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The world's most comprehensive encyclopedia of the military weapons of the 20th centura

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Wheels af War

Desert Ambush

LIS Army $-ton Trucks

A fully illustrateC guide to frlodern n,m tm ffi ffmnuffxaaffitr'

Volume Z Issue 79

Published by
Orbis Publishino Ltd
@Aerospace P"ublisning Lrd 1985
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War Machine
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I.5 toS Ton
Today'smechanized armies require more logistic support
ThisENGESAEE-25 2500-kg (5,51llb) 6x6 truckshows flexibility of its rear
bogies during cross-country operations. The EE-25 can be builtwith a
hydraulic crane for unloading stores, with a front, centre or rear mounted
winch, power take-off , and engine-start device tor use in coldweather.

and a military type rear cargo body. Petrol engines have given way .:
thaneverbefore, andif the (low af suppliesstopsthe army diesel units, which are considerably more fuel efficient as well as beii;
itself will soon grind to a halt. Medium ttttcks bear the less hkely to catch fire Many military trucks are fitted with hydrau--:
greatest share ofthis burden and must carry their loads in all cranes to enable cargo to be loaded and unloaded rapidly without ar:'.'
w e athers ov e r r ough t e rr ain and int o th e b attle ar e a itself ' outside assistance, and in many armies cargo is loaded on to palleis ic:
easrer handling in the freld,
Every army needs a massive number of irucks, not only to carry troops Since the I950s many countries such as Brazil and Spain have bee:.
and tow artillery weapons, but also to keep all units provided with the burlding up their automotive capabilities, and these nations are nc',','
luel, water, food, ammunition and spare parts they need for their mission. exporters of military vehicles to many parts of the world, Often the sai:-=
For many years after World War II the 2 5,'3-ion truck was the most usual manufacturer is able to suppiy a complete range of armoured vehic,e s
vehicle of this type to be found in most armtes, but today it is the 4/5-ton and military trucks to a foreign army with obvlous logistic, economic ar:
type that is more common. iraining advantages to the operator,
Some current trucks have been burlt specrflcally to meet the require- In addition to carrying cargo, trucks are used for a wide range of othe:
ments of the military, such as the American M35 2,5{on 6x6 vehrcle, but roles such as command, fleld repair, recovery, RPV transport a:.:
the trend in recent years has been to produce vehicles that at the very launch, and mounting weapons systems such as multiple rocket lau:--
least share their major automotive parts (for example engine, transmis- chers, There is little doubt that if there were no trucks then the mcs.
sion, brakes, suspension and cab) wrth trucks already in volume produc- sophisticated army would soon grind to a halt,
:ron lor civil apphcations, Other military trucks are essentially standard
O ne of the W es t G er m an M AN r ange of 4 x 4, 6 x 6 an d I x I vehr'cles ts p u t
commercial vehicles with mtnimum modLflcatrons to suit them for millt- through its paces. Tftese are a/J known as Category I vehicles and are
ary use, typical features being larger tyres and wheels ior greater probably thebesttrucksof their typein theworld.The SxBmodelrs used lo
ground clearance, all-wheel drive for improved cross-country mobrlity' tow American Pershing and ground-launched crurse mrsiles.


rl4 t4 - *.'.-*
r xtli_ls-':
I . q_*-


.',lri.i:l:::r . ..i: .'

ENGESA EE-25 2500-kg 6xO truck
In recent years the ENGESA company which facilitates the air transport of the
has progressed from converting 4x2 vehicle, while the rear cargo area has
and 6x4 vehicles into all-wheel drive a drop tailgate, bows which can be
vehicles to the design and production stowed to the cab rear when not
of a complete family of wheeled needed, and a tarpaulin cover, If re-
armoured fighting vehicles and trucks. qurred the EE-25 can be fitted with a
The former include the EE-3 Jararaca supply-loading hydraulic crane with a
4x4 scout car, the EE-9 Cascavel 6x6 maximum capacity of 5000 kg
armoured car and the EE-]] 6xo (1I,023 lb) and a front-mounted wtnch
armoured personnel carrier, total with a capacity of 3000 kg (6614 lb) and
sales ofthese reaching some 4,000 un- provided with 50m (164ft) of cable.
its by 1984. The company's ranqe of Optional equipment includes fire ex-
trucks includes the ENGESA EE-15 tingn:rshers, more powerful winches, a
4x4, EE-?S 6x6 and new EE-50 6x6 power take-off (PTO) and, for use in
vehicles, all of which are already used cold areas, an engine starting aid, A
by the Brazrlian army in addition to 4x4 model of the EE-25 is available
countries in South America and the wlth a similar payioad to the 6x6 mod-
Middle East, The EElnthe desigmation el, Variants of the EE-25 produced so
stands for the company name, En- far include a lubrrcatron vehicle, re-
genheiros Especializados, while the covery vehicle, tanker (fuel or water),
digrits represent the cross-country car- firefighting truck, prime mover, and
rying capacrty of the vehicle: for exam- fully-enciosed command post or
ple, the EE-15 can carry 1,5 tonnes, ambulance, T his model of the B razilian ENGESA famous Boomerang rear suspension,
while the EE-50 can carry 5 tonnes, EE-25 2500-kg(5,5I I-lb) 6x6 truckis which ensures that all four of the rear
The EE-25 6x6 truck has been de- Specification fittedwith singlerear tyres. AII wheels are in constantground
signed to carry 5000k9 (11,023]b) of EE-25 ENGESA 6x6 vehicles feature the contact, for maximum traction.
cargo on roads or 2500 kq (5,512 lb) of Crew: l*2
cargo across country, and is similar in Weights: empty 6800 ks (14,991 lb);
appearance to the standard American loaded (cross-country) 9300 kg
2,5-ton 6xO trucks, wrth the engine at (20,503Ib)
the front, three-man cab in the centre, Powerplant: one Mercedes-Benz type
and the cargo area at the rear. The OM-352A 6-cylinder diesel
Mercedes-Benz OM-3524 diesel is developing 129.8 kW (174 hp)
also used in some versions of the EE-9 Dimensions: lenglh6.B2 m(22 ft 4.5 in);
and EE-l] armoured vehicles, and rs width 2,25 m (7 ft4,6 in); height (cab)
coupled to a manual gearbox with five 2,50 m (B ft 2.4 in)
fonrard and one reverse gear and a Performance: maximum road speed
two-speed transfer case, SteenngT is 90 lan/h (56 mph); maximum range
power-assisted on the front wheels, 600 kn (373 miles); gnadient 60 per
and I 1.00x20 tyres are fitted all round. cent; side slope 30 per cent; fording
The front suspension consists of semr- 0,9 m (2 ft 11.4 in)
elliptical springs with hydraulic dou-
ble-acting shock absorbers, while the
rear suspension is of the famous EN- The Br azilian EN GESA company first
GESA Boomerang type with semi- becameinvolved in trucks bythe
elliptical springs, the whole suspen- conversion of 4x 2 and 6 x 4 trucks
sron gving exceptional cross-country into all-wheel drive for improved
mobility compared with that of other cross-country mobili$. ENGESA now
vehicles of this type. The rear suspen- produces an extensive range ofnot
sion can have single or dual wheels, only 4x4 and 6x6 trucks but also
The cab has a vinyl top and doors, armoured vehicles.


ACMAT VLRA 2500-kg 4x4 truck

Por many years the trend has been to One of the many roles of the ACMAT
adapt a standard commercral vehicle VLRATPK 6.40 SMZ 6x6 truckis that
to meet mrlitary requirements by the oflaying a portable roadway over
adoption, for example, of all-wheel soft terrain so thatfollowing trucks
drive, stronger suspension, bigger can cross without becoming bogged
wheels, stronger cabs and a special down. The cargo model of this truck
body, The French company ACMAT can carry a maximum payload oI
(Ateliers de Construction M6canique 4300 kg(9,4801b).
de l'Atlantique) based at Saint-Nazaire
believes that in order to be entirely extensle range of spare parts for his
reliable any military truck must be vehicle fleet, This not only reduces
built to meet the most demanding of costs but eases training,
military requirements yet must be as The layout of the ACMAT is conven-
simple as possible, The result is the tional, with the engine at the front, the
ACMAT range of cross-country vehl- cab in the centre and the cargo area at
cles which are now rn use with more the rear. The latter has a dropdown
than 30 countries all over the worid, tailgate, removable b.ows and a tar-
The basic cargro truckisthe TPK4.l5 paulin cover, When the vehicle is used
SM2, which can carry 1500 kg in the troop-carrying role seats can
(3,307 lb), while the longer-wheelbase quickly be fitted down the centre ol
TPK 4.20 SM2 can carry
-a 2500 kg sides of the cargo area. All vehicles
(5,512 lb) of cargo and tow trailer oi have long-range fuel tanks, a 200-litre
artillery piece weighrng weight up to (44-lmp gal) water tank, sand channels
3000 kg (6 614 1b), There is also a long- which are considered essential for op-
wheelbase model with slightly gneater erations in the desert, and four jerry-
carrying capacity, and a 6x6 model cans, Optional equipment includes a
which can carry a maximum payload of front-mounted winch with a capacity of
4300 kg (9 480 1b). The latter model has 3000 kg (6,614 lb) a rear towing pintle,
a slightly more powerful engine, but power steering, and a rmde ranqe of
every version uses the same front ax- weapons such as a Milan anti-tankmrs- mm (0,5-in) machine-gmn, or even a There are so many versions of the
les, wheels, tyres and reduction boxes sile, a 60-mm (2,36-in) or Bl-mm (3, 19- tvuin 20-mm (10,78-1n) anti-aircraft can- ACMAT truck that it is possible to
so that the operator need not keep an in) mortar, a 7.62-mm (0.3-in) or 12,7- non system, mention only a few of them, The com-

I 562
ACMAT VIRA 2500-kg 4 x 4 truck (continued) Modern l.Sto5tonTrucks
mand and control vehicle is the TPK
4.20 VCT, and this rs fitted wrth exten-
sive communications equipment, The
TPK 4.20 chassis can be used as a light
recovery vehic.le, or as a flrefighting
vehicle or as a bowser (fuel or water).
It can also be f,tted with many box
bodres/shelters for use in specialized
roles. The chassis is also used as the
basis for an armowed carlarmowed
personnel carrier. The 6xO TPK 6,40
SM2 can also be used for many other
roles including recovery, portable
roadway laying, tar spreading, tippirig,
and as a bowser.

Specification The French ACMAT VLRA range of I 500-kg (3,307-1b) cross-country lrr:acls. are
TPK4.2OSM2 used by more than 30 countries around the world and have established a
Crew: l*2 diesel developing 89, 5 kW (120 hp) reputation for reliability and durability. Their 240-litre (53-gal) fuel tanls give
Weights: empty 4300 kg (9,480 1b); Dimensions:lenqth6.00 m (19 ft8.2 in); a range of 900 kn ( 5 60 miles).
loaded (cross-country) 6800 kg width 2,07 m (6 fr 9.5 in); height (cab)
(i4,991lb) l.83m(6ft0in) I00 lsn/h (62 mph); maxrmum range cent; side slope 30 per cent; fordrng
Powerplant: one Perkins Model 6,354.4 Performance: maximum road speed 1600 km (994 mlles); erradient 60 per 0,9 m (2 ft 11,4 in)


DAF YA 4440 4x4 truck

In the 1950s DAF designed a complete
family of cross-country vehicles to
meet the requ[ements of the Dutch
army, These included the YA 4x4
weapons carrier, the YA 314 4x4 and
YA 328 6xO 3000-ks (6,6141b) trucks,
and the hearry YA 616 6xO 6000-kg
(I3,228-lb) truck. The trucks are now
being replaced by two new DAF de-
sigrns which are based on vehicles
already in production for civil applica-
tions. These are the DAF YA 4440 4x4
4000-kg (B,BlB-lb) and YAZ 2300 6xo
10000-kq (22,046-Ib) trucks, both of
them featurrng more fuel efficient
diesel engines and ZF hydraulic steer-
The Dutch army placed its flrst
order for 4,000 YA 4440 trucks in 1976,
and all of these were delivered be-
tween 1977 and 1980; since then a
fi;rther 2,500 vehicles have been sup-
plted, The all-steel forward control
cab has a reinforced roofso that a 7,62-
mm (0.3-in) machine-gmn can be rnstal-
led for anti-arrcraft defence, and this
cab can be tilted forward to allow ac- A DAF YA 4440 4000 kg (8,8 I 8 tb)
cess to the engine and transmission for cargo truckwith bows and tarpaulin
maintenance, The rear cargTo area has cover in position at the rear. Like
side boards and a tailgate that can be most military trucks today, the YA
quickly removed to allow containers 4440 is essentially a standard civilian
and other bulk cargo to be loaded; truck with a few modifications to suit
bows and a tarpaulin cover are also itlor military use.
provided, The engine is coupled to a
manual transmission with five forward
and one reverse gear and a transfer
case, Suspension, front and rear, con- DAF YA 5441/6442 4x4 5000-kg
sists of semi-elliptrcal springs and dou- (I1,023-lb) cargo truck, which uses
ble-acting hydraulic shock absorbers. many components ofthe DAF YA 4440.
The normal version has a single pas- This model does not have the cross-
senger seat, but ifrequired the vehrcle country mobility of the earlier vehicle.
can be delivered with a two-man pas-
senger seat, Other optional equipment Specification
includes a 1000-kq (2,205-lb) manually- IA4440
operated crane and an automatic Crew: l+1
transmission. The Dutch army has also Weishts: empty 6900 kg ( 15,2 12 ib);
taken delivery of 375 examples of a loaded (cross-country) 10900 kg
version fitted with a larger four-man (24,0301b)
cab for driver training purposes, In for- Powerplant: DAF DT 6 15 6-cylinder
ward areas it is often difficult to find turbocharged diesel developing
cranes and other mechanical handling I 14. I kW (153 hp)
equipment to unload trucks, so the Dimensions: length 7. 19 m (23 ft 7, I in);
Dutch army has also taken dehvery of wrdth 2.44 m (8 ft 0 in); herght
200 vehicles fitted with a HIAB hyd- (tarpaulin cover) 3,42 m (I I ft 2.6 in)
raulic crane to the cab rear, This can Performance: maximum road speed
be used to either side of the vehicle, B0 lcdh (50 mph); maximum range Today the Dutch army is replacing its (8,8 I 8-1b)trucks are now being
though stabilzers have to be lowered 500 lcn (311miles); gnadient 50per 1 9 5 0 s generation vehicles with a delivered. The model on the left is
to the ground before the crane is used. cent; side slope 30 per cent; fording whole new series built by DAF. Over fitted with an HIAB crane tor
The Dutch army and nalry also use the 0,9 m (2 ft 11.4 in) 6, 500 of these D AF YA 4440 4000 -kg handlingpallets.
As it j olted along the rocky Omani track,
the British convoy could be seenfor
miles. Armed to the teeth, the rebel
trihesmen watched from the hills as the
column drew closer and closer.
Most people who spent time in the post-war
Brltish army developed a love/hate rela-
tlonship with the ubiqurtous 3{onner. It could
be an incredibly welcome sight as rt arrived
bringing spares and supplies; it couid be an
equally hateful sight as it arrived to carry one
off to a particularly unpleasant position, It
would be praised when it successfully navi-
qated a stretch of stony desert; it would be
cursed when it bogged down on a jungie track
miles from anywhere. Probably no truck rn the
world could have successfully stood up to all
the demands made on the poor old 3-tonner by
unit commanders and drivers alike, The 3-
tonner simply was as much a fact of military life
as incomprehensible orders or a good posting,
If the breaks came your way you enjoyed them,
and if they did not you simply put up with them.
There was nothing rntrlnsically exciting about
the 3-tonner, in the same way that there is about
a tank, a new weapons system or even the
latest radio set, Thls is slightly unfair, because
men and materials have to be transported in
order for battles to be won or (hopefrrlly) pre-
vented: lt might not be glamorous, but the 3-
tonner and the men who drove it were, and still Although air power played a major part in the recor?Jess rifles and 7.62-mm Machine-
are, as important to the Brrtrsh army as any Radfan operations, much of the men and suppJies Guns while a Bedford RL 4 x4 truck unloads
other piece of kit, were broughtup by truck. Here infantry setup suppft'es in the backgr ound.

