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ments of the Constitution 2005 Amendments of

stitution 2007 (Ar. version)

ad of the State :
into account the results of the referendum of
nstitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt, held
tember, 11th 1971 and the unanimity of the
s consensus on the Constitution, And after
into account article 193 of the Constitution of
b Republic of Egypt. Issues the Constitution of
b Republic of Egypt in the attached text. Cairo
21st 1391 - September, 11th 1971.

Mohamed Anwar El Sadat

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Constitutional Proclamation

n Constitution

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1): The Arab Republic of Egypt is a democratic state
n citizenship. The Egyptian people are part of the Arab
nd work for the realization of its comprehensive unity.
2): Islam is the Religion of the State. Arabic is its official
e, and the principal source of legislation is Islamic
dence (Sharia).
3): Sovereignty is for the people alone who will practise
ect this sovereignty and safeguard national unity in the
specified by the Constitution .
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4): Economy in the Arab Republic of Egypt is based on

lopment of economic activity, social justice, guarantee of
forms of property and the preservation of laborers'

5): The political regime of the Arab Republic of Egypt is

pon the multi-party system within the framework of the
nciples and components of the Egyptian society stipulated
onstitution . Political parties shall be organized by law .
ens have the right to form political parties according to
and no political activity shall be exercised or political
shall be formed on the basis of religion or on
ation due to gender or race.
6): Egyptian Nationality is defined by law .


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CHAPTER I - Social and Moral Constituents
rticle 7): Social solidarity is the basis of society .
rticle 8): The State shall guarantee equality of
portunity to all Egyptians .
rticle 9): The family is the basis of the society founded
religion, morality and patriotism. The State is keen to
eserve the genuine character of the Egyptian family- with
values and traditions represented by it- while affirming
d promoting this character in the interplay of relations
hin the Egyptian society.
rticle 10): The State shall guarantee the protection of
otherhood and childhood, look after children and youth
d provide the suitable conditions for the development of
eir talents.
rticle 11): The State shall guarantee coordination
tween woman’s duties towards her family and her work in
e society, considering her equal to man in the political,
cial, cultural and economic spheres without detriment to
e rules of Islamic jurisprudence (Sharia).
rticle 12): Society shall be committed to safeguarding
d protecting morals, promoting the genuine Egyptian
ditions and abiding by the high standards of religious
ucation, moral and national values, the historical heritage
the people, scientific facts, and public manners within the
its of the law. The State is committed to abiding by these
nciples and promoting them.
rticle 13): Work is a right, a duty and an honour
sured by the State. Distinguished workers shall be worthy
the appreciation of the State and the society. No work
all be imposed on citizens, except by virtue of the law, for
e performance of a public service and in return for a fair
rticle 14): Citizens are entitled to public offices, which
e assigned to those who shall occupy them in the service
people. The State guarantees the protection of public
icers in the performance of their duties in safeguarding
e interests of the people. They may not be dismissed by
her than the disciplinary way except in the cases specified
the law.
rticle 15): War veterans and those injured during wars
because of them , martyrs’ wives and children shall have
ority in work opportunities according to the law.
rticle 16): The State shall guarantee cultural, social and
alth services and shall work to ensure them particularly
villagers in an easy and regular manner in order to raise
eir standard .
rticle 17): The State shall guarantee social and health
urance services. All citizens shall have the right to
nsions in cases of incapacity, unemployment, and old-age
accordance with the law.
rticle 18):Education is a right guaranteed by the State.
s obligatory in the primary stage. The State shall work to
tend obligation to other stages. The State shall supervise
branches of education and guarantee the independence
universities and scientific research centers, with a view to
king all this with the requirements of society and
rticle 19): Religious education shall be a principal
bject in the courses of general education.
rticle 20): Education in the State: Educational
titutions shall be free of charge in their various stages.
rticle 21): Combating illiteracy shall be a national duty
which all the people’s capacity shall be mobilized.
rticle 22): The institution of civil titles shall be

CHAPTER II - Economic Constituents
rticle 23) The national economy shall be organised in
cordance with a comprehensive development plan which
sures raising the national income, fair distribution, raising
e standard of living, solving the problem of
employment, increasing work opportunities, connecting
ges with production, fixing a minimum and maximum
it for wages in a manner that guarantees lessening the
parities between incomes.
rticle 24) The State shall sponsor national production
d shall work for realizing social and economic
rticle 25) Every citizen shall have a share in the national
venue to be defined by law in accordance with his work or
unexploiting ownership .
rticle 26) Workers shall have a share in the
anagement and profits of projects . They shall be
mmitted to the development of production and the
plementation of the plan in their production units, in
cordance with the law. Protecting the means of
oduction is a national duty . Workers shall be represented
the boards of directors of the public sector units by at
st 50% of the number of members of these boards. The
w shall guarantee for the small farmers and small
aftsmen 80%of the membership on the boards of
ectors of the agricultural and industrial co-operatives.
rticle 27) Beneficiaries shall participate in the
anagement of the services projects of public interest and
eir supervision in accordance with the law .
rticle 28) The State shall look after the co-operative
ablishments in all their forms and encourage handicrafts
h a view to developing production and raising income .
e State shall endeavour to support agricultural co-
eratives according to modern scientific bases.
rticle 29) Ownership shall be under the supervision of
e people and the protection of the State. There are three
ds of ownership: public ownership, co-operative
nership and private ownership.
rticle 30) Public ownership is the ownership of the
ople as represented in the ownership of the State and the
blic legal persons.
rticle 31) Co-operative ownership is the ownership of
e co-operative societies. The law shall guarantee its
otection and self-management.
rticle 32) Private ownership shall be represented by the
exploiting capital. The law shall organize the performance
its social function in the service of the national economy
hin the framework of the development plan, without
viation or exploitation. The ways of its utilization should
t contradict the general welfare of the people.
rticle 33) Public ownership shall have its sanctity, and its
otection and consolidation is the duty of every citizen in
cordance with the law.
rticle 34) Private ownership shall be safeguarded and
ay not be placed under sequestration except in the cases
fined by law and in accordance with a judicial decision . It
ay not be expropriated except for the general good and
ainst a fair compensation as defined by law. The right of
heritance shall be guaranteed in it .
rticle 35) Nationalization shall not be allowed except for
nsiderations of public interest and in accordance with a
w and against a compensation.
rticle 36) General confiscation of funds shall be
ohibited . Private confiscation shall not be allowed except
a judicial decision.
rticle 37) The law shall fix the maximum limit of land
nership with a view to protecting the farmer and the
ricultural labourer from exploitation.
rticle 38) The tax system shall be based on social justice


