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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017


Design and Analysis of Stress Induced in Spur Gear Tool

Profile Using CATIA and ANSYS
Puspraj Singh1, Gaurav Verma2, Dr. L.P. Singh3
M.Tech., Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad
M.Tech., Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad
Assistant Professor, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad

Spur gear is a gear which is used to transmit power from one shaft to another shaft. At the time of power
transmission several types of stresses presented on gear while designing. The bending stress is considered as the
main cause of failure during the transmission of power. In the present study bending stress can be calculated by
using AGMA and ANSYS. CATIA V5R19 is used for designing of gear. Then file is saved in IGES format and
imported in ANSYS 15.0 where it analyzed. The major purpose of this study has to investigate the stress induced in
a spur gear tooth parameter. At the end AGMA and ANSYS results has been compared with each other.

Keywords — Spur gear, Design, Modeling, AGMA, CATIA, ANSYS and Analysis.

I. INTRODUCTION Advances in engineering technology in

recent years have brought demands for
Over 1957, Walker procedure gear might
gear tooth, which can operate at every
have been handling its introductory pier
increasing load capacities and speeds.
upheld inside spur gear drives. In the late
Therefore, it is essential to determine the
1970’s, the tooth rot structure might have
maximum stress that a gear tooth is
been changed with full profundity and the
subjected under specific loading. Analysis
weight point might have been expanded
of gears is carried out so that these can
should 25 degrees starting with the prior
prevented from failure.
20 degrees weight point stub tooth rot
The spur gears are mainly used because
configuration. The weight point progress
they have high power transmission
brought expanded bowing quality of the
efficiency. They are compact and easy to
teeth concerning illustration distinguished
install. They offer constant velocity ratio.
Toward AGMA. In the mid 1980’s, WPE
Unlike belt drives, spur gear drives have
included a throws steel interior spur gear
no slip. Spur gears are highly reliable.
to its item accordance. Today, the design
They can be used to transmit large amount
evolution continues with further changes
of power (of the order of 50,000 kW).
in design for better quality of gear for
Spur gears are having wide range of
maximum load capacity and minimum loss
applications. They are using in metal
due to failure.
cutting machines, power plants,
Spur gears are the most common type of
Mechanical clocks and watches, Fuel
gears. They are used to transmit rotary
pumps, Washing machines, Gear motors
motion between parallel shafts. The
and gear pumps, Material handling
knowledge of gear behavior in mesh such
equipment’s, Automobile gearboxes, Steel
as stress distribution, work condition and
mills, Rolling mills. Etc.
distortion is critical to monitoring and
controlling the gear transmission system.
Gears generally fail when the working II. LITERATURE REVIEW
stress exceeds the maximum permissible
stress. J.L. Moya, et al. (2007) they have
performed a theoretical analysis of a