Cross-countrydriving the Western Desert ln World War II by the Like all the other drivers he has an open wind-
There is one question that anyone who has SAS, LRDG etc,: these trucks were fitted with screen, which is against orders, but a fraction
spent time in the Britlsh army will remember anti{ank guns, firing over the cab,) cooler, To keep the dust out of his eyes he is
either being asked or askingr 'Do you think we The federation of semi-autonomous states wearing army-issue sand gogglesj and around
can get a 3{onner down there?' 'Down there' now known as the United Arab Emirates used his head he is wearing the standard arab head-
was anything from a bog on Dartmoor, to a wadi to be known as the Trucial Oman Staies, Until ress, or kefilar1, whrch Ls still the most practical
strewn with the largest and sharpest boulders 1973 they owed their allegiance to the Sultan of and comfortable garb to wear in the desert, His
in the Middle East, or a track runnrng through a Oman, though under the protection of the Brit- vehicle has, so far as possible, been 'custo-
particularly dense patch of secondary jungle, ish government through a series of treaties mized' for the Middle East: the engine well
The 3-tonner (and its driver) was expected to golng back to the last century, Sharjah was an cleaned (oil and grease attract sand), essential
be able to go anywhere and do anything, much extremely important RAF staglng post, and the protection taken against dust (heavy-duty air
to the subsequent fury of command workshops nerghbourrng emirate, Dubai, acted as an en- fllters etc,), and with long-range petrol tanks,
personnel when yet another 3-tonner was trepot port for the entire region, Supplies for and jerrycan upon jerrycan of water provided,
towed in for a complete overhaul, or srmply the British forces (mostly the Speclal Air Ser-
reported as having been abandoned when rt vice) helping the Omanis fight their own rebels Nightbivouac
started to sink into mud or sand up to and over (some tribal, some Soviet-inspired) often pas- For the first 48 km (30 miles) or so the route
rts mudguards, Possibly the standrng order that sed througth these two towns, now sizeable runs through stony desert, which presents no
the driver of a disabjed vehlcle shouid stay modern citles. Both Dubai and Sharjah also real problem: the tyres are thrck enough to
wlth it was desrgned to make drrvers think provided sea and arr cargo facilities for the withstand most of the sharp flrnts or rocks, and
before they asked the impossibie of their vehr- Trucial Oman Scouts (British officers and senior the track is reasonably smooth, Any sand
cle: no one likes spendlng the nlght by himself NCOs) who did such an excellent job in pre- dunes are given a wide berth. Soon, however,
in the middle of the jungle with only the mos- sewing the stability of the region until inde- the stony desert gives way to a flat plain of
quitoes and an occasronal tiger for company, pendence, whitish sand, and here the drivers must be
That standing order is only operative in peace- extremely carefulr the ground may appear
time, incidentaily; in battle conditrons not even The mountaintribes solid enough, but in fact they are driving over a
Whitehall expects someone to stay near a Thus it is rnteresting to look at a military salt marsh, If they stay on the track well and
burnt-out hulk, or even stay inside a 3-tonner convoy from Dubai en route to a destination rn good, but the slightest deviation can mean the
while bullets and mortar shells are zeroing ln Oman. This is not the famous convoy that, in truck will break through the surface crust and
on it, Although slightly armoured and often car- 1963, carried two pedigree bulls to upgrade become hopelessly mired, This is an area that
rying a mounting for a machine-gmn, the 3- the Omani herds, but one carrying men and even camels sometrmes have difficulties rn
tonner was not actually a fighting vehicle, but in equipment, and well aware that rt could be traversing, The convoy is making for a range of
the past 30 or so years it has probably been on ambushed en route by a party ofdesert Bedu, sharply rugged mountains that looms out of the
the receiving end of more enemy bullets and out for a little harmiess fun (they calltlarazziah, heat haze in the distance, Mostly rmpregnable,
shells than any tank. So it is worth taking a look from which comes the English expression the mountains can be crossed by following
at the 3-tonner 'in actron'. As usual, the poor old 'going on the razzle'); or by tribesmen loyal to dried-up river beds (wadis), and it is one such
thing is on the receiving end, It is a shame, in a the 'mad' Mahdi, secure tn his fastness on the wadi that is reached shortly before dusk, The
way, that it was never fitted out as a rocket Green Mountain; or by anybody who had an convoy bivouacs for the mght, Guards are post-
launcher in the Soviet fashion (and as also used interest in destabilizing the regton, The eonvoy ed, but neither drivers nor troops are encour-
to great effect by the Viet Cong against the consists of four 3-tonners and three accom- aged to sleep in therr vehicles: they might pro-
French, the South Vietnamese army and the panying Land Rovers, equipped for desert vide a modicum of protection against scorpions
Americans), for it would have been nice for the combat, The driver in the lead 3{onner is the and spiders, but they can also be deathtraps if a
British 3-tonner to have had rts own moment of most experienced and is best able to decide if well-placed mortar bomb explodes on or even
gIory (The exceptions are the'port6es'used in his truck can safeiy go over difficult terrain, close by one,



t €t&-


: ll .!J 4ijr::.'

'. cF
:$ ''' ThemomenttheLandRovethitthe
mine, the troops leap from their
trucks and take cover among the
* rocks. Soon the crack of the
tribesmen's rifles is punctuated by
t' * the ominous thump of amorta4 tJte
..".'. bombs exploding on the side of the
wadi showering the British with a
Iethalmixture of rock and steel

:{ tl ry.J

irr Fr'f
+a:'p;:',..",, r::,#-i::
@.1," €1 'qt"L:

af: L)*

.i,llli:' ':5

Unarmoured and full of

trucks are abandoned as
deathtraps by their crews. ?fig...,,iili!I
B edfords havebeen modilledf0r,r:.;:
desert driving, fie engrneslttfet' :,..,r
with heavy duty filters and a li66ral ' $q
s u p p Iy of w a te r an d spares carzFd l?*=:i.,f ,:ii
the back. Contrary to orders the '':rl=i:.,:;*:
drivers have left their windscreens
:Fi.' , *
l€,* *
Desert Ambush

Come first light and the convoy starts its pared to go down with its ships, but the army to retreat the way they came; this is high--.-
slow, tortuous way along the wadi. Here the has always been less sentimental about its unlikely, however, because though the rebe-
large tyres prove a mixed blessing: on the one trucks, So the idea is to get out and get as far in this part of the world may be extreme-_.-
hand they do enable the truck to clear large away as is practlcal without bunching in the brave they are not discipiined and, once lhe
boulders, but on the other they play havoc with process, because one well-aimed mortar firing starts, they all open up with everythlng
the 3-tonner's centre of gravity, so that a sud- round (or one lucky mortar round) is all it takes they have got, The final clue comes from the
den iean to the left or right can result ln the to wipe out a closely bunched platoon. Almost behaviour of the mortar firing against them, It is
truck toppling over, or veering out of control upon cue a sharp crack, followed by an explo- being laid (and well laid) to explode its bombs
into a large boulder that could just fracture its sion and a shower of rock fragments, signals on the mountarnsrde above the shelteringt sol-
radiator, Gradually the wails of the wadl get that there is indeed a mortar. It rs zeroed on the diers, so that they are being bombarded wrth
steeper and steeper, The lead driver is poss- convoy, and no rangrng shots are necessary for rock fragments every bit as lethai as any bullet
ibly wondering how much longer it will be the column of vehicles has driven directly into rlcochet, Those trucks, that should be such su-
before they find the valley that will flnally take the killing ground, and the chances are that perb sitting targets, are being studiously 1eft
them through ihe mountains, lf only because very few of them will be able to drive back. alone, Obvrously the attacking force wants the
this is an ideal place for an ambush, And just as Ambush Immediate Actlon drill in the jungle trucks and especially their contents. The com-
he thinks that his Land Rover hlts a mine and calls for the ambushed party to charge the mander really has only one decision to make,
disintegrates in a shower of broken metal and ambushers, It is not as herotc or ioolhardy as tt Althouqh a radio was salvaged and he has man-
bodies. sounds: you will probably get killed if you stay aged to signal the Brrtish position, help will not
Short of sending a party of engineers in front where you are anyway, and a reasonably well arrive for at least three hours, And as soon as
wrth mlne-detection equipment, there was no disciplined charge stands every chance ofget- the attackers reallze that help is on its way, they
way of spottinq such a mine: small rocks and ting you to close quarter grips with the enemy, will destroy the 3{onners anyrvay, on the basis
boulders prove the ideal camouflage. The only where your superior (in theory) trarnrng and that if they cannot have them, no one can,
'problem now ls whether the mine had been fitness should give you the advantage, The Under covering fire, the commander orders
laid as a singieton or as part of a smali field, And same does not hold true for thts sltuation, of the retreat, and is not surprised to see the
is itpart of an ambush? A burst of smail arms fire course, since it ls a little difficult to charge up a enemy fire slacken as his men slither and crawl
that rips into the convoy as a whole settles the mountain side. The rebels, whoever they are, their way to safety, With the bulk of his men
latter question, and the Immediate Aclion have picked their ambush site extremely wel1. safely (he hopes) out of the killing ground, only
ambush drill takes over. Obviously the convoy Obviously the convoy or what is left of it (a well one thing remains to be done: a few well
cannot gto forward, as the way is blocked by the planned ambush should kill or lncapacitate at thrown grenades plus a quick burst from the
flaming wreckage of the lead Land Rover. No least 50 per cent of the trapped party wtthin the Bren gun, and the 3-tonners explode, their
more can the convoy retreat: there is no place first five minutes) cannot stay where it is. Even smoke and flames providing a very useful cov-
to turn round, and reversing oul of an ambush at though fire is now being returned by rifle and er for the escape, It is not quite the same thing
a top speed of around 3.2 km/h (2 mph) ls an Bren gn-in and a few sharpshooters have some- as shootlng your own horse lo deny it to the
action not calculated to save lives. (Wadi drlv- how managed to find themselves natural 'san- enemy, but even so the commander and hts
ing is notorrously slow.) gars' from which to frre well-aimed shots at men feel a slight twinge of regret as the four
Everyone gets out of the 3{onners at top thelr attackers, the situation is basically intoler- trucks they had so carefully shepherded this
speed. The small arms fire ts coming from the able. The opposing mortar is firing from a pornt far burn down to their wheel rims, The trucks
convoy's left, high up on the mountaln side, so up ahead, from the other side of a sharp bend tn and their contents were on lhe commander's
the officers and NCOs get their men as fast as the course of the wadi, and there is, thankfully, slgnature, and whrle no one rs going to make
they can to the left bank where they can get very little fire coming from the rear. The con- him pay for them, they are going to ask him an
some protection. One or two soldiers may try voy commander estimates that there are at awful lot oi questions, Anyway, there is plenty
and stay on the right side olthe wadi, keeptng most two or three riflemen posted there to of time to thrnk of that on the iong trek back.
their vehicles between them and the enemy, prevent an escape. This is in itself sllghtiy puz- With any luck, HQ wrll send a couple of 3-
whrch is as good an invitation to being killed in zling, because a good ambush commander will tonners out to pick them up, so they will not
action as you could find: when those long- site some of his strongest firepower at the rear have to walk too far, In a way the 3{onners got
range petrol tanks explode, as they are quite of the ambush simply to prevent an escape. It the commander and his men into thrs mess, so it
likely to, they will incinerate anyone wtthin at could be that there is a larger force there, ls only fltting that 3-tonners should get them out
least 18,3 m (20 yards), The nalnT may be pre- waiting srlently to cut them to ribbons if they try agarn,

Left:ABedfordRL 4x4 truckcreates a dustcloud

to its rear as it moves along a track in the Radfan.
TheRoyalEngineers had to clear a path across the
rocky terrain before the trucks could get through,
and even then progresswas often slow due to