40) All citizens are equal before the law. They have
ublic rights and duties without discrimination between
ue to race, ethnic origin, language, religion or creed.
41) Individual freedom is a natural right and shall not be
Except in cases of a flagrant delicate no person may be
inspected, detained or his freedom restricted or
d from free movement except by an or necessitated by
tions and preservation of the security of the society. This
hall be given by the competent judge or the Public
ion in accordance with the provisions of the law. The law
determine the period of custody.
42) Any person arrested, detained or his freedom
d shall be treated in the manner concomitant with the
tion of his dignity. No physical or moral harm is to be
upon him. He may not be detained or imprisoned except
s defined by laws organizing prisons. If a confession is
to have been made by a person under any of the
ntioned forms of duress or coercion, it shall be considered
and futile.
43) Any medical or scientific experiment may not be
ne on any person without his free consent.
44) Homes shall have their sanctity and they may not be
or inspected except by a causal judicial warrant
ed by the law.
45) The law shall protect the inviolability of the private
tizens. Correspondence, wires, telephone calls an other
of communication shall have their own sanctity and
and may not be confiscated or monitored except by a
udicial warrant and for a definite period according to the
s of the law.
46) The State shall guarantee the freedom of belief and
reedom of practice of religious rites.
47) Freedom of opinion is guaranteed. Every individual
right to express his opinion and to publicize it verbally or
g or by photography or by other means within the limits
law. Self-criticism and constructive criticism is the
e for the safety of the national structure.
48) Freedom of the press, printing, publication and mass
shall be guaranteed. Censorship on newspapers is
n as well as notifying, suspending or canceling them by
rative methods. In a state of emergency or in time of war
d censorship may be imposed on the newspapers,
ons and mass media in matters related to public safety or
s of national security in accordance with the law.
49) The State shall guarantee the freedom of scientific
and literary, artistic and cultural invention and provide
necessary means for its realization.
50) No citizen may be prohibited from residing in any
d no citizen may be forced to reside in a particular place,
in the cases defined by the law.
51) No citizen may be deported from the country or
d from returning to it.
52) Citizens shall have the right to permanent or
ry immigration. The law shall regulate this right and the
s and conditions of immigration and leaving the country.
53) The right to political asylum shall be guaranteed by
e for every foreigner persecuted for defending the
interests, human rights, peace or justice. The extradition
political refugees is prohibited.
54) Citizens shall have the right to peaceable and
private assembly, without the need for prior notice.
men should not attend these private meetings. Public
s, processions and gatherings are allowed within the limits
the law.
55) Citizens shall have the right to form societies as
n the law. The establishment of societies whose activities
ile to the social system, clandestine or have a military
r is prohibited.
56) The creation of syndicates and unions on a
tic basis is a right guaranteed by law, and should have a
tity. The law regulates the participation of syndicates and
n carrying out the social programs and plans, raising the
of efficiency among their members, and safeguarding
ds. They are responsible for questioning their members
heir behavior in exercising their activities according to
odes of morals, and for defending the rights and liberties
eir members as defined in the law.
57) Any assault on individual freedom or on the
ity of private life of citizens and any other public rights
ties guaranteed by the Constitution and the law shall be
ed a crime, whose criminal and civil lawsuit is not liable to
ion. The State shall grant a fair compensation to the
of such an assault.
58) The defense of the motherland is a sacred duty, and
ion is obligatory in accordance with the law.
59) Enviroment protection is a national duty. The law
s procedures needed to protect the enviroment.
60) Protecting national unity and keeping State secrets
the duty of every citizen.
61) Payment of taxes and public imports is a duty, in
nce with the law.
62) Citizens shall have the right to vote and express
nions in referendums according to the provisions of the
ir participation in public life is a national duty. The law
ulate the right of candidacy to the People's Assembly and
a Council and the local councils according to the electoral
t specifies. The law may adopt a system, combining
the individual system and the party lists by means of any
ween them to be specified by the law. It may also include
um limit for the women's participation in the afore-
ed councils. Their participation in public life is a national

63) Every individual has the right to address public

es in writing and with his own signature. Addressing
uthorities should not be in the name of groups, with the
n of disciplinary organs and moral personalities.


64) Sovereignty of the law shall be the basis of rule in
65) The State shall be subject to law. The independence
munity of the judiciary are two basic guarantees to
d rights and liberties.
66) Penalty shall be personal. There shall be no crime or
except by virtue of the law. No penalty shall be inflicted
y a judicial sentence. Penalty shall be inflicted only for
mmitted subsequent to the promulgation of the law
ng them.
67) Any defendant is innocent until he is proved guilty
legal court, in which he is granted the right to defend
Every person accused of a crime must be provided with
for his defense.
68) The right to litigation is inalienable for all, and every
as the right to refer to his competent judge. The State
arantee the accessibility of the judicature organs to
and the rapidity of statuting on cases. Any provision in
stipulating the immunity of any act or administrative
from the control of the judicature is prohibited.
69) The right of defense in person or by mandate is
ed. The Law shall grant the financially incapable citizens
ans to resort to justice and defend their rights.
70) No penal lawsuit shall be sued except by an order
judicature organ and in cases defined by the law.
71) Any person arrested or detained should be informed,
with the reasons for his arrest or detention. He has the
communicate, inform, and ask the help of anyone as
ed in the law. He must be faced, as soon as possible, with
rges directed against him. Any person may lodge a
t to the courts against any measure taken to restrict his
l freedom. The law regulates the right of complaint in a
ensuring a ruling regarding it within a definite period, or
release is imperative.
72)Sentences shall be passed and executed in the name
people. Likewise, refraining to execute sentences or
ng them on the part of the concerned civil servants is
ed a crime punishable by law. In this case, those whom
ence is in favor of, have the right to sue a direct penal
efore the competent court.


