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of the World: Navy'(Pafr'3j

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Volume ? Issue 8l
Published by
Orbis Publishino Ltd
@ Aerospace P"ublishing Ltd 1985
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Pierre Turner der of British Land Forces during the
Richard Hook
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ilclchine Guns
Evolved tfuough necessity in the confuied spaces of the
trenches dudng World War I, the sub-machine gwr has found
SouthAfrica is one of the many
nations to use the IsraeliUZL
First seeing major sewice in
a useful place in modern armed forces. SmaII, cheap and 9 5 6 Ar abJ s raeli conflic
the I t,
easily concialed, it is an ideal weapon for facing the urbut theUZI isoneof themost
successfu/pos t-war sub -
teworc of the latter half of the 20thcentuty. machine gun designs.

Ever since the assault rifle became a viable weapon during the latter to offer, it is still a complex and lengthy weapon that is nowhere near as
stages of World War II the pundits have been saying that the sub- eflective in close-quarter fighiing as the sub-machine grun. Despite the
machine gun's day was over. The trouble is that no one seems to have increases in weapon power achieved in recent years, many combats
told the designers of small arms or the men who use sub-machine gmns. still take place at close ranges and here the sub-machine gnrn is still as
Today the numbers of sub-machine gn-tns on the market are as high as effective as it was when it was produced to 'sweep trenches of the
ever, and more seem to appear each year. The modern sub-machine enemy' during World War L The short and handy sub:machine gmn still
gnrns described in this issue are but a few of the more important types reigns supreme in such circumstances.
currentiy in use, There are many more types around, some of them Today the sub-machine gun is carried by one new operator, the
having been in service since World War II, but most of the types policeman or the member of a security organlzation. The growth of
described are of a much more sophisticated form. A-11 manner of detail national and international terrorisrn in recent years has meant that the
design features have been introduced to differentiate them from the agencies set against it have to be armed as effectively as their highly
hasty tube and sheet metal designs of World War II, although the same organized and well-armed opponents. Thus the sub-machine gun has
basic manufacturing principles are oiten used. Today there is more time assumed a new and dangerous era, and it may be many years (ifever)
to apply better finishes and construction methods, but while costs may beiore the weapon is no longer used in this relatively new and but
have risen somewhat since World War II the modern sub-machine gnrn dreadfully publlc cockpit,
is still a relatively cheap weapon, Perhaps it is this that ensures the
longevity of the type. Outside the Washington Hilton, 30 March 198 l, President Reagan has just
been sftof,'firs a ssailant is buriedunder a swarm of police and secret iervice
But it cannot be cost alone that maintains the sub-machine gmn in use men. Prominent is the Israeli-made UZI sub-machine grun, carried by the
all over the world, Despite the many advantages that the assault rifle has agent in the Ioregrou nd.
ffiffi 9-mm PA3-DM
The Argentine PA3-DM is a typical ex-
ample of modern sub-machine gnrn de-
sign in two respects; one is the use of
the forward-mounted'wrap-around'
breech block and the other the ability
of a relatrvely unsophrsticated en-
gineering industry to produce modern
and viable weapons.
The \rrap-around' bolt is now a vir-
tual fixture on many modern sub- il
machine gmns, for it provrdes two im-
portant functions, One is that the
breech block is to a large extent for-
ward of the chamber when the car-
tridge is fired, so provrding extra mass desigm closely follows the Czech ort- though not in very qreat numbers. Captured by British forces on the
for the recoil to overcome, thereby ginal in overall construction, for it re- Some 'trophles' were returned to the Falklands during the South Ailantic
providing an increase in locking lies on the r.rse of simple stampinqs and United Kingdom and may be found in conUict, the PA3-DM exemplifies the
eff,ciency for what is otherwise a re- has as its recerver housing nothing some reqimental museums, but.other- modern sub-machine gun, being
latively effective but inefficient blow- more than a sectron olsteel tubing, The wise it is not a weapon that rs likely to simplydesigned and easy to
back system, The other advantage is PA3-DM has its cocking handle on the be encountered outside Argentina, manufacture.
that by placing much of the breech left-hand side well forward so that it where it is issued to the armed forces, J
block around the barrel the weapon can be operated by either hand, and a The PA3-DM rs manufachrred by the US M3Al calibred in 9 mm (0.354 rn).
lenqth can be much reduced, making hand grip r.s provrded forward of the Fabrica Mlhtar de Armas'Domingio Some of the other desigms, such as the
the overall design shorter and handier metal pistol gnoup assembly. The PA3- Matheu' at Rosario, from which the MEMS series and the Halcon gnls, i

for carriage and stowage, Nearly all DM may be found in two forms: one has 'DM'of the desigmation js derived. It rs were more adventurous desigms that
these lvrap-around' designs, and the a fixed plastic butt, while the other has only the iatest model in a long string of made little impact outside Argentina.
PA3-DM is no exception, use the pistol a wire-form butt which telescopes for- sub-machrne giuns that have been de-
gmp as the magazine housingi, and this ward on each srde of the receiver. This sigmed and produced in Argentina Specification
has the advantage of allourng rapid latter is a drect copy of the wire butt since the penod just a-fter World War PA3-DM (fixed-butt version)
aiming, for by holding the weapon with used on the American M3 sub- II. Maly of these sub-machine gmns Calibre: 9 mm (0.354 in) Parabellum
the 'maste/ hand, one-handed firing is machrne gmn. On both versions the were orthodox desigms with little of Weight:loaded3,9 kg (8.6 lb)
possible as though the weapon Is a barrel screws onto the front of the note io mennon, ald not all of them Iiengrth:700 mm (27,56 in)
pistol, tubular receiver and the barrel can be reached the full production stage. Lengrthofbarrel: 290 mm(11,4 rn)
The flrst weapon to use thrs Wrap- adapted to mount a device.for laun- Some v,.ere diect copies of successfui Muzzle velocity: 400 m (1,3 12 ft) per
around' feature was the Czech vz 23 ching grrenades, desigms else.wheret for example, the second
series, and it has appeared on many The PA3-DM was used during the PAM 2 datrlrg from the early 1950s was Cyclic rate of fue: 650 rpm
subsequent weapons, The Argentine Falkland Islands campaign of 1982, nothiag more than a duect copy of the Magazine: 2S-round box

ffi U-** L2A3 Sterlins

The sub-machine gun that rs now tems, although these are not widely machhe gr;rs. ior one verston is ltteral-
almost universally lcrown as the Sterl- used. ly golci-pia:ed These have been pro-
ing entered Britlsh Army use in 1955 Several variants ot the Sterling exrst, duceci for valous potentates in the
although an earller form, known as the One is a silenced version known to the Middle Eas who use them for therr
Patchett, underwent troop trials during Britrsh army as the L34A1, This uses a persoral bccyguards and to impress
the latter stages of World War Ii, It was fixed silencer system allied to a spe- visitors bc-.h. srlenced and normal ver-
intended that the Patchett would re- cial barrel that allows the flring gases sions ha;e been produced wlth gold
place the Sten gmn, but in the event the to leak through the sides of the barrel platrng 3:::nLum-plated versions
Sten lasted untrl well into.the 1960s, into a rotary baifle silencer that ls re- have ai.s ;een made.
The British army model is desig- markably efficient and almost silent ut
nated the L2A3 and equates to the use. There is also a whole range of Righl: The Sterling saw considerable
Sterling Mk 4 produced commercially what are known as paratrooper's pls- serwice in Malaya and Borneo, where i
by the Sterhng Armament Company of tols that use only the pistol grroup ald the inherent inaccaracy of the ,i

Dagenham, Essex, This weapon is one the receiver allied to a shorl magazrne machine gun proved no {
of the major export successes of the and a very short barrel. These are 'il

post-war years, for to date it has been available in singrle-shot or machine B e low : Th eterling k s een on
sold to over 90 countries and it is still in prstol versions, Several types of fhtsh exerase in the UK, at B assingbourn.
production in several forms. The basrc are produced, includingr what must be Itis bing replaced by the new
service model is of srmple design with that for the most luxurious of sub- E nfie Id I ndiuidu al W eapon.
the usual tubular receiver and a fold-
ing metal butt stock, but where the
Sterling differs from many other de-
sigms is that it uses a curved box maga-
zine that protrudes to the left, Thts
arrangement has proved to be
elficient rn use and presents no prob-
lems, It has certainly created no prob-
lems for the army in India where the
type is produced under licence, or rn
Canada where the design is produced
as the Cl with some slight modifica-
The Sterling is a simple blowback
weapon with a heavy bolt, but thrs bolt
rncorporates one ofthe best features of
the design in that it has raised and
inclined splines that help to remove
any internal dust or drt and push it out
of the way. This enables the Sterling to
be used under the worst possible con-
ditions. The usual magazine holds 34
rounds, but a lO-round magazine is
avallable along with a stdng of acces-
sories including a bayonet, The
weapon can be fitted with any number
of night vision devrces or siQthting sys-

r 602
t'lachine Pistols
Thevirtues of the sub-machine gun in close-quartercombat
soon /ed designers to attempt to turn the contemporary self-
Ioading (or automatic) pistol into a fully automatic weapon.

Almost as soon as the automatic pistol was first produced clesigners were
tempted into allowing their progeny to f ire in f ully automatic burstq The conven-
tional automatic pistol simply fires a round, re-cocks itself and lbads another
round ready to fire on the repeated pull of a trigger. By simply keeping the trigger
mechanism out of the way it was iand is) easy to allow the pistol to produce
burst fire, but the designers soon learned that this was not a course to be
undertaken lightly.
in-e biitoi ijit'rioge is weak compared with a rifle cartridge, but can strll
produce considerable recoil forces. lf such cartridges are fired in rapid succes-
sion tney can soon overcome the mass of a light nand-neld pistol and rorce 1ne Above : The H eckler und Koch VP-70 Below: To convert a blowbac k p :s :.