Above : Conditions in the Radfan operation were so

tough on vehicles that their useful life was
;'* measured in months rather than years . Many
vehicles were fitted with special protection against
FIAT 90 PM 16 4000-kg 4x4 truck
For many years FIAT has supplied the paulin cover, When used in the troop
majority of wheeled tactical vehicles transport role, the vehicle can be fitted
required by the italian army, The latest quickly wrth seats. The engine is cou-
military trucksfrom this source are the pled to a manual gearbox with five for-
FIAT 75 PM 2500-ks (5,5 12lb) 4 x 4 and ward and one reverse gear and a hvo-
the FIAT 90 PM 4000-kq (B,BIB{b) 4x4 speed transfer case. Most vehicles of
vehicles. Production of both is under- this type normally have their front axle
taken at the FIAT plant at Bolzano in drsengaged when being driven on
northern Italy, The first flgnrre in the roads to make them 4x2 rather than
designation is the approximate gross 4x4 vehicles, The suspension, front
vehicle weight, while the P stands for and rear, consists of leaf springs with
Pesanle (heavy-duty sewice) and the hydraulic telescopic shock absorbers.
Mfor Militare (military), So far the lta- The brakes are of the dual-circuit air
lian army has ordered almost 4,000 type, the parking brake being mecha-
vehicles and Somalia some 120, mcal. Optional equipment includes an
In addition to carrying 2500 kg air-operated lockable front differential
(5,5 12 1b) of cargo, the FIAT 75 PM can and a front- or rear-mounted winch
also tow a trarler or weapon weighing with a capacity of 4000 kg (B,B18 1b).
up to 4000 kq (8,818 1b), As far as it is Some years ago the company built a
known, thdFlat 90 PM 16 truck has yet halftrack model of the FIAT 90 PM 16
to enter service with the Italian army, called the HT 90, This had its rear
although a small quantity of the basic wheels replaced by a complete half-
cargo version has been supplied to track system similar to that fitted to
Somalia, while Venezuela has taken American halftracks of World War II,
delivery of 60 models fitted with a but did not progress past the prototype The FIAT 90 PM I 6 4000-kg (8,8 I 8-1b) Italy, for civil and military roles..The
!p00-kq (1 1,023-lb) crane by FARID of stagre, The British company Laird has truckis amember of acomplete smaller FIAT 7 5 PM, with a payload of
Italy, built prototypes of a similar halftrack rangeoftrucks developed at the 2500 kg (5,5 I I lb), is already in
The fully enclosed cab is of the for- multi-role vehicle caltred the Centaur, Lancia plant inBolzano, northern service with the ltalian army.
ward control type, and can be tilted This is a long-wheelbase Land Rover
forward to allow access to the engine chassis fitted with a halftrack system on Specification
for maintenance pLuposes. In the cab each side in place of the rear axles. FIAT 90 PM 16 Dimensions: lenqth 6,352 m (20 ft
roof on the right side is a circular The Centaur has been tested by the Crew: l+1 10. t in); width2,30 m(7ft6,6 in); heisht
obsewatron hatch, and on thrs a 7.62- British army and evaluated by a num- Welghts: empty 5750 kg (12,677 lb); 2,935 m (9 ft 7.6 in)
mm (0.3-in) machrne-gmn can be fltted ber of countries in the Mrddle East, but loaded (cross-country) 9750 kg Performance: maximum road speed
for anti-aircraft or local defence, The has yet to enter volume production, (21,495 rb) B0 km/h (90 mph); maxrmum range
all-steel rear cargo area has drop Powerplant: one FIAT Model8062-24 700 km (435 mrles); gradient 60 per
sides and a tailgate which can be re- 6-cylinder supercharged diesel cent; side slope 30 per cent; fording
moved if required, bows and a tar- developing 119,3 kW(160 hp) 0.BS m (2 ft 9,5 in)

SISU A-45 3000-ks 4x4 truck

Strhen the Finnlsh army drew up its for self-recovery or to recover other The latest SISU truck to enter ser- loaded (cross-country) 9000 kg
requirement for a 4x 4 vehicle capable vehicles that have become bogged vice with the Finnish army is the SA- (19,B42 rb)
of carrying 3050 kg (6,724Lb) of carqo down, A blowlamp-operated coolant 150 VK 4x4 vehicle, which can carry a Powerplant: one 6-cylinder diesel
across country or 4050 kq (8,929 lb) of and oll-sump heater is provided for maximum payload of 6400.k9 developing 96,9 kW (130 hp) or
cargo on roads, it was natural that use in very cold conditions such as lb) and is fltted wlth a 8000-kg
(14, 110 turbocharged dresel developing
SISU-Auto AB of Helsinki would be those encountered in Finland, while (17,637-lb) capacity wrnch, Compo- I19,3 kw(160 hp)
approached as the company is totally the basic vehicle is fitted u,rth a cab nents of this truck are also rsed in the Dimensions: lenqth 6.00 m (I9 ft 8.2 rn)r
familiar with the demanding requrre- heater, One of the more unusual op- new Finnish SISU XA-180 6x6 amphr- width 2,30 m (7 ft 6.6 in); height (cab)
ments of Finland's climate and terrain, tions for this truck is a hydraulic takd- bious armoured personnel carrier, 2.60 m (B ft 6,4 in)
The result was the SISU A-45 truck, off for any towed trailer or artrllery which has recently entered service Performance: maximum road speed
which meets all of the Finnish army's weapon: for example, il a two-wheel with the Finnish army, i00 lcn/h (62 mph); maxmumrange
requirements and has also been. trailer is being towed the whole trucl</ 700 km (435 miles); gradient 60 per
adopted for a number of civil applca- trailer combination has a 6xO con- Specification cent; side slope 30 per cent; fordirg
tions. The forward control cab is un- f,gmratron and greater cross-country A-45 1.0 m (3 ft 3,4 in)
usual in that its lower part is made of mobility. The basic A-45 truck can tow Crew: l+2
steel whiie the detachable upper part a maximum load of 2OO0 kg (4,409 lb) Weights: empty 5950 kq (13, 118 1b);
rs fabricated of glassfibre, enabhng the across country, or 4000 kg (B,BIB lb) on
vehicle to be prepared quickly for air roads.
transport, This is of some lmportance ThisSISU A-45 4x4 cargo truckfiassjdeboards and a tailgate thatcanbe
as Finland has on many occasions sent lowered to enable the rapid loading and unloading of cargo by fork litt ttucls.
contingents Of troops overseas to To tacilitate air transport the upper part of the fully enclosed three-man ca.b
operate as part of United Nattons' can be quickly removed.
peacekeeprng forces. The engnne is
under the cab and projects a short dis-
tance into the rear cargo area, and is
coupled to a manual gearbox with five
forward and one reverse gear and a
tlvo-speed transfer case. Steering is
power-assisted on the front wheels,
and tyres are 14.00xR20 all round. The
suspensron front and rear consrsts of
semr-elliptical leaf springs with shock
absorbers for the front axles on1y,
The rear cargo bociy is of all-steel
3onstruction and attached to the chas-
ss by special rubber mountings for
;reater flexibility, The sideboards and
:::l gate can be folded down to assist in
-:e loadinq of cargo, and the tarigate is
crcvided with inbuilt access steps,
Cptional equpment for the SiSU A-
{: iuck includes a hydraultc winch
n--Jr a capacity of 6500 kg (14,330 lb)
=-: 50 m ( 197 ft) of cable which can be
:-i3i to the front or rear of the vehtcle
re t"i-S"ania SBA III 4500-ks 4x4 truck
Many countries today base their milit- also built for civil rrse. transfer case. Suspension consists oj 6x6 model include a
versrons of the
ary vehicles on a standard civil chassis The family comprises two vehicles, semi-elliptrcal springs and double- crash rescue vehicle for use at
to which are grafted all-wheel drive, the Saab-ScaniaSBA I I I 4x4 truck and acting hydrauhc shock absorbers, and airfields, another to carry the Ciraffe
larger wheels and tyres, a more the SBAT llls 6x6 truck, rvrth both the steering is of the hydraulic type radar system for use wrth the RBS-70
powerful engdne and military-type car- vehicles sharing many common com- essential for operatrons over terrain surface{o-air missrle system, and a
go area. The terrarn over which the ponents. The SBA I I 1 can carry such as that encountered in Sweden, 4x4 model used for cleanng snow at
Swedish army would be required to 4500 kg (9,921 1b) of cargo across The rear cargo area has drop sides Swedish airflelds,
operate in time of war is so severe, country and 6000 kg (i3,228 lb) on and a drop tailgate (quickly removable
however, that a decision was taken to roads, while the SBAT 1115 can carry to enable bulk cargo to be carried) as Specification
design a new family of cross-country 6000kg (13,228lb) of cargro across well as removable bows and a tar- SBA III
vehicles in the early 1960s, In the end country and 9000 kq (19,842 ]b) on paulin cover. Both the 4x4 and 6x6 Crew: l+ l
Volvo designed the lighter 4x4 and roads, The main difference beh,veen vehrcles have a hydraulic winch with a Weights:empty9150 kg (20, 172 lb);
6x6 vehicles, while Saab-Scania de- the two vehicles is that the 6x6 model capacity of BOOO kq (17,637 lb) which loaded (cross-country) 13700 kg
sigrned the heavier vehicles, First pro- is powered by a supercharged version can be used to the front or rear of the (30,203 rb)
totypes were completed in 1971 and of the D 1 1 that develops 296 hp (220.7 vehicle, and many have a i5OO-kg Powerplant: one Dl I 6-cylinder diesel
after the usual trials and modiflcations, kw) (3 307-lb) hydraulic crane for unload- developins 16a. I kW (220 hp)
effected at the request ofthe operator, The all-steel two-door forward con- mg purposes, Dimensions: length 6,75 m (22 ft
production got under way at Saab- trol cab is much stronger than that The Swedish army uses the SBAT 1.75 in); width2,49 m(B ft2 in); heisht
Scania's Sondertiilje facility in 1976. fitted to many mrlitary vehicles, and Il lS to tow the Bofois 155-mm (6,l-in) (cab) 2,90 m (9 ft 6,2 rn)
About 2,500 vehicles wete produced will protect the crew even if the vehi- FH-774 howitzer, and this model is Performance: maximum road speed
for the Swedish army, navy and air cle turns over, This cab can be tilted fitted with a fu1ly enclosed compart- 90 kr/h (56 mph); maximum ranqe
force by the time production was com- forward at an anqle of 55" for access to ment to the rear ofthe cab to carry the 600 km (373 miles); Qrradient 60 per
pleted in early 1982. Finland took de- the engine. The latter is coupled to an Qnln crew, while another 6x6 vehicle cent; side slope 40 per cent; fording
1ivery of 33 SBAs, and a quantity was automatic gearbox and a two-speed carries additional ammunition, Other 0.8 m (2 ft 8,5 in)

To meet the rcquirements of the truck. This is fitted with a ROLBA Between 1976 and 1982Saab-Scania armed {orces. These share many
Swedish air force, Saab-Scania have 15005 snow-clearing system andis delivered2,1)j of theSBA 11j, 4500- common components, the major
built a special snow-clearing model driven b ackw ard s when cle aring kg(9,921-lb) andSBAT I I1S 6000-kg difference being that the D I I engine
of theSBA I1l 4500-kg(9,921-lh) snow. (13,227-lb) trucks to theSwedish ottheSBAT I 1 IS is supercharged.

ilffars s-ton oxo truck

The most widely used trucks in the
modern US Army are the 2,5- and S-ton
6x6 senes, The flrst range of 5{on
fucks to be completed after the end of
World War II was the M54 series,
',rrhuch wasbuilt by a number of manu-
facturers including Diamond T, Kaiser
leep (later AM General), Mack and
hternational Haruester, Further de-
';elopment of the M54 series resulted
o r
-r thb M809 family which entered pro-
Cucnon at AM General in 1970 for a -
:otal amountrng to well over 40,000
;ehicles (home and expofl markets)
irr' I OQR

The basic chassis is the M809, while

re standard cargro truck is the M8I3,
;:iich can carry 4536k9 (10,000 ]b)
=cross country or 9072 kg (20,000 lb) TheMBl3 S-ton 6\6 cargo truckis a
::- roads, the towed loads being further development of the M54
:3i?kq (15,030Ib) and 13608ks al gearbox with flve forward and one deep fordinq kit which enables the series developed in the 1950s. Until
.i.: 300lb) respectively, The layout of reverse gear and a two-speed transfer vehicle to wade to a depth of I 98 m the introduction of the new M939
rs slmilar to that of the M35, case. The steering rs power-assisted (6 ft 6 in) which is essential when the series of 9-ton trucks, theMSI3was
=-: ',.ehicle
-::: rnaior distingurshing features
.1pa-rt on the front wheels. The rear cargo truck is being used by the US Marines the standard vehicle rh ifs cjass tn
from the difference in size) area has drop tailgate, removable dulnqt amphibious operations, a front- both theUS Army andMarineCorps.
:e:-f the air cleaner on the left mud- bows and tarpaulin cover, and fold- mounted wLnch, an A-frame, special
;::::c and the high exhaust pipe on the able seats down each side are pro- equipment for operations in cold enclosed cab, hard-top tn place ofthe
:,::-: s:de of the cab forward of the vided so that troops can be carried, weather, an anti-aucraft machine-gmn normal softtop a slave starting device
--:,:: The enEnne is coupled to a manu- Optional equipment includes a on ring mount above the cab, a fully- and so on. The vehicle is used primar---
M8l3 S-ton 6x6truck (continued) Modern 1.5 to 5 ton Trucks
ly for the carriage of cargro, but is also Specification
used to tow the 155-mm (6. l-in) M19B M813
and Ml 14 howitzers and to tow vanolrs Crew:1+2
mrssiles. Weights:empty 9750 kg (21,496 lb);
Variants of the MB09 family rnclude loaded (cross-country) 14294 kg
the M8l3Al which has drop sides and (31,512Ib)
tailgate to facilitate the bulk loading ol Powerplant: one NHC-250 6-cylinder
cargo with fork[ft trucks, the MBI4 diesel developing 179,0 kW (240 hp)
long-wheelbase cargo truck which is Dimensions: length 7.645 m (25 ft I in);
often used to cafiy containers with sur- width 2,464 m (B ft 1 1n); heiqht
veillance radais, the MBIS bolster (overall) 2,946 m (9 ft B in)
truck, the MBI6 recovery vehicle (or Performance: maximum road speed
wrecker as the Americans prefer to 85 krn/h (53 mph); maximumrange
call it), the M8I7 dump truck whrch can 563 km (350 miles); gradient 67 per
be fitted with bows and a tarpaulin cent; side slope 42 per cent; fording
cover to cafiy cargo, the M818 tractor, 0,76 m (2 ft 6 in)
the M8I9 tractor/wrecker, the MB20
shop van, and the M82I brldge trans-
port; the type can also carry and
launch components of the Ribbon This American AM General M809
Bridge, 5- ton 6 x 6 cargo truck is fitted with an
Further development of the MB09 Enhanced M obili ty Sys tem tha t
famrly has resulted in the M939 which allows the truck driver to adjust the
is now in production for the US Army tyre pressure to suit the type of
and US Marines ground being crossed.