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

procedure to determine the Lewis Factor when an aero-fin hole is introduced and
and also performed the contact analysis of reduces the stress in the gear teeth.
spur gears to find the stress distribution
between gear teeth. Mahebub Vohra et al. (2014) explained the
Metallic material Cast iron and Non
V. Siva Prasad et al. (2012) analyzed Metallic material Nylon are for spur gear.
design of spur gear and proposed a gear The stress analysis of the lathe machine
for sugarcane juice machine. They created headstock gear box is analyzed by finite
a model in PRO-E and analyzed in element analysis (FEA) and ANSYS. They
ANSYS10.0. From the analysis they found got the theoretical results are about to
the Nylon gear is suitable for the same with minor differences.
application of sugarcane juice machine
under limited load condition compared Pradeep Kumar singh et al. (2014)
with cast iron spur gear. compared analysis with ANSYS and
AGMA. The Hertz theory and Lewis
N.Lenin Rakesh et al. (2013) investigated formula are used for theoretical calculation
a spur gear is modeled using a modeling of contact stress and bending stress of spur
software Pro-E and using software gear. They observed that theoretically
ANSYS. The theoretical stresses of both results obtained by Lewis formula and
bending and contact stress is found Hertz equation are quite similar with little
manually and then analyzed in ANSYS differences.
software. The readings are shown in the
tabular column. It is found that comparing Sangamesh Herakal et al. (2014)
with manual results, results are investigated the dynamic analysis of
approximate or closer to it. natural frequency of spur gear FEA and
MATLAB. The results of FEA and
MATLAB analysis are compared and they
Nitin kapoor et al. (2014) analyzed found that the natural frequency is
parametric model of differential Gearbox increases with increase in fiber orientation.
by using CATIA-V5.Glass filled
polyamide composite and metallic
materials (Aluminum alloy, Alloy Steel III. OBJECTIVES
and Cast Iron) are also being performed
and analyses using ANSYS for equivalent To design and make model of Spur
(Von-Misses) stress, displacement and Gear using CATIA V5.
maximum shear elastic strain for different To analyze the designed model
revolutions under static conditions. A using AGMA parameter and
comparison gives Glass Filled Polyamide ANSYS.
composite material is selected as a best To compare the results obtained by
material for Differential gear box. AGMA and ANSYS.

L. kavin Rajkumar et al. (2014) analyzed

the stress in gear tooth, to reduce the stress
in the gear tooth. An ANSYS analysis of
spur gear is used. A Finite Element model As we know that for proper designing the
with aero-fin shaped hole along the stress selection of material is an important factor.
flow direction gives better results to So for proper designing of spur gear we
reduce the stress in the spur gear contact use the material i.e. structural steel.
tooth. The study gives the better result

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

In the Lewis equation the factors are as For m= 4, b= 10

given below :
= N = 2812.5 N
Wt = Tangential Load ( )

σb = Equivalent Stress = ∗ ∗
Mpa =67.70 Mpa

b = Face width For m= 5, b=10

m =Normal module = N = 2250 N
( )
T= Applied torque or moment
d =Pitch diameter of gear = ∗ ∗
Mpa = 43.22 Mpa

y = Lewis Form Factor. For m= 6, b= 10



Model - TATA INDICA = Mpa =30.10 Mpa

∗ ∗
TORQUE – 135N-m.
SPEED - 2500 r.p.m.
Module and face width are important
The AGMA equation for bending stresses geometrical parameters in determining
is given by the state of stresses during the designing
of gears. Thus, the objective of this work
= N is to conduct a parametric study by
( )
varying the module to study their effect
Where d = N*m on the bending stress of spur gear. In
order to determine the stresses variation
= Mpa with the module four different models of
∗ ∗
spur gear were created by keeping other
Where pc = πm parameters (i.e. face width, pitch circle
diameter, number of teeth, pressure
All the values are puts in above equations angle, power, speed etc.) constant. Table
below shows the results of bending stress
For m=3.5, b= 10 with the variation in the face width of the
spur gear tooth.
= N = 3214.28N
( )

= Mpa = 88.47 Mpa

∗ ∗

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

Figure 1. Equivalent stress of module 3.5.

Above figure 1 indicates that the a teeth of spur gear, that stress calculated
Equivalent (Von- Mises) stress for spur by AGMA is 88. 47 MPa and by ANSYS
gear [m= 3. 5, b= 10mm] with 24 teeth. is 89.597 Mpa. The differences between
When tangential load from claiming both results are 1.27%.
3214.28 N will be connected looking into

Figure 2.Equivalent stress of module 4

Above figure 2 indicates that the applied on a teeth of spur gear, then obtain
Equivalent (Von- Mises) stress of spur bending stress by AGMA standards is
gear for [m= 4, b= 10mm] and having 24 67.70MPa and by ANSYS is 68.419MPa
teeth. When tangential load of 2812.5N is and their difference is 1.68%.