muzzle to rise or jump about erratically. ln eilher case aimed fire becomes is an ingrenrous modern attempt to tofull automatic, all that is regu:rt=
almost impossible. Moreover, tne bolts of most p stols dre light, and this allows produce a controllable machine r'ssomemeans of interrupting tne
f ull automatic fire to be very rapid indeed, to the extent that the limited ammuni- pistol.Automatic fire is only possibJe ttigger mechanrlm. ?ftjs rlom e-.: : ::
tion capacity of most pistols will be used in less than a second. These two when the holster/stock is fitted. conversion of a Governmen t M o c +.
limitatiins have made the machine pistol something of a rarity among combat allowing three - r ou nd bu rs ts. T h e Coltwas captured from the IRA i:,
weapons, but the machine pistol has nonetheless t"urned up ihrough6ut small burst facility allows reasonable Ulster. Note the extended magaz::.:
arms deveiopment. aimed automatictire.
ifre-tirsi-6i the machine pistols to be used on any large scale were the
Mausers. Derived from the C/96 pistols, tde Schnellfeuer (quick {ire) pistols
became very popular at one time. They must be judged as among the more
successf ul o{ the type, tor the old C/96 'broomhandle' pistols had the bulk and
weight to overcomd, partially at lss51, some of tne recoil forces while the box
magazines in f ront of the trigger guard had the space potential to accommodate
long magazines. But outside Germany and to a lesser extent Spain these
Mauser machine pistols never caught on to any great exlent in Europe. ln the Far
East, however, it was a different story, The Chinese took to the Mausers with a
will and were soon turning out their dwn locally-produced copies that varied n
materials and manufacturing standards from the excellent to the vile. The
Chinese found the machine fistol to be just the sort of weapon that struck fear
into an opponent, and the wdr lords who ruled in China between the world wars
found them ideal for keeping their subjects under control. The Chinese even
discovered the way to use the machinb pistol's muzzle jump to good effect:
they simply turned their Mausers onto one side as they fired so that, instead of
spraying bullets at the sky, the machine pistol produced a wide fan of lethal
projectiles that could cover a wide horizontal arc. This simple expedient has
been little used elsewhere, but in the Far East this ploy was standard practice.
During World War ll the machine pistol underwent a brief flurry of revival but
the advantages of the sub-machine gun proved to be too many for the relatively
expensive machine pistol, and few were made. From time to time interest was
revived, but it was nbt until after World War ll that service examples were seen
in any numbers. These were intended for use by the crews of armoured or 'B' Despiie the problems with rne rnachine pistol l:sted above, it would be :-. .. =
vehicles who djd not normally requrre a rifle, or who drd not have the space to to list its advantages. The machine pistol can have a considerable shock ei-::. -
carry one on their normal duties. For such personnel the machine pistol seemed confined areas where any sudden spray of automatic fire will hit a target. - , -
attraciive and thus the Czech Skorpion. the Polish wz 63 and the Soviet Stechkin the knowledge that a sudden burst of fire might be imminent can be enoug- ':
came upon the scene. The Stecnt<in may be regarded as an update oi the oid the owner of such a weapon to control local events. and it is this latter facl :-,.
Mauser pistols. lt has even revived the practice of using a wooden holsterthat makes the mach ine pistol attractive to many police and secu rity forces. Er r - . -
doubles as a butt stock, and it retains allthe old probiems ol muzzle climb during many sub-machine guns are now small and handy enough to rival the fac;lit e. ,'
burst fire. At least the Skoroion and the wz 6i have bulk and some deoree oi the machine pistol, the Mini-UZl and the lngram designs being cases in p: -:
compensation built into their designs. But no doubt the machine pistol will continue to surface in the future.

The Sterlinq in all rts forms has

proved to be a very reliable and s'iurdy
weapon. With many armies, inciuding
the British army the weapon rs used to
arm secondline personnel who do not
have to carry the normal service rifle
and on vehrcles it can easily be folded
away to take up very Iittle stowage
space, With the British Army the L2A3
will gradually be replaced by the new
5.56-mm (0.219-in) Individual Weapon
(lW) starting in the near future, but the
iarge numbers of Ster[ngs stil] around
the world mean that it will still be a
wideiy used type for many years to

Calibre:9 mm (0,354 rn) Parabellum
Weight: Ioaded 3.47 ks (7,65 lb)
Lendh: with stock extended 690 mm
(27, i6 in) andwith stockfolded
483 mm (19 in)
Lengrthof barrel: 198 mm(7,8 in)
Muzzlevelocity:390 m (1 280 ft) per
second Replacing the ubiquitous Sten in British Army service, the Sterling L2A3 9-mm sub-machine gun has been so/d rn
Cyclic rate offire: 550 rpm over 90 countries, and has proved effective and re]iable under the most extreme of weather conditions, ranging
Magrazine: l0- or 34-round from Arctic cold to jungle heat and humidity.
Eru lil** rr
Durrng World War II a Lieutenant
Owen rnvented the sub-machine grum
that stl]] bears his name, and this
weapon was used by Australian sol-
drers dunng World War II and for
many years after it, One of the most
recognizable features of the Owen
sub-machine gun was the vertical
magazine, a feature with no parttcular
merlt or demerit but one that the Au-
srrahans found very much ro their lik-
ing. Thus when the Australian army
began searchingt for a new desigp to
replace the old and worn Owens, it
was not averse to choosinq a design
wrrh an overhead vertical magazlne.
Before selecting the design now
known as the Fl, the Australians in-
vestiqated a number of experimental which is not common but yet is simple Above: Replacing the extremely Below: Simple and effective, the F I in
weapons that rejoiced in such names and effective: on a short-barrelled popular Owen sub-machine gun in its prototype X3 form performed
as 'Kokoda' and the 'MCEM', Some of weapon it is often too easy to place the Australian seruice, the F I retains the extremely well in the Mekong Delta
these e;<perimental desiqns had some forward grip over the muzzle or too uniquelyAustralian feature of a during the Vietnam War Modern
advanced features but were generally close to it for safety, but on the Fl a vertical top- Ioading magazine. The construction made it almost I kg
regTarded as not being 'soldier-proof srmple sling swivel bracket prevents F I is othetwise similar to the Sterling. (2.2Jb) lighter than its Woild
enough to suit Australian conditions. the hand from getting too close to the Watll ancestor.
But in 1962 a design known as the X3 mtzzle.
was selected for production, and this The Fl has some other simple but
became the Fl, The predilections of effective design features. One is the
ine Australian mililary were very evr- cocking handle, which exactly dupli-
dent, for the F I has a vertical magazine cates the position and action of its
but in order to allow a certarn amount counterpart on the LlAl standard ser-
of interchangreability with other vice rifle in use with the Australian
weapons the maqazine is now curved forces; this handle has a cover whtch
and identical to that of the British Ster- prevents dirt and debris getting into
irno anci the (.;anadran (ll. the action, thouqh 1f enough dirt does
ihrs interchangeability factor rs also get into the action to prevent the bolt
evrdent in several other features of the closing the cocking handle can be
Fl. The pistol grip is the same as that Iatched to the bolt for the flrer to force
used on the LlAl 7.62-mm (0.3-in) it closed ln an emergency,
NATO rifle, and the bayonet is another For all its many attdbutes the F1 has
Sterling component, In fact it is temp- yet to be bought outside Australia and
ting to regard the Fi as an Austraiian some of lts associated terntodes. At
Sterling but there eire too many differ- one time there was talk of its being
ences to suppod such a claim The Fl replaced by the American M16A1
uses a simple'straighlthrough' design rifle, but the Fl is strll around and
\4'1th the butt fixed in line with the tubu- seems set for a long service career to
lar receiver, and the pistol group is come,
arranged differently from that of the
Sterling. The overhead maqtazine does Specification
produce one difficulty, namely sight- FI
ing. in action deliberate aiminq is not Calibre:9 mm (0.354 in) Parabellum
common but has to be taken into Weight: loaded 4.3 kq (9,48 lb) with
account, so a form of offset sighting bayonet
system had to be introduced. On the Length: 714 mm (28. I in)
F I this is done srmply by using an offset Lengrthof barrel213 mm(8,386 in)
leaf sight (foldinq down onto the tubu- Muzzle velocity: 366 m ( 1,200 ft) per
lar receiver) allied with a fixed offset second
ioresrght, The Fl does have one rather Cyclicrate offirer 600-640 rpm
unusual safety built into the design Magazine: 34-round cuwed box

9-mm Model 45
The 9-mm Model45 was produced orr forced together and the result is then a The Model 45 and Model 45/B be-
ginaily by the Karl Gustav Stads misfeed or jam, and these can happen came one of Sweden's few major ex-
Gev2irsfaktori (now part of the FFV at inoppodune moments in combat, On port weapons, Numbers were sold to
consortium) at Eskilstuna and is thus the original Model 45 the magazine Denmark and some other nations such
widely known as the Carl Gustav sub- used was that once used on the pre- as Eire, EWpt produced the Model
machine gun. The Model 45 is an en- war Suomi Model 37-39, a S0-round 45/B as the 'Port Said' under licence.
trely oithodox desiqn with no frilis, maqazine that was then considered to Copies have also been produced rn
and uses a simple tubular receiver and be one ofthe best in use anprhere, But Indonesra. Perhaps the oddest service
barrel cover with a simple folding butt in l94B a new maqazine was tntro- use of the Model 45/B was in Vietnam.
hinged onto the pistol grip assembly. duced thal held 36 rounds tn twin rows Numbers of these weapons were
The usual blowback operaling prtnci- that were carefully tapered into a sing- obtarned by the American CIA.and
ple rs employed, and overall there is le row by the use of a wedge cross- converted in the United States to take a
nothing remarkable about the Model section, This new maqtazine proved to specral barrel allied to a silencer,
45, be remarkably reliable and trouble- These were used in action in Vietnam
But there is one inlerestrng point re- free in use, and was soon betng widely by the US Special Forces on undercov-
qtardingr the Model 45, and that is the copied elsewhere, Production Model
magazine, On many sub-machine gnns 45s were soon being offered with a
the magazine is usually one of the most revised magazine housinq to
trouble-prone components, for the accommodate both the Suomi maga- The 9-mm Mode[45 is generally
magazine relies upon simple spring zine and the new wedge-shaPed known as the Carl Gustav, alter its
pressure to push the rounds towards maqazine, and this version was known m anuf actur er. C onventional in
the receiver, whence they are fed into as the Model 45/B, Later production design and operation, ithas been in
the firing system. It is all too easy for models made provision for the wedge- production since I 945 and has been
rounds to become misaligned or shaped magazine only, expottddwidely.

9-mm Model 45 (continued) Modern Sub-Machine Grlrs
er missions. Accordinq to most reports Specification
the silencers were not particularly Model4S/B
effective and they were not retained in Calibre:9 mm (0,354 in) M39B
use for long. Parabellum
Numerous accessories have been Weight: loaded 4,2 kg (9.25 lb)
produced for the Model 45, one of the Length: with stock extended B0B mm
oddest being a special muzzle attach- (31,8 in) and with stock folded 551 mm
ment that doubles as a blank firing de- (2i.7 in)
vtce or a short-range target training Lengnh ofbarrel 2 13 mm (B.3BS in)
devlce. The attachment is used Muzzle velocity: 365 m ( l, i9B ft) per
toqether with special plastic bullets second
which are shredded into preces as Cyclic rate of fire: 550-600 rpm
they leave the muzzle for safety, These Magazine:36-roundbox
bullets generate enough gas pressure
to operate the mechanism and if re- Used by many countries, including
quired enough pressure is available to EWpt (in the I I 67 war with I srael)
project a steei ball from the attachment and the USA (in a silencedversion by
itself. Thrs reusable steel ball can thus special forces in Vietnam), the C arl
be used for shorlrange target prac- G u stav rem ains inTarge - s c
tice. seruice with the Swedish forces.