E ittas 2.s-ton oxo truck TheM35A2 isthemostcommonmodelof thisextensiverangeotZ.S-ton6x6 trucks usedby

US Army and countless other armies inevery corner of theworld.Currentmodels hav6 a
During World War Ii the 2,5-ton 6x6 much more fuel-efficient engine than the original petrol-engined vehicles of the J g50s.
truck was the workhorse of the Allies,
but after the endof the war plans were
drawn up for its replacement, General
Motors built the MI35 2,5ton truck
with single wheels and the M2II with
dual rear wheels, while Reo built the
M34 with sinqle rear wheels and the
M35 with dual rear wheels. It was in-
tended that the Reo vehicle would be
the standard vehicle in rts class in the
US Army, and the M34/M35 senes was
standardized and commonly known as
the Eager Beaver, First producion
vehicles were powered by a petrbl
engine, but the M35AI had a multi-fuel
engine and the M3542 a multr-fuel
diesel, In the late 1960s the M35 family,
as well as other trucks, were manufac-
tured by the Defense and Government
Products Division of KaiserJeep, but in
1970 thls company was taken over by
American Motors and today is known
as the AM General Corporation, The
M35 series is the most widely used
range of military trucks in the West, the
US Army alone having over 65,000 seats, special heaters for the engdne
vehicles ofthis type, The current pro- and cargo area, and so on, The basic
duction model is the M35A2 as the M34 cargo vehicle can carry 2268kg
with single rear wheels is no lonqer (5,000 Ib) of cargo across country or
produced. although it does remain in 4536 ks (10,000 lb) on roads.
service with a number of countnes, There are many variants of the M35,
The layout of the M35 is identical including the M36 lonq-wheelbase
'"rith that of the 2 S-ton truck produced cargo truck, the M48 tractor truck, the
n World War II: the engine is at the M49 fuel tanker, the M50 water tanker,
l3nt, the cab in the centre with a re- the M59 dumper, the M60 and MI08
:::ovable top and forward-foldingr rnzecker, the M109 shop van, the MIBS
';,--:rdscreen, and the cargo area at the repair van, the M292 shop van with
:=ar. The last has a stake{ype body extending sides and the M342 dump
-,'i:h a drop tailqate, removable bows truck. The M963 is a product-improved
:rd a tarpaulin cover, Alonq each side M35A2, but has not so far entered pro-
:: the cargo body are folding troop ductron. It is likely that the M35 family
seats, The engrne is coupled to a will be replaced by a new 4x4 for-
::anual gearbox with five forward and ward-control vehicle which is current-
::e reverse gear and a two-speed ly designated the Medium Tactical
:alsfer case. Truck (MTT),
As the truck has to be used rn a
'.-lety of climates and to carry out Specification
i'erent missrons, a complete range of M35
:i:ional equipment is avarlable. Crew: l*2
, -,prcal are a winch with a capacrty of Weishts:empty 5900 ks (13,007 1b); An M35 series 2.5-ton 6x6 truck is m
around 35 years. I t will fu repla
l::3 kg (10,000 Ib) whrch can be used loaded lcross-country) Bl68 kg off-loaded{rom a ship.TheUS Army by anewvehicle called tfieMedru:r
: :::e front or rear of the vehicle, an (18,007]b) ftassome 65,000 ofthese trucks, Tactical Truck, which wiJI protuh.y
,:--lame mounted at the front for field Powerplant: one LDT-465-1C 6- whose design can be traced back be a4x4.
::::-rs a fully-enclosed cab, a kit to cylinder multi-fuel diesel developing
=::ble vehicle to ford to a depth of 104.4 kW (140 hp) 2,90 m (9 ft 6 in)
- :: m (6 ft 6 in), slave cables for Dimensions: length 6.71 m (22 ft 0 in); Performance: maximum road speed
=:,:lEency starting, centre troop wldth 2,39 m (7 ft 10 in); height (overall) 90 kn/h (56 mph); maxrmum range
t'135 2.5-fon 6x5truck
The basic cargo version of the M35A2 2 .1-ton 6 x 6 truck is conventional in its
layout,with removable canvas top andawindscreenwhich can befolded
forward on to the bonnet. The cargo area has a drop tailgate and troop seats
down each side; the M35A2c has drop sides a s well. The chassr's ftas been
used for a wide number of specialist vehicles, including fuel tankers, water
carriers, dump trucks, medicalvans and recoveryvehicles.
I'iooern i 5 ro 5 to:r lr*c<=
US Armg S-ton frucks
-: ^-:-.* :-:: .=:::=:ei!, tne MB09 family of 5-ton 6x6 trucks was a further wrecker and is fitted with a hydraulically-operated crane at the rear wrth
telescopic jib. This version is u5ed to change engines and powerpacks in the
-: : , : : - -. .' 1.,g l!'154 series that entered service with the US Army in the
::', :,=- '.-:^ :'e VB09'ami,yentered service in I970 rtwas known that field as well as io recover damaged and disabled vehtcles; when the crane is
. -- : -- :' r, :-:-:s .. aralaqr tdd-.n ihe .eV areas of r-ansrniss on, Lransfer being used stabilizers are lowered to.steady the entire un t.
A 'i \^i+h
UJL VV ll the endino of war in South East Asia the rryhole ln addition to carrying cargo, the basic vehicle is also used to tow the l 55-mm
' : :':-' - : ='=>.. 1: s-e,red.'a t^e - d-TgZOs this got under way again and the iA r -inj Mr sg howitler] i''rO"maurs such as the AN/TPO-36 mortar-locating set
:: .:- -- e ,\as event-ltV standardized as the M939 ser'es A+ter the US
-I : i=: Others have their dropsides and tailgates removed to carrY specialized contain-
'::: .E: corrpetit've b.os from a nlmber oi leading A']^er'can Lruck ers for use in the command role as wellas to carry radars and other sensors. The
- - -'.::-':'s AM General was awarded the production contract in 1981 . The
vehicles are also used to move pallets of supplies, pods of f uel and equiprnent to
'-',""..'. ..':s val,red at $628 miliion and covered the supply of 11,394 of the enable tanks and other vehicles to be refuelled ln forward areas.
:- : :s .'.'ir a 'l 00 per cent optron. This is a large number of trucks, but the As a brivate venture AM General Corporation has designed the Enhanced
: -': --,si oe reoarded in the context of a US Army overall requirement for Mobility System for both the MB09 and M939 seles of trucks. This is a central
. :- -. i,1.000 5-tdn trucks and that in 1981 the US Army had just under 34,000 tVre pi6ss'ure-regulaiion system operated by the driver and allowing him to
:- -
- . :- :les on strength, of which almost 2,000 were over 1 5 years old The change the tyre-pressure io suit the ground being crossed: for example, for
' '. .:-::*:i:on M939 slries vehicles were completed at AM General's plant at movement on robds the tyres would be at maximum pressure, while for travel
:,,:-3:rc, lndlana,inlgB2.TheolderMB0gseriesisstill inproduction{orthe on sand they would be deflated to give the tyre more contact area with the
.,,--:-: -a'."t as the M939 has yet to be released for foreign buyers ground and therefore greater mobility.
',1939 family has a number of improvements over the earlier vehicles,
- -: -t a :uily auiomatic transmission in place of the standard malual box, a
--. transfer case, air brakes all round with a Ionger life.than.the
.:: =-..',!-speeb
?: ,rydraulic brakes, the exhaust pipe relocated to thelear of.the cab to
.'i :"r siringent requirements laid down by the Surgeon General to reduce
- - ::- -::l:'rels
fdr the irew, repiacement of the mechanically-operated front-
v,'rnch bv a hvdraulic unit, and a three-man instead of two-man cab. To
. , . = :: e c'e* 1o woi< on the engine more eas'ly the bonnet and ront bumper
€ ui Evv Lv (' Ie uilvrr rv f

': The M939 is the {irst tiuck in the US Army to be fitted with the new
-,^. :rd
:-a :: dragnostic equipment, which is also installed in the Ml Abiams.MBT
.-: .-e i'I2-Bradley lFV. This plug-in system allows the crew to locate faults
- .r . cefore
:- - -.r seriouslv damaged.
iefore the vehicle becomes seriously damaqed.
-- -s.lal
there is a complete family of vehicles based on the same M939
- i:> s M923 is a carqo truck wth drop sides, while the M924 :s the
,-.-:a,a cargo truck with diop tailgate and s the equivalent 01 !!e old MB14
- - ' .' :25 sihe dropside cargo truck with winch, while the M926 is the basic
-. -: : :'-ck with winih The M32Z is the long-wheelbase cargo truck, and when
' : ri: ,v iir a front-mounted winch this is known as the M928. The dump truck rs
-= ',1929, and when fitted with a winch this becomes the M930. The tractor
'-:< Vgil is used to tow semi-trailers carrying vehicles and engineer equip-
'-^: -: ;nd when iitted with a winch the mod6l is called the M932. The M933 is
:-- :'acicT/wrecker with winch, while the M934 has an expanding body, the Thisversion oftheMSAS series of1-ton6x6 trucksjs used to ca rry and launch
the Ribbon Bridse. This vehicle is carrying a standard folded-biy unit' trn
=-. :r rvith a winch being the M935. The M934 and
M935 are used for a wlde
action, the trucEwould back into thewater, where theunitslides off the rear
ci roles such as wdrkshops and command posts, andwhen,st€tic their
: -:i: are pulled out to increase their internal work space. The M936 is the and autom atic ally unfold s;





extendable jib. When heavy vehicles are being lifted two stabilizers are
lowered on'each sjde {or additional stability.
ro ffirn"tional 5000-kg 6xO truck Modern l.StoStonTrucks
lier the end of World War II the Au- sists of a multi{eaf six-rod tandem. the loading and unloading of supplies, the latter will include cargo i-u:::p
Army had sufficient vehicles Steering is of the semi-reversible cam Before this hydraulic crane is used sta- truck, water tanker, fuel tanker. sa-::
::- hand to meet rts immediate require- and hvin-lever type on the front axle, bilizers are lowered to the ground on for the 155-mm (6, I-in) M19B hc-n?e:
:::ents. Then in the 1950s lnternational the tyres being 12,OOx2O all round, each side of the cab, recovery vehicle, cement mixer b:::-
j{arvester of Australia and the Army The marn brakes are two-circuit hyd- As usual there are a number of men spreader and ammu::::::--
)esrgn Department collaborated on raulic, with one circurt for the second variants of the International truck to carryrng vehicles.
ivo new vehicles which would meet axle and one for the first and third ax- meet the requirements of other arms.
:.ost of the army's heavier require- les, The mechamcal parking brake The dump truck model has a hydrauli- Specification
nents, These were the International acts on the rear wheels. cally-operated rear tipping body with Inrernational 5000-kg
2500-kg (5,5 1z-lb) 4x 4 and the Interna- The rear cargo area is of steel ion- an air-controlled latch mechanism, For Crew: l+ I
tional 5000-kg (1 1,023{b) 6xO vehicles struction with removable drop sides, the troop-carrying role bench seats Weights: empty 6780 kq ( 14, 947 lb),
-rluch shared a number of common tailgate, bench seats, bows and tar- can be quickly fitted down each side loaded (cross-counfry) I 1316 kg
oomponents such as cabs. Production paulin cover, The vehicle can carry a and bows and a tarpaulin cover fitted (24,947 rb)
cf the 6x6 model started in 1966 and maximum payload of 4536 kq over the top, The recovery model is Powerplant: one International AGD-
continued until 1974, by which trme just (10,000 lb) cross-country or 6804 kg called the Tnrck, Wrecker, Medium, 282 O-cylinder petrol engnne
cver 1,400 had been completed, (15,000 lb) on roads, Mounted to the Ston, General Service, (5) and is fitted developins I I 1,9 kW ( 150 hp)
The basic cargro truck is designated rear of the cab is a winch which can be with twin booms, winches and other Dimensions: length 6.909 m (22 ft 8 rn)
the Truck, Cargo, S-ton, General Ser- used to the front or rear of the vehrcle; recovery equipment, There are also width 2,438 m (8 ft 0 in); heiSht (cab)
vice, Fl, while the dump truck model is if this winch is overloaded the engine water tankers, a bitumen spreader, a 2,616 m (B ft 7 in)
called the Truck, Dump, 5 cubic yard, automatically stops to prevent dam- storeVbox body version, a flrefighting Performance: maximum road speed
General Service, F2, In both models age, More recently some models have vehicle and an earth auger. 77 km/h (48 mph)i maximum range
the engine is mounted under the for- been fitted wrth an Abbey hydraulic To replace the International 4x4 483 km (300 miles); gradient 60 per
ward control cab and is coupled to a crane to the rear of the cab to facilitate and 6x6 vehicles the Australian Army cent; side slope 30 per cent; fordiag
malual gearbox wrth five forward and had two extensive competitions which 0.914m(3ft0in)
one reverse gear and a two-speed Australian infantry dismount trom resulted in the selection of the Mer-
:ransfer case. The front suspension their I ntemational H arvester 2500-kg cedes-Benz 4x4 U 1700 L to meet the An Austr alian I ntemational
consists of semi-elliptical springs with (5,5Ii-lb) 4x4 trucks. Eefween J959 4000-kq (8,818-lb) requirement and a Hawester 2500-kg (5,5 I 5-lb) 4x4
Couble-acting hydraulic shock absor- and 1 97 1 over 2 ,300 of these were Mack 6xO truck to meet the 8000-kq truckwith bows and tarpaulin cover
bers, while the rear suspension con- builtin Australia. (17,637-lb) requirement, Variants of inplace.