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

Figure 3.Equivalent stress of module 5

Above figure 3 shows that the Equivalent spur gear, then observed bending stress by
(Von- Mises) stress of spur gear [m= 5, b= AGMA standards is 43.32 MPa and by
10mm] and with 24 teeth. When tangential ANSYS is 44.234 MPa and their
load of 2250 N is applied on a teeth of difference is 2.10%.

Figure 4.Equivalent stress of module 6

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

Above figure 4 shows that the Equivalent comparison we found that the difference is
(Von- Mises) stress of spur gear [m= 6, b= 3.74%.
10mm] and having 24 teeth. When
tangential load of 1875 N is applied on a The given table of Bending Stresses
[MPa] of AGMA and ANSYS clearly
teeth of spur gear, then obtain bending shows that when the values of module are
stress by AGMA standards is 30.10 MPa increasing, then there is continuous
and by ANSYS is 31.227 MPa and with decrease in the bending stresses of both
the AGMA and ANSYS.
TABLE for Bending Stresses [MPa] of AGMA and ANSYS

S.No. Module Face Width Bending Stresses Bending Stresses Differences

[mm] [mm] [AGMA] [ANSYS] [%]

1 3.5 10 88.47 89.59 1.27

2 4 10 67.70 68.41 1.68

3 5 10 43.32 44.23 2.10

4 6 10 30.10 31.22 3.74

From the analysis, by comparing the

results of ANSYS and theoretical results,
it can be seen that the results are nearly IX. REFERENCES
equal, and the percentage difference is
found to be from 1.06 to 3.74%. Hence, 1. J.L. Moya, A.S. Machado ―A new approach for
polyamide composite gear designǁ, Wear 262
we can say that ANSYS workbench is a
(2007) 432-441.
reliable source for bending stress
analysis. 2.V. Siva Prasad, Syed Altaf Hussain, V.
Pandurangadu,K. PalaniKumar, " Modeling and
VII. CONCLUSION Analysis of spur gear for Sugarcane Juice Machine
under Static Load Condition by Using FEA",July-
The results obtained from ANSYS when Aug 2012,International Journal of Modern
compare with the AGMA procedure, it Engineering Research,Vol- 2/4, pp-2862-2866.
shows that there is a little variation with a 3. N. Lenin Rakesh, V. Palanisamy and Sidharth
higher difference in percentage of 3.74%. Das, SPUR Gear Analysis Using Finite Element
From the results we can conclude that Analysis. Middle-East Journal of Scientific
ANSYS can also be used for predicting the Research 14 (2012): 1763-1765, 2013.
values of bending stress at any required
4. Nitin Kapoor, Virender Upneja, Ram and Puneet
module and face width which is much
Katyal, Design and stress strain analysis of
easier to use and to solve the complex composite difference gear box, IJSETR, Volume 3,
design problems like gears. Issue 7, July 2014.

VIII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 5. L. Kavin Rajkumar and A. Dyson Bruno, Design

and analysis of shear stress reduction in aero-fin
I would like to express my gratitude and holed spur gears. August, 2014 IJERST Vol. 3, No.
heart full thanks to our mentor Dr. 3
L.P.Singh, Assistant Professor, 6. Mahebub Vohra, Prof. Kevin Vyas,
SHUATS,Allahabad for his variable "Comparative Finite Element Analysis of Metallic
guidance and constant encouragements at and non-Metallic spur gear", May-June 2014,
various stages. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil
Engineering, Vol-11/3,pp- 136-145.

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 3 Issue 5, Sep - Oct 2017

7. Sangamesh herakal, Shravankumar B.kerur, 9. M. Patil, S.Herakal, S. B. Kerur, "Dynamic

Dynamic Analysis of Composite Spur Gear.IRF Analysis of Composite spur gear", May- 2014,
International Conference, 18 May-2014. Proceedings of 3rd IRF International Conference.

8. Sandip c. patel, Dr. S.G Sarganachri, Review of 10. Textbook of Machine Design by R.S.Khurmi,
composite asymmetric spur gear. IJER, 01 Feb J.K. Gupta.

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