9-mm MAT 49
Imrriedrately after 1945 the French lengrth of the receiver the MAT 49 has Africa. Even when the magazine is in Specification
armed forces were armed with a varie- an anangement inwhich a srzable por- the forward position a flap moves rnto MAT49
ty of sub-machine gmns, some of them tion ofthe breech block enters the bar- position to keep out foreign matter. If Calibre: 9 mm (0.354 in) Parabellum
dating from before the war and others rel chamber to have much the same repairs or cleaning are required the Weight:loaded4, U kg(9, 19 lb)
were coming from the United States effect, No other desigm uses this fea- weapon can be easily stripped without Length:with butt extended 720 rnrn
and the United Klngdom, While the twe, and there rs another aspect of the tools. In action a gnip safety locks both (28,34 in) and with butt ctosed 460 n:r::
weapons were serviceable enough, MAT 49 which is typically French, Thrs the trigger mechansm and any possi- (18, I in)
the range of ammunition calibres and is the magazine housing, which can be ble forward movement of the bolt, Lengrthof barrel:228 mm (8.97 rn)
types was considered to be too wide, folded forward with the magazine rn- Overall the MAT 49 is a sturdy and Muzzle velocity: 390 m (l,2BO ft) per
and after a selection process it. was serted to reduce the buik of the foolproof weapon, It is still used by the second
decided to standardize on the 9-mm weapon for stowage and transport, French armed forces and byvarious of Cyctc rate offire: 600 rpm
Parabellum round for future develop- This feature is a carry-over from the the French pohce and paramilltary un- Magazine: 20- or 32-round box
ments, A new sub-machine gnrn of pre-war MAS 38, and was considered its, It has also been sold abroad to
French origins was requested, and so effective by the French army that it many of the ex-French colonies and
three arsenals responded with new was retained in the MAT 49: a catch is wherever French interests prevail,
designs, That of the Manufacture depressed and the magazine housing There is a chance that the recent intro-
d'Armes de Ttlle (hence MAT) was (with a loaded magazine in place) is duction of the 5.56-mm (0,219-in) FA
selected, and the weapon went into folded forward to 1ie under the barrel, MAS rifle to the French army may re-
production in 1949, while to use the weapon again the duce the numbers in seryice, but there
The IvIAT 49 is still in widespread magazine is simply pulled back into are enough operators left to ensure
service, for it is a very well made place so that the housing acts as a fore- that the MAT 49 will remain around for
weapon, _Althouqh it uses the now- grip. Thrs foregrip is made all the more a long time to come.
commonplace method of fabricating important by the fact that the MAT 49
parts and assemblies from stampinqs, can be fired on automatic only, so a
those in the MAT 49 were made ftom firm grip rs needed to keep the
heavy-duty steels and are thus very weapon under control when fired.
strong and capable of absorbing a Considerable pains are taken on the
gEeat deal ofhard use, The design uses MAT 49 to keep out dust and dirt,
the blowback principle but rn place of which is another hrstorical carry-over
what is now described as a 'wrap- from previous times as the MAT 49 was
around'breech block to reduce the intended for use in the deserts ofNorth

Above: Entering French sewice in Right: Designed with colonial sewice

I 949, the 9-mm MAT 49 is an in mind, the MAT 49 was used
extremely rugged design, made extensively in Indo-China, as well as
from heavy-gauge steeJ stamprngs. with the paratroops so notably
The pistol giriplmagazine housing involved in the bloody conflict in
hinges forward for stowage and Algeria. I t stood sucft slern tests
transport. successfully.
Heckler'und Koch MPS
Since World War II the West German
concern of Heckler und Koch has be-
come one of Europe's largest and most
important small-arms manufacturers
with its success based soundly on.the
production of its G3 rifle, whtch has
become a standard NATO weapon
and is rn use all over the world. Work-
ing from the G3 and employing its
highly efficient breech-lockrng
mechanism, the company has also pro-
duced the Heckler und Koch MPS,
whrch may thus be regarded as the
sub-machine gmn version of the G3,
In appearance the MPS looks very
similar to the G3 although it is of course
much shorter, It fires the usual 9-mm
(0.354-in) x 19 Parabellum cartridqre,
and although this is relatively low-
powered compared with the 7,62-mm
(0,3-in) rifle cartridge the MPS uses the
same rolier and inclined ramp locking
mechanism as the G3, The complexity
of this system is more than offset by its
increased safety, and by the ability of
the MPS to be flred very accurately as
rt can fire from a closed bolt, i,e, the
breech block rs in the forward position
when the trigger rs pulled so there is
no forward-movrng mass to drsturb the
arm as there is with other.sub-machine
gmns. The resemblance to the G3 is
maintained by the use of many G3
components on the MPS,
There are six main versions of the
MPS. The MPSA2 has a fixed butt stock
while the MPSA3 has a metal strut
stock that can be slid forward to re-
duce its lenqth. There are no fewer
than three differing versions of the
MPS SD, which rs a silenced version of
the basic model for use in special or
anti-terrodst warfare. The MPS SDI
does not have a butt stock at all; the
MPS SDz has a fixed butt as on the Top: The MPSA3 ii fitted with a Ab6ve:The MPSA2 is fittedwith fixed Below: The MP1SD3 is a srTenced
MP5A2; and the MPS SD3 has the slid- sliding metal stiut stockwhich can plastic butt stock. After 1978 the MP1 version of the MPSA3, all parts
inq metal butt stock used on the allow a considerable reduction in was fitted with a cuwed magazine to except barrel and silencer being the
MPSA3. Then there is the MPSK which overall length, from 660 mm (26 in) improve car tridge feed. same. /f r's used by several military
is averyshortversionof the basic MPS, to490 mm(19.3 iil. and police forces around the world.
cniy 325 mm (I2.8 in) long and recog-
nuable by a small foregurp under the
almost non-existent muzzle, The MPSK
AI rs a special version of this variant
','nth no protrusions so that rt can be
carried under clothing or in a special
In all its forms the MPS has proved to
be an excellent and reliable sub-
nachrne gnrn. it is in use with some oi
:e vanous West German police agen-
cres and border gmards, and numbers
have been purchased by Swiss police
ard the Netherlands armed forces, It is
krown to be one of the weapons most
:avoured by the British SAS for close-
quarter combat.
Un-fofiunately some MPSs have fal-
ien irito the wrong hands, usually by
-reft foom weapon stores. The MP5
-,';as the main weapon of the Baader-
Iieinhoff gang and many similar
;iloups are known to have used the
I'PS at one time or another, The MPS Right : The extr emely s hor t M P 5 K w as
::as been described by one counter- introduced for use by special police
r:tsurgency authority as 'the most and anti-terrorist squads, where
:Scient terrorlst weapon now in pro- weapon concealment may be
a:-ictlon', and it will no doubt feature in essenfiaJ.
rany future terrorist or 'freedom
:;ihtel outrages. Thrs future use might Specification
rell rnvolve various forms of night MP5A2
for the MPS has been demons- Calibre:9 mm (0,354 in) Parabellum
:a:ed on numerous occasions with Weight: loaded 2,97 ks (6.55 lb)
sr:a dences, alonq rmth other sighting Lengrth:680 mm (26,77 in)
je'ices such as telescopic sights and Length of barrel 225 mm (8.86 in)
: -rer rapid-arming systems, Muzzle velocity: 330 m ( I 083 ft) Per

Cyclic rate offire: 800 rpm
Magazine: 15- or 30-round box
Embqssg Siege!
The dazzling operation to free the
I ranian embassy hostages in I 980
provided more publicity than theSAS
would have wished. Foremost in the
public mind were the questions,'Where
did they come from?' and'What did they

Even though the Specral Air Service per- at

formed brilliantly during World War il, it was

disbanded subsequently, together wlth all
other special force units. This was largeiy be-
cause official thinking held that the SAS role
could be undertaken by units detached from,
say, the Paras or Royal Marlnes; an inherent
dishke |cr 'private armies'; and an overall finan-
cial cutback.
The Malayan Emergency demonstrated,
however, that there were certain vital roles that
only an SAS{ype unit could perform, and that
these roles demanded a very special type of
soldrer who could indrvrdually be found
throughout the entire British army, but was not
concentrated to any great extent in any one
regiment, The SAS was thus re-formed, with a
similar role to that undertaken in World War II:
long-range reconnalssance, sabotage and
generai mayhem undertaken by basic four-
man patrols. And although they were now
f,qhting a counter-rnsurgency war, with all the
obvious differences between that and conven- campaign (1964) were relatrvely quiet for the The shooting dead of the Embassy Press Officer is
tlonal war, it was sttll a far cry from becoming SAS, Ever mrndful of the need to keep their a signal that time is running out for the other
activeiy involved in counter revolutionary war- soldiers active ln some way (not to mention the hostages, and the siege m ust be broken within
fare (CRW) let alone becomrng the leading requlrements of Whitehall and army politlcs), minutes if more innocent lives are not to be lost.
practitioners of iis art, How the SAS achieved The SAS CRW (Counter-Revolutionary W arfare)
the SAS offered themselves as 'bodyguard' troop are given the go-ahead from the highest
this role owes as much to the regiment's own trarners: people whom the government of the authority.
rnitiative as it does to the demands of a drasti- day could loan to friendly (generally third
cally changing world, world) governments to trarn their own personal
The years between the end of the Malayan protection squads, Needless to say, in most
Emergency (1960) and the start of the Radfan instances the offer was gratefully accepted;
From adjoining balconies, four black-clad figrures
Simultaneously, another team is abseiling from the and as well as teachrng, the SAS also learned a move onto the embassy, placingexplosives
roof of the building at the rear, armed with smoke, great deal, including the basrc techniques for against the windows. Within seconds, an
flash and concussiongrenades.The two teams are breaking out hostages held by a small group of explosion is heard, and the SAS team is in the
in the embassy within seconds of each other. fanatics, building.
Embassy Siege!

