security - has equal areas of coverage
4. Four Man Security
5. Five Man Security - modified diamond.
6. Six Man Security - (defensive circle) too much crowd requires arm lock

Note: Six Man Security is the most effective.

Defensive in Depth Barriers

1. Outer Ring - securing sidewalks, in front of quarters or offices, covering

all entrances, front, center, side and rear.
2. Middle Ring - security covering inside quarters, office, residence, all
stairways and elevators.
3. Inner Ring - immediately outside the high risk personnel door or the one
closest to the VIP.

3 Categories of Security Guards Belonging to the Blue Army

1. Agency Guards
2. Company Guards
3. Government Security Guards

Access List – an authenticated list of personnel given to security allowing entry

to a compound or installation or a part thereof.

Alarm – a device that signals.

Clear Zone – the exterior and interior parallel area near the perimeter barrier of
an industrial compound to afford better observation and patrol movement.

Controlled Area – an area near or adjacent to limited or exclusive areas where

entry is restricted.

Dry Run – practical test or exercise of a plan.

Ducks – in England, an owner to protect his compound used and they are not only
effective but cheap to maintain.

Duress Code – a type of code system so that security personnel when forced by
armed men intending to enter an installation can give alarm by the use of certain
words in casual conversation with other personnel in the installation.

Exclusion Area – a restricted area containing materials of security interest.

Human Made Hazards in an Industrial Firm

1. Pilferage
2. Sabotage
3. Arson

Key Control – the management of keys in a plant, office or business organization

to prevent unauthorized access.

Main Office – all agencies shall maintain a main office in their registered

PADPAO – Philippine Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operator

PCSUSIA/SAGSD – the government agency that issues licenses for private and
government security guard.
Perimeter Barrier – the first line of physical defense of a building, compound, or
compels viewing from the outside.

Peterman – a term used in England for lock pickers, safe crackers and penetrators
of restricted/prohibited areas.

Private Detective – any person who does detective work for hire, reward or
commission other than members of the PNP, NBI, AFP, BJMP and other law enforcement
agency of the government.

Private Detective – Qualifications – in addition to those prescribed for a

security guard.

1. Holder of a Baccalaureate degree or Bachelor of Laws

2. Holder of a degree of Bachelor of Science in Criminology
3. Graduate of a criminal investigation course offered by the PNP.NBI or any
police training school or detective training with authorized/recognized
training center.
4. Advance ROTC/CMT graduate

Private Security Agency Law – RA 5487

Relative Criticality of Operation – the importance of an establishment with

reference to the national economy and security.

Relative Vulnerability – the susceptibility of a plant or establishment to damage,

loss, or destruction of operation due to various hazards.

Restricted Area – if access is limited only to the authorized.

Safe – a metallic container used for the safekeeping of documents or other small
items in an office or installation.

SAGSD – Security Agency in Guard Supervisory Division

Security Guard – one who is a holder of a security guard license duly issued by
the PNP

Security Guard – Qualifications

1. Filipino Citizen
2. High School Graduate
3. Physically and Mentally Fit
4. At least 18 yrs. Old but not more than 50 yrs. Old
5. Has undergone pre-licensing training course
6. Must not possess any of the disqualification for operator or manager.

Security Service

Contract – agreement/contract between the agency and client stipulating among

other things the money to be paid by the client and salary of individual security

Security Survey – also known as security audit, risk assessment, and vulnerability

Top Guard – this is an additional outwardly inclined structure usually barbed

wires placed above a vertical fence to increase physical protection from intruders
of a certain area.
Vault – a heavily constructed container usually part of a building structure used
for keeping and protecting cash and documents.

Victimology – a special study concerned with what makes an individual a victim of