CHAPTER I - The Head of State
rticle 73) The Head of State is the President of the
public. He shall assert the sovereignty of the people,
spect the Constitution and the supremacy of the law,
eguard the national unity and the social justice and
aintain the boundaries between authorities in a manner to
sure that each shall perform its role in the national action.
rticle 74) If any danger threatens the national unity or
e safety of the motherland or obstructs the constitutional
e of the State institutions, the President of the Republic
all take urgent measures to face this danger after taking
e opinion of the Prime Minister and the Speakers of the
ople's Assembly and the Shura Council, direct a statement
the people and conduct a referendum on these measures
hin sixty days of its adoption. The dissolution of the
ople's Assembly and the Shura Council may not take place
ile exercising these authorities.
rticle 75) The person to be elected President of the
public must be an Egyptian born to Egyptian parents and
joy civil and political rights. His age must not be less than
Gregorian years.
rticle 76) President of the Republic shall be elected by
ect public secret ballot. For candidature for presidency of
e republic to be acceptable, a candidate should be
pported by at least 250 elected members of the People's
sembly, the Shura Council and Municipal Councils in
vernorates, provided that supporters be at least 65
embers of the People's Assembly, 25 members of the
ura Council and 10 members of each of the Municipal
uncils of at least 14 governorates. The number of
pporters from the People's Assembly, the Shura Council
d the Municipal Councils of governorates shall be
reased with a percentage equal to the number of any of
ose councils. In all case, supporting more than one
ndidate shall not be permissible. Political parties, which
ve been founded at least five consecutive years before
e starting date of candidature and have been operating
interruptedly for this period, and whose members have
tained at least 3% of the elected members of both the
ople's Assembly and the Shura Council or what equals this
al in one of the two assemblies, may nominate for
esidency a member of their respective higher board,
cording to their own bylaws, provided he has been a
ember of such board for at least one consecutive year. As
exception to the provisions of the afore-mentioned
ragraph, the afore-mentioned political parties whose
embers obtained at least one seat in any of the People's
sembly or the Shura Council in the last elections may
minate in any presidential elections to be held within ten
ars as of May 1, 2007, any member of its higher board,
cording to their own bylaws, provided he has been a
ember of such board for at least one consecutive year.
plications for candidature shall be submitted to an
dependent committee called the "Committee on
esidential Elections". This committee shall presided by the
ef justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court and
mprise the head of the Cairo Court of Appeal, the first
puty chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court, the
st deputy chairman of the Court of Cassation, the first
puty chairman of the State Council and five public figures
own for their impartiality, three of whom selected for five
ars by the People's Assembly and two by the Shura
uncil upon proposal of the Bureau of each council. The
w shall decide who replaces the committee chairman or
y of its members in case of any hindering circumstances.
is committee is exclusively competent to:
Announcing the opening of candidature, supervising its
ocedures and announcing the final list of candidates.
Supervising the procedures of proposals and vote
Announcing the result of elections.
Adjudicating on all petitions and challenges and all
atters within its competences including cases of disputed
Drafting rules of procedure to organize its work
ethodology and the exercise of its competences.
cisions of the committee shall be made by a majority of
least seven of its members and shall be final, valid by
emselves, unchallengeable before any tribunal and may
t be interpreted or prevented from execution. The law
ganizing presidential elections shall define other
mpetences of the committee as well as the rules for
minating a replacement for a candidate whose post
comes vacant for any reason other than relinquishment of
ndidature during the period between the beginning of
ndidature and the end of the ballot. Elections shall be
d on one day, and the committee on presidential
ctions shall set the committees that supervise the voting
d vote counting processes, provided that this is
pervised by general committees composed of members of
e judiciary in accordance with the rules and regulations
fined by the committee. Election of the President is
nounced when the candidate wins absolute majority of
id votes. In case none of the candidates wins this
solute majority a second round of elections shall be held
er at least seven days between the two candidates who
n the highest number of votes. In case two candidates
n equal valid votes they shall go for the second round in
ich the winner shall be the candidate who wins the
eater number of votes. Elections for the post of President
the Republic shall be held even if only one candidate
plied for candidature or in case all other candidates
inquished their candidature or no one applied to replace a
ndidate whose candidature become vacant. In such case
e candidate who wins the absolute majority of valid votes
all be the winning candidate. President of the Republic
all president the bill organizing presidential elections to
e Supreme Constitutional Court after its approval by the
ople's Assembly and before a report on its
nstitutionality is issued. The Supreme Constitutional Court
all issue its report on this matter within fifteen days of the
erral. In case it decides the constitutionality of a text or
ore of the bill. President of the Republic shall return it to
e People's Assembly to act accordingly. In all cases the
ing of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall be binding
all authorities of the State. It shall be published in the
icial gazette within three days of its promulgation.
rticle 77) The term of the Presidency is six Gregorian
ars starting from the date of the announcement of the
sult of the plebiscite. The President of the Republic may
re-elected for other successive terms.
rticle 78) Procedures for the choice of a new President
the Republic shall begin sixty days before the expiration
the term of the President in office. The new President
all be selected at least one week before the expiration of
e term. Should this term expire without the choice of the
w President being made for any reason whatsoever, the
mer President shall continue to exercise his functions
til his successor is elected. Should the election of the new
esident be announced before the end of the term of his
edecessor, his presidential term shall start from the
cond day following the end of such a term.
rticle 79) Before exercising his powers, the President
all take the following oath before the People's Assembly.
swear by Almighty God to uphold the Republican system
h locality, to respect the Constitution and the law, to look
er the interests of the people fully and to safeguard the
dependence and territorial integrity of the motherland".
rticle 80) The salary of the President of the Republic
all be fixed by law. Any amendment in the salary shall not
me into force during the Presidential term in which it is
cided upon. The President of the Republic may not
ceive any other salary or remuneration.
rticle 81) During his term the President of the Republic
ay not exercise any free profession or undertake any
mmercial, financial or industrial activity. Nor may he
quire or take on lease any State property, sell to or
change with the State any property of his whatsoever.
rticle 82) If on account of any temporary obstacle the
esident of the Republic is unable to carry out his
nctions, he shall delegate his powers to a vice president or
e Prime Minister should there be no vice-president or in
se of being unable to do so. The one who shall act as the
esident of the Republic may not request the amendment
the Constitution or dissolve the People's Assembly or the
ura Council or to relieve the cabinet.
rticle 83) In case of resignation, the President shall
dress the letter of resignation to the People's Assembly.
rticle 84) In case of the vacancy of the Presidential
fice or the permanent disability of the President of the
public, the President of the People's Assembly shall
mporarily assume the Presidency; and, if at that time, the
ople's Assembly is dissolved, the President of the
preme Constitutional Court shall take over the Presidency,
wever, on condition that neither one shall nominate
mself for the Presidency,however, on condition that
ther one shall nominate himself for the Presidency while
ding by the provisions of the second paragraph of Article
. The People's Assembly shall then proclaim the vacancy
the office of President. The President of the Republic shall
chosen within a maximum period of sixty days from the
y of the vacancy of the Presidential Office.
rticle 85) Any charge against the President of high
ason or of committing a criminal act shall be made upon
proposal by at least one-third of the members of the
ople's Assembly. No impeachment shall be issued except
on the approval of a majority of two-thirds of the
sembly members. The President shall be suspended from
e exercise of his duty as from the issuance of the
peachment. The Vice-president shall temporarily assume
e Presidency or the Prime Minister should there be no
e-president while abiding by the provisions of the second
ragraph of Article 82 till issuing a ruling regarding the
peachment. The President of the Republic shall be tried
a special tribunal set up by law. The law shall also
ganize the trial procedures and define the penalty. If he is
und guilty, he shall be relieved of his post, without
ejudice to other penalties.