The SAS made use of these techniques on its tion' techniques, Finally, the Mogadishu hrjack 9-mm Ingram MAC 1l and the 9-mm Heckler
own account during undercover operations in brought home to polrticians that the CRW und Koch HK MPS. Both have a nearly rdentical
Aden, but the real switch from counter- threat could be countered effectively only by magazine capacity (32 for the MAC I I and 30
insurgency to counter-revolutionary warfare having in reserve a unit that was more effective for the MPS). But the MPS proved more robust,
occurred in 1972 the year of the Munrch Olym- and posslbly even more ruthless than the ter- and a burst fired from the MAC I I tends to
pics and the massacre of the israeli athletes, rorists themselves. It was not a new concept: spray, increasing the chances ofhrtting a non-
Operational postmortems established that the the Israehs had been saying the same thing for combatant. There was a further consideration,
German security forces had made mistakes, years and moreover had proved 1t to be true, namely ricochets; there is no point in hitting a
but that no blame could be attached because Accordingly, the SAS established a troop terrorist with a bullet if that bullet can exit to
they were not trained to deal with totally ruth- (codenamed'Pagoda' after the abseiling tower ricochet off a wall and kill or maim a hostage or
less, dedicated fanatrcs, well trained in all the in Hereford) devoted to CRW. A Close Quarter even one's own troops. The need is for an SMG
terrorist arts. Putting regular police or militaiy Battle house was also built, and here the troop that can accurately flre a low-velocity bullet
units against this type of enemy is rather like was trained to enter a room and put two bullets (soft-nosed for stopprng power), and flrr this the
expecting a 'Sunday only' driver to do well at rnto evqry terrorist within seconds, carefully HPS proved ldeal, Afiectionately known as
the Monaco Grand Prix, The German response avoidlng shooting any hostages, This led to 'Hochlers' the SAS MPSs now boast a cuwed
was to set up GS G9; the British response was to choice of weaponry, The SAS is allowed to magazine designed to take the special bullets
enlarge the role of the SAS to counter the CRW choose its own weaponsi field trlals narrowed wrthout jammrng,
threat, but still concentrating on basic 'extrac- the cholce of sub-machine gn-lns to two: the

Inside the building, the shock tactics andweapons Armed with I 3-shot Browning High Power pistols
used bytheCRW teams have stunned both and'Hochlers' (H&K MPS sub-machine guns) and
hostages and terrorists. The SAS troopers shoot trained to pick out targets in smoke-filled rooms
first, rather than ask questions, as the raised hand and to shoot with hair's-breadth accuracy, fieSfrS
of a terrorist is equally likely to hold agrenade as troopers are more than a match for the terrorists.
to be surrendering. Withinseconds,four are down and thehostages
are being bundled out of the building at
bewildering speed.
Modern Sub-Machine Guns
BBC sound man Harris, escaping through the first-
floorwindows of the embassy, is ordered across
the balcony by the menacing figure ofan SAS
trooper and brusquely ordered to lie down.

The SAS achievement was not luck, but a product

of extremely arduous training and painstaking
preparations from the moment the siegre was
announced. The teaqn, familiar with the building
from plans and surveillance, trained to actwiththe
ulmosl speed a nd, where necessary, ruthlessness.
made their planandcarried it outwith a
professionilism few in theworld could match. {


Embassy Siege!
cocking ever
front sight
cocking lever houslng
front sight holder
cocking iever support
handguard locking pin

lugs for fitting: blank attachment rifllnq (six qrooves, right-hand twist)
flash hider batrel

grenade launcher 9-mm Parabellum round

bo t head

locking rollers

Eeclder wtd Koch MP|

The SA,S is allowed to choose its own
weapons, and after extensive trials decided
toadopt the GermanHecklerund Koch
MFS. Robust and reliable, the'Hocl[ers', as release lever

they were soon dr:bbed, fire the relatively

krw-powered 9-mm (0.354-in) x 19
and release level
Parabellum cartridge, which reduces the
danger of ricochet in house-to-house
fietting. By firing from the closed bolt
posfiorL the MPS achieves greater
accuracy than most other sub-machine
En:ns, there being no forward-moving mass
to disturb the aim.

-ia: ire seizure of the lranian embassy in political and operational reasons, the SAS can- rorists may surrender the moment they know
-:-i::l dr:ring was inspired by the Iraqi
1980 not be seen to be the sole counter force avail- that the SAS is involved, others are just as likely
J:r-=:nent in order to embarrass Tehran is able, First, the maintenance of the rule of law is to panlc and kilt everyone they can. From this
:e]::-i a shadow of doubt. What is forgotten is and must remain the responsibility of the day on, extensive monitoring and surveillance,
--,=: -'re :errorists were told that Irondon had pollce; second, there is an obvious manpower using.the latest electronic techniques, is
:e:: :hosen as a target because, amongst probiem; and third, 'private armies' are stili started, Luckrly, one of the houses next to the
loltsiderations, the lrondon police are unpopular with large sections of the public, embassy is vacant, and from here two types of
<:d and wrll not kill you, (lt does seem even though the SAS is by no stretch of the probes are inserted through the walls, under
-;i=: ::e lrnage of the friendly Brltish 'bobby' imagination'private'. the direction of Scotland Yard's C7, whrch has
==:3's al-i sorts of tourists to these shoresl) But operational control of the latest high-
in-:-= s:ch a comment shows a certain amount Embassy siege operational timetable technology surveillance devices, The first type
:i:::-::gr on the part of the man who made it Day 1 (Wednesday 30 ApriD of probe is a simple microphone, the second a
.=s r='- a degnee of naivety on the part of the I1,32: Iranian Embassy serzed by Moslem ter- more elaborate 'borescope', Thrs latter is a Brit-
:r€- -r,:.=sbeheved it), it also indicates that ter- rorist group, ish invention, developed by Keymed Indust-
:::r::: -isiaily operate only where they thrnk 15.00: SAS advance team on site, Though used rial, and uses fibre optics to 'see' thrcugh wal1s
-:el -:- ge: away wlth it: there is reduced
as a last-resort force, the SAS is not called in at and other solid objects, Originally developed
an operation where all of the the last minute, but was (and still is) used in for medical and industrial purposes, its vaiue in
::y:=;es =:'-lning
are achieved and most of the partt- assesslng the threat and planning countermea- CRW (and indeed in general crime preven-
:TIe:= -e Cled, Aside from anything else, it sures from the outset, tron) soon became obvious, First, a tiny hole is
r3trr-:'jag that much harder. However, Day2(ThursdayIMay) bored through a wall; then a fibre optical lense
=Er:€s ::
-=. be te f,rst trme that the SAS CRW I0,00: An official denial of SAS involvement is is inserted to provide (either on a TV monitor or
-=;:':= ::.:p -.',-culd be seen tn action in its
issued, This is not so much to mislead the pub- drrect to the naked eye) wide angle or close-up
- irr: tr:-;l-_; tsl;: il
r,,l'as not the SASI for both lic as to mrslead the terroristst whlle some ter- pictures of the next door room. The borescope

-: - -
Modern Sub-Machine Gr,rn s

slidlng butt gurde rails

locklng catch

locklng pin for retractable butl

ir: :: ector lever: retractable butt stoc<

S - safe
E - single
F - burst

shank and
r-:-:ssion sprinq
- tt;::
- f,r:-
=r:: : cow S9fln9
*-:i:l:r in burst mode)

:an also be used to look instde suspect letters, that there are now six terrorlsts left in the build- amonqtst them. They are literal]y throvt,r: :::-
parcels and even petrol tanks; in this instance it ing, 'Room clear, PC confirms six terrorists,' SAS soldier to SAS soldier down the staus a:-:
:stablishes where the hostages are being kept shouts the SAS soldier to his mates, and this their hands quickly secured, laid down n -:=
-rd provides visual identification of the terror- information is quickly relayed to ail other mem- back garden until they can be identfied --:
'<s ihemselves, and the weapons they are us- bers of the attack force. An assault is ordered untrl all the terrorists are discovered,
:9, on the ambassador's office; an armed terrorist 19.40: Within 17 mlnutes, all the hostages 1:-,-:
)ay 3 to 5 (Friday 2 May to Sunday 4 May) is driven back rnsrde the office by a controlied been identrfled. A11 the terrorists have b:=:-
l.egotiations continue wlth the terrorists, The burst from an HPS; three soldiers following up killed, except one who drsguised himsef =. :
SAS refines its battle plan, Towards the end of discover him lying on a sofa, pointing a gun in hostage and made no threatening move
-:s period, outside norse (low-flying aircraft, their direction; three more bursts and he is he was discovered,
'l ::ad drills etc,) are brought into use: the dead, spare ammunrtion falling from his hand in
:=asoningr ls that if the SAS does in, it will be his death throes, Meanwhile, another assault The lesson
';lder cover of such noises, and Qto
that it ls better group has abseiled down the rear of the build- Should you ever decide to take c:,-er -::-
:: get the terrorists used to them now, rng, One of this group is left dangling as his embassy and the SAS comes storming :- ;:
equipment jams: he orders the men still on the not fight back, Get rid of as many clothes rs ;::
-ay6(MondaySMay) roofto cut the rope, and lands on a second-floor can to show you are not carrying a con:-='=j
l.egotiations have broken down, Surveillance
:-Cicates that the terrorists are llkely to start balcony, Bursting through the window, he weapon. If posslble, tie your own hands be:-:- j
srcotrngtheir hostages, asindeedthey do. The makes his way through the telex room (where yor:r back, and lie on the floor and keep -.-e:,;
:ecision is taken that while the death of one he notrces the body of another terrorrst), A very still, You just might get out a-live. -.';i::- .
:-:stage (non-Britrsh) can be tolerated, the group of hostages and two men separate form more than did the murdered hostages a: :-=
jieat or implementation of any more murders the hostages are huddled together on the floor. Iranian embassy, or the Munich athleles :t:-:
:,"..'' mean an SAS attack, In particular, the SAS He asks them who they are rn Arabic, and they women and children at Lod airpori
:::'-rst clear and secure the first floor, reply that they are students. Calling for assist- Better still decide to make your .:::3::
-: 23: At the front of the building, a four-man ance, he orders them searched, The search some other way, because unless yo; ar3 ',-::r
:=am blows out the armour-plated windows, reveals a hidden revolver and ammunition, and lucky and incredibly skrlled, when --ee S-:j -:
-::cws in stun grenades and enters the room, the terrorist wlth the revolver snatches his GS G9, or Deita Force, or if you are ir -:e ,SS:
l.l:-,'ing past one of the hostages taking cover hands to the centre of his body - he could, the Spetsnaz) troops come stor::i.; j- -.': -
:--- ]re floor, the team finds PC Trevor Lock (a probably is, gorng lor a grenade, but a burst will only have about four mlnutes ,c ',',n:: r-: -l
:--s:age from the beginning) grappling on the from an HP5 silences him forever. The hos- will and wonder if maybe you macie a :::,. -- .::
;:;rnd with one of the terrorists, One SAS sol- tages are now taken rather than led to safety as
:-:r shoots the gunman, and PC Lock tells him there is no way of knowing if a terrorist is hrding
@ tii;Iffi[' MP-K and MP-L
Walther has for long been in the fore- group. This magazine is wedge- the top of the fore sight protector, Specification
front of small arms design and de- shaped in cross-section and contains There js a fire selector switch just be- MP.K
velopment, but the end of World War 32 rounds. As one would expect with hlnd the trigger, allowing rapid and Ca.libre:9 mm (0,354 in)
II saw most of its facilities taken over by Walther products, the overall standard easy selection of 'safe', single shot or Weight: loaded 3,425 kg (7,55 lb)
the new East German government, so of manuJacture is excellent. full automatic, Lengrth: with stock open 653 mm
for many years the company was un- From the side both models present a The first Walther MP-Ks and MP-Ls (25,7 ln) and with stock folded 368 mm
rather deep silhouette, This is because were sold to the West German nalry r'l d 1O ir\
able to re-enter its chosen market. But
by the early l96Os Walther was back tn the main mass of the breech block is and to some German police forces, Lengthof barrel 171 mm (6,73 in)
busrness, and in 1963 introduced its mounted over the barrel and gnrided Since then more have been sold to Muzzlevelocity:356 m (1,168 ft) per
9-mm (0.354-in) Walther MP-K and throughout rts backward and forward Brazrl, Colombia, the Mexican narry second
MP-L sub-machine guns, travel on a gmrde rod, Normally the bolt and Venezuela, The types are no lon- Cyclic rate offire: 550 rpm
The MP-K and MP-], (MP standtng handle does not move with the breech ger in production, but both are still Magazine: 32-round box
for Maschinenpisfoie, K for kurz or block, but ifrequired it can be latched being offered for sale by Walther and
short, and L for lange or long) differ into the block in order to clear a stop- could be placed back in production Specification
only in their baffel length, They are page, There are all manner of small wtthin a short time. Some accessories MP-I,
both well-made sub-machine guns detail points on these two weapons, have been offered with these guns, At Calibre:9 mm (0,354 in)
constructed in the usual manner from One is that when the stock is folded one point the MP-K was offered with a Weisht:loaded3.625 kq (7,99 lb)
steel stampings, and both use the same forward the butt portion can be used as screw-on silencer, but this was Length: wrth stock open 737 mm (29 in)
blowback operating principle,The a forward grip, Another is the rear apparently not lonq developed and and ruth stock folded 455 mm (17,9 in)
butt stock is a skeleton tube arrange- srght, which is normally fixed for use at there appear to have been few takers, Lengthofbarrel 257 mm (10. 12 in)
ment, and when not in use this can be l00m (109 yards) using conventional All weapons have provision for s[ng Muzzle velocity: 396 m ( 1,299 ft) per
folded along the riqht-hand side of the rear and fore sights. But for use in low swivels and these are so arranged that second
receiver. The box magazine is in- visibility conditions the upper portion the sling can be used to stabi[ze the Cyclic rate offire: 550 rpm
serted rnto a housing under the receiv- of the sight becomes an open rear gnrn when firing bursts, Magazine:32-round box
er and lust forward of the trigger sight and is used in conjunction with