Isuzu Type 73 3500-kgr 6XG truck

In the early 1950s the Isuzu Motor A Type 7 3 3 500-ks (7,7 I 6-lb) 6 x 6
Company built a 6x6 truck almost truc k of the J apanese G round S elI-
:dentical in appearance to the Amer- Defence Force tows an old funeican
-can 2,5-ton QxO vehrcle used during I 05-mm M I 0 I howitzer. This vehicle
World War II, and this was subse- was designed by Isuzu Motors as the
quently placed in production to meet replacement for the older Isuzu 6x6
-re requuements of the US forces sta- truck,which had a cross country
:cned in Japan and of the Japanese payloadof 2500 kg(5,5j,1 lb).
3lound Self-Defence Force, The ori-
;trra1 model was the TW, later models
:eing designated TWD 20 and TWD country or double this amouni ::
25: all of these could carry 2500 kg roads, These vehicles are of conve:--
.:512 lb) of cargo across country or tional appearance, wlth the engme
:,-'C0 kg (i1,023 lb) of cargo on roads, front, the soft-top cab in the centre a:e
.-d were built wrth single or dual rear the cargo area at the rear. As :.:s:r
r,-reels. In addition to the basic cargo there are many variants, iacludilg:-e
:::del there are many specialized ver- Type 67 Model 30 rocket-launche:
-:m including a dump truck which tts associated rocket resupply vel:-:
1.L alss be used to carry cargo, an air
::::pressorr water and fuel tankers, tarpaulin cover. The engine is coupled There is also a carrier for the Tan-SAM Specification
:::cvery vehicles, shop vans for many to a manual gearbox wlth five forward surface-to-air missile system: one vehi- Type 73
=pplicatrons, and a long-wheelbase and one reverse gear and a two-speed cle carries fow mrssiles in the ready- Crew: l*l
truck, transfer case, Suspension front and to-launch position, while another acts Weights: empty6640 kq(14,639 lbl
These lsuzu 2500-kg (5,512-1b) 6xo rear consists of semi-elhptical springts as the fire-control centre. Both of these Ioaded (cross-country) 10140 kg
:-:ks are now being replaced by the and hydraulic shock absorbers, Tyres versions are fitted wrth hydraulically- (22,355Ib)
-s:zu Tlpe 73 truck, which can carry are 9,00x20 all round, the rear axles operated stabilizers that are lowered Powerplant: one Model BPA V-E ::e-q=-
::-lkq (7,716lb) across country or havinq single tyres. to the ground before the system be- developins 130.5 kW(i75 hp)
i-i,,- kg (13,228 ]b) on roads. The type
',. :-so used for towing a wide range of
Variants ofthe T\7pe 73 truck include comes operational. Dimensions: length 6.67 m (21 :
a shop van with a fully-enclosed rear As previously mentioned, the 2500- 10,6 in); v,ndth 2,41 m (7 ff 10 9 i::.
tr;:3pons, such as 105-mm (4.13-in) body, Iight wrecker with turn- kg (5,512{b) trucks are now being re- height (overall) 3.02 m (9 ft lC I -::l
::rrzers and twrn 35-mm anti-aircraft table-mounted crane at the rear, fuel placed by the 3500-ks (7,716-lb) vehi- Performance: ma;omum road s:e=:
:-:-cn. The Type 73 has a forward tanker, water tanker, cargo truck with cles, The other standard truck of the 90 kr/h(56 mph); maximumr=;e
:::=cl cab with a soft top, and the hydraullc crane mounted to the rear of Japanese Ground Self-Defence Force 500 lcn (31 I miles); giradreni 3i :e:
::;;l: area at the rear is provided with the cab for unloadinq purposes, fire- is the oid Hino 6X6 series, which can cent; sideslope 30per cen: -::- -;
: xrD tailgate, removable bows and a control vehicle, and a dump truck, carry 4000 kg (8,818 lb) ofcargro across 0,8 m (2 ft 7,5 rn)
E Hi:i, zoo 3soo-kg Gxo truck
It rs often thought that non-Soviet mem- brakes are hydraulic, the parking
bers of the Warsaw Pact rely on the brake being mechanical and acting on
Soviet Union to supply all of their the rearwheels, Tyres are 12,00x20 all
gnound forces' equipment, but in the round, and a central tyre pressure-
case of infantry weapons and trucks regnrlation system is fltted as standard
this is far from the truth, For many on all vehicles, The cab is provided
years the Starzchowice Motor Vehicle wrth a heater, a winch with a capacity
Plant in Poland has been supplying of 6000 kg (13,228 lb) rs fitted, and the
large numbers of 6x6 trucks, not only rear cargo area has a drop tailgate,
to the Polish armed forces but also for removable bows and a tarpauhn cov-
the export market, From 1960 the Star er.
66 6 x 6 became the standard vehicle in As there were many variants of the
its class in the Polish army, and could ear[er Star 66, Star 660 M1 and Star 660
carry 2500 kq (5,5 12 lb) ofcargo across M2 series of trucks, rncluding tankers,
country or 4000 kg (B,B1B lb) of cargo cranes, repair vehicles and decon-
on roads, In the i960s the Star 660 Ml taminatron vehicles (plus box bodies
and later the Star 660 M2 appeared for repair, command and communica-
with minor improvements, All of these tions adaptations), it can be expected
were powered by a petrol engine, but that there are or will be similar models
the Star 660D was powered by a diesel of the Star 266,
engdne more efficient than the earlier In Hungrary it rs Csepel which pro-
petrol engines, duces trucks for the Hungarian army, For manyyears the Star 66 2500-kg enclosed cab, increased fording
In 1971 the Starzchowice Motor the Csepel D-566 5000-ks (11,023-1b) (5, 5 1 1 - lb) truck was the standard capability and finally a diesel engine
Vehicle Plant built the prototype of the 6x6 truck being the most common, vehicle in its class in the Polish army. tor greater fuel economy.
Star 266 6x6 truck which entered pro- This has a fully-enclosed forward con- Later production models had a Iully-
duction in 1976. This was a major im- trol cab and, at the rear, the cargo area
provement over the earlier vehicles as which is provided with drop tailgate, variants of this vehicle include a shop Powerplant: one S-359 6-cylinder
it can carry 3500 kq (7,716 ]b) of cargo removable bows and a tarpaulin cov- van with a fully-enclosed rear body, dieseldeveloping 111,9 kW(l5O hp)
across country or 5000kg (11,023Ib) er, The D-566 is powered by a Raba- and a recovery vehicle, Dimensions: length 6,80 m (22 ft 3.7 in);
on roads, the maximum towed load MAN six-cylinder diesel developing width 2.50 m ft 2,4 1n); heisht (cab)
being 4000 kg (B,B18 Ib). 200 hp (I49, 1 kW) and coupled to a Specification 2,64 m (B ft 7,9 in)
The diesel engine is mounted under manual gearbox with five forward and Star 266 Performance: maximum road speed
the all-steel fully-enclosed cab and is one reverse gear and a two-speed crew: I+2 86 kr/h (53 mph); maximum ranqe
coupled to a manual gearbox with five transfer case. Standard equipment in- Weights: empty 7200 kg ( 15,873 1b); 800/ ]000 Wn (497 / 621 miles); gradient
forward and one reverse gear and a cludes a central tyre pressure- loaded (cross-country) 10700 kg 76 per cent; srde slope 30 per cent;
two-speed transfer case, The main regulation system and a winch. Known (23,589]b) fording 1.8 m (5 ft 10,9 rn)

ffi tirar-3zsD 4000-ksr 6x6 truck

In 1961 the Ural Motor Vehicle Plant
started the manufacture ofthe UraI-375
6xO truck, which had an open cab roof
(that could be covered by a canvas
top) and a stake{ype rear cargo body
with a drop tarlgate, This was followed
by the Ural-375A which had an all-steel
fully-enclosed cab and a number of
automotive improvements. Produced
in the largest numbers, however, was
the Ural-375D which can carry 4000 kg
(B,B18 lb) of cargo across cbuntry and
4500k9 (9,921Ib) on roads, the max-
imum towed loads being 5000 kg
(11,023 lb) and 10000 kq (22,046 lb) re-
spectively. The vehicle uses many
automotive components of the Ural-377
6x4 series of truck that includes the
Ural-377M with a central tyre press-
ure-regmlation system for use by the
Sovret army and the Ural-377S tractor
truck for towing semi-trailers, These
vehicles are used by the Soviet army
where all-wheel drive is not consi-
dered essential as they are more fuel
efficient on roads than the all-wheel
drive trucks.
The all-steel fully-enclosed three-
man cab has a heater, and the rear
cargo area is provrded with a drop
tarigate, bows and a tarpaulin cover,
As with the ZIL- 131 truck, hingred seats ables rapid loading and unloadtng go body replaced by a modlfied jet Among the many versions of the
are provided down each side of the wrth the aid of forklift trucks, spectal engdne (at the very rear) and tanks for Sovet Ural-375D 4000-kg (B,B I B-lb)
carqo area to enable troops to be car- models for operating in very cold cli- the jet fuel and decontamination liquid truck are various tankers, some of
red. The engdne is coupled to a manu- mates or the tropics, tank and fuel re- (to the cab rear), When in position which are fitted with up to four reels
al gearbox with five forward and one supply vehrcles, and a recovery truck; armoured vehicles are driven slowly and hoses to enable them to refuel
reverse gtear and a two-speed transfer the type can also be fitted with the past the TMS-65 which decontamin- trucks and armoured fighting
oase. As with most Soviet trucks, the usual fully-enclosed boxed body ates the vehicle. The TMS-65 also tows vehicles in the forward battlefield
engirae is frtted wrth a pre-heater so which is used for every conceivable a trarler with 4000 litres (BB0 Imp gal) of area.
:nat it
can be started in very low role from command centre to f1e1d decontamination solution,
:emperatures. Tyres are 14,00x20 all workshop, and can also be used for The Iatest member of the family to
::und, with a central tyre pressure- carrying pontoons and multiple rock- enter productlon rs the Urai-4320 6xO servrce wlth the Sovtet army, include
regiulation system fitted as standard, etlaunchers such as the l22-mm (4,8- 4500-kg (9,92l-lb) truck, whrch has a the Ural-4420 6xC tractor truck, Ural-
As Lrsual there are a host of special- in) BM-21 4O-round system, more powerful V-B diesel that not only 43202 truck with central tyre pressure-
:ed versions for civil and military ap- The most interesting version ts the gives a higher speed but also gneater regrr"rlation system, and lhe Ural-44202
!1'catrorx, these variants including the TMS-65 decontamination vehicle, range ofactron and increased payload, tractor truck which also has a central
Ural-375N with drop sides which en- which is the basic vehrcle wrth its car- Vanants of the Ural-4320, which is in tyre pressure-reQlulation system,
Ural-375D 4000-kg 6 x6 truck (continued) Modern 1.5 to 5 ton Trucks
Weights: empty B40O kg (iB,519 lb);
loaded 12400 kq( 27,337 lb)
Powerplant: one Z1l,-375 V-B petrol
engrine developing 134,2 kW (180 hp)
Dimensions:length 7,35 m (24 ft 1,4 in); a
width2,69 m (B ft9,9 rn); heisht2,68 m
(8 ft 9.5 in)
Performance: maximum road speed
75 kn/h (47 mph); maximum range
650 krn (404 miles); grradient 60 per
cent; side slope 30 per cent; fordlng
1,0 m(3 ft3,4 in)

A Ural-37 5 D 4000- kg (8,8 I 8 - lb) truck

with bows and tarpaulin cover
removed. Cargo is loaded via drop
down rear tailgate.Vehicles fitted
with a 7000-kg ( I 5,432- lb) winch are
called the Ural-3757.

If zlt-t3t sboo-ks 6x6 truck

Late in 1966 the ZIL-13I 3500-kg (7,716-
Ib) 6xO truck entered production at
the Likhachev Motor Vehicle Plant in
Moscow as ihe replacement for the
older ZIL-157 2500-ks (5,5121b) 6xo
truck which had been developed in
the late l95Os and was in turn based on
the ZIL- I5I 6 x 6 truck which had been
produced from 1947 to 1958, The ZIL-
131 is used for a wide range of roles by
the Soviet armed forces and by the
many other countries that receive
Soviet aid, The type shares many com-
ponents with the ZIL-133 6x4 truck,
which is used for both civil and military
The ZII,-131 can carry 5000k9
( lb) of cargo on roads or 4000 kg
I 1,023
(8,8lB lb) across country, the maximum The ZI L- 1 3 1 3500-kg (7,7 I 6-lb) cargo
towed loads belng 6500 kg (14 330 lb) truck was the replacement for the carry the 5A-6'Gaintul'and SA-3 'Goa' Dimensions:length 7,04 m (23 ft 1.2 i:l
and 4000k9 (8,818 lb) respectiveiy. ZIL- 1 57 vehicle. It is widely used as a missiles. In the former case three mis- width 2,50 m (B ft 2,4 in); heiqht (ca-bl
The engine is located at the front ofthe prime mover for I 22-mm gruns and siles.are carried with a foldable crane 2.48 m (B ft 1,6 in)
;ehicle and rs coupled to a manual for mounting multiple rocket mounted at the rear of the truck to en- Performance: maximum road speei
Eearbox wrth frve forward and one re- launchers such as the I 22-mm able the vehicle to resupply the 5A-6 B0 km/h (50 mph); maximum range
-rerse gear and a two-speed transfer BM-21. 'Gainful' launcher without external 525 lcn (326 miles); erradient 60 per
case, The front suspension consrsts of assistance, The SA-3 'Goa' resupply cent; side slope 30 per cent; fordrngr
semr-elliptical springs with hydrauhc tanker which carnes diesel fuel, oiI, vehicle .has two missiles, which are i.4 m (4 ft 7.1 in)
shock absorbers, while the rear sus- water and petrol, the diesel and water wlnched on to the SA-3 launcher,
persion consists ofan equalizer arm on tanks berng provided with heaters so
-:ngltudinal semi-elliptical springs, that vehicles can be resupplied even Specification
llres are 12,00x20 all round, with a in the coldest weather, The chassis has ZII-13I A ZIL-1 3 I 3500-kg (7,7 t 6-lb) 6 x 6
lentral tyre pressure-regnrlatron sys- also been used to mount the 140-mm Crew: ix2 cargo truck shows ctoss-coun@
::m fltted as standard, The all-steelful- (5,51-in) BM-14-16 and 122-mm (4,8-in) Weights: empty 6700 kg (14,771 1b); mobility. AII vehicles have a cenEal
-r--enclosed cab has a heater as stan- BM-2 I muitiple rocket-launchers, loaded (cross-country) 10425 kg tyre pressure system, awinchwith a
rard, The rear cargo area consists ofa Missile batteries have to be resup- (22 e83 lb) capaciU of 4500 kg (9,92 I lb), a tuLly-
-r:oden platform with drop tailgate, plied in the forward area, and to this Powerplant: one ZIL- 131 V-B petrol enclosedcahwith heater, and an
:=novable bows and a tarpaulin cov- end the Z1l,-131 has been modified to engine developinq I I 1,9 kW (150 hp) engine heater.
:: To enable the vehicle to be con-
-;:r1ed quickly for use in the troop
:::rsport ro1e, hinged bench seats are
= *ed doum each srde ofthe rear cargo
-:a All vehrcles are fltted with a 4500-
r:; (9,921-lb) capacity winch,
lhe ZIL-l3l is used for a wrde range
--::les in addition to its basic tasks of
:::rying cargo and towing artillery
-:j cther weapons. The ZIL-I3ID is a
:--:p truck, while the ZIL-l3lV is used
:: ,:w semi-trailers. The ARS-I4 is a
:;::ial decontamination vehicle
r:-::: cal be used to fight fires as well
:. :: decontamlnate vehicles,
T:ipors and other equrpment. The
:-=<.s is also used to mount a wide
:-;= cf fully-enclosed box bodies for
r-e :-,-he command, communicattons,
:.--glrt and repair roles, while there
::: 1-sc many tankers (fuel and water)
=- l :el service trucks to refuel vehi-
::=s :- -je forward areas, One of the
::::: :::eresting versions is the MA-4I