CHAPTER II - The Legislature The People's Assembly
rticle 86) The People's Assembly shall exercise the
islative power and approve the general policy of the
ate, the general plan of economic and social development
d the general budget of the State. It shall exercise control
er the work of the executive authority in the manner
escribed by the Constitution.
rticle 87) The law shall determine the constituencies into
ich the State shall be divided and the number of elected
embers of the People's Assembly must be at least 350
rsons, of which one half at least must be workers and
mers elected by direct secret public balloting. The
finition of the worker and the farmer shall be made by
w. The President of the Republic may appoint a number of
embers not exceeding ten.
rticle 88) The necessary conditions stipulated in the
embers of the People's Assembly shall be defined by law
ich shall set out the provisions of the election and
erendum and casting ballot shall take place in one day. A
gher committee which enjoys independence and
partiality shall supervise the elections in the manner
gulated by the law. The law shall set out the
mpetencies of the committee and the way of its formation
d current and former members of judicial bodies shall be
mong its members. The committee shall form the general
mmittees supervising the elections at the level of the
nstituencies and the committees exercising the measures
casting ballot and votes' counting. The general
mmittees shall be formed of members of judicial bodies
d votes counting shall be made under the supervision of
e general committees in accordance with the rules and the
easures defined by the law. The rules of election and
erendum shall be determined by law, while the ballot
all be conducted under the supervision of members of a
diciary organ.
rticle 89) Employees of the State and of the public
ctor nominate themselves for membership in the People's
sembly. The member of the people's Assembly shall
vote himself to membership in the Assembly except in
ses specified by law. His post or work shall be held over
him in accordance with the provisions of the law.
rticle 90) The member of the People's Assembly shall
ke the following oath before the Assembly before entering
on his duties: "I swear by God Almighty, that I shall
eserve the safety of the nation and the Republican
gime, shall attend to the interests of the people and shall
spect the Constitution and law".
rticle 91) Members of the People's Assembly shall
ceive a remuneration determined by the law.
rticle 92) The duration of the People's Assembly term is
e Gregorian years from the date of its first meeting.
ctions for renewal of the Assembly shall take place within
e sixty days preceding the termination of the term.
rticle 93) The People's Assembly shall be the only
thority competent to decide upon the validity of its
embers. A Court of Causation shall be competent to
estigate the validity of contestation presented to the
sembly, on being referred to it by the President of the
sembly. The contestation shall be referred to the Court of
ssation within fifteen days as from the date on which the
sembly was informed of it, while the investigation shall be
mpleted within ninety days from the date on which the
ntestation is referred to the Court of Cassation. The result
the investigation and the decision reached by the Court
all be submitted to the Assembly to decide upon the
idity of the contestation within sixty days from the date
submission of the result of the investigation to the
sembly. The membership will not be deemed invalid
cept by a decision taken by a majority of two-thirds of the
sembly members.
rticle 94) If the seat of a member becomes vacant
fore the end of his term, the vacant position must be
cupied in accordance with the law within sixty days from
e date as of informing the Assembly of the occurrence of
e vacancy. The term of the new member shall be
mplementary to that of his predecessor.
rticle 95) No member of the People's Assembly shall,
ring his mandate, purchase or rent any State property; or
se or sell to the State or barter with it regarding any part
his property, or conclude a contract with the State in his
pacity as entrepreneur, importer or contractor.
rticle 96) No membership in the People's Assembly shall
revoked except on the grounds of loss of confidence or
tus or of one of the conditions of membership, or the loss
the member's status as a worker or farmer upon which
was elected or the violation of the member's mandate.
e membership shall be deemed invalid on the grounds of
decision taken by a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly
rticle 97) The People's Assembly alone may accept the
signation of its members.
rticle 98) Members of the People's Assembly shall not be
nsured for any opinions or thoughts expressed by them in
e performance of their tasks in the Assembly or its
rticle 99) No member of the People's Assembly shall be
bject to a criminal prosecution without the permission of
e Assembly except in cases of flagrant delicto. If the
sembly is not in session, the permission of the President
the Assembly must be taken. The Assembly must be
tified of the measures taken in its first subsequent
rticle 100) The seat of the People's Assembly shall be
iro. However, in exceptional circumstances, it may meet
other city, at the request of the President of the Republic
the majority of the Assembly members. Any meeting of
e Assembly in other than its designated seat is illicit and
e resolutions passed in it shall be considered invalid.
rticle 101) The President of the Republic shall convoke
e People's Assembly for its ordinary annual session before
e second Thursday of November. If it is not convoked, the
sembly shall meet, by force of the Constitution, on the
d day. The session of the ordinary meeting shall continue
at least seven months.
rticle 102) The President of the Republic may call the
ople's Assembly to an extraordinary meeting, in case of
cessity, or upon a request signed by a majority of the
sembly members. The President of the Republic shall
nounce the dismissal of the extraordinary meeting.
rticle 103) The People's assembly shall elect, in the first
eeting of its ordinary annual session, a president and a
e-president for the term of the session. If the seat of
yone of them is vacated, the Assembly shall elect a
placement, whose term will last until the end of his
edecessor�s term.
rticle 104) The People's Assembly shall lay down its own
es of procedure organizing the manner of the fulfillment
its tasks.
rticle 105) The people's Assembly alone shall be entitled
preserve order inside it. The President of the Assembly
all be entrusted with this task.
rticle 106) The meetings of the People's Assembly shall
public. However, a meeting in camera may be held at the
quest of the president of the Republic or of the
vernment or of its Prime Minister or at least twenty of its
embers. The Assembly shall then decide whether the
bate on the question submitted to it shall take place in a
blic meeting or in a meeting in camera.
rticle 107) The meeting of the Assembly shall be
nsidered invalid if the majority of its members are not
esent. The resolution of the Assembly shall be adopted by
absolute majority of the attending members, in cases
her than those for which a specific majority is required.
ery article of the draft laws shall be put to a vote. In case
a tie vote, the question on which the debate had taken
ce shall be rejected.
rticle 108) The president of the Republic shall have the
ht, in case of necessity or in exceptional cases and on the
thorization of the People's Assembly upon the approval of
majority of two thirds of its members, to issue resolutions
ving the force of law. The authorization must be for a
ited period of time during which the subjects of the
solutions and the grounds upon which they are based,
ust be determined. The resolutions must be submitted to
e People's Assembly in the first meeting after the end of
e authorization period. If they are not submitted or if they
e submitted and not approved by the Assembly, they shall
ase to have the force of law.
rticle 109) The President of the Republic and every
ember of the People's Assembly shall have the right to
opose laws.
rticle 110) Every draft law shall be referred to a
mmittee of the Assembly, which will study it and submit a
port concerning it. Draft laws presented by members of
e People's Assembly shall not be referred to this
mmittee unless they are first referred to a special
mmittee which will study them and give an opinion on the
tability of their consideration by the Assembly and after
e Assembly decides to consider them.
rticle 111) Every draft law proposed by a member and
ected by the Assembly cannot be presented again in the
urse of the same session.
rticle 112) The president of the Republic shall have the
ht to promulgate laws or object to them.
rticle 113) If the President of the Republic objects to a
aft law ratified by the People's Assembly he shall refer it
ck to the Assembly within thirty days from the Assembly's
mmunication of it. If the draft law is not referred back
hin this period, it is considered a law shall be
omulgated. If it is referred back to the Assembly on the
d date and approved once again by a majority of two-
rds of the members, it shall be considered a law and shall
rticle 114) The people's Assembly shall approve the
neral plan for economic and social development. The
anner of the preparation of the plan and of its submission
the people's Assembly shall be determined by law.
rticle 115) The draft public budget shall be submitted to
e People's Assembly at least three months before the
ginning of the fiscal year. It shall be considered in effect
er approval. The draft budget shall be voted upon title by
e. The People's Assembly may modify the expenditures
entioned in the budget draft except those regarded as an
plementation to a specified commitment by the State.
ould the modification result in increasing the
penditures, the People's Assembly has to agree with the
vernment on means to provide resources of the revenues
realize rebalance between them and expenditures. The
dget shall be issued by a law which may include
odification in any already issued law as necessary to
alize this balance. Should not the new budget be ratified
fore the beginning of the new fiscal year, the old budget
all be in effect till ratification. The law shall define the way
the budget preparation as well as the fiscal year.
rticle 116) The approval of the people's Assembly shell
considered necessary for the transfer of any funds one
e of the budget to another title, as well as for any
penditure not included in it or excess of its estimates, and
s shall be issued by a law.
rticle 117) The provisions regulating the budgets and
counts of public organizations and organisms shall be
escribed by law.
rticle 118) The final account of the State budget shall
submitted to the People's Assembly within a period not
ceeding six months from the date of the expiration of the
cal year. It shall be voted upon title by title and issued by
law. The annual report of the Central Agency for
counting and its observations must be submitted to the
ople's Assembly. The Assembly has the right to demand
m the Central Agency for accounting any data or other
rtinent reports.
rticle 119) The imposition, modification or abolition of
neral taxes cannot be effected except in the cases
creed by law. No one may be exempted from his or her
yment except in the cases specified by law. No one may
asked to pay additional taxes or imposts except in the
ses specified by law.
rticle 120) The basic rules for collection of public funds
d the procedure for their disbursement shall be regulated.
rticle 121) The Executive Authority shall not contract a
n or bind itself to a project entailing expenditure of funds
m the State Treasury in the course of a subsequent
riod, except with the approval of the People's Assembly.
rticle 122) The rules governing the granting of salaries,
nsions, indemnities, subsides and bonuses from the state
easury shall be determined by law which shall also
gulate the cases excepted from these rules, and the
thorities charged with their application.
rticle 123) The rules and procedures for granting
ncessions relating to investment of the sources of natural
alth and of public utilities shall be determined by law;
posal, free of charge, of real estate properties belonging
the State or the ceding of moveable properties of the
ate and the rules and problems relating to them shall also
determined by law.
rticle 124) Every member of the People's Assembly shall
entitled to address questions to the Prime Minister or any
his deputies or the Ministers or their deputies concerning
atters within their jurisdiction. The Prime Minister, his
puties, the Ministers and the persons they delegate on
eir behalf shall answer the questions put to them by
embers. The member may withdraw his question at any
me; this same question may not be transformed into an
erpellation in the same session.
rticle 125) Every member of the People's Assembly shall
entitled to address Interpellations to the Prime Minister
his deputies or the Ministers or their deputies concerning
atters within their jurisdiction. Debate on an interpellation
all take place at least seven days after its submission,
cept in the cases of urgency as decided by the Assembly
d with the government's consent.
rticle 126) The Ministers shall be responsible collectively
the general policy of the State before the People's
sembly; also every Minister shall be responsible for the
s of his Ministry. The People's Assembly may decide to
hdraw its confidence from any of the Prime Minister's
puties or from many of the Ministers or their deputies. A
otion of no confidence should not be submitted except
er an interpellation. Such a motion should be proposed by
e-tenth of the Assembly's members. The Assembly should
t decide on such a motion until after at least three days
m the date of its presentation. Withdrawal of confidence
all be pronounced by the majority of the members of the
rticle 127) The People's Assembly shall determine the
sponsibility of the Prime Minister, on a proposal by one-
nth of its members. Such a decision should be taken by
e majority of the members of the Assembly. It may not be
ken except after an interpellation addressed to the
vernment, and after at least three days from the date of
presentation. In the event that such responsibility is
termined, the Assembly shall submit a report to the
esident of the Republic including the elements of the
bject, the conclusions reached on the matter and the
asons behind it. The President of the Republic may accept
e resignation of the government or return such a report to
e Assembly within ten days. Should the Assembly ratify it
ce again by a majority of two thirds of its members, the
esident of the Republic shall accept the resignation of the
vernment. Should the proposal of the responsibility of the
me Minister be rejected, the one requesting the
hdrawal of confidence may not re-request it in the same
rticle 128) If the Assembly withdraws its confidence
m any of the Prim Minister's deputies or of the Ministers
of their deputies, they shall resign their office. The Prime
nister shall submit his resignation to the President of the
public if he is found responsible before the People's
rticle 129) Any twenty members, at least, of the
ople's Assembly may ask for the discussion of a public
estion to ascertain the government's policy regarding
ch a question.
rticle 130) The members of the people's Assembly shall
entitled to express their opinions concerning public
estion before the Prime Minister or any of his deputies or
the Ministers.
rticle 131) The People's Assembly shall form an ad hoc
mmittee or entrust any of its committees with the
pection of the activities of any of the administrative
partments or the general establishments or any
ministrative or executive organ or any of the public
ojects, for the purpose of finding facts and informing the
sembly as to the actual financial or administrative or
onomic positions or for conducting investigations into a
bject related to one of the said activities. In the course of
work, such a committee shall be entitled to collect
atever evidence it deems necessary and to subpoena all
ose it needs. All executive and administrative bodies shall
swer the demands of the committee and put under its
posal all the documents and evidence it asks for this
rticle 132) At the inaugural meeting of the ordinary
ssion of the People's Assembly, the President of the
public shall give a statement of the general policy of the
ate. He shall also give other statements before the
sembly. The Assembly is entitled to discuss the statement
the President of the Republic.
rticle 133)The Prime Minister shall submit the program
the government within sixty days of the date of its
mation to the People's Assembly or in its first meeting
ould not be assembled. Should not the Assembly ratify
s program by the majority of its members, the President
the Republic may accept the resignation of the Cabinet.
ould not the Assembly ratify the program of the new
binet, the President of the Republic may dissolve the
sembly or accept the resignation of the Cabinet. The
me Minister and the ministers and other members of the
vernment may deliver a statement before the People's
sembly or any of its committees as regards a subject
atter within its competency. The Assembly or the
mmittee shall discuss this statement and express opinion
er any remarks regarding it. The People's Assembly is
titled to discuss such program.
rticle 134) The Prime Minister, his deputies, the
nisters and their deputies may become members of the
ople's Assembly. Those of them who are not members
ay attend the sessions and committees of the Assembly.
rticle 135) The Prime Minister and Ministers shall be
ard in the People's Assembly and its committees
enever they request to speak. They may be assisted by
gh-ranking officials. A Minister shall have no counted vote
en votes are taken, unless he is a member.
rticle 136) The President of the Republic shall not
solve the People's Assembly unless it is necessary. Should
e Assembly be dissolved over a matter, the new Assembly
ay not be dissolved for the same matter. The decision
ust include a call on voters for holding new elections of
e People's Assembly in a date not exceeding sixty days
m the date of issuing the decision of dissolution. The
cision dissolving the Assembly shall comprise an invitation
the electors to conduct new elections for the People's
sembly within a period not exceeding sixty days from the
te of the declaration of the referendum results. The new
sembly shall convene during a period of ten days
owing the completion of elections.