ffi ?6tcil' rype

The Chinese Tlpe 64 is one of the most
unusual sub-machine gmns in service
today, for it has been designed and
produced from the outset as a stlenced
weapon. During World War II several
types of machine-qun were fitted with
various types of suppressor for special
missions (such as behind{helines and
commando{ype operations), but no
country went to the extent of produc-
ing a special weapon for these roles,
For reasons best known to themselves
the Communist Chinese have done so,
The Type 64 fires the standard
Soviet 7.62-mm (0,3-in) x 25 pistol The Type 64 rs a mixhrre of various fire
The Type 64 uses a selective from Vietnam and other such Far East
round, but the use of a Maxm-type design features mainly lifted from trigger mechanism derived from that orignns, and it is doubtful rf the T\pe 64
silencer arrangement makes this other weapons. The basic overall de- o{ the Bren gun and a bolt action was kept in production for very long or
round effective only at short ranges, To slgn and bolt action resemble those of taken from the Wpe 43 - the Cftrnese even if it was produced in any quantrty,
make matters more complicated the the Soviet PPS-43 of World War 11, copy oI the Soviet PPS-43. It remains an enigrma,
Chinese use this pistol round fltted while the trigger mechanism is taken
with a specral bullet known as the from the Bren Gun, many of which Specification
TYpe P, which is slightly heavier than were used in China duringr and after series of holes; the propellant gases Type 64
the normal bullet and is thus slightly World War IL The folding stock also exhaust through these and the muzzle Calibre:7.62 mm (0,3 in) x 25 Tlpe P
more effective, As silenced weapons comes from the Soviet PPS-43, while into a series of baffles that continue Weight: empty 3.4 kg (7 495 lb)
go the \pe 64 has been tested to the the srlencer uses the well-established until the muzzle ofthe silencer proper, Lengrth: with stock extended 843 mm
pornt where it seems to be effective principles introduced by Hiram Max- This silencer also acts as a flash sup- (33. 19 in)
enough, but the time and trouble in- im who was at one time as well known plessor, tengthofbarrel 244 mm (9.6 in)
volved in the design and production of for his silencer designs as he was for The exact operational role of this Muzzle velocity: about 3 13 m ( 1,027 ft)
such a Special weapon and cartridge his machine-gnrns. The barrel extends weapon with the ChiCom forces is not per second
seem wasteful to many Westem ex- along only part ofthe srlencer, and the known with exactitude. The few exam- Cyclic rate of fire:uncertain
perts, last part ofthe barrel is perforated by a ples seen in the West came mainly Magazine: 20- or 3O-round box

Designed specifically as a silenced'

weapon, the Type 64 is fittedwith a
Maxim-type suppressor and fires the
7.6 2 - mm x 2 5 pistol round. This
combination is only suited to covert
operations, being of doubtful value
rh suslainedacfrbn.
Modern Sub-Machine Gr:ns
Model 6l Skorpion
The Czech Model 6l Skorpion lies in makes it a formidable weapon at shofi Model 61 Skorpion fires the Amenca:
that small-arms no-man's-land where a ranges, but this benefit is offset by tvrro 0,32-in (actual 7,65-mm) cartndge
weapon that 1s neither a pistol or a true considerations. One is that using any making it the only Warsaw Pac:
sub-machine gun is described as a machine pistol on full automatrc makes weapon to use this round, but the Mod-
'machine pistol': it is small enough to be the weapon almost impossible to aim el 63 uses the 9-mm short (0.38-,:r,
carned and fired as a pistol, but it fires accurately: the muzzle forces catse round and the Model 68 the 9-m
fu1ly automatically when required, It the muzzle to climb and judder to such (0.354-in) Parabellum A silenced ve:-
has the advantages and drsadvantages an extent that it is virtually impossible sion of the Model 6l rs available.
of both types ofweapon and is perhaps to hold the weapon still for more than Apart from the Czech armed forces
below par as both a pistol and a sub- an instant. The other consideration is the Skorpron has also been sold i:
machine gmn, but it is now one of the that the Skorpion uses magazines with some African nations, but us marn ur.-
only 10- or 2O-round capacity, and on pact has been in the hands of guemlla:
automatrc either would soon be ex- and 'freedom flghters'. The firepo,r,'e:
hausted, But while the Skorpion flres it impact of the Skorpion rs considerable
TheModel6l Skorpion sprays bullets in an alarming swathe at short ranges, which suits the le-
is a favouriteweapon of and this makes it a formidable close- quirements of assassrnation and terror
the P ales tine Liber ation quarter weapon, squads. so the type is now muc:-
Organi z ation, ifs smaJ/ The Skorpion operates on the blow- favoured by such groups, With ther. -:
size makingfor easy back principle, Singie shots can be has turned up in many parts of th=
conceahnent. selected, and aiming rs assisted by use world from Central America to the
of the folding wire butt, The basic Middle East.

most feared of all 'underground'

weapons, despite the fact that it was
orignnally intended to be a standard
sewice weapon for the Czech armed
The Skorpion was designed for use
by tank crews, signallers and other
personnel who have no normal need
for anything larger than a pistol. But
since a pistol is essentially a short-
range weapon, the introduction of a
fully automatrc feature provided this
small weapon wrth a considerable
short-range firepower potential, The
Skorpion resembles a pistol, though
the magazine is not in the butt but for-
ward of the trrgger assembly, and a
folding wrre butt is provided for aimed
fire. The overall appearance is short
and chunky, and the weapon is small
enough to be carried in a rather over-
sized belt holster. When fired on full
automatic the weapon has a cyclic rate
of about 840 rounds per minute, which

Above righ t : S tock tu lly Specification tengrthof barrel: 112 mm (4,4 in)
extended, the Type 6 I can shoot Model6I Skorpion Muzzlevelocity:317 m (1,040 ft) per
with reasonable accuracy atup Calibre:0.32 in (achral7.65 mm) second
to 200 m (220 yards). Ituses a Weight: loaded 2 kq (4.4 lb) Cyclic rate offire: 840 rpm
simple blowbac k oper ation, bu t Lengnh: with butt extended 5 13 mm Magazine: l0- or 2O-round box
the empty case i! eiected (20.2 in) and with butt folded 269 mm
directly upwards. (10.6 in)


9-mm wz 63 (PM-63)
---: 3-mm wz 63 (wzor, or model) is the barrel which is little more than an
as the PM-63, and is one of open trough angrled upwards at a shght
-i: llrrown
--:-:e weapons that falls into the categ- angle to push the barrel downwards,
::-1 :f machine pistol. Although only In practice this devrce appears to be of
.:r-;:-Jy larger than an orthodox pistol, marginal value. Accurate single-shot
- := be fired fully automatic at a cyc- aiming is possible, but even when ls-
' : r=:e of 600 rounds per minute, It was ing the butt any deliberate aim is hkely
-=-s--Jried by Piotr Wilniewicz, who led to be disturbed by the bolt moving
n r:srgn team to produce a weapon for forward as the trigger is pulled since,
-::se elements of the Polish forces like most other blowback-operated
n:: -e unable to carry a conventional weapons, the wz 63 operates from an
T--,:pon during their combat duties, open bolt, However its effective range
I:.: -,'z 63 is thus used by Polish tank using the stock extended into the
:::rs siqnallers and other troops shoulder is stated to be 200m (219
r-::- as truck drivers. yards); on automatic the range is much
..-e wz 63 is rather long for a con- less.
=---::ra1 prstol and is fitted wlth a butt The wz 63 may be used with either a
:-:-. :an be folded forward to [e under 25- or a'4O-round magazine, although
:":-= :,arrel. When folded forward the some references also mention a 15-
:- . :-ther Iies under the forward gnip,
:: :: cutt plate can be folded down to
::- .. forward grip, This forward grlp
a Although classed as a macftrne
. :s:entral to hold the weapon steady pktol, thewz 63 ismore complex
:r ...::matic flre, for the wz 63 sulfers than the Skorpion and itwould
i:,: --ne usual difficulty of rapid and require a firm hand indeed to fire
:::::-c muzzie movement mainly 9-mmx l8 cartridges onfull
:= *<:d by the cyclic rate of flre. Some automatic. I t is perhaps no accident
:. -:--s muzzle movement is compen- that the handbook only shows it
;r:' by a simple fixture on the end of deployed for two-ftanded use.
9-mmwz 63 (PM-63) (continued)

round magazine, It rs normally issued bility at short combat ranges but as Polish police and security units, Out- Weight: with empty 32-round
together with a special holster and a stated before the ability of anY side Poland the wz 63 appears to be magazrne LB kg(3.97 lb)
pouch holding three maqaztnes and a machine pistol to remain on taretet for little used, though numbers of these Length: with stock retracted 333 mm
cleamng kit, A sling may also be sup- more than a fleeting second is unlikely, weapons have turned up in the Middle (13, I in)
plied, Instead the wz 63 produces a 'spray East and have been observed by Lengrth of barrel: 152 mm (6 ln)
The round fired by the wz 63 is the effect which can be of considerable several ofthe organizations involved in Muzlevelocity: 323 m (1,060 ft) per
9-mm (0,354-in) x 18 Makarov car- value in combat, but even this effect is the civil war in Lebanon, second
tridge, which differs in several ways reduced by the maqazine capacity. Cyclicrate of fire:600 rpm
from the usual 9-mm (0.354-in) x 19 The wz 63 is still used by the Polish Specification Magazine: 25- or 40-round boxi also
Parabellum round, It provides the wz troops for which it was designed, and wz63 references to l5-round box
63 with a constderable slriking capa- the type is now extensively used bY Calibre:9 mm (0,354 in) Makarov