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ri i; r;qli]1i arr-ar c Li.r + J, ve,. irii:ie-q.
,,. ii:.': gilo.'.i:.1.:iti:i: ti ts ]ji:1.;oit:i.L,i,: to coi/eii
-, hitl,rr:'-:,:; 'r1 i'l ii r.'i..), :| 'l;tti;r 'Vi/ i.ler- I"ll-70 i"rowitzr:r. All o.f these are standarci ccm. Affe.ryenrs ofne.g/sc1 r9* trSdrmyi.s ;ri iasi
'ijt,i iilr.r,.l iiir,r 1..jri..l .ri,:: tit:rLI:,sscc:, lLele
- . 'l:rr merciai vehicies modrfied',vrth ali-wheel drrve, engagr*a'in a ntajr:r proEramnre fo.repj',r o/
rillital-1 type bodic3s anci r:iher.qrna.ll changes to ifs facijcai ve.ijcles iiraf *I e oyer tA years ald.
ti-reri lbi: riiiitary use In iite luture tt is
r-, l:i,t lr,:rriir jral:rli1.:t it-.r.:- jiii ir:Sl (.lgl:iirati l:fiiij,r 6 x 6 ri"ucjts.
expecied that iher* r'viil be introduced a i4-
, '-r ;1 r.11r11.J,r,-re:i ,riir:ilrsI i:(r;Lr1:1eir:iy '.,1l1.h tcnne tnrck u/hlch v,/11i share rn;rriy cotrmon iorvrard as posslble. .li ihe sto::es erre on 5:a11ei-s
.'.,:r::,ll iliti;1,i..;t;l'i ..':rill:itrs, r..ll ri v"i:Lich comoon3nts with tlie Beci.forrl E-tonne ll.;1 4-4 then they can ]:e ril.ick:ly r:eioa.dec onto ihe;
''..:,r' : tj i r l r irl.!.:::.1 a,,: ti,.Lt r.,.a it iL:i; i;i iile',,rV CSi ciwh:clr o',ier 2,000 liaire beein cr:ciereil by the other vehii-'ies; lf iire1, al.e noi tlie transler is a
,' i,:tt r rtr i;, r.l i:r r L, r.ti,-tii.ili i.ri; 1VJAi.i.
ir-,.i'itr-,i l t. i I3iitish arrly. i,ow-mobilrty vehicles inclucie irme-consur:rirrg jon.
: ',,,,.,, it,i,;l;:: Lirri ir:ill'i,.rtii,l:l l..,i.i;i.r. Tit: :;C- 4xil Beclfcrds ;:,ncl 6x4 and 8><4 lroclens, with Currently beirig 'Le,<red r:y thr: Brrtish Arrry ol
:, I :,:;r-,.ritrj ',li,i, tI fltiij,::. ih".: ';c1tt- -qor.rre .1,;-100 Foci-ens aireaciy rn.;er-,,ice, At pre, ihe Rhme (!ll\CR) rs a revolutionar:r sysjtern
. ''r.:iir:i-ilrlc! l, ii, ]il i:ii+ itjr' l! ir-rLel ll t 185 senr ihe low-mobrlily vehicles take tlie ca1led DROPS (Dernoiiniable Raci< Ol'f'loat1ing
:, i I,t..llii.:!::t:t '.l,.iii: 1-11;ill. ;r, M,1\f{ hC- F"innrlr.rlitioil ancl othei supphes frcm rear area and Prck-i,rp Sysien'i) f iris consists essentially
r,lepois ilp iovr,.ards the i'LOT (Forivard Lrne Of oi p.latlbr;ri or tne rear ol a cross counirlr
trlri.t, t!.'i'],,,r,'i,,',,:,.11,-:1,:l l,a,,,tl riet i. ili,.lit Trcops) i,nihere loads; are ihen translerred io trrc< vuhrch can caijrJr nol only pallets of
, .t_ t.,jtij.,, .iri,tjlttiiii\t ln.;;l h:il: lteen Ce- lleclium-inobility vehicles lo be taken as iar amrnunition and. olher srrpolies br,:t also cor-r-
, --,!..i'r::; llrl ,Ii jth j11ir;rl;:1,-,j i.tliiiS. tainers, box bodres, ieiuellers anrl so cn 'Ihese
-,, i1 :,,, ii,:1.: t i-i :J.ilottr.iti''e
LLLc r:ri'ri.irit.l!l t',1* i}:ituls.h:ll'rny &*s S{l*ci sr:rire o,'ifsl}.*cifbrcf ;'/]"ff can he quickly oifloa'ie,.d wirllcu.l aur/ externai
, , r, I .r , ri:l iiti.lf!:1itii.l i'itli:d rr,it it ,,r,lli:hes 4rJf,)t-&giE,,$J S-J:r) 4 r,f lri:eJr"r wii.k snavit plou?hs assistance, leav'ing ihij :iuck tr.: reiuln to the
::.)t,,r:i: :t alir rli i'; tit ri ii:11:,,1 :r r.r ct,r. aj,l. rcs {o.i
i rl ibI ilse r'\I(}rwa,4 wjtereSrr'fr"q,fu *r:jls cf f"he.Ajjr'ed rear ior another lcad This aliov;s a srnailer
:_tt rj it,-tr.')il,..jtrtal :j'i|i€t! ,.1 {r.-,iV r;f trh.e numb^r of I ch :-cr ' -':lrv , !1 . rc' : v'otk
'.': 1.r-ir.:.ili fit.,r,: it,.'cl: sitl; i,,-r t.l.te
,; .l',.t.i.ii,J i:rj.iilr':j, .:,.i:r.l ii: lllil4 ,ll* ol
, ;r;;,';;11.;r,: ;,r a)iDijij,r.lOLlj-tii_! ::i:i.. tfllh a
i;Lii'1 i;,;.ri.., iile i.i:rr:.1.: uririninq the
.,. :....1 1:;;'111 yr il r vl,liiii:l:s :li:e, oi zl 4 and
i ><
''1'.:1':.qf11r;1J,1 rr',.f.11,: i.lii: i,j;r',t,lllOr-v 1V
.: b
: '. .ri ..r'.,l.tit.tifii"a.ll1.,,t .-:1, ii i:; t:c.,t r:::pcr;1.':,d li

'.' ,r.,t:, i..ll;trf',,r, i-totllll.i.:ri{:d its iIrotl-

jri: i'r ,r :ia irri iii ti i,"t'.tr"i rlllt.t.tleclr\ ii : r,-'i. I
. t=:t-;,1::; li:.1i.:,,,: tl;aiii iy1-rg:;1;1 iiiS
,.,t1 :.r:,:tit ri:i i:i,tty tri:{liL|n ' I !',.',
._'.., ;1r-1:-,:ilii';r l.irc Orrj,l hjgii, ll l-ri -ll
- r .,-":-'i:l.iri r:: iit.:,\1',il:; Srilirilait
. .,r l:..',:,: li j i-t]l i.! :t{:.i i.l rl i;l it j/ i-".'r.L $litrl ii ...,..
., :.i. .,ri ,ii- :.,;t.lir;:ll,;.t Al:'(l :tttii
.r - : i,ir:,:. i tr.ii :llir, l i:rlil lrl l !ll' i v\t
= ,' 1,i;,rt::'t ii,' ,l-:;t1ace ihl:t

. -.:, .::i:.irr:'i t:.r Ll"-led tn fOiwalii.

' ','..'\'
-: - ..irtt a;.ri;.lct:'7 t-lrits 'fhe
' :.Ir- i:r::i t'lit;lt,r.ll'l Ihe i:ec;libld
:. : :/..::,..t it,-:1.::t i-r tij iitlC r-r,rCl r:n
. .: ,1,
"=-' $ .

:* trffi *
€ E"W
' i :*if.:::.
'ei;d 'Xri &l-

Jrited,$rnto:s r-..,,,, :,ll-i rl.i'l ,.r.r; F]lii:-.;'ji.iai :;ir:;iCe LS thC tr{n fr4809 se.r'ies 5-icr.rr Sx ii i::l;i'j: ,::; :.'',
Fcr many :/earc lo(jtsiirs lra','e :.::.,.. ,..-:r:lilrri.ti {t;trrit l.:,)i'.t,-:11 t..:l;li Ml nil i l';'j'ac ic-'ai i furds a river wil*r:uliis ir*i; r;;r i".;,:" '::
;-.--glected by the LIS lrurirrT, b'rrt ,i-: r: -. --.-. lt r_::tlr, ;ri-t r'ir-r ,{:i ir'Lilli Lry ijS:hkOSi:, h-t The Army has rt6:"1 116':- i ' ; :
,' siart has at ials'l ilerjil lltaclt: i.l -11,1.;,r:1r,,-ri-: ., -:. -- ,l-,'r- C '1 {Aese fruci{s fu f*;'.ii'.sJl1i-c.! n.tia;.i .',.:
rs.rry lfi ejrfi:.fu}:rr! P,Ji{".{:..'* r..r.:-i
.-:hicies. Tlhe 2.5-ton and 5 .ton i r !, : i :,r. .r. . .t : ' . . : '
--..i] ihe bacrkbone oiihe ri:ctii:i:l 'i ,::,,.:i:r: , ,
',-. -,..
- le lotal requ-rrerneilt is some iili,,:-li r' , r,ind lurl-rraci ,

':.f,uqh the actual numbe! ir n,e1l .,',',, ceDrg dcvci.,f . -(. .'.'
-J.jre For many yee rs the ciiti,,'-"'i.'ir- ', ll'rtli:r d';-]l'l!'i'3d l0 '.vtlh the lonn.r-'r .",, -.
r:,:d cross-ccrintry cal.jijkjii;ir7 1r,,,sc, ,1. 1., )i; .ii.i ill Iiiriiiis i;c ii -1lli:r- j.,/lUVl r lC.lO di:
,' 4 sei rer. :): '. :rit i' 'rchicle (FA,r'l\
an N4}09 .L55.mrri s.:jj r---r.:r!,-t '
.i coramr:rr fe,:tu.i"e cim*sf ;:jj-,;;!1q2r1l ;l:'1:. ;; .,,
iransfers nev,i afiririul'i i iii] l :ir : i , r I ..,
I ir-,',.'it ;,1! i::i:iit,:: ar(l i.ll ;:ti .l l l ilil il {f gd
. ti.
:+rticestiti'li::'(,vri'i.?r,:.r I .' i

: i5D, is tts tlzu .L rf;i ,ri J ,61;',;.'', l-tl.i.l:i,l! i:il .t'.1 ..:.1,,1.,.1': !:lrlr l:1.:lvrl i(l ir: Sl-il:pi.te(l veyor beit. Ove-r iirl-r ii5'i,-::r'
'. arfinre t/re,t.r'."ir i1lo",,/.-f :al: L . .
i,i,. f-i-) rli I ;'.t.';,-.,:,r.:, i,l,lr, .il r I ihc,t y,; t:o" ihe.l .-irarqe: ettd l:,s'.'. c .

':'t:kswtth hlrjelrp:rl .,rl:,',. .':.r( ; .

t 1,:,.'1,-' 1-1 rr;q1..1;r.l:,;y;i tl i.:r,. lelt t'f1Lh titLl:] rr: 1ie.

