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Issue 84

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Fromthe oilfrelds of the NarthSeato the myriadislands ofthe The most sophisticated modern maritime patrol aircraft are those whic: :: ':
Philippines and Indanesia, the maritime howldartes of the significant ASW capability, suchas fft eDassault-Breguet Atlantic. T he
advanced sensors required to track submarines are matched by the ::
madem woald are assuming an ever-increasingr ec onotnic armaments carried in capacious weapons bays.
importance, The vast areas invotrvedmusthe gruarded, andhy
farthe znost effective andfar-reaehing methodis fromthe ait,
One of the most often repealed statistics concerninqt the Earth is that ment except of the simplest kind. lt is these which are n:: , :
two-thirds of its surface is covered with water, A further fact worthy of adaptations of transport aircralt or business jets for protechon - = - '
mention is that many who live on the land have a keen interest in what mtc zones, and in several cases they carry liitle or no weaponi'.- --- ' =
happens on and under the water, Other countries' warships, iliegal er, recent models olthe Fokker F,27 Maritirne, with therr mrss-l: -::.-..
fishermen, smugglers and severai sources of pollutron are to be found on ment have clearly moved rnto a higher bracket and are to be re::: : = -
the hrgh seas, and it is an unwise Qrovernment that takes an interest only as front-line equipment.
when such problems come within sight of the coast An almost universal aspect of maritime aircraft is that they ar..i., '-'
Aircraft represent a highly effective method of locatrng these potentiai ped for search-and-rescue (SAR) missions, the usual requir::-=--. .
problems in the oceans' vastness, most (but not all) such aircraft being bernq carried including emergency krts (containrng an rnflatab-= : -.
land-based types, The larger amongst these possessingt considerable food, etc,) and the appropriate radios for direct contact r';ii:r:.:.=-
range, are desrgnated maritime patrol or maritime reconnaissance air emergency services. It is rn this role that MR aircraft often ma::.' -.-
craft, and are exemplified by the US Navy's Lockheed P-3 Orion patrol- news, but to seagoing nations their principal role is as the ias. -,,,.:
ler and the RAF's BAe Nrmrod MR Mk 2 reconnaissance platform. Such range 'eyes and ears' of the navy
aircraft are extensively equrpped with complex avionics for the diff,cult
task ollocating submarines, and their armament includes depth charges
and torpecioes, They may also carry mediurn-range missiles to provide Operating al:ave two'Oberon'class submarines of theRoyalNary, the Bri::s:
AerospaceJVr'm rod has for more than a decade been one of the most
an anti-surface vessel (ASV) capability. advanced marifi'mereconnaissance aircraft in the world. In addition ta its
Of lesser sophistication are the maritime surveillance aircralt usualiy recannaissance function, the Nimrod also has the comprehensive electron:c
equipped wrth radar, but lacking anti submarine warfare (ASW) equtp- andweapon fit necessary to hunlsubmarjnes.

EMBRAER EMB-ll0 and EMB-lll

EMBRAER of Sao Jose dos Campos, dard aircrew trainer and liaison trans- have full de-icing and passive ECM Iengrth 14,91 m (48 ft 11 in); height
Brazil, came into operation only in 1970 port for the French Arm6e de 1'Ar (25) under the nose. 4.91 m ( I6 ft 1.3 m); wing area 29. I m:
but has already built more than 3,000 and A6ronavale ( 16), The EIVIB-l I I is a (313.24 sq ft)
aircraft and has made Brazil a leading comprehensively equipped mantime Specification Armament: four winq pylons for fow
aircraft producer. Its wide range in- suweillance aircraft, with a rnainly Col- EMB-III pairs of 12.7-cm (S-in) HVAR rockets c:
cludes the best-se1Iing EMBRAER lins avionics fit but including AIL nose Type: madtime surveillance aircraft Iaunchers each with seven 69,9-mm
EMB-ll0 Bandeirante (pioneer), sold radar, Bendx autopilot, Thomson-CSF Powerplant: two 559, 3-kW (750-shp) (2.75-in) FFAR rockets, or three stores
in numbers as a light twin-turboprop passive ECM and optional Omegra re- Pratt & Whitney of Canada PTOA-34 pylons plus 50 million candlepower
arrliner even to the UK, the USA and ceiver. The normal crew numbers 3-7 turboprops searchlight; other grear includes
France. The EIvIB-I1OSI is a remote- and the interror rs equipped not only Performance: (at maximum weight, smoke bombs, markers, flares, chaff
sensor geophysical model with MAD wth displays and observation stations iSA+ 15'C, a severe criterion) dispenser and loud hailer
tailboom, the EMB-IIOPIK rs a mass- but also for cargo and paratrooping or maximum crursing speed 3BS krn/h
produced military transport (called C- equipment dropping, The EMB-llI (239 mph); ranse at 3048 m (10,000 ft) Entering service with the Forca
954 by the Brazilian air force) and first flew on 15 Augn.rst 1977, and 12 with 4S-minute reserves 2945 kn A6rca Brasileira in April I 97 I, the
among many other offshoots is the were sold to the Brazilian air force (i,830 miles) EMB-I I 1 carries pairs of 12.7-cm
short-body pressurized EMB-l2l coastal iommand with designation P- Weights: empty 3760 ks (B,2Bg 1b); (i-in)HVAR rockets togetherwith a
Xngu family called VU-9 by the Brazi- ofa gnowing list ofexport
95. The first maximumtake-of 7000 kq(15,432 lb) searchlight of 5 0 million
Itan air force and bought as the stan- customers was Chile, whose arrcraft Dimensions: span 15.95 m (52 ft 4 rn); candlepower on the starboardwing.