= Ingram Model I0
There have been few weapons in re-
cent years that have 'enjoyed' the
attentions of the Press and Holl1'wood
to such an extent as that lavished on the
Ingnam sub-machine gn-rns, Gordon B.
Ingrram had designed a whole string of
sub-machine guns before he pro-
duced his IngrramModel I0, whichwas
originally intended to be used with the
Sionics Company suppressor. First
produced during the mid- 1960s, the lit-
tle Ingnam Model 1O soon attracted a
great deal of public attention because
of its rate of fire, supposedly high
enough to 'saw a body in half , coupled
with the hiqhly efficient sound sup-
pressor, Hollywood and television
fllms added their dramatic commen-
taries and the Ingram Model 10 soon
became as wrdely known as the old
Thompson sub-machine gmns of the

The Ingram Model I I (top) is but this may be removed, and many ing. Sales have not been encouraged
charnbered for 9-mm S hort (.380 weapons not fltted with the long tubu- by the fact that the ownership and
ACP), while the Model I 0 (below), lar suppressor use a forward webbrng manufacturinq rights have changed
fittedwith a suppressor, can be hand-strap as a rudimentary foregrrip, hands several times, but both the Mod-
chambered for either 9-mm The muzzle on most models is el 10 and Model 11 are now back in
Parabellum or .45 ACP. Both aie threaded to accommodate the sup- production and sellinq well. In order to
relativelywell halanced due to the pressor, and when fitted this is co- keep sales rolling several variants
bolt enveloping the breech. vered with a heat-resistant canvas or have been made, Versions firing sinq-
plastic webbrng to allow it to be used le-shot only and without the folding
The Ingrram Model 10 is indeed a as a forward qrip, The cocking handle butt are available, and at one point a
remarkable little weapon, It is con- is on top ofthe slab-sided receiver and long-barrelled version was produced,
structed from sheet metal but manu- when turned through 90" acts as a safe- though only in limited numbers as the
factured to a very high standard and ty lock, As this handle is slotted for type did not find a ready market,
extremely robust, This has to be, for it sighting pL[poses the flrer can soon In the meantime Ingrams will be
fires at a cyclic rate of over 1,000 notice if this safety is applied, and found in countries as diverse as Yugo-
rounds per mlnute, yet control of the there is a normal triqgter safety as well, slavra, Israel and Argentina, Many
weapon is still relatively easy thanks to The Model l0 may be encountered have been sold to the Central and
the good balance imparted by the cen- chambered for either the well-known South American nations.
trally-placed pistol group through 11,43-mm (0.45-in) cartndge or the
which the box magazine is inserted. mote usual 9-mm (0.354-in) Parabel- Specification
Most versions have a folding metal butt lum, The latter round may also be used Model I0 (0.45-in model)
on the smaller Model l l which is nor- Calibre: 11.43 mm (0,45 in)
Its efficient suppressormakes lfie mally chambered tor Ihe less powerful Weight: loaded with 3O-round
I ngram a handy weapon for the 9-mm Short (,380 ACP). In all these magazine 3.818 kq (B a b)
SpecialForces. By reducing the calibres the Ingram is a dreadfully Lengrth: wrth stock extended 548 mm
escaping gas to subsonic speed and efflcient weapon and not surprisingly it (21,575 in) and with stock folded
eliminatingflash, the position of the has been sold widely to customers 269 mm (10.59 in)
firer can remain a mystery to the ranging from paramilitary forces to tengthof barrel: 146 mm (5,75 in)
target, until hopefully it is too late. bodyguard and securily agencies. Lengthof suppressor: 29I mm
Military sales on any large scale have ( 1 1.46 in)
been few but several nations have ac- Muzzlevelocity:280 m (918 ft) per
quired numbers for 'testrng and eva- second
r.Yiiis"+r , "n luation', The British SAS is known to Cyclic rate offire: 1, 145 rpm
\::,itFir . ,
have obtained a small quantity for test- Magazine: 3O-round box

.5 14
Modern Sub-Machine Guns
sl 9-mm UZI
-lnce lsrael had fought its War of Inde- turingr methods then available in re- makes reloading very easy in the dark use the UZL
-rendence in I94B the new nation had latively undeveloped Israel, He came lor 'hand will naturally find hand'. The The UZI may be encountered -,'i-:
s:me breathinq space in which to arm up with a weapon that is now universal- normal combat magazine holds 32 either a sturdy fixed wooden butt si:.k
Iy known as the UZI after its designer, rounds, but a common practice ts to or a metal stock that can be icldei
-:self for any future conflict, Sub- join two magazines together using a forward under the main body wrth re
::rachine quns were high on the list of The UZI is made largely from simPle
cnorities, for the new Israeli army was pressings held tn place by spot welds cross-over clip or even tape to allow butt plate still available to asss: -:.
::en equipped with all manner of old or other weldrng, The main bodY is rapid changrnq, A srlp safety is in- steddying automatic flre. The UZIca:-
-r;eapons varying from Sten gnins to made from a single sheet of heavY corporated into the pistol grip. be used to flre single-shol by use o: :
gauge sheet steel with Qlrooves press- The UZI ts now vlrtually one of the change lever just above the pistol buli
Szech weapons. The Czech weapons
::uacted the close attention of one ed into the sides to take any dLtst, dirt symbols of Israeli military prowess, but
-'eutenant Uziel Gail, for they had the or sand that might get into the works Israel is not the only natton to use the Specification
This simple feature makes the UZI cap- type, The West Germans also use the UZI (with wooden stock)
:dvantagTe that therr breech blocks or
able of operation under even the most UZi, which they know as the MP2; this Calibre:9 mm (0,354 ln) Parabellum
bolts were 'wrapped around' the bar-
arduous conditions, a fact that has model was produced under licence by Weight: loaded with 32-romd
:el, so placing the mass of the bolt well magazine 4. I kq (9 lb)
::rward around the barrel on flring and been proved on many occasions. The FN in Belgium, Numerous other na-
atlowing a short weapon to have a re- overall cross-section of the main body tions also use the UZL IT is part of Lengrth:650 mm (25,59 in)
is rectangnrlar wtth the barrel secured legend that the Presrdent ofthe United tenqth ofbarrel 260 mm (10.24 Ln)
iatively long barrel, The Czech States is always accompanied bY Muzzle velocity: 400 m ( 1,312 ft) Per
-reapons concerned were of the vz 23 to the body by a large nut just behind
the muzzle. The trigger qgoup is situ- bodygnrards carrying UZIs in specially second
-.enes, and wing these Gail was able to fitted brief cases, and manY other Cyclic rate offire: 600 rPm
:esign and develop his own design ated centrally. and the box magazine is
lnserted through the pistol grip, which secunty agencres and police forces Magazine: 25- or 3Z-round box
-rat was more suitable to the manufac-

Right: The IIZI (with wooden stock)

and the Mini-UZI. The Mini-UZI is iust
36-cm(14-in) longwith its stock
folded, making for easy concealment
under ordinary clothing.TheUZI is a
design of great simplicity and is
[amous for reliability in awkward

Below: This Israelicarries the UZI

frtted with metal folding s tock' I n
addition to a griP safetY, the UZI
features a ratchet on the cocking
handle to prevent accidental firingif
the useiS lrand slips off the handle
after the breech block has Passed