.. . r. :a+;- r



1' j rg:r:rl *d U; -

A.lihough scne Warse,,', itact cr:uniries, for ,{
=.-ainple f.zecl:rosjovakja, cuild llieir owa Laic-
..:ai ilansport vehtcie:s, r:rotsi. i-ri lhern ort: srrp-
:-,eci b,v iire Sovici Llnioii, ihis Drooess eitaiur
.:--:r a ql' cleal oj ccmrnonaittlr ioqeliLer r.'r.'iih
-.-: aDvrous cost, tiarniilg an.d repair ar:1tran-
:.;es. Ahnosi ali f::oiri-l;le velicies useri by t he:
l:r-ei army i-rerre 6x0 clrive i:n,:1 are litte,l wrth
.. :ertlal tlrre pressure,lo,;iriiilion syslem fc.r
-::proved cicrrs colLnlr't rnc-.bil.riii. in ihe evenl i:
* 'e*
.::'.-;al hr:,riever the licviot ileel vrr.'ulci ite'r d't;€
:,:.:;n-ienteil by rr,ariy citriljiin vehir:'les, soitlcr
'.'.rrh ali'iliieel bui nran;, ol 6><4 tr 1).;!2
$, s.
:,: i:hqu.r ati on, VVtieii thr: Scviet -l rl ror r irt,.ra cie d
1 t'i
-r-; al: lhe errcl oi i9119, nrany ctviha.rr
.-ehrcles were ernii.lcyed in calr-,ri;:g su1-rpilas
"* E6;.
r:':n rne Sovlet l]iriiin ihroi:.;1,;-r to fiabit-l itr trl

-:.r;hanisiari. in j.trne of irr lrLr-i'ope, liil:ed

rrira.r t
--'-:tica-i aiv fr:,ii:es; wr,:i:id alia,cl.: nrads and ,toil' I
''-:.j/s, ii.i iorci.rrg lire a.rtlck to ira.vel acro:ll;
:,,Lrnlrv, Whele lhcl. l::a.;el. lituch more slouiiy
.,,:i coirsrrne lncrt 1i.;o1. Sc fai Lhe War:a",rr Pai:i
: :cflS r1O noi. af;pcal io iiarre iitted Il'l.r.tllr cl
':,:rr: r,'ehrcies v,riih:;Il:]erl.l r;:rane s so ihat the]., i;;',1,
-: -rac1 l.heml:eive: r.vrtiror-ii anll enernai astisl
,,:,:e thr"rs rj-nloailnq ai:tmunitiotr atird oiit<,:r
--.:enlial sup;p1ier cruid ,,riii:i1 takc a lorlg 1it.lre,
i. shor-rid aisc pe t'.:rnembered lhal in the
:. ini t)i a ll,/arsiiw Par:t i'tvaisiclr ol -..ryesterrt
trr,r1-.63 the Sorriet si;1,rp1'7 ii:re'rvor:id qel pro.t-
.,::irieiy icni;e''r whilc lrlA l C's wclii,l c;e t shc.,i -
--' i-iome NATC) couniries a.i:e kncwn to h::-ve
.:,-; encugh of trm.rni:ttjticn for a fu'w
:: ,'s oi ha:r:<i iightinr;, and ag;rirt cvenls iri the
.l-,-rd:e East ha,re shown t1-tiri ille arnourri cl
.,:--nunilion ald missrles userj in l.he f,rst ieiru
oi coml-:ai have Eene::aliy been lar abovr:
. . cl.tcipaito ir p+3-1 inlo :i€rC:.s
|nr:re are knor,rrn rnsia;:ces oi lanL unlts ruri- !'lle.sf S*.rir::n lir'rn3'' illilv Jl;Eh - m tt hi]j iy ve ?Li e le s sire most we/l-equlpg.rga aifi n' rrp-io. J; 1+: "rar:gre *:
,:;- cuf cl a"mmunitrol as ihe trrrcks,i lruc*.s. J',he USArrnJl asef, lvfj|j'is ils.!ari i.rt{lei
.:-:..;: arnlnrrnil.ron no1 oniy ]iii:,!:ed crcss courri.rlr tff a}.s. {r,r'l;jji\L;l?"fi c"r:rii: f.rie.E,,l'fesl (;erff any,has g r aunei- ieu nc |ieC r.r'iise r,.rs :ji':...,':

. :' : ::rlriy, bril ,;vele hit by e::roiriy siiell fiic :}i:c

-. =:,lcyeC because llte-/ hed no aiinour l:rro|€ril

. i, : Cr Tr I :. 1. 1. -11 10 lllei lLt h,

: -:rir .rtd tu,;6vq:ry ci tlonrarjecl anC ciis;i:ieri
. - .-:i..:s c;r the J:aitleliebi T'ire r-,ltjec.:t cr' lire
.-r-- l,' i-rrces r: to repati tire v*:|tclls al iai
':lil as po:':rbie sc illey lan iiuickiy rehuit
--,: ,r,:,]1]t. i'{a1'r-j ji:rces rre ci:luirrperd wilii
': -.-:r.eIli :aCOV{:iy vellf-:lr:S i:.1,':eC Cril ldl3T'
- :: :.i'rer irack.ed veliir:ie c;.liasst: v'rhtch lre fai
: ,..:'-a! ia aty airil'J1lred ;:eco..'ely vehil;les
:-.:; clr the W;irsai'il fr;lci. ;lo:.- iriany ,\re:i.l."'l
r I ::.,ff Palci arrnoulec] re.lo1/ery vehtr:jes
'--: :,aseil on r:rsoiete tani<. chassis aiii 1i-
-. ii-:r 'ic r.o!v|19 or)elatioiis ofi:.1r, l\lraost
-r-, -' AlrVs are iif ieC rot oniy \.,'\rilii vvinches io
- . a . a! liisabieci -reiricles brii aiso -witli {irano:i
-r.--:,iiqirrg ernqir:e:: aric i:owerpacks.

':=.. :=i';.. I . i-_ r.:: r:!.,,11,,, .':'

-r= :: r: : . t'l
,, ii'''' '


i, :, I ) i,i [; :: t r i x,t x $ l:"tti * Je*i/e"! a {:.r*ss


!,, tt; 1: gzn*:';i" fili nt.: i,ilc,5r:vjods ft*vi:-*c'f

:.r.-ii e!r'r l:jiisjs :].:': ]s*rll:j;:.g tliei: f,:i'i,qirrd is tft erefcrre *ss€nirixi $?#f ds fi1;:*y,U,4T'rJ iri:cks as
, .i. ." ! .';u.: ''r/.rtt'r:' irossrbie.have glood rno,tr"tJily ::cr*ss i:oii{i i|ly.
>K tedford MK 4000-kg xltruck 1.5 to 5 ton Tnrcks
In the early 1950s the British army lb)
The Bedlord MK 4000 -kg (8,8 I 8-
selected the Bedford RIJ 4x4 vehlcle 4x4 truckwas introduced into the
as one ofitsstandard 3000-kg (6,614-1b) British Atmy as the replacement for
lrucks, although in i96B it was uprated the earlier Bedford RL truck, which
to 4000 kg (B,B1B lb) By the time pro- had previously been uprated from
duction of the RL was completed in 3000 ks(6,614 lb)to4000 kg
i969 over 70,000 had been built for (8,818 rb).
both civrl and military apphcations,
a:id many of the vehicles had been
exported. Even in l9B5 many RLs re-
nain in service with the Britrsh armed
In the 1960s a competition was held
:c find a successor to the RL, and after
exhaustive tests with prototl"pe vehi-
:les submitted by Austin, Commer and
Yauxhall, the last was selected, This
-sas called the Bedford MK and based
:n the civil 4x2 TK truck chassis,
:nough the many modifications for
ditary use included a different en-
fine, all-wheel drive, larger tyres,
:llitary liqhting and stowage. In 1985
:re MK remains in production for both
::rlitary and civilian applications, some
37,000 having been built for the home
lnd export markets. The MK can carry
=530 kq (9,987 lb) across country, and
:an tow a trailer weighing up to
:lB0 kq (1 1,199 lb).
The MK has an al1-steel fully- almost every conceivable operator re- Right: The Bedford MK 4000 kgr
:nclosed forward control cab, and quirement. includrng a winch with a (8,81 8 lb) 4x4 truck is the standard

rany vehrcles are provrQed with a roof capacily of 3500 kg (7,7 16 lb), srngle or vehicle in its class in the British Army.
:pening on which a 7,62-mm (0,3-in) rear dual wheels, troop seats down This Bedford is fitted with a
:::achine-gun can be fi.tted to provide each side of the carqo area, a flve- communications cabin with its
-:w-level air defence, The rear carqo speed gearbox, stowage racks for generator to the immediate rear of
:ody is built and fltted by Marshali of equipment and rifles, and power- the three-man cab.
Sambridge, and has drop srdes and assnted steedng.
-lgate, removable bows and a tar- For carryrng carqo on pallets the
;a'a1in cover, The basic model is po- dropsrdes and tailgate can quickly be for carrying stores in rear areas and for
.';ered by a Bedford six-cylinder removed, and to assist in the loading driver training as they are more fuel
:-esel developing 103 bhp (76.8 kW) and unloadrrig of cargro many vehicles efflcient than the 4x4 trucks,
: -i a number of other engines are also have been fitted with a hydrau[c crane
::ered, such as a sx-cylinder petrol to the cab rear. The MK can also carry Specification
::gine and a six-cylinder tur- the CB 300 container, which rs used for MK
: : charged diesel, The engrne is cou- many roles includrng specialtst repair Crew: l+l
:-ed to a manual grearbox with four for fonvard units, It is also used to carry Weights: empty 5120 kq (11,282 lb);
:::-,vard and one reverse qear and a the Gloster Saro demountable bulk loaded (cross-counrry) 9650 kg
-:,-:-speed lransfer case. Suspension. fuel drspensing unit to refuel vehicles (2r,274Ib)
,::nt and rear, consists of semi- and helicopters in forward areas. Powerplant: one Bedford 6-cylinder Performance: maximum road speed
=",ptical springs with hydraulic shock Other MKs are used to carry portable diesel developinq 76.8 kW (i03 bhp) 77 km/h(48 mph); maximumrange
trackways, and to sqrve as aircraft re- Dimensions: lenqth 6,579 m (21 ft 7 in); 560 km (348 miles); gradient 49 per
Ile MK can be fltted with a wide fuellers and recovery vehicles, and so width 2,489 m (B ft 2 in); heiqht (cab) cent; side slope 25 per cent; fording
:=qe of optional equipment to surt on, The TK 4x 2 version is widely used 3,404m(llft2in) 0.76 m (2 ft 6 in)

box bodies for specialized roles such Powerplant: one Pegaso Model 9220/
Pegaso 3055 6000-kgr 6xO tnrck as workshop, command and food car- I0 6-cylinder diesel developing

multiple rocketlaunchers and sewe
as a recovery vehicle,
IIEI, 164,1kw(220hp)
Dimensions: length 7.00 m (22 ft
11,6 in); width2,40 m(7 ft I0.5 in);
The latest Spanish truck rs the Pega- Specification height (cab) 2,765 m (9 ft 0,9 in)
so 3055 6x6 vehicle, which can carry Pegaso 3055 Performance: maxlmum road speed
6000kq (l3,22Blb) of cargo across Crew: l+1 B0 km/h (50 mph); maximum range
country or 10000 kg (22,046 ]b) on Weights: empty 9000 kg (19,842 lb); 550 km (342 miles); gradient 5 i per
roads. The cab is at the front of the Ioaded (cross-country) 15000 kg cent; side slope 30 per cent; fordingr
vehicle and has a forward-foldrng (33,069Ib) 1.0 m (3 ft 3.4 in)
mndscreen and a removable canvas
top. The engrne, which is mounted at For manyyears the Pegaso 3045 called the 3045DV was built to meet
the front of the vehicle, is coupled to a 3000- kg (6,6 1 4Jb) truck was the the requirements of the Spanish
manual gearbox with sx forward and standardvehicle in its class in the marines, and this can ford to a
one reverse gtear and a two-speed Spanish army. A special model maximumdepthof 2 m(6 ftZ in).
transfer case. Suspension, front and
rear, consists of semi-elliptical leaf
sprinqs, the front units havinqr hyd-
raulic shock absorbers, The rear car-
go area has a drop tailgate, removable
bows and a tarpaulin cover, and bench
seats are provided for 30 troops. The
vehicle can tow a trailer or weapon
werghing up to 14500 kg (31,967 lb) on
roads or 7500k9 (16,535Ib) across
country, and optional equrpment in-
cludes a winch with a capacity of
6000ks (13,228 lb).
Variants of the Pegaso 3055 include
a tipper or dump truck, a recovery
vehicle and a tanker, while there are
Mercedes-Benz U 1300 L 2250-ks 4x4 truck
i-:elle end of Worli War II the Mer- Mercedes-Benz Model U I 300 L 4x4 truck of the West
cedes-Benz Unimog truck was de- German army with bows and tarpaulin covers removed.
s.;:ed icr industnal and agrncultural This truckcan alsotow a trailer orweaponweighing a
arid this entered production in m aximum of 8 50 0 kg ( I 8, 7 39 lb). An ambulance ver sion with
:949. Since then the vehicle has been enclosed rear body is also in service.
:crtrnuously developed until it now
:3nprses a complete family of 4x4
;ei:icles with exceptional cross-
::-;ntry mobilrty. In the last 30 years or
,q: it has been adopted by many armed
::rces. the West German army select-
:::g ihe U 1300 L variant to meet its
:=;-.lrements for a vehicle carrying
?zaCkq (4,960 lb) of cargo across
J:i.$hy and towing a trailer or weapon
-r;eighing up to 8500 kg (18,739 lb), An
:rder for no less than 17,000 vehtcles
-r,'as placed with Mercedes-Benz in
i378, vnth flnal deliveries to be made
::.i 1989. The U 1300 L has also been
seiected by New Zealand, whtle the
A':stralian army is to receive I,295 of
,he heavter U 1700 l, ser.ies, which will
be assembled rn Australia with some
iccal content
The U 1300 L used by the West Ger-
iran army is essentrally a standard
ccmmercial 4x4 vehicle with a num-
ber of modrficattons such as military
cargo body with removable sides and
:ailgate, bow and tarpaulin cover,24'
\'oit eiectric system, lashing points,
:bsewation hatch in the roof and stow-
aqe for personal kit and small arms,
The layout of the U 1300 L is conven- can be delivered with a fronlmounted number of armoured personnel car-
lonal, with the engdne at the front, the winch, The only variant used by the riers such as the UR 416,
;diy-enclosed cab in the centre and West German army at present rs a fully
rhe cargo area at the rear, The all-steel enclosed ambulance, Specification
:ab is fu11y insulated and provrded To gnve some rdea of the roles Unt- u 1300 L
'*rth a heater as standard equipment; mogs undertake with an army today, it Crew:1+2
to allow maintenance access to the en- is worth lookrng at the roles envtsaged Weights:
empty 5250 kg (11,574 lb);
grne the cab can quickly be tilted for- by the Australian army for its vehicles: (cross-country) 7500 kg
i.,.ards, The enqine is coupled to a cas- of the 1,295 to be delivered by 1987, (r6,535 ]b)
cade gearbox with a planetary gear BSB will be the basic cargo mode1, 287 Powerplant: one Mercedes-Benz OM-
group flanged on the transfer'case, cargo vehicles with winches, 76 cargo 352 6-cylinder diesel developtng
givrng a total of eight forward and four trucks with cranes for loading and un- 7Lo kW(96 hp)
reverse gears. The suspension con- loading operalions, 69 dump trucks Dimensions: length 5,54 m ( 18 ft 2. I in);
sists of semi-elliptrcal springs and hyd- wrth winches, and the remaining flve wrdth 2,30 m (7 ft 6,6 in); height Between 1978 and 1987 theWest
ra'.:Ic shock absorbers, and steertnq is fitted with augers/pole erectors The (including tarpaulln) 2.83 m (9 ft 3.4 in) German army is expected to take
power-assisted, The latter is ofte.n re- Royal Air Force uses short-wheelbase Performance: maximum road speed delivery ot some I 7,000 oI these
garded as a luxury, but for extended (SWB) Unimoqs for towtng the BAe B0 kn/h (50 mph); maximum ranQle Mercedes-Benz Model U I 300 L 4 x4
3ross-country driving it must be consi- Harrier VTOL aircraft when it is de- 900 km (559 miles); gradient 70 per Unimog trucks. The model shown
iered essential as it makes the driver's ployed in the field. The chassis of the cent; side slope 30 per centi fordingr here isfittedwith a 20-mm anti-
task a lot easier. If required the vehtcle Unimog is also used as the basis for a I 2m(3ftli.2in) aircraftmountin the rear cargo area.