ffi i***an HU-16 Albatross

Although no longer operational with proved to be a most versatlle machine, rncreased wing span and larger tail TheASWversionof the
any element of the US armed forces, and another notable early customer surfaces as well as more effective de- GrummanHU-16is
the drstinctive Grumman Albatross was the US Air Force which acquiled a icing equrpment. Many earlier arrcraft distinguishable by the
amphibian still serves with a number of large number of 5A-16A aucraft for the were eventually brought to this later larger search rcdar in the
other air arms in a variety ofroles rang- Military Air Transport Service's air standard and the type also. found nose together with a
ing from air-sea rescue througth liaison tescue organization, these machines favour ovbrseas, customers including retractable magnetic
and communications to anti-submarine soon proving their worth in this deman- Canada, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mex- anomaly detector (MAD)
warfare. It also holds the distinction of ding task. ico, Norway, the Philippines, Spain, boom in the tail. Greece is
being the last amphrbian to see ser- Refinement of the design led to the Taiwan and West Germany. thelastcountry to use ffijs
vice with the US armed forces and in its appearance in the mid- 1950s of the SA- In addrtion to the basic utility and model.
heyday established a number of world 168 and UF-2, both of which featured
records for aircraft in its class.
A logical outgnowth of earher Grum-
man amphibians such as the Goose
and Widgeon, the Albatross began de-
velopment in the closing stages of
World War II, the aircraft which even-
tually emerged being significantly lar-
ger than rts predecessors although it
bore a strong family resemblance, In-
itially ordered by the US Navy, the pro-
totype )RJ2F-I made its marden flight
on 24 October 1947, subsequently en-
terurg service as the [JF-l in July 1949,
Origrinally intended to fulfil mainly util-
ity functions, the Albatross soon
Grumman HU- 16 Albatross (continued) Modern Maritime Airc'raft
rescue versions, an ASW-capable the same designation following con- and rescue amphibian Dimensions: span 29.46 r:: .S : :'-. *
Albatross was also conceived by version, examples of the type being Powerplant: two 6-kW ( 1, 425-hp)
1062. leng1h 18.67 m (6I ft 3 rn): ne:g-:: - 3l
Grumman, this featuring such familiar known to have served with the air arms Wriqht R- 1820-76A./768 Cyclone radial (25 ft 10 in); wingarea 96 i: :-
items as nose-mounted radar, a of Greece, Spain and Turkey, although piston engihes (1,035 sq ft)
searchlight, a MAD (Magnetic Anoma- only the first rs beleved still to use the Performance: maximum speed Armament: four underwu: g :e::i': --
Iy Detector) boom and specialized Albatross for ASW duties, 3BO km/h (236 mph) at sea level; capable of carryrng depth h=:s
ordnance including torpedoes and crursinq speed 24 1 kn/h (150 mph); mines, ungmided air-to-surc:e ::d€E
depth charges. Most, if not all, ASW- Specification range with 4826litres (I,275 US gal) of and torpedoes; in additon d:p=
confignrred arcraft were srmply con- IIU-168 Albatross fuel 4345 km (2,700 miles); maxrmum charges andsonobuoys are
versions of HU-168s, and they retained T'ype: anti-submarine warfare, utility endurance 22 hours 54 minutes internaily ==-=:

Fokker F.27 Maritime

The Fokker F.27 Maritime rs an
adaptation of the Friendship turbo-
prop transport, which first flew in 1955
and remarns in production to this day.
Foreseeing a market for a medium-
range maritlme patrol aircraft to re-
place such stalwarts as the Lockheed
Neptune and the Grumman Tracker
and Albatross, Fokker began conver-
sion of a prototype F.2?MPA (Maritime
Patrol Aircraft) in 1975, this mahng its
inltial fliqht during February 1976. Un-
armed ln rts initial form, the aircraft is
surtable for sealane and fishery patrol,
offshore oilfield policing, SAR and
pollution control, its prime sensor
beins a Litton AN/APS-504(V)2 360'
radar scanner mounted in a ventral
radome. Up to six crew members are
carried. Peru's navy received the flrst
two F.27 Maritimes in September 1977
and February 1978, whilst other cus-
tomers have comprised the Spamsh air sonobuoy processing systems, plus an tlon at the lower sides of the centre The three Spanish F .27 Maritima
force, wrth three supplied in 1979 for Alkan stores-management system. It fimelage. operate outof the Canaries on
patrol and SAR missions from the Can- can locate submarines and a1l classes general unarmed patrol and SAR
ary Islands (Spanish military desiqna- of swface vessels usinq not only search Specification missions. An armed, ASW-d&iated
tion D.2); the Philippine navy which radar, but also passive and active F.27 Maritime Enforcer version k available, the Maritime
received three in I9Bl-2; the Angolan acoustic equipment (via sonobuoys Tlpe: maritime patrol aircraft Enforcer.
air force with one; the Dutch air force launched from bays in the rear fusel- Powerplant: two l, 730-kW (2,320-shp)
(mxed air force and navy crews) with age) and an electronic suweillance Rolls-Royce Dart Mk 536-7R
two delivered in 1981-2 for missions rn and monitoring system, Inputs from turboprops maximum take-off 20412 kg (45,000 ii.'
the Antilles; and the Nigerian air force these sensors, toqether with visual Performance: crursing speed 463 kn/h Dimensions:span 29,00 m (95 ft 1.? n)
with two supplied in 1984, observations, are led into a central dis- (2BB mph); patrol speed 277-333 kr/h lensth 23.56 m (77 ft 3.6 in); heisht
A major upgrading of the design play controlled by the tactical co- (172-207 mph) at 457 m ( 1,500 ft); initial 8,50 m (27 ft 10.6 in); winsarea 70 03
came in l9B4 when the Maritime Enfor- ordinator, Most importantly, however, climb rate 442 m (1,450 ft) perminute; m'z(753.5 sq ft)
cer was revealed, three examples for the Maritime Enforcer has provtsion service ceiling 8990 m (29,495 ft); Armament:up to four A6rospatrale
Thailand's navy beinq the first order, for armament; up to srx torpedoes, or range 5000 km (3, 107 miles) with wing 4M,39 Excocet or McDonnell Dougdas
The Enforcer is an ASW aircraft equrp- depth charges for ASW, or up to four pylontanks AGM-B4A Harpoon ASMs, or sx
ped with Marconi central tactical and anti-ship missiles on a new stores posi- Weishts: empty 125 19 ks (27,600 1b); bombVdepth chargeVtorpedoes