CHAPTER III - The Executive
SECTION I - The President of the Republic
(Article 137) The President of the Republic shall
assume executive power and shall exercise it in the
manner stipulated in the Constitution.
(Article 138) The President of the Republic in
conjunction with the government, shall lay down the
general policy of the State and supervise its
implementation in the manner prescribed in the
Constitution. The President of the Republic shall
exercise the competencies stipulated in articles 144,
145, 146, 147 after the approval of the Cabinet and
the competencies stipulated in articles 108, 148, 151
(second paragraph) after taking its opinion.
(Article 139) The President of the Republic may
appoint one or more vice-presidents, define their
jurisdiction and relieve them of their posts. The rules
relating to the calling into account of the President of
the Republic shall be applicable to the Vice-Presidents.
(Article 140) Before exercising his functions, the
Vice-President shall take the following oath before the
President of the Republic: "I swear by Almighty God
to uphold the Republican system with loyalty, to
respect the Constitution and the law, to look after the
interests of the people fully and to safeguard the
independence and territorial integrity of the
(Article 141) The President of the Republic shall
appoint the Prime Minister and relieve him of his post
and the appointment of his deputies, the ministers
and their deputies and relieving them of their posts
shall take place by a decision of the President of the
Republic after taking the opinion of the Prime
(Article 142) The President of the Republic shall
have the right to call a meeting of the Council of
Ministers and to attend its meeting. He shall also
preside over the meetings he attends. He shall be
entitled to demand reports from the Ministers.
(Article 143) The President of the Republic shall
appoint the civil and military officials, and the
diplomatic representatives, and dismiss them in the
manner prescribed by the law. He shall also accredit
the diplomatic representatives of foreign states.
(Article 144) The President of the Republic shall
issue the necessary regulations for the
implementation of the laws, in the manner that would
not modify, obstruct or exempt them from execution.
He shall have the right to vest others with authority to
issue them. The law may determine whoever issues
the decisions requisite or its implementation.
(Article 145) The President of the Republic shall
issue the control regulations.
(Article 146) The President of Republic shall issue
the decisions necessary for organizing the public
services and interests.
(Article 147) In case it becomes necessary, during
the recess between the sessions of the People's
Assembly, to take measures, which cannot suffer
delay, the President of the Republic shall issue
decisions in their respect, which shall have the force
of law. Such decisions must be submitted to the
People's Assembly within fifteen days from their date
of issuance if the Assembly is standing. In case of
dissolution or recess of the Assembly, they shall be
submitted at its first meeting. In case they are not
submitted, their force of law disappears with
retroactive effect, without need for issuing a decision
to this effect. If they are submitted and are not
ratified, their force of law disappears with retroactive
effect, unless the Assembly ratifies their validity in the
previous period or settling their effects in another
(Article 148) The President of the Republic shall
proclaim a state of emergency in the manner
prescribed by the law. Such proclamation must be
submitted to the People's Assembly within the
subsequent fifteen days in order that the Assembly
may take a decision thereon. In case the People's
Assembly is dissolved, the matter shall be submitted
to the new Assembly at its first meeting. In all cases,
the proclamation of the state of emergency shall be
for a limited period, which may not be extended
unless by approval of the Assembly.
(Article 149) The President of Republic shall have
the right of granting amnesty or commute a sentence.
As for general amnesty, it can only be granted by
virtue of a law.
(Article 150) The President of Republic shall be the
Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. He shall
be the authority who declares war, after the approval
of the People's Assembly.
(Article 151) The President of Republic shall
conclude treaties and communicate them to the
People's Assembly, accompanied with a suitable
clarification. They shall have the force of law after
their conclusion, ratification and publication according
to the established procedure. However, peace
treaties, alliance pacts, commercial and maritime and
all the treaties involving modifications in the territory
of the State, or having connection with the rights of
sovereignty, or which lay upon the Treasury of the
State certain charges not provided for in the budget,
must acquire the approval of the People's Assembly.
(Article 152) The President of the Republic may call
a referendum of the people on important matters
affecting the supreme interests of the country.