E il,inrrr sooo-ksr Axltruck

and final deliveries were made in i9B L
In the late 1950s the West German
i]Tny started to draw up its require- The 4x4 model has a nominal PaYIoad
raents for a second generation of of 5000ks (11,023 1b), while the 6x6
-,.,'heeled vehicles, even though the version can carry 7000k9 (15,432lb)
trst generation types were only then and the B x B variant is rated at 10000 kq
entenng sewtce, The new range was (22,0461b), The Canadian Armed
:c rnclude an BxB amphibious Forces have a small number of BxB
rrnoured car which eventually en- vehicles, and the US Army uses the
:ered sewice as the Luchs, 4x4 and type as part of the ground-launched
3xO amphibious armoured Ioad car- cruise missile (GLCM) system. The
:.ers (the latter entering production as 6xO model has been produced in
-:re TYansportpanzer I or Fuchs) and a Austria by OAF as the Type 20.320 for
series of 4x4, 6x6 and BxB high- the Austrian army, and in this applica-
rcbrlity cross-country trucks, some of tion the model has been upgraded to The MAI{ 5000- kg ( I 1,023 - Lb) 4 x 4 whichover 8,300 arenowin service
'r;::ch were required to have an 10000 ks (22,046 lb), truck shares many automotive parts with the W es t G erm an army.
a::phrlcrous capability, To develop this These vehicles share many common with the MAN 6x6 and 8x8 trucks, of
:::-;ecf vehrcles two groupings were components such as cabs, axles,
::rneC, and in the end Darmler-Benz wheels, tyres and so on, and these are winch, The MAN 4x4 truck is used io loaded (cross-country) 14300 kg
::;eloped the armoured vehtcles standard commercial parts, The for- carry containers and other specialized (31,s26 rb)
'. :i:cugh production was undertaken ward control cab can be tilted forward bodies, such as the Contraves Field- Powerplant: one MAN V-B diesel
r-.- Thyssen Henschel) while the Joint to allow access to the engine for guard artillery frre-control system developinsr 190,9 kW (256 hp)
?::;ect Office (including MAN) de- maintenance purposes; an obsewation used with the Liqht Artillery Rocket Dimensions: length 8,02 m (26 ft
;:-:ped the {rucks, hatch is provrded in the rooi and if System (I,ARS) of the West German 3.75 in); width 2.50 m (B ft 2,4 in); heighl
required a 7.62-mm (0,3-in) machine- (cab)2,86 m(9 ft4,6 in)
-ate in 1975 MAN was awarded a army.
:::-:act for 8,385 MAN 4X4, MAN 6X6 qun can be fitted here for antr-aircraft Performance: maximum road speed
defence. The rear cargo area has re- Specification 90 km/h (56 mph); maximum rangte
--:MAN8x8 Category I trucksworth movable drop sides and tailgate, bows MAN4X4 700 km (435 miles); gradient 70 per
:-.':: DN{1,400 million. The first produc-
--::- -;ehrcles were completed at and a iarpaulin cover, ManY of the Crew: l*2 cent; side slope 30 per cent; fording
),':-\s tacrlity at Watenstedt tn 1976, MAN vehicles are fitted with a Rotzler Weights: empty 9700 kg (21,385 lb); 1,2 m (3 ft I 1,2 in)
.[rmed Forces of the World

groups will eventually be fitted with the Type 2050 ing problems when they s.'.:: - -: : , -- - , -
Destroyers and frigates hull-mounted active sonar systern. The major dis- ... .- - -' ,. . -
tic, so therr time ln the f lee: -..
--: :ackbone of the Royal Navy is formed by its advantage of the class is the fact that the Sea Wolf Onepossibilitybeingexpc'el:: :-::.:- : :: :
:;::'lyer and f rigate flotillas. The former is consti- launchers are hand reloaded, which makes the ships lack of fngates s the des g- :- r :: -:.'- -- - -' :
--.:: :y three batches of theType42 destroyerthat vulnerable to stream saturation attacks. To rectify number of heav' y a'rreJ :-' -..-: . .. '.
:':, :e the primaryanti-airwarfare missile defence thls the new Type 23 'Dar ng' class frigates that are around the UK's coastal waie-: :- : ' a'... - --:
'-' :^e fleet with the twin+ail GWS-30 Sea Dart to be ordered in the next year or so will be f itted wlth West lndies. The-e a'e a'e;:. ' .= :=.:... :::
:. s:e.r1. This is a 65-km (40-mile) range Mach-3.5 the GWS-26 vertical-launch Sea WolJ system. lt is corVetteSinservicewlththeei''a,':'':'-::
;,'. ^ gh-altitude SAM that proved itself in the Falk- possible that the Type 22Batch 3 ships may also be an OTO-Melara Compact T6-n'r 3- ' : -- .- ,' -'
:-ls \/ar; but like a number of other weapon sys- fitted with GWS-26. Both the Type 22 Batch 3s and single 7.62-mm (0.3-in) machine-g--: --::: .: :
:=-s used in the Falklands, the GWS-30 system the 'Darings' will also be fitted to carry the US Har- funded rra'nly by the gover-rr e'-. .' - - - : . --. -:
.'.:s a so found wanting in some key areas. The poon surface-to-surface anti-ship missile in two replace five ex-'Ton' class patroi s- :s .-:. ..:':
--:ll number of reload missiles carried by each Sea quadruple launchers. The Harpoon wili replace the used to patrol the colony's.&3',q',.:. j -: .-
-:: ship is also a cause for concern because a current French MM.38 Exocet in that role, and will vidual needs of the Falklands have a s: :.:- ^ : -
:: / et saturation attack by aircraft and misslles enable the launch platform to engage surface the purchase and corr e'sio' :
,'. rrld swamp the system because (amongst other iargets at well over twice the range currently possi- strengthened comn'ercal o'ie : .-:: -. :
-- rgs) of poor computer/human interface response
. -e and reloading, The ships' ASW armament ls
ble with the MM.38. To complement the weapon
systems new decoy launchers, ESM (electronic
Named HMS Sentinel, HMS Prcie:::-
'-, - :
Guardian, these have now deployec :c :-= :,, '
- nrmal, and apart f rom a 4.5-in (1 14-mm) gun there support measures) equipment and active jammers Atlantic to release some o' rhe -a'o- : --:.: . . -
-. no surface-to-surface capability other than the will also be fitted to enhance survivabillty. batants for NATO duties. Tney a'e . ' : -. ' - .

-.'nx helicopter and a secondary role for the Sea To bolster the modern destroyer and f rigate force bythe ice patrol ship HMS Enduranc3 ..-:.: :',:-
)art system. there are 24'Leander' class and sixType 2'1 frigates osed scrapping in l9B2 was a major s l . -- - , .
The inner zone of point-defence missiles is gra- in service with a diminishing number of older ves- tina that the UK was no iorger -i:-:- .: - ' :
::ally being switched from the vessels armed wlth sels. Since entering service the 'Leanders' have Falklands. For coastal patrol around i-: - :- - --'
S:a Cat missiles to the Type 22 ftigares which pro- undergone extensive refits that have resulted in six fishery protection duties there are s=. =- : ::
. :e 'goalkeeper' services to otherwise unprotected separate sub-groups that vary from the lkara ASW class, two'Castle'class and six'Ton :::: -- --:
- gh-value surface targets. Armed with the GWS-25 conversion to the Sea Wolf SAM/Exocet SSM (sur weepers which operate under the ais: ,=- ,' . -
'-Lly automatic Sea Wolf missile system, the Type face-to-surface missile) convers on in scope. Coastal Sqradron. Their armamen. : - - '. ..-
22 shlps are designed primarily for ASW operatrons Although at present still numerically the most impor- the two'Castle'craft have a mlnela'i'l :::::
- the Greenland-lceland-UK (GIUK) gap. However, tant of the Royal Navy's surface fleet, the'Leander' that has been tested in trials.
:ecause of the lessons of the Falklands war the class is gradually to decrease in numbers as the
- qe 22 Batch 3 vessels of the 14-ship class wrll older ships are replaced by new-build vessels. The
llMS Broadsword, first of the 'Type 22' class
:arry both a 4.5 14-mm) gun and two Dutch 30-
(1 fate of the six remaining Type 21s is also somewhat frigates, provides'goalkeeper' protection ic ::=
-m Goalkeeper CIWS (close-in weapon system). of a mystery at present as stability problems mean carrier HMS Hermes. ?fi e lllfin g of S e a W o I i
-re Type 22Balch 2 and 3 vessels will also carry the that they cannot be rearmed with new weapon sys- rnrssrTesftasm ade the class potent close air
-/pe 3031(Z) towed sonar array, and all three sub- tems. Most of them also suffered major hull crack- defence vessels.
.. ! e,/
E ft*%

The Royal Navy's only other surface minelaying designed specifically to deal with the Soviet con- The ice patrol shrp HM,S Endurancewon a teprieve
capability is provided by the exercise minelayer and tinental shelf, deep water rising and underwater from the scrapyard as a result of the Falklands
electrical-potential mine types that will be sown war, and so remains to serve the scattered British
MCMV (mine countermeasures vessel) depot ship
scientific stations on the coasts and islands of
HMS Abdiel. ln wartime the laylng would be under- along NATO submarine transit routes. To assist the
taken by requisitioned roll-on/roll-off ferries in the regular sweepers in wartime the Royal Navy will
manner of the vessels used by the Libyan navy. Any requisition some 40 or so deep-sea trawlers that will helicopters together with facilities to service BAe
offensive iaying would have to be done by the sub- be equipped with the Extra Deep Armed Team Sea Harrier V/STOL fighter-bombers. ln addition to
marlne force or by RAF aircraft such as the BAe Sweep gear for tackling moored mines at most the air-capable replenishment ships the RFA also
N mrod or Lockheed Hercules. To find and destroy depths. operates two aviation support ships, the Belrant
enemy ground mines laid in coastai waters the fitted out as the Arapaho concept containerlzed air
Royal Navy maintains in service a force of about 15 Auxiliary ships support trials ship and the replacement for the cur-
eLderly 'Ton' class minehunters. These are being To support the fleet the Boyal Fleet Auxiliary rent helicopter support ship Engadine, the ex-
slowly supplemented by 15 'Hunt' class MCMVs (RFA) has a wide range of underu'ray replenishment Container Bezantwhich s undergoing a two-year
rvlth GRP (glass-reinforced plastics) hulls and the ships and tankers. The Falklands War has seen the conversion and will carry up to six Westland Sea
:r-ench PAP104 mine-disposal system, The 'Tons' reduction of the RFA fleet stopped and has shown King-sized helicopters and have the facilities neces-
',v 1l eventually be replaced by a class of single-role the need for its vessels to be armed with both sary for operating up to 12 Sea Harriers if required.
GBP-hulled minehunters that is currently being de- self-defence weapons and ASW stores for the heli- The RFA also crews the five LSLs (landing ships,
s gned, Conventional minesweeping operations are copters they carry for VERTREP (vertical replenish- logistic), and two ex-merchant logistic ships in sup-
s: 1 being undertaken by a number of 'Ton' class ment) operations. For the future, a new class of fast port of the Royal Mar nes and British army, each of
i essels, which are being replaced in BNR service by combat support ship is under development that will whom operates a number of LCVPs (landing craft
:ne 'Rlver' class of fleet minesweeper which was carry Sea Wolf SAMs and an air group of six ASW vehicle, personnel), LCU (landing craft, utility) and
logistic landing craft for its own use.
There are also in service a considerable number of
other support and auxiliary craft such as salvage
vessels, tugs, tenders and the like, of which the
most important are the Diltgence, a maintenance
and repair ship. and the Challenger, a seabed opera-
tions vessel, The royal yacht Britannta is also in-
cluded in the navy list with a wartime role of hospital
ship, but during the Falklands war she was conspi-
: ..

':a r:..t{
:: ]:

:: !:.:i':]i:

cuous by her absence through fuel-compatibility

;i :: l,:!-::"i:n problems. Her role was undertaken by the liner
it:l:::r;igU ;:l Uganda, with the survey vessels Hydra, Hecla and
Herald serving as ambulance ships.
The Royal Navy's hydrographic service operates
four offshore, four coastal and four inshore sur-
veying vessels, which are totally inadequate for the
workload assigned to it. Hopefully by the mid-19B0s
the work performed will be for military purposes
only as all the civilian work is to be {ransferred to the
Department of Trade. There ls to be a small expan-
sion of the hydrographic service wlthin the foresee-
able future as a new coastal survey ship, the
Roebuck, has been ordered.
Seen during aNATO exercise making an
underway replenishment of (left) a'Knox' class
trigate of theUS Navy and (riEht) aCanadian
'l roquois' class destroyer, the'Rover' class small
fleet tanker can carry over 6000 tonnes of tuel