€ i***an S-2 Tracker

Still ln widespread service over 30 placement aircraft, Several countrles cent resewe 2092 km ( 1,300 miles) Primarily a carrierbased ASW
years alter flrst fllerht (on 4 December use the TS-2 (usually TS-24 conver- Weights: empty 8505 kq ( 18,750 lb ); aircr aft, the G rumm an S - 2 TTacher
1952), the Grumman G-89 Trackerwas sion) as a trainer; others use US-2 utility maximum take-off 13222 kg (29, 150 lb) no longer serves aboard the carriers
the first successful carrier-based ASW and RS-2 photognaphic aircraft. Dimensions: sp an 22, I2 m (72 ft 7 tn), ot the US Navy, but is still in
aircraft, containing the search and length 13.26 m (43 ft 6 in): height 5,05 m widespre ad use wor ldwide. J apan
attack capability in one aircraft, Piston Specfication ( 16 ft 7 in); wrng area 46.08 m' used the aircraftlor many yeats.
engines were chosen for sea-level en- S-2ETracker (496 sq ft)
durance of hours, and the crew of Type:ASWaircraft Armament: one Mk 47 or Mk 10 t
four-were seated in a srngle nose com- Powerplant: two I 137. z-kw ( 1, 525-hp) nuclear depth bomb (USN only, no
partment, Weapons were housed in- Wright R- I 820-B2WA Cyclone piston longer active) or wide range of
ternally and under the hrgh-mounted engmes conventional depth bombs or AS
folding wing, and after entering US Performance: maxrmum speed lorpedoes, plus torpedoes, mines,
Navy service in i954 with the basic 426kn/h(265 mph); rangewrth l0per , rockets or bombs on wing pylons
designation S-2 production reached a
total of 1,181 in five major versions, not
including the C-I Trader COD (Car-
rier On-board Delivery) transport and
E-l Tracer surveillance versrons. DH
Canada built 100 in two versions, and
though many S-2A aucraft and other
variants were progressively updated,
the chief type today is the S-2E (245
built) with the longer span, bigger
cockpit and bigger tail ofthe S-2D plus
a range of improved sensors. The last
recipient was the Royal Australian
Navy, which iost all but three of rts
S-2Es in a hangar flre in December ,#
1976; the USN quickly provided 16 re-
lvlqrifime Conversions of
Maritime aircraft areusedfor awidevariety of purposes, nof
such extras as a sonobuoy processing system and electronic support measures
{ESM). The home air force has received seven SAR examples, plus two conver-
sions of earlier C-212s, and the ministry of finance has bought another three.
Exports have involved a patrol model to Uruguay's air force, fitted with an
AN/APS-1 28 270' search radar, and three similar aircraft to the Venezuelan navy
all of which require the high technology avionics, detection in 1982.
gear and weaponry appropriate to hunting nuclear
Canadian aircraft
submarines. For many nations, the maritime role consists of
Canada has a very extensive coastline, and relies on Orions and Trackers to
suci jobs as fishery protection, prevention of smuggling or meet military MR requirements, but de Havilland Canada has two versions of its
search and rescue. Obviously, an advanced ASW-dedicated well-known STOL family on the international market. The Twin Otter'in its
aircraft is notwhat is required. DHC-6-300M military guise has a maritime reconnaissance variant with a dis-
tinctive chin radome for a Litton AN/APS-504(V)2 radar. Also able to carry light
Despite the complex and expensive detection equipment fitted to the major armament on wing pylons, one of this type has been delivered to the Sene-
types of maritime patrol aircraft, it may be argued that any aeroplane f rom which galese air force. The Canadian Environment Mlnistry has acquired a single
it is possible to see the Earth's surface while in flight can be used for over-water extended-range DHC-7R Ranger equipped with SLAR and a laser profilometerto
surveillance. lndeed, landlocked Paraguay employs a handful of single-engine provide an image of its targets, though these are no more warlike than icebergs
Cessnas for river patrol, and the RAF's BAe (English Electric/BAC) Canberras are which may threaten shipping lanes and offshore oilfields. ln passing, it may be
assigned to visual maritime reconnaissance in an emergency, but.these can mentioned that coastal patrol and SAR are included in the tasks of the 14
hard'iy be described as dedicated MR aircraft. However, to meet the reg1ir-e_ remaining (from 19 delivered) Canadair CL-215 'water-bombers' supplied to'
ment-s of those countries for which a Lockheed Orion or even a Fokker F.27MP Spain's air force.
would be inappropriate or too costly, the world's aircraft manufacturers offer a One of the more successful adaptations for MR comes from France in the
range of adaptations of existing models. form of. the Dassault-Breguet Guardian/Gardien versions of the best-selling
A'imost all bre twin-engine tra-nsports or executive aircfaft which are required Falcon 201200 executive twin-jet. No less than 41 were ordered in 1977 when
to patrol only as far as the edge of a country's 322-km (200-mile) exclusive the US Coast Guard selected the maritime Falcon 20G to meet its medium-
economic zone (EEZ). The minimum standard of modification may be taken as range surveillance requirement. Designated HU-25A Guardians, these were
addition of surveillance radar, so that vessels may be sought out rather than delivered from 1982 onwards, fitted with a comprehensive sensor suite includ-
happened upon. Invariably there are other low-cost changes such as bulged ing SLAR, FLIR, infra+ed and ultra-violet scanners and laser-illuminated TV
windows for direct downward view by lookouts, and perhaps a more compre- camera for all-weather detection. Similar, but with less equipment, are the five
hensive navigation f it. The latter is important if the aircraft's duties are to include Gardiens delivered to the French navy for surveillance tasks in the Pacific
identificationof vessels fishing illegally on the borders of the EEZ. There may terrltories and declared operational in August 1984.
also be a requirement for search-and-rescue operations, for which additional
radio equipmi;nt is demanded, and the ability to drop liferafts and survival kits ls
a useful asset.
Such features, plus optional FLIR (Forward-Looking lnfra-Red) and LLLTV
(Low-Lighrlevel TV), are offered by Beech in its Maritime Patrol 200T version of
the popular Super King Air turboprop twin. Announcedin 1917, this has provi-
sion for removable wingtip tanks to give a maximum on-station time of nine
hours, and customers inciude the Uruguayan navy, which received one such
aircraft in January 1981 . A further 15 civilian models have been delivered to the
Japanese Coast Guard (known as the Maritime Safety Agency) and two more to
Also from the USA is a rather unlikely medium-sized pure jet patroller in the
form of the Boeing 737 Surveiller. While retaining the ability ro caffY 102
passengers, the three Model 737-200s delivered to the lndonesian air force in
1983 have a marltime radar reconnaissance capability provided by a Motorola
SLAMM R (Side-Looking Airborne Multi-Mission Radar) whose two 4.9-m (16Jt)
blade aerials are mounled on the sides of the upper rear fuselage. Flying at
9145 m (30,000 ft), the.aircraft can locate a small ship in heavy seas at a distance
of 161 km (100 miles), so that it is able to cover an entire EEZ with a single pass
161 km (100 miles) from the coastline.
Spain's CASA has had some success with its C-212 Aviocar ln ASW and
patrollsAR versions, each fitted with a prominent nose radome and (for ASW)
Above : The Australian G overnment
Aircraft Factory Nomad is typical of
the many basic aircraft adapted to
the maritime function. The
S ear chm as ter B of the I ndonesian
Naval Air Arm provides a basic MR
capability, with a Bendix RDR I 400
forw a r d - 1o oking sur f ace s e arch
radar in the extendednose.

Lett: Dassault-Breguet achieved a

real coupwith their sale of the
surveillance version of the Falcon 20
ex ecutive j et to the US C oast Guar d.
Known as theHU-25AinUS service,
theGuardian, as it is called, is not
armed, but has a state-of-the-art
sensor fit, including radar, ultra-
violet and infra-red detectors.