SECTION II - The Government
(Article 153) the government shall be the supreme
executive and administrative organ of the State. It
shall consist of the Prime Minister, his deputies, the
Ministers and their deputies. The Prime Minister shall
supervise the work of the government.
(Article 154) Whoever is appointed Minister or
Deputy-Minister must be an Egyptian, not less than 35
Gregorian years of age, and enjoying full civil and
political rights.
(Article 155) Before exercising the functions of their
posts, the members of the Cabinet shall take the
following oath before the President of the Republic: "I
swear by Almighty God to uphold the Republican
system with loyalty, to respect the Constitution and
the law, to look after the interests of the people fully,
and to safeguard the independence and territorial
integrity of the motherland".
(Article 156) The Cabinet shall exercise the following
functions in particular:
a) Laying down the general policy of the State, and
controlling its implementation in collaboration with the
President of the Republic in accordance with the
Presidential laws and decrees.
b) Directing, coordinating and following up the works
of the ministries, their affiliated organs, and the public
organizations and institutions.
c) Issuing administrative and executive decisions in
accordance with the laws and decrees, as well as
supervising their implementation.
d) Preparing the draft laws and decrees.
e) Preparing the draft of the general budget of the
f) Preparing the overall plan.
g) Contracting and granting loans in accordance with
the rules of the Constitution.
h) Supervising the implementation of laws,
maintaining State security and protecting the rights of
the citizens and the interests of the State.
(Article 157) The Minister shall be the administrative
supreme chief of his ministry. He shall undertake the
laying down of the ministry's policy in the framework
of the State's general policy, and shall undertake its
(Article 158) During the term of his office, the
Minister shall not practice a free profession - a
commercial or financial or industrial occupation, buy
or rent any State property, or lease or sell to or barter
with the State any of his own property.
(Article 159) The President of the Republic and the
People's Assembly shall have the right to bring a
minister to trial for crimes committed by him in the
performance of, or because of, the duties of his post.
The decision of the People's Assembly to charge a
minister shall be adopted upon a proposal submitted
by at least one-fifth of its members. No indictment
shall be issued except by a majority of two- thirds of
the members of the Assembly.
(Article 160) Any minister indicted shall cease to
function until his case is decided. The termination of
his services shall not prevent legal action being taken
or pursued against him. The trial of a minister, the
procedures and guarantees of the trial, and the
indictment shall be in accordance with the manner
prescribed by the law. These rules shall be in force
with regard to the Deputy Ministers.