1tr1 9-mm Mini-UZI
The Mini-UZI has been develoPed bY ity agencies but it is bound to attract the rapid conversion of semi-automaic
Israel Military Industries from the full- the attentions of various military orqa- versions of automatic weapons thel,'
scale UZI and dtffers ftom the origdnal hrzations for special missicjns. It would call for such semi-automatic verslo:-r
only in dimensions and weights. A few make an ideal commando-tYPe to have barrels at least 406 mm (16 lrl
modifications have been introduced to weapon where light weight is re- lonq. Thus the standard UZI maY l:e
the basic desigm, but these are onlY quired, and it must be stressed that see-n with a long barrel protrudll
superf,cial while the operatinq system although the Mini-UZIts a scaled-down from the body and this denotes that tle
of the origrinal has been retatned un- version of the original it still uses the weapon can be fired sinqle-shot orrl'-
changed. potent 9-mm (0.354-in) x 19 Parabel- Another UZI variant that has only le-
The Mlni-UZI has been develoPed lum round, As the weapon is lighter cently been introduced is the UZI pis-
as a weapon surtable for concealment than the full-size version its breech tol, Although really outside the sccpe
by police and security personnel This block is lighter too, and this provides a oi this survey tt is still recogmizable ;'
prompted an overall decrease in cyclic rate of flre of 950 rounds Per an UZI. It can be fired single-shot o:-v-
dimensrons, and to improve this con- minute, which is much higher than on and there is no form of butt stock
cealment a smaller 20-round magazine the onginai.
has been introduced, although the The Mini-UZI is being marketed ln
Mim-UZI can still use the existing 25- the United States carried tn a special-
and 32-round maQlazines if required ly-fitted brief case together with spare Specification
The UZI parentage is immedlatelY magazines and a small cleaning and uzr
apparent but one chanqe that can be spares kit, It has already been suet- Calibre:9 mm (0.354 in) Parabeli':r-
nbied rs that the normal folding metal qested that some form of silencer Weight: loaded with 2O-round
butt has been replaced bY a single- could be f,tted to the muzzle. magazine 3, 1 1 kg (6.85 ]b)
strut butt stock that folds along the There are also some UZIs other than Length: with stock extended 6Ol r-:--
the standard version and the MinrUZL (23,62 rn) andwithstock folded
right-hand side of the bodY When
folded the butt Plate acts as a One is the semi-automatrc Carbine UZI 360 mm (14. 17 in)
rudimentary foregrip. but the normal which has been produced to conform Lenqthof barrel: 197 mm (7.75 -:-
foieerip is a plastic section just for- wrth the legal requirements of some Muzilevelocity:352m(1 15 il :e:
ward of the triqger group. American states that requtre non- second
To date the Mini-UZI has been mar- automatrc weapons only to be held by Cyclic rate offire: 950 rPm
keted as suitable for police and secur- their inhabitants, In order to prevent Magazine: 20-. 25- or 32-rou:: b': r
The UZI has proved to be one of the most
successful of all the post-war sub-
machine gun designs, and it has shown
its combatworth on many occasions. It
will remain in use for many years to
come and is still in production today.
The UZI sub-machine gun was conceived at a
time when the new state of Israel had only just
come into being. Almost as soon as lsrael de-
clared itself to be a state it was involved in a
state of war that continues lo the present day, In
1948 the neighbouring Arab nations attempted
to crush Israel but failed, mainly as a result of
the Israelis' determination to exist as a nation,
and when the United Nations were at ]ast able
to impose a ceasefire the Israelis had estab-
lished themselves by the srmple process of
defeating every one of their Arab foes,
All through the fighting of 1948 and 1949 the
newly-formed lsraell army was armed with a
hotchpotch of weapons, Sub-machine gnrns in-
cluded old ex-German weapons and numbers
of Sten gmns, the latter being the usual weapon
of the front-line troops, The Stens worked but
were not regarded as being particularly reli-
able, and a replacement was thus sought, For
supply safety it was consrdered suitable for the
replacement to be manufactured localiy, but at
that time manufacturing facilities in Israel were enswe a good 'lock', and that as the bott ex- Seen ftere rh So uth African service, the UZI is one of
few so the design had to be easy to make in tended forward the barrel could be placed the most widely used sub-machine guns in the
quantity. farther to the rear of the receiver or body to world. With stock extended and in careful hands,
Several deslgns were put forward at the allow a short and handy weapon, Gail had no the UZI will shoot with reasonable accuracy up to
time. Most of them were 'paper' designs, but 200 m (220 yards), although it gained its reputation
doubt obtained his study examples from the atmuch closer ranges.
that of Lieutenant Uziel Gail was chosen, He fighting dunng the War of Independence, and
had formed his design after careful examina- as at one polnt Czechoslovakia was happy to easy using the prrncrple that 'hand finds hand',
tion of some Czech designs, notably the vzor provide weapons to the new state, it is posslble The folding metal butt was also taken from the
(model) 23,24,25 and 26. These models were that the weapons came via a direct route. In any Czech design.
all basicaliy the same, differing only in having a case Gail adopted the \nnap-around' bolt to so But Gail was no mere plagiarist. He intro-
fixed or folding butt or the calibre used, but pronounced a degree that his design was very duced his own ideas, not the ieast of which was
they all had the same baslc mechanlsm and much shorter than any contemporary equiva- ease of manufactwe, The Sten gun and the
design feature: the use of a breech block, or lent. Gail also adopted the method of inserting German MP 38 of World War II had demons-
bolt, that extended forward around the barrel. the magazine through the pistol gnip which not trated that sub-machine gmns could be manu-
This had two main attractions: that at the lnstant only provided a good balance for the weapon factured easily using simple metal stampings
offiring the mass of the bolt was well f,crward to but it also made rapid insertion of a magazine and vtrtually no machining, and Gail simply
took this method one stage further: almost the
entire body of his deslgtn was made lrom a
single sheet steel stamping that was then bent
into shape to form a robust body. But Gail went
one better. He was aware that much of the
terrain over which the resultant weapon was to
be used was dusty and arduous to a degree.
Any weapon would have to operate wlth the
virtual certainty that dust, dirt and sand would
get into the works, so Gail designed two
grooves rnto the initial stamping that could
gather up all the debris rnside the body and
keep it out of the way. Thus the bolt could
operate without the friction caused by sandand
drrt, and rndeed Gail's design can keep work-
ing when many other weapons have seized
Gail's desrgn was eagerly adopted and
placed into production, initially in a series of
small machine shops but eventually using the
production facilitles of the state-owned Israel
Military Industnes. By 1953 the weapon was in
servlce, and in deference to its designer was
named the UZL Gail himself went on to a dis-
trnguished military career and retired as a
lieutenant colonel but his name is still a virtual
military fixture.

Inits earlyyears, theyoung Israeli nationwas

unable torelyonoutside help andthe needfor an
indigenous arms industry was paramount. Uziel
Gail's UZI design was ideal: simple to
manufacture, it entered sewice in 1953.
Modern Sub-Machine Guns

,:.= JZI had its first major bout oi conflict in

lands during the Suez War of 1956 Be-
. - r: -:-en it had been used more on the border
:,- ::-s and clashes that marked the period, so
-:.-. a',t ihe trme rt was used on a large scale
:--.: lf the bugs inherent in any new weapon r,,;''-F
::s-;r had been eiiminated. The troops hked
-:.= --ZL it was liQrht, handy, and easy to aim and a,ir-
:: _:erate, Versions with solid wooden butts
''.'=:e produced, but the type most favoured by
:-: special forces such as the paratroops was
,:-: 3ne wlth the folding metal butt, Only the
:::cial forces used the UZI as a standard
''.'=apon, The normal rnfantry and other units
-:::inued to use the standard service rifle of
:,: day but the UZI was and still is widely
--ried by second-line troops, It is small and
-;it enough to be carried without any great
:-:cnvenlence, and can be folded away into
- ,_.' small stowage space or even ln a desk -i

l:ght: TwoUZl-armed Israelis de-busfrom anM3

:aif track covered by the .30 calibre Brorynings of
:.eir comrades. The UZI first saw major action in
::.e I 956 Arab-lsraeli conflict in the hands of the
. s:aeli airborne fiorces.

3eiow: The aftermath of another Arab incursion

-:.:o Israel: the survivors of a PLO unit are driven
zt;ay to captivity"Note the magazines clipped
:igether on theUZI;theone outof the gunis empty.
nen the second magazine is full it projects under
:.e barrel.
The UZI in Action

Thrs latter point is important, for rn Israel any

member of the armed services is likeiy to be
called rnto action at almost any time. Despite
Israel's stringent and often irksome security
precautions, terrorists are still able to strrke at
centres of population at any time. Consequent-
ly even off-duty personnel frequently carry
their personal weapons with them at all times,
and even desk-bound personnel keep therr
weapons close at hand, In many cases this
means the UZI, and it rs not amuncommon sight
in any Israeli lown or crty io see groups of
off-duty personnel enjoying themselves in a
srdewalk cafe with UZIs nonchalantly slung
from their chairs, Even the women personnel of
the Israeli forces have to follow this course of
actron and the UZI rs a common sighL in shops
and streets all over Israel,
Thus the UZI is now a virtual military badge
in Israel, and it may be seen emblazoned on
belt buckles and even stamped on T-shirts. It
would be safe to say that vrrtually every Israeli
citrzen is fully famihar with lts workings and The UZI remains a favourite weapon of the I sraeli manding positlon across any advance route to
knows how to use it properly, Some of this special forces, who used it to great effect during the north.
knowledge has no doubt been learned the the storming of BeaufortCastle on the night of 7 Needless to say the PLO was as aware olthe
hard way in battle, for the UZi has been used in J une I 9 8 2. Changing magazines rh fft e darkis importance of Beaufort Castle as the Israelis,
made easier by having the magazine housed in the
every Israeli-Arab conflict since i956 and rn pistolgirip. Despite the age of the fortress the Palestinians
many of the smaller campaigns that have had further improved the old fortifications and
marked the llfe of Israel, In nearly every news- had manned not only the walls of the fort but the
reel or front-page photograph of Israeli sol- War. Beaufort Castle is situated;ust to the north surrounding area, Inside the fortress walls the
diers in action an UZI may be discerned some- of the Litani river inside Lebanese territory, but old underground areas had been further im-
where in the frame, the Israelis had already advanced to the Litani proved and were rn use as stores and bomb-
Typical of the use of the UZI in the hands of in what at fust appeared to be an anti-PLO proof shelters. Not surprisingly the PLO consi-
the Israeli special forces was the taking of campaign. To advance any farther north past dered the fortress to be virtually impregnable.
Beauljrrt Castle on the night of 7 June 1982, the Litanl Beaufort Castle had to be taken, for It is set on a hiqh and almost inaccesslble prom-
during the opening stages of the Lebanese this old crusader frrrtress is iocated in a com- entory, and the PI,O garrison was ready for an
attack. It seemeQ as though the only way to take
the positlon was by the time-honoured process
of siege and a set-piece attack,
The Israelis thought otherwise, They had to
take Beaufort Castle quickly in order to press
on with advance to Beirut. They decided on a
coup de main to be carrled out by members of
therr special forces, who approached the cas-
tle from the area of the Aqiya Bridge over the
deep gorge of the Litani river. The capture of
thls bridge was itself a major military achieve-
ment for it was wired ior demolition and was
captured before the charges could be fired, As
the bulk of the Israeli central sector forces
moved norih one group moved in their half-
tracks and Jeeps towards the castle as the
evening of 6 June moved towards darkness. In
the failing ligrht they simply drove and fired
their way through any PLO positions they en-
countered and rapidly came to under the walls
of the fortress itself. Unfortunately it was not
possible to rush the only track leading to the
gates, so the steep walls of the point on whlch
the castle stands had first to be scaled before
even the walls could be reached, This had to
be done by the oid way with grappling irons,
climbinq skills and ropes. Under these combat
condltions the UZI proved invaluabie, It was
easy to sling out of the way when climbing yet
easy to get into action when required. In action
its hlqh fire rate was devastating at close
ranqes, and in the dark there was often no time
to take deliberate aim. Thus the short UZI came
into lts own, 1br the Israelis could get their
weapons on target much iaster than their oppo-
nents armed with AK-47s.