Modern Maritime Aircraft
Remaining with European manufacturers, the Dornier range of twin turboprop
transports has its MR derivatives fitted with MEL Marec radar in the chin
position, including two Do 128-2s with the Moroccan alr force and three Do
2B-2s operated by the Cameroun air force. Two models of the Do 228 Maritime
Patrol are being offered: Version 'A'with Marec ll for fishery protection and
anti-smuggllng; and Version 'B'carrying SLAR as a pollution control aircraftwith
additional surveillance and fishery roles. Indian production of the Do 22Bwill
include 36 of the 'A' model for its coast guard.
When Denmark chose a surveillance aircraft to protect its interests in the cold
waters around Greenland and the Faroes it looked to the United States. From
January 1982 onwards three Gulfstream Aerospace Gulfstream llls were sup-
plied, their equipment including an AN/APS-127 search radar in place of the
normal nose-mounted weather radar and provision for firing of f lares and drop-
ping SAR equipment. They have masses of special electronics.
Australia's contrlbution to the field, the GAF Nomad, is available in Search-
master B form with Bendix RDR 1400 radar or as the more extensively-equipped
Searchmaster L mounting a Litton APS-504(V)2 radar in the chin position.
lndonesia's navy has 1 2 Searchmaster Bs and six Searchmaster Ls; Papua New
G uinea operates three Searchmaster Bs; and the Thai navy took delivery of four
Searchmaster Ls (equipped with SSO-801 Barra sonobuoys) in 1984, plus a fifth
funded by the United Nations for anti-pirate patrols.
The same APS-504(V)2 radar ls fitted beneath the lsrael Aircraft lndustries
1 124N Sea Scan version of the Westwind business twinjet. Three are used by
the local air arm for coast patrol (with particular attention paid to possible
terrorist infiltration) and a more elaborate ASW version is in prospect. lsraeli
knowhow is also believed to be employed in the four Lockheed Electra ex-
airliners bought for converslon to MR and electronic lntelligence (Ellnt) models
by the Argentine navy following the Falklands war.
Facing an embargo on military equipment, South Africa is having difficulty in
finding a substitute for its Avro Shackletons (withdrawn in'1 984), but short-
range patrol work is undertaken by 1 9 radar-equipped Piaggio P.1 665 Albatross
twins. A maritime version of the current model. designated P.1 66-DL3-MAR and
fitted with four underwing pylons, ls on the market, and six are expected to be
delivered to ltaly's Servizio Nazionale della Protezione Civile for pollution patrols
and similar work.
Limited success has been obtained by Piperwith its quick-change Maritime
Surveillance Cheyenne ll, two of which were delivered to the Mauritanian air
force in 1981, each complete with a pair.of 70-mm reconnaissance cameras,
plus a search radar ln a pod beneath the port wing. ln contrast, however,
customers are still awaited for the Transall C.1 605 (Thomson-CSF VARAN radad
and BAe's Jetstream 31 EZ, which will have a belly-mounted radar and be similar
in appearance to the four Jetstream T.Mk 3 trainers (Racal ASR 360 radar)
ordered by the Royal Navy in 1984.

Below: Designed as a water bomber to tight forest fires, the Canadair CL-2I5 Above: The Boeing 737-200 Surveillers delivered to the Indonesian air force
r's a/so used for search and rescue, utility transport and coastal patrol. The two have a dual purpose; while retaining seating for 14 first-class and 88 other
aircraft operated by the Royal Thai navy are equipped for coastal patrol, and passengrert they are also fitted with high resolution Side-Looking Airborne
are fittedwith a search radar. Multi-Mission Radar, capable of scanning I 60 km ( I 00 miles) each side.
i,fctr,"ed P-2 Neptune
In terms of numbers built argnrably the
most successful post-war manttrne atr-
craft, the Lockheed Nephure can in
characteristrc featrue of the Nephme.
Production then switched to the P2V-4
(later designated P-2D), but only 52
rent company, these being
plemented by 48 Japanese-built exam-
ples, and it was Japan which was the
sup- 649 km/ir (403 mph) at 3048 m
( 10,000 ft); patrol cruising speed
333 lcn/h (207 mph) at 2591 m
fact be traced as a development back were completed before the P2V-S (la- source of the flnal production version, (8,500 ft); ferry ranse 5930 kn (3,685
to September 1941, when work began ter P-2E) made its debut, this eventual- namely the P2V-7KAI which benefit- miles)
on the company's Model 26, However, Iy becoming the most numerous ver- ted from the adoption ofturboprop en- Weights: empty 22650 kq (49,935 Ib);
the more urgent considerations of sion, some 424 being produced for ser- gines, a pair of General Electric{Hl maximum take-off36240 kg (79,895 lb)
World War II dictated a very leisurely vice with the US Navy and a number of T64s replacing the Wright R-3350 ra- Dimensions:span 31,65 m (103 ft 10 tn);
rate of progrress, and it was not until other countries including fugentina, diai engines ofearlier Neptunes, Pro- lengrth 27 84 m (91 ft 4 rn) herght 8.94 m
April 1944 that Lockheed received a Australia, Brazrl, the Netherlands, Por- duction of the P2V-7KAI (later P-2J) (29 ft 4 in); wing area 92,90 m
contract covering the construction of a tugal and the UK, eventually ceased with the completion (1,000 sq ft)
pau of XP2V- 1 prototypes qnd an imtral Further refinements to the bastc de- of the 82nd example, this brlnging the Armament: assortment of mines, depth
production batch ofjust 15 P2V-l air- sign led to the appearance ofthe P2V-6 total number of Neptunes built to 1, 133. charges, bombs and torpedoes can be
craft, Subsequent developments of the (later P-2F) in late 1952, 67 standard housed in an internal weapons bay;
Neptune enabled the type to remain in arrcraft being followed by 16 speclally- Specification underwing stores stations can
continuous production for close to 35 conflgured P2V-6M aircraft which SP-2HNeptune accommodate addittonal ordnance
years, thus establishlnqt an excep- were compatible with the Fairchild Type: maritime patrol and anti- includinq bombs and high-velocity
tional longevity record. AUM-N-2 Petrel air{o-surface missile. submanne warfare aircraft aerialrockets
Flown for the first trme in prototype Lockheed productron of the Neptune Powerplant: two Wright R-3350-32W
form on 17 May 1945, the Neptune duly terminated with the P2V-7 (later P-2H) Turbo-Compound l8-cylinder radial
entered service with the US Navy in version, which was the only model to piston engnnes, each rated at 2610 kW
March 1947, shortly after the P2Y-2 feature auxilary jet engnnes from the (3,500 hp) and two Westinghouse J34-
variant made its maiden flight. Some 81 outset although this feature was later WE-36 turbojets, each rated at 1542-kg
examples of this subtype were com- retrofitted to the earlier P2V-5 and (3,400-lb)
pleted, these being followed by 53 P2V-6, The P2V-7S (later SP-2H) was a Performance: maximum speed
P2V-3 and 30 P2V-3W aircraft, the lat- conversion with Julie and Jezebel sub-
ter model introducing the ventral marine detection equpment. A total of
radome which was to become such a 311 P2V-7s was completed by the pa-

-t a

Still in sewice in large numbers with the air arm of the J apanese Maritime Self-Defence Force, the Lockheed P-2 has
now heen in sewice tor almost tour detades.