SECTION III - The Local Administration
(Article 161) The Arab Republic of Egypt shall be
divided into administrative units, enjoying moral
entities, among which shall be governorates, cities
and villages. Other administrative units may be
established, having moral entities, if this may be
required by the common interest. The law guarantees
decentralization and regulates the means of
empowering the administrative units as regards
providing local services and utilities, promoting them
and managing them well.
(Article 162) Local People's Councils shall be
gradually formed, on the level of administrative units,
by direct election, providing that half of their members
at least shall be workers and farmers. The law shall
provide for the gradual transfer of authority to them.
Presidents and Vice-Presidents, of the Councils shall
be selected from among their members by mean of
(Article 163) The law shall prescribe the way of
formation of the Local People's Councils, their
competencies, their financial resources, the
guarantees for their competencies, their financial
resources, the guarantees for their members, their
relations to the People's Assembly and to the
government, and their role in preparing and
implementing the development plan and in controlling
the various activities.

SECTION IV - The National Specialized Councils
(Article 164) Specialized Councils shall be
established on the national level to assist in laying
down the general policy of the State in all fields of
national endeavor. These councils are to be affiliated
to the President of the Republic. A Presidential decree
shall determine the formation and functions of each

CHAPTER IV - The Judiciary Authority
rticle 165) The Judiciary Authority shall be independent.
shall be exercised by courts of justice of different sorts
d classes, which shall issue their judgments in accordance
h the law.
rticle 166) Judges shall be independent, subject to no
her authority but the law. No authority may intervene in
e cases or in justice affairs.
rticle 167) The law shall determine the judiciary
ganizations and their functions organize the way of their
mation, prescribe the conditions and measures for the
pointment and transfer for their members.
rticle 168) The status of judges shall be irrevocable.
e law shall regulate the disciplinary actions with regard to
rticle 169) The sessions of the courts shall be made
blic, unless a court decides to hold them in camera, for
nsiderations of public order or morality. In all cases,
dgments shall be pronounced in public sessions.
rticle 170) The people shall contribute in maintaining
tice, in accordance with the manner, and the limits,
escribed by the law.
rticle 171) The law shall regulate the organization of the
ate Security Courts, and prescribe their competencies and
e conditions to be fulfilled by those who occupy the office
dge in them.
rticle 172) The State Council shall be an independent
diciary organization, which has the competence decisions
administrative disputes, and disciplinary cases. The law
all determine its other competencies.
rticle 173) Every judicial body shall assume its own
airs. A council shall be formed to join the chiefs of the
dicial bodies chaired by the President of the Republic to
re for its common affairs. The law shall prescribe its
mation, its competencies, and its rules of action.

CHAPTER V - Supreme Constitutional Court
rticle 174) The Supreme Constitutional Court shall be an
dependent judiciary body, having its own moral person in
e Arab Republic of Egypt, and having its seat in Cairo.
rticle 175) The Supreme Constitutional Court alone shall
dertake the judicial control in respect of the
nstitutionality of the laws and regulations, and shall
dertake the explanation of the legislative texts, all of
ich in accordance with the manner prescribed by the law.
e law shall determine the other competencies of the
urt, and regulate the procedure to be followed before it.
rticle 176) The law shall organize the way of formation
the Supreme Constitutional Court, and prescribe the
nditions required in its members, their rights and
rticle 177) The status of members of the Supreme
nstitutional Court shall be irrevocable. The Court shall call
account its members, in the manner prescribed by the
rticle 178) The judgment issued by the Supreme
nstitutional Court in constitutional cases, and its decisions
ncerning the interpretation of legislative texts, shall be
blished in the Official Gazette. The law shall organize the
ects subsequent to a decision concerning the
constitutionality of legislative text.

CHAPTER VI - Terrorism Combat
rticle 179) The State shall work to safeguard the
neral discipline and security in the face of the dangers of
ror. The law shall regulate the provisions related to the
easures of conclusion and investigation necessary for
mbating those dangers under the supervision of the
diciary in a way that the measure stipulated in the first
ragraph of Article 41 and Article 44 and the second
ragraph of Article 45 of the Constitution is not to hinder
tting those provisions into effect. The President of the
public may submit any crime of terror crimes to any
dicial body stipulated in the Constitution or the law.

CHAPTER VII - Armed Forces and The National Defense
rticle 180) The State alone shall establish the Armed
rces which shall belong to the people. Their duty shall be
protect the country, safeguard its territory and security.
organization or group may establish military or semi-
itary formations.
rticle 181) General mobilization shall be organized in
cordance with the law.
rticle 182) A council shall be established, the National
fense Council, over which the President of the Republic
all preside, and which shall undertake the examination of
e matter pertaining to the methods of ensuring the safety
d security of the country. The law shall prescribe its other
rticle 183) The law shall organize military judiciary,
escribing their competencies in the framework of the
nciples in the Constitution.

rticle 184) Police Authority shall be a civil disciplinary
dy. Its Supreme Chief shall be the President of the
public. Police Authority shall perform its duty in the
ople's services, maintain peace and security for the
zens, preserve order, public security and morality, and
dertake the implementation of the duties imposed upon it
laws and regulations, in the manner prescribed by the


185) The city of Cairo shall be the capital of the Arab
of Egypt.
186) The law shall prescribe the national flag and the
s relating thereto, as well as the State emblem and the
s relating thereto.
187) Provisions of the laws shall apply only from the
heir entry into force, and shall have no retroactive effect.
, provisions to the contrary may be made, in other than
matters, with the approval of the majority of the
s of the People's Assembly.
188) All laws shall be published in the Official Gazette
wo weeks from the date of their issuance. They shall be
rce after a month following the date of their publication
another date is fixed for that.
189) The President of the Republic, as well as the
Assembly, may request the amendment of one or more
Constitution articles. The articles to be revised and the
justifying such amendment must be mentioned in the
for amendment. In case the request emanates from the
Assembly, it should be signed by at least one third of the
y members. In all cases, the Assembly shall discuss the
ent in principle, and the decision in this respect shall be
the majority of its members. If the request is rejected,
endment of the same particular articles may not be
d again before the expiration of one year from the date
rejection. If the People's Assembly approves the principle
on, the articles requested to be mended shall be discussed
o months from the date of the said approval. If the
tion is approved by two-thirds of the members of the
y, it must be referred to the people for a plebiscite. If the
ent is approved, it shall be considered in force from the
the announcement of the result of the plebiscite.
190) The term of the present President of the Republic
terminated at the end of six years from the date of
ing his election as President of the Arab Republic of