Hadhe not been close enough to be tackled

physically, there can be little doubt that Hinkley's
attempt to kill President Reagan would have
ended abruptly in a hail of 9-mm fire from the
Presiden tial gni ards' U Zl s.
Needless to say the PLO did not stand back fighters continued to fight, some to the last,
-nd let the Israelis take the castle unopposed though the castle was under Israeli control As
-hey fought back with a feroclty that surpnsed day broke the Israeli troops were able to
:e Israelis, and casualtles were heavy on both appreciate fu1ly the importance oi the position
s,des. From time to time the Israelis used mor- thev had taken. They were able to observe a
.ars to fire illumination flares, to allow them to wrde stretch of terrain that stretched from the
see where they were and where they were Mediterranean far to the west, over the coastal
ptain and up into the mountains of the interior'
3cing, but much of the flghting was at close
luarters and at times (such as when they were They could see the mechanized Israeli col-
s:ill climbing their ropes) the Israeli troops' umns making their way north without risk of a
:asualties were heavy. Some of the Israells had powerful PLO stronqhold in thelr rear'
:: hang onto their ropes with one hand and fire Beaufort Castle was an action in which the
:eir UZIs with the other. Some covering flre UZI showed to its best advantage, In any close-
:ame from heavy machine-gnrns mounted on quarter combat a short and handy weapon ltke
-:ie halftracks far below, but the assault lorce the UZI provrdes any combatant with a tactical
.-ad to supply most of its own covering fire advantage, and when that advantage is allied to
Once thb lsraelis were over the walls the a determrnation to win such as that displayed
:.and{o-hand fiqhting continued until just alter bv the Israeli soldiers who stormed the castle
when the Israelis took control of the the result was inevitably a mtnor mrlitary cias-
::rtreis. Even then isolated bands of PLO src,

.:r1 important role fulfitled by the sub-machine.gun Rig ht : H is U Z I by his side, a gu nner of,N o. 4 B attery,
:.stha[ of vehic]e crew personal armament. In the 305th Panzer ArtiL\ery, pauses by an M 1 I 3
:cnfined space of a tank there is obviously no room Armoured PersonnelCarrier. ?he extensjve use
::r a full-size rifle. Here, the crew of a Bundeswehr made of the IIZI byWestGerman forces is a great
eo pard pose with their folding'stock UZI s' tribute to the design.
9-mm Beretta Model I2s
Dwing World War II the Beretta sub- to such nations as Libya and Saudi Ara-
machine guns were among the most bia, but only in small numbers to the
highly-prized of al1 war trophies, and Italian armed forces, who purchased
many remained for many years after the type for use only by special units.
the war in service with both military However, Beretta was able to negtoti-
and paramilitary formations. The last of ate licence production of the Model 12
the \ryar{ime' Beretta vadants was pro- rn Indonesia and Brazil for local sales
duced in 1949, and in 1958 an entirely and export,
new Beretta design was introduced. Beretta then decided to develop the
This owed nothing to previous desigrns basic design one staqe further and
and for the first time Beretta adopted produced the Model i2S, This is now
the tubular receiver and stamped the cwrent Beretta sub-machine gnrn
component construction that had for and production of the Model 12 has
Iong been employed by many other now ceased, Externally the Model 12S
manu-facturers, The new design was looks very like the Model 12 but there
the Beretta Model 12, but although it are some detarl drfferences, One is the
Iooked simple it was still a Beretta pro- epoxy-resin finish, making the metal
duct, as was reveaied by the overall resistant to corrosion and wear, The
high standard of fimsh and by its quaii- flre selector mechanism on the Model
ty manufacture. 12 was ofthe 'push through' type, oper-
The Model 12 had an orthodox con- ated by pushing a button from either
struction down to the 'wrap-around' side of the receiver just over the pistol
bolt that was by then commonplace. grip, but the Type 12S has a conven-
This allowed rt to be a short and handy tional single{ever mechanism wrth a
weapon that as usual could be fitted safety that locks both the trigcrer and
with either a folding metal stock or a the grrip safety, The folding butt, when
fixed wooden stock, fitted, now has a more positive lock for
The Model 12 was sold extensively both the open and the closed positions,
and Some changres have been made to
The men of the I talian Parachute the sights. One laudable feature that
Brigade are mainly equipped with has been carried over from the origin-
the BM59 rifle, but the Beretta 125 is al Model 12 is the retentron of the A dramatic breakfrom pre-war toform themagazine housing and
better suited for close-range work. raised grooves that run aiong each Beretta designs, the Model l2 and receiver, bu t retain the eleg ant
The I 2S is designed to operate in side of the tubular receiver. These 125 use heavy sheet metal stampings simplicity associated with Beretta.
harsh environments, h aving grooves gEooves act as catchers for any dirt or
along thesides of the receiverwhich debris that flnd their way into the in- purchased by the Itahan armed forces being offered by FN of Herstal, Bel-
catch any debrk entering the terior, and enable the Model 12S to in small numbers, and more were sold g[um, as part of its small arms range,
weapon. operate under really muddy and to Tunisia. Once again Beretta has Incidentally, the Modei 12 is one of the
arduous conditions, been able to negotiate licence pro- favoured weapons of 'Carlos', the inter-
To date the Model 12S has been duction and the Model l2S is now natlonal teronst,

The I 2S can be distingakhed from

the earlier Model I 2 by the single
lever fire selector and safety. The
white'S' is for safe, the red'I' for semi
automatic and the'R' for fuII

Model I2S (metal stockversion)
Calibre:9 mm (0,354 in) Parabellum
Weight: loaded with 32-round
magazine 3,81 kq (8,4 lb)
lengrth: with stock extended 660 mm
(26 in) and with stock folded 4lB mm
(16,45 in)
Lengrthof barrel 200 mm (7,87 in)
Muzzle velocity: 38 I m (1,250 ft) per
Cyclic rate offire: 5OO-550 rpm
Magazine: 20-, 32- or 4O-round box

Right: Although widely exported, the

Model 12 isonlyrssued loSpecia/
Troops of the ltalian army, the rest
having to content themselves with
theMAB 38/49.TheModel 12 is avery
sleady weapon with remarkably low
muzzle climb while tiring in full
Armed Forces of the World

Rogal NcwgPar3
Fleet Air Arm
Known as the Naval Air Command to the Admiralty,
the Fleet AirArm is primarily used as an extension of
warships' weapon and sensor systems to engage
and identify targets over the horizon. ln 1984 the
service had the following units in commission'

Squadron Aircraft Primary role

800 Sea Hanier FRS.Mk 1 combat air
301 Sea Harrier FRS.Mk 1 combat air
399 Sea Harrier FRS.Mk 1 operational
andT.Mk4N training
31 0 Sea King HAS N;lk 5 ASWtraining
314 Sea King HAS Mk 5 ASW
a20 Sea King HAS.MkS ASW
i24 Sea King HAS.Mk 5 ASW
326 Sea King HA$.Mk 5 ASW lbr iree-'all and retarded HE bombs, 272-kg (600-lb) Standard shipborne ASW and anti- shipping
3'9 Sea King HAS.Mk 24 ASW BL755 clrster bombs, 51-mm ( rocket pods and helicopter for smaller Royal Navy vessels, ffi e
:r9 Sea King AEW airborne early in iire verv neaT;Jture the sea-skimming Sea Eagle Westland Lynx has recently been equipped with
warning ant -sn p n'issile. They are credited with a tactical British Aerospace Sea S/<ua m issiles, which were
combat-tested under extremely difficult -
:-15 Wessex HU.Mk 5 aircommando nicrear con b del very capability, for which they conditions during the South Atlantic campaigm.
assault apparently carry a single 1/60-kiloton variable-yield
:jO Sea King F:C.Mk 4 aircommando 'Green Par:ct' ;r'ee-fall bomb. The Sea Harriers can charge warhead it carries is much more effective
assault also be usec n a raoid response ASW role delivering against the Soviet submarine hull than the blast type
::3 r'/asp HAli:..ltik'1 training/ASW' a soncb.lov {ieid to a predetermined datum point. fitted to the Mk 46. The nuclear depth bomb, nick-
hydrographic Tne pr'mary ASW platform is now the Sea King named 'Lulu', is a weapon that is used well away
survey HAS.Mk 5 wtn the Marconi LAPADS (lightweight from f riendly ships and submarines so that they are
:-5 Lynx HAS.Mk2/3 anti-surface acoustic processing and display system) sonobuoy not damaged, and is the only nuclear ASW weapon
warfareiASW processing equipment and mini-Jezebel sono- the Royal Navy possesses. The other helicoptei
Lynx HAS.Mk2/3 aircrew training buoys. A n'agneiic anomaly detector is also being types which can carry the 'Lulu' are the Sea King
Gazelle HT.Mk 2 basic training fitted together with the new Sea Searcher ASW HAS,Mk 2, the shlp's flight Wasp HAS.Mk '1 and the
Sea King HAS.Mk 5 aircrewtraining srface target radar. The active dunking sonar capa- ship's f light Lynx HAS.Mk 2i3. The Lynx can alterna-
Wessex HU.Mk 5/ aircrew training bilrty has been retained from the HAS.Mk 2 air- tively carry either two homing torpedoes or Mk 1"
Sea King HC.Mk4 f rames which constitute the majority of the Sea King depth charges or (for its primary anti-surface role
Jetstream T.Mk 2 observer training HAS.Mk 5 fleet. The armament can either be four two or four Sea Skua semi-active homing anti-sh p
Wessex HU.Mk5 SAR/training Mk 46 or Stingray homing torpedoes, or four Mk 1 1 missiles, whilst the Wasp can carry two Mk 44 or
Wessex HU.Mk5 SAR/fleet HE depth charges or, like its American counterpart, Mk 46 torpedoes or Mk 11 depth charges or tw,c
requirements one 857 S-kiloton low-y:s16 nuclear depth bomb. wire-guided AS,'l 2 missiles.
:::DU HunterT.MkBC, fleet The elderly Mk 46 has a range of 10.9 km (6.8 miles) The Commando helicopters usually carry 7 62-
HunterGA.Mk 1 1, requirements and a speed of 45 kts at 15.25 m (50 ft), but these mm (0.3-in) machine guns and 51-mm (2-in) rockets
Canberra T.Mk 22, figures are reduced to 5.45 km (3.4 miles) and for ground suppression of assault zones. ln this the,-
CanberraTT.Mk 18, 40 kts at 457 m \1,500 ft) depth because of the will probably be backed by machine-gun, rocket a.r
Canberra T.Mk 4 propellant used. The Mk 46 uses a spiral search TOW fire from Royal Marine helicopters plus tne
pattern and can acquire targets at ranges up to weapons of any RAF aircraft available. The total lac<
.45 km (0 9 miles) on its active/passive homing of airborne early warning aircraft so keenly felt in tne
--e Sea Harrier squadrons have secondary roles system. lts replacement is the Stingray lightweight Falklands has now been resolved by the reactivatio"
:: :roto and radar reconnaissance, ground attack torpedo, which is a 'smart'weapon having a speed of No. 849 Squadron with Sea King AEW helicor
l-: s:rface strike against enemy surface craft. For of 45 kts, a range of 7 km (4.35 miles) and a diving ters. However, the reasons why such a combinaiic^
--. : =to-surface role they can carry 454-kg (1 000- depth of 800 m (2,625 ft). Apparently the directed- was rejected in the late 1960s to replace that squac-
ron's Fairey Gannets still hold today and a new AEi\
platform must be found. The carriers will embar< a
flight of three Sea King AEWs as a normal part c=
their carrier air group.
For the future. the major re-equipment of the Sea
King ASW squadrons will start in the late 1980s witr
the introduction of the EH 1 01 , whilst the Sea Harrier
.?: squadrons will receive both new-build and com-
pletely refurbished aircraft carrying a new airborne
intercept radar suitable for use with the AIM-l20
radar-guided missile that will supplement the infra-
red AIM-9L Sidewinder it uses at the moment as its
primary air-to-air weapon.

The Westland Sea King in its HAS.M k 5 torm is the

fleet's primary ASW platform, and since the harsh
lessons of the Falklands it has also been equippd
with a modified Searchwater radar to prouide a
Iimited degrree of airborne early warning (AEW).