Lockheed P-3 Orton

By Augrust 1957 it appeared the i,ock-
heed P-2 Neptune was coming to the
Norway's No. 332 Sqn flies the P-38 Orion on
marttime duties around the long coastline. These
end of its development, and the US are unusua/ tn b eing painted dark grey'
Navy invited submissions f6r a re-
placement. J,ockheed won with a pat-
ToVASW derivative of its L-I88 Electra
civil transport, the Lockheed P-3 Orion
with airframe almost unchanged ex-
cept for the addition of an unpressur-
ized weapon bay ahead of the wing in
a shortened fuselage, pylons for exter-
nal stores and a MAD boom behind the
tall. An aerodynamic prototype mth
these changes flew on i9 Auerust 1958, Specification
The first production P-34 flew on 15 P-3COrion
April 1961 and by l9B3 Lockheed- Type:maritime patrol and ASW {
Cair-fornia had delivered almost 600 P- aircraft
3s of successively improved models, Porrerplant: four 366 l. 4=ekW (4, 9 10-
Most are regular maritime patrol air- ehp) Allison T56- l4 turboprops
craft but the US Navy uses EP'38 and Performance: maromurn speed at a I
EP-3E electronic-warfare platforms weiEht of 47628 kg (105,000 ]b) 76I kn/
with giant canoe tadars, RP-34 h (473 mph); maximum radius with no
machines are special reconnatssance time en statiqn 3835 kn (2,383 miles)
aucraft and four WP-3A alrcraft fly Weights: empty 2789 I kg (61,491 lb);
',leather mrssions, The standard 1985 maximum take-off 644 l0 kg
model is the P-3C Update III, the va- (142,000 rb)
rous Update progrrammes having con- Dimensions: span 30,38 m (99 ft 8 in)l
i:ibuted improved sensors, data- lensth 35,61 m (1 16 ft 10 in); height
processing, nav/com and other aviontc 10.27 m (33 ft 8.5 in): wing area 120,77
s-ystems, The Canadian Armed Forces mz (1,300 sq ft)
bcught 18 CP-140 Aurora aircraft Armament: total expendable load
packaged the Lockheed S-3A 9072 ks (20,000 1b) comprising up to
-€rsors, avionics and data-processing 3289 kg (7,252 lb) in internal bay
s,;siems into the P-3 arframe. Japan's (made up typically of two Mk I0l
{: P-3C Update II aircraft comprise depth bombs, fow Mk 44 torpedoes
butwith the electronic andsensor
':::ee flornm from Lockheed, and four and numerous sensors/signals) plus The Canadian Armed Forces have
and 38 licence-built by underwingload on 10 pylons bought 18 Lockheed CP- I 40 Auroras, package foundr'n tfi e same
(a,-asaki. (maxrmum sx 907-kg/2,0001b mines) flrese berngr sf a ndar d P 4 airtrame s company'sS-3Viking.
lockheed Orion in Action
Developed from the Lockheed Electra
airliner, the P-3 Orion has become the
Wesf s prtmary long-range A,SW and
maritime patrol aircraft. More than 550
Orions have tlown since the la fe J 950s.

The backbone of the US Navy's shore-based

anti-submarine warfare and long-range patrol
forces for more than l5 years, ihe Irockheed
P-3 Orion has proved to be a most worthy suc-
cessor to the same company's Neptune, and
with production continuing at a modest rate for
this service and for a number ofoverseas cus-
tomers, the Orion looks like being around for a fi:rther 13 Resewe Force squadrons operate TheP-3CvariantottheOrionformsthebac,kboae
good many more years yet. examples of the P-3A and P-3B. Other nations oltlellSM1W'ssiore-basedAS\OaFolfore.
- Based oh tfre laiity suicessful Electra airlin- operating variants of the P-3 comprise Spain This4ircraftisfromW-5(PatrolSquadroni),
et-the Orio" uegu" development in earnest tp-gal, lSpan (P-3C), the Netherlands (P-3C), usuallvbasedatJacksonuille,Florida'
waybackinAugnrst lg57withtheissueof Tlpe Norway (P-3B), Iran (P-3F), Australia (P-3C),
Specification No. 146 by the Chief of Naval New Zealand (P-38) and Canada (CP-140 Au- and suweillance of Soviet submarines, it fol-
Operations, the Lockheed proposal being one rora). In the meantime, continuing develop. Iows that a large number of sonobuoys are flso
of several submissions for this potentially lucra- ment of the basic design has mainly centred carried, these still being one of the prime sen-
tiveproject. Closestudyof thesesoonrevealed around enhancing detection and data- sor types employed in the three-dimensional
thattheP3V-l,asitwasoriginallylcrovm,was processingcapability,andtheOrionoftodayis game of hide-and-seek'to which ASW has
by far the most suitable candidate, and Lock- thus a very different beast from that which en- been likened. On the P-3C some 48 size A
heed'sinitiativewasrewardedinOctdber 1958 tered service more than 20 years ago sonobuoys are carried in a bank of lar:nch
by a contract covering procurement of long- rLOftgffng
.. hrbes situated beneath the fuselage jrut aft of
Iead{ime ;oms this
loa;-fima items, rhic hoino
being rapidly follnuro4 liw
ranirlw icllowed by CapaDruty the wing, these being loaded and unloaded
another flcr development of the sophisticated Possessing a maximum mission endurance fromoutsidewhilsttheaircraftisonthegror:nd.
sersors and systems earmarked for installation in the order of 17 hours, the Orion is in many but there are also four launching tubes in the
in the new patrol aircraft. ways ideally suited to the special demands of cabin for size 'A' and 'B' stores, adjacent rack-
Representing a quantum leap in the anti- ASWpatrol duties, enjoying reasonably fast ing permittrng extra sonobuoys to be carried
submarine warfare state of the art, the Orion en.routecruisespeedswhilealsobeingableto intemally.
Was of necessity developed over a fairly pro- loiter in the vicinity of a target or suspected In the course of a typical mission, a single
tracted period, and it was not until Augn:st i962 target for as much as seven hours at distances Orion can cover a vast expanse of water, and
that the type entered service, the initial P-3A of up to 1850 lsn (1,150 miles) from base. As far although the P-3 is most commonly associated
production model joining Patrol Squadron VP- as offensive capability is concerned, the Orion with anti-submarine warfare, it should not be
8 at Pahrxent River, Maryland. Subseguently, has a capacious bomb bay which houses a forgotten that much of the type's work is of a
this and more capable later variants progres- variety of weapons such as mines, depth
sively replaced the P-2 Nephrne and Martin charges and torpedoes, further ordnance such
p-s Marrin that were.rabioty beqomins ;-the AcM-aa- Ha'pdon ;i;:;;;;;;;ii: ?A?:tyffi:*{f:l:X:#!##:,ffi2A'
obsolescent. Today, all 24 operational US Navy shippins missile being carriid r'lder the wing ;;;.;;"r;;;i"i"iiJiii7"a m^ the outside
patrol squadrons are equipped with either the on the latest production models. Since much of whileth6aircraltisatrest.Fowtubesconnetwith
P-3B or P-3C versions ol the Orion, while a theOrion'smissionisconcernedwithdetection theinterior,andcanbereloadedwhileinllighL
sensor in the search for the latter is the MAD
(magnetic anomaly detector), which notes and
reports on such variations in the Earth's magme-
tic field as might be caused by the presence of
a submerged vessel or wreck.
Stores management is also accomplished by
computer, this being responsible for determin-
ing which sonobuoy will be launched and auto-
matically selecting any one of 3l VHF channels
used to monitor sigmals emanating from these
sensors. Positional information pertaining to
sonobuoys is also established by computer be-
icre display at the Tacco's station, and this de-
vice also looks after ordnance, selecting the
weapon to be delivered and providing launch
cues to the crew.