191) All the provisions of the laws and regulations prior

roclamation of this Constitution shall remain valid and in
owever, they may be repealed or amended in this
192) The Supreme Court shall exercise its competencies
ed in the law concerning its establishment until the
n of the Supreme Constitutional Court is completed.
192 Rept) The word "election" shall replace the word
dum" wherever it occurs in the Constitution with regard to
the President of the Republic.
193) This Constitution shall be in force as from the date
uncing the approval of the people, in this respect, in the



CHAPTER I - The Shura Assembly

Article 194) The Shura Council is concerned with the
udy and proposal of what it deems necessary to preserve
e support of the national unity and the social peace and
protect the basic components of society, its supreme
lues, its rights and liberties and its public duties. The
ouncil should approve the following:
Proposals of amending one or more articles of the
onstitution provided that provisions in Article 189 must be
pplied to discussions of the amendment and the approval
Draft laws complementary to the Constitution stipulated
Articles 5, 6, 48, 62,76,85,87,88,89,91,
60,163,167,168, 170,171,172,173,175,176,
77,178,179,183,196,197,198,206,207,208,209,210 and
11 of the Constitution.
Treaties of peace and coalition and all agreements which
dicate amendment in the State lands and related to the
ate sovereignty. If a dispute happens between the
ople's Assembly and the Shura Council concerning those
bjects, Speaker of the People's Assembly shall submit the
atter to a joint committee to be formed by speakers of
e two assemblies and membership of seven members in
ch assembly to be selected by its general committee in
der to propose a text for provisions subject of dispute.
he final text concluded by the committee shall be
viewed by the two assemblies and if any of them does
ot approve the text, the matter shall be submitted to the
o assemblies in a joint meeting under the chairmanship
the People's Assembly speaker in the place specified by
m and with attendance of at least the majority of
embers in the two assemblies and if the committee does
ot reach a unified text, the two assemblies are allowed to
pprove in their joint meeting any text approved by any of
em. Voting in the two councils or in their joint committee
made by majority of attendants without discussion.
Article 195) The Shura Council shall be consulted in the
Draft of the public plan for social and economic
Draft laws referred to the Assembly by the President of
e Republic.
Whatever matters referred to the Council by the
esident of the Republic relative to the general policy of
e State or its policy regarding Arab or foreign affairs. The
sembly shall submit to the President of the Republic and
e People's Assembly its opinion in such matters.
Article 196) The Shura Assembly shall be composed of a
umber of members defined by the law, not less than 132
embers. Two thirds of the members shall be elected by
rect secret public balloting, half of whom at least must be
orkers and farmers. The President of the Republic shall
ppoint the other third.
Article 197) The law shall determine the electoral
nstituencies of the Shura Assembly, the number of
embers in every constituency, and the necessary
nditions stipulated in the elected or appointed members
the Shura Assembly.
Article 198) The term of membership of the Shura
sembly is six years, whereas renewed election and
ppointment of 50% of the total number of members,
hether elected or appointed, is every three years as
fined by law. It is always possible to re-elect or re-
ppoint those membership has expired.
Article 199) The Shura Assembly shall elect a president
nd two vice presidents at its first ordinary annual session
r a period of three years. If one of these offices becomes
cant, the Assembly shall elect a successor for the rest of
e term.
Article 200) No member can hold office in both People's
sembly and the Shura Assembly at one and the same
Article 201) The Prime Minister and his deputies, the
nisters and government officials shall not be held
sponsible to the Shura Assembly.
Article 202) The president of the Republic has the right
make a statement upon the general policy of the State
upon any other matter before a joint meeting of the
ople's Assembly and the Shura Assembly, headed by the
peaker of the People's Assembly. The President of the
epublic has the right to make whatever statements he
shes before the Shura Assembly.
Article 203) The prime minister and the ministers and
her government officials may make statements before
e Shura Assembly or before one of its committees upon a
bject that comes within his competence. The Prime
nister and his deputies and other government officials
all be heard by the Shura Assembly and its committees
pon their request, and they may seek the assistance of
ny government official, as they see fit. However, the vote
the minister or government official is not valid upon any
unt of votes unless he is a member.
Article 204) The president of the Republic may not
ssolve the Shura Assembly except when necessary, while
ch a decision should comprise a call to hold new
ections for the Shura Assembly within a period of sixty
ys from the date of its dissolution. The Assembly shall
old its first meeting ten days from the date of its election.
Article 205)The provisions of the following articles of the
onstitution shall apply to the Shura Council: 62,
8/second paragraph, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98,
9, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107, 129, 130, 134),
sofar as they are not incompatible with the stipulations
ed in this part. The Shura Council and its Speaker shall
ercise the competencies specified in the aforementioned


CHAPTER II - The Press

Article 206) The Press is a popular, independent
uthority exercising its revocation in accordance with the
pulations of the Constitution and the law.
Article 207) The Press shall exercise its true vocation
eely and independently in the service of society through
means of expression. It shall thus interpret the trend of
ublic opinion, while contributing to its formation and
ientation within the framework of the basic components
society, the safeguard of the liberties, rights and public
uties and respect of the sanctity of the private lives of
izens, as stipulated in the Constitution and defined by
Article 208) The freedom of the press is guaranteed and
ess censorship is forbidden. Also forbidden is to threaten,
ppress, or foreclose a newspaper through administrative
easures, as stipulated in the Constitution and defined by
Article 209) The freedom of body corporate, whether
ublic or private, or political parties to publish or own
ewspapers is safeguarded in accordance with the law. The
nancing and ownership of newspapers come under the
pervision of the people, as stipulated in the Constitution
nd defined by law.
Article 210) Journalists have the right to obtain news
nd information according to the regulations set by law.
heir activities are not subject to any authority other than
e law.
Article 211) A Supreme Press Council shall deal with
atters concerning the press. The law shall define its
mposition, competencies and its relationship with the
ate authorities. The Supreme Press Council shall exercise
competencies with a view to consolidate the freedom of
e press and its independence, to uphold the basic
undations of society, and to guarantee the soundness of
ational unity and social peace as stipulated in the
nstitution and defined by law.


file Egyptian Cabinet Media Corner Decrees

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