purely surveillance nature. Accordingly, a Above: Iran was supphed with P-3 Orions before
variety of sensor systems (including radar, thelslamicrevolution. Since that time, they have
sonobuoys and a magnetic anomaly detector) steadily beenwithdrawnlrom usedue to lackof
spares, butitis thought thatseveralhave seen
are employed by crew members, and all of iction patrolling the Gulf during the war with lraq.
these systems provide data directly to the cen-
tral computer for processing and dispiay via a
number of cathode ray hrbes located in the
cabin and on the fliqht deck. By eliminating the
need to perform mathematical calculations and
routine record-keeping, the computer has tru-
ly revolutlonized the ASW mission, perhaps the
most significant benefit being that crew mem-
bers can now direct their attention almost en-
tuely to the developing tactical sihration.
Of almost equal value is the fact that software
relating specificaily to a particular mission pro-
flle can also be prepared. Based on larotnn
navigation data and the latest intelligence re-
ports, this software is loaded into the Orion's
computer shortly before deparhrre and once
airborne can provide a reasonably accurate
picture of the shipping situation likely to be
encountered in the area under surveillance.
Data-link iacilities also enable up-to-the-
murute information to be received or transmit-
ted during the course of a mission, sources and
recipients of such .!{ormation being other
of LOCkheed P-3C OriOn Cutaway drawing key
ASW-dedicated aircibft and certain classes
surlace vessel, the latter including aircraft-
carriers. I iii',ii"?:ii:,'""*". X3
Once the Orion has reached its area of op- 5 MADil;;--
t#,18',:?'(t') 3; F:T:uoi:l**"
44 Avionicsbay(H2l 93 winstipfairins..
at"lio*,the tactical co-ordinator's station b'e- 4 Tailcone 45 Avionicsbav(H'l) 84 Portnaviqationlisht

comes the focar point of mGion-rerated activ- 3 i[ili:,',,t.x%'

rtx tlr" siation fe.aturrnq a larse disptay_ unit 3 PH:?flf;i",y;$"
il47 iJ-rLltt"#ititlt!ft,
starboardobsffition :: [;iT:]:llT*''*''" 115 Avionicsbay(C3)
39 il?;li"ii,ll?i?i.*. Avionicsbay{C2}
capable of providing either qfound-stabilized 9 taitptun"str,i"trt". compartment). .
117 Avionicsbay(C1)
oraircraft-centredreadinqs pLp""Oitgon* to Lmaing-edsenotairanti- 9o9"'":1,3:?ly,$i,-H""." * mac-hinedskinpanels

118 Obseruationwindow
119 Nav/comstation
'irev-1tor(starboard)and Xg
50 'B'-storelaun;hers(1) 89 Enginebleedairshut{ff
qulements, this multi-purpose diSplay Can rr A-storeraunchers(t'
120 Bulkhead
121 Tacoseat
p=t datalniiuoingwiiiodirec- ffi{oo+)r'vo"t" 3l no EX[inetirewa' 122 Tacostation
and velocity, sonobuoy positionS, range r2 luoaertint<age 53 Underdeck'A'-store 91 Nacellecowlins 123 Antenna
124 Curtains/dooMayto flighf
r.ui"-G.vinsir'om,oz tozhz4wnlz.gto t,s6z 15 Bevatortube"universar uo F;ilil"",iil1?1"*r'* 33 [i3lli3.'J?1ffi*. deck
mrles), arrCraft heading and ground speed, aS 14 iiuddertowerhinse ,. flighiposition) . 91 :gjllgt:-^..,-
1 25 Flight crew emergency exil

ir ranse and 6earin's to. suipecied 13 E:3r:lij'#tg"
33 X"1iL"SL:ir"in1?"' 33 B',i3""Ji.l;Xfit
126 Avionics bay (A1)
'127 Pilot'sseat
'l28 Flightengineer's seat
tafgets. All of this data is automatically stored it iiil;;il;i: 57 Avionicsbay(G1),___, e7 F_9yP9djl-{pll9l_
129 Overhead instrument
on-masinetic tape and can be analysed-once l3 fill"i$1oo",n'nou 33 h'Jfi1"'X,Hil.a,gi'*t l};'J;:3fiu"o"'oo" console
the mission is completed and the aircraft
has Zo ii;l'p. .- " 60 'A'-store$dwaseracks s8 oilcooiersvstem 130 Windshield
*t"treo to base. Thus, lur exampie, in a train- ;l ff"Huolfrl[rT' u' 8,lo'u',o1"""]rrva,"uri".
* 5S3,l3ii!??i3llgu-rr
131 lnstrumentpanelshroud
'132 Controlcolumn
ing exercise, the mission profile can be replay- 23 portetevaior seruicecentrd coitrolvalvti 133 FoMard pressure
ed permittinq cr.* *etiibeis more or ldss io 38 Fl"'lj:i?:1ffi"
33 WLn:??N3j11?.",, 13? Pi1Jl.'J??t['$Jii,!"3'*o"o 134 Radarsupport
re€nacttheirmissionand]earnwhattheydidl6inieg;iiniiiZ'tu'"r"ge64Avionicsbay(F1)...^^!"p.. 135 Nosecone
'136 APS-I'l5radar
nshtand, perhapsmore importantly, whatthey 33 fjln:l:Xn,ii]5'mi, 33 iil3lgi"Tg',:diit'"' "' u';'?1"'""oul':nu'o".. 137 RetractableFLlR
drd wrong. Id aiiiki[i"slo,i"iiisni 67 Avionicsbai{E1} 103
138 Pitothead
139 Nosewheelwellbeams
Sersor"inputs-are manased-ny tirg tactical^ mantena-nceworkbench :t lJlfi[{::Ji*":: . ]gt fJ[?133[,1i3'.f-*'' 140 Rudderpedal
co-ordinator, who has the added bonus of so Ei-;u-aioi't'imtaos"to 99 FJnersencvexit(starboard) 105 sensorcompartment
G;s i" oGct ttre-co*lJgi nro4i nv AYl:lr:[:vt[ll
:e 'i"i",i!J-oi"Jt)i
to Mainerectricarroadcentre
,06 3"slfr3le:"."":T"i"
means "b6
of relaying fly-points to the flight direc- 55 71 bperators'seats 107 Windowpon
:cr ndicator in tie Lockpit. 5;
li;,i:XlyS**t' l3 33l3SI:HliSl1l3:3H[i:l
108 sensorsiation3{non-

As far as detection capability is concerned, ss )i"ioi.iCJuuviLzl 74 109 Avionicsbav(D2)

raoar-rs the principal sensor used to observe io A"rc""iriviLti l3 5&Pi15jl',ffi""J13e-'"*" rro ffil]f#l"ilr,ot,
srriace vessels, while sonobuoys (of both ac- 5e B*r;iining"at ll Je_1-bibe.exhauEts 111 Ditchinsstatioi{l3places)
;;;dp""s*"type"1J;;ilit&;ioveo- i3 5fi,Hi3'flT"*".'" igPi"iiJlll,o"o"o.
80 Ailerontiihtab
113 iYiSli::B:VlEil
'je hunt for submarines. Another important 41 Lavatory 114 Avionicsbav(Bl)


This brief look at some of the aspects of
electronic wizardry available to the personnel
who man the US Navy's large fleet of Orions
might seem to indicate that they have not too
much to do during a mission. Such an assump-
tion would be erroneous, however, for the
workload is still extremely higrh and ASW still
has some way to go before it enters the totally
automated age. Even then, it is hiqhly unlikely
that the number of aircrew members will de-
cline, for there will probably always be a need
for the old-fashioned'mark one eyebali'which
is still one of the most effective sensors around,
while the human brain is streets ahead of even
the most sophisticated computer when it com-
es to powers of reasoning,

141 Nosewheel ietraction jack 151 Bombload(eightbombs) 167 Jet-pipeexhausts 186 Aileron control linkage Above: Tlpical of a day's work for the modqn
142 Nosewheeldoors
'143 FoMard{etracting twin
152 Spinners
1 53 Four-blade propellers
168 Flapprofile
169 Bondeddoubleskin
187 Twin {fail-safe)trim
maritime patrol craft, this P-38 Orion of W- 17 ns
nosewheels 1g Engineairintake 170 No.4fueltank 188 Ailerontrim tab shadowing a Soviet'Kynda' class gnudedmssle
144 Nosewheel leg torque link 155 lntaketrunking '171 Mainwheelwellaftdoors 189 Staticdischargers cruiser. Otten the first knowledge of new SwF-it
145 Nosewheellegpivot
146 Co-pilot'sseat
1 Engine bearers ('V
157 Oiltank I
-f rame) 172 Twin mainwheels
173 Mainwheelleg pivot
190 Starboardaileron
191 Starboard navigation lighl
weapons comes from photos taken during *d
'147 FoNard electrical load 158 lnboardleadingedge '174 Retractianjack 192 Formation/identification encounters.
centre 175 MainwheelwellloMard light
148 UnderdeckAPU 159 Wingrootfillet doors
compartment '160 Fuselagefuel cell{no. 5 176 Engineairintake
149 Under-deckweaponsbay bag) 1 77 Propeller reduction gear
150 Weapons baydoors 161 Watetralcoholtank box
162 Wing centre-section front 178 Oilcoolerintake
beam 179 Enginesupportstruts
1 63 Centresection integral f uel 180 Driveshafthousing
tank {No. 5) 1 81 Allison TsGAI 0turboprop
'164 Centresection engrne compressor
end rib
\ 165 No.3fueltank
166 Flapstructure
182 Combustionsection
\ 183 Turbinesection
184 Jetpipe
185 Stainless-steel heat-


@ Pilot Press Linited

193 Rearspar
1 94 lntegrally stilfened wing
195 Wing ribconstruction
196 Frontspar
197 Leading€dge structure
19B Undewing stores pylons
(three outboard, two
Lockheed P-3C Orion Updqte ll

Modern Maritime Aircraft

Of the 26 land-based Maritime Patrol

squadrons operational in theUS
Navy, I 3 are Pacific-based, at Mofrett
Field, California, and at Barbers
Point, H awaii. The corresponding
Atlantic Squadrons are based at the
N aval Air Station, J acksonuille,
Florida, and NA,S Brunswick, Maine.
Th/s Lockleed P-3C Update II is
assrlrned lopa trol squadron W- I I at

ry] i,fcr.need C-I30 Hercules
Undoubtedly one of the most success-
ful Western military aircraft of the post-
war era, the Lockheed Hercules has
been in conlrnuous production since
1955 and the number built is now
creeping up towards the 2,000 mark,
Although designed primarily to fulfil
airlift-type duties, the Hercules has
proved to be a most versatile machtne
and presently undertakes such di-
verse tasks as rnflight-refuelling, sup-
port of Antarctic exploration, weather
reconnarssance, satellite capsule re-
covery, drone launch and control, ar-
borne command post and search and
in addition to these mrssions, the ,,.,.--""'=l%_, €u-i:€t
Hercules has also proved to be well-
surted for maritime applications. For
the most part these are confined to
surveillance and, indeed, the maritime
Hercules lacks offensive capability
although it rs by no means beyond the
realms of possibility that it cou-ld even-
tually be reconfrgnrred in order to per-
mit the carnaqe of dedicated antt-
submarine warfare weaponry such as
depth charges. conflquration 39945 kq (88,064 lb); Above: Given the astonishing range Below: The US Coast Guard has more
Based on the C-130H, which is the maximum normal take-off 70307 kq offasksillraspertormed in its 30- than 20 HC-[30 Hercules, although
current production model of the Her- ( I 55,000 lb); maximum overload take- year career, it is hardly surprising sameof the earlier models are in
cules, those aucraft intended for mari- otr79379 kq ( 175,000 lb) that there should be a maritime storage.The HC-l 30H is an extended
time tasks incorporate a number of de- Dimensions: span 40.41 m ( 132 ft 7 in); suweillance version o{ the Lockheed nnge model originally used by the
iail chanqes, but the basic design can Ienqlh 29,79 m (97 ft 9 in); hersht Hercules. Used by Indonesia, the Air Force AerospaceRescue &
be more or less tailored to meet cus- II.66 m(38 ft3 in); wingarea 162. I I m' C-130H-MP can patrol for up to 16 Recovery Service, with I 2
tomer requirements. Optional equip- (1,745 sq ft) hours at an altitude of I 525 m subsequently produced tor the US
ment available includes a crew resV Armament:none (s,000 !0. CoastGuard.
qalley module; a ramp equlpment pal-
iet containing rescue kit, a loudspeak-
er, flare launchers and an aJt facing
observation platform; specialued sea
search radar; advanced navigation
equlpment; searchlights; system inter-
faces for carnera and data annotation
qear; and observation stations in the
cabin area. In addrtion, of course, the
Hercules can also undertake aLrlift-
rype duties with equal facility, a factor
'.arh,cn musl be particularly attraclive to
taose nations which have only limited
i-urds available for the purchase ofnew
C- l30H (maritime configruration) t=,
l'gpe: medium,4ongr-range cargo/
::altune suweillance aLrcraft .'$i. "1*,' --.
Powerplant: four 336 1,6-kW (4,508- 4
::o) Alhson T56-A- I5 h-rboprop '''!- t:i..i::.:-:i.
:aglnes =::.:.i::l:.€-:i!;oi:;i=;.i:,11-
P erf ormance maxrm um cruising
::eed 62 i kr/h (386 mph); patrol
ri:ge with auxiliaryfuel at
. -:,'erllance altitude of 1524 m
: liC m) 4661 km (2,896 rrules)
zpro fuel in typical marrlrme


Dassault-Bregruet Atlantic
DassaullBrequet Atlantic stem-
: .: r l:m
the Bregnret Br I150, the win-
: : =: i:srgm in a l95B NATO contest for
. -:'.'.- narrtrme patrol aircraft to suc-
--=j .:e i,ockheed Neptune. Though
'-- r:.i.e was approved by all 15 E'
e. :..-.
l. : - l nembers rn December 1958, #;
.:.: ,: j:red rnto productton by a mul- .g -'
:. ::,al consortium called SECBAT, F- ---
6a: :::

.\'. a tured by an international

n u f ac
:::sortium to aFrench desigm, the
.:.:.anitc is only operated inany
::.niry by France, Germany and
.:a.', . Germany operates 14Atlantics
:. :e maritime role, with five more i=r**a
a:::raf t being dedicated toElint. jri:.
Dassault-Bregruet Atlantic (continued)

the Atlantic was bought by only a few

countries, notably excluding the UK
and the USA, and Belgium whose in-
dustry had a major share in SECBAT,
Other partners, apart ftom the parent
f,rm, were Sud-Aviation, Dornier and
Fokker. Italy joined after placing an
order, and the British engdnes and
propellers were likewise shared out
among participating nations. The pro-
totype flew on 2l October 196l and "l
deiiveries began in December 1965, \{
totalling 87 for France (37), West Ger-
mary (20), Italy (IB), Netherlands (9)
and Pakistan (3). Sktnned largely wtth
alumnnum hoireycomb sandwich, the The 27 Atlantics carrently in service form the backbone of France's maritime reconnaissance streng:th. The new
Atlantic has a-capacious double- AtlantiquewasfirstllowninMayl9Sl,and42havebeenordetedbytheAaronavale.Thenewmodelleaturesa
bubble fuselage, an efficient long- strengthenedstructureandnewavionics-
span winq, and comprehensive
avionics managed by a crewof 12. Five Specification range B 150 kn (5,065 miles); Armament unpressurized weapon
German machines are ECM platforms. Atlantique endwance IBhours bay houses all NATO bombs,
On B May l98l Dassault-Bregnret flew Type: maritime patrol and ASW Weishts: empty 25300 kg (55,777 lb); torpedoes (8), depth charges, mhes
the first ANG (Atlantic Nouvelle aircraft maximum take-off 46200 kg and missiles, a typical load betng one
Ci5n6raiion) with completely updated Powerplant: hvo 4638.3-ekW (6,220- (r0r,B54 rb) AM39 Exocet plus three Astorpedoes;
avionics and improved structure. ehp) Rolls-Royce Tlne 2l turboprops Dimensions: span (over ESM pods) four wing pylons for 3500 kg (7,716 lb)
France expects to buy 42 ANGs (now made by multinational grroup 37.30 m(122 ft4.5 in); length32.62 m of stores includinq pods, containers,
krown as the Aflantique) made by the Performance: maximum speed at sea (107 ft 0.25 rn); heisht I I.35 m (37 ft rockets or ASMs
same SECBAT consodium, and other Ievel592 lcn/Lt (368 mph), and at 2. 9 in); wing are a 120.34 m2

orders are beinq sought. 6096 m (20,000 ft) 658 lqn/h (409 mph); (i,295.3 sq ft)


Shin Meiwa PS-l and US-l

Today the great fleets of militarY
flying-boats and amphibians have all
butvanished, and the only type recent-
ly in production is the Shin Meiwa SS-2
family whrch was produced as the PS-l
and US-l for the JMSDF (Japan Mari-
tLrne Seif-Defence Force). The com-
pany was famed as that wartime buil-
der of marine aircraft, Kawanishi, and
when lt received a 1966 contract for an
ASW (antisubmarine warfare) flying-
boat it produced a very advanced de-
srgn with four turboprops for pro-
pulsion and a ffih gas turbine to pro- Whikt on patrol thePS- I makes repeated landings and take-otfs, dipping its sonar after alighting. This can be
vide high-pressure air for boundary- accomplished in seas with up to 3 m ( I 0 ft) waves.
layer control blowing over the flaps,
rudder and elevators. This enables the
arcraft to fly extremely slowly under
irll control and also gneatly reduces
akeofland alightng dtstances. The first
S2 (PS-l) flew in October 1967, and
eventually 23 production machines
'rere dellered, 19 of these remaining
:perational wlth the JMSDF 31st Au
Group at Iwakunl, The PS-I has a crew
:i I0, comprising hvo pilots, flight en-
;ineer, naviqator, tvvo sonar operators
sonar can be repeatedly dipped in
l:ugh seas after alighttng), MAD oper-
:::r. radar and radio operators and
co-ordinator. A beachinq chas-
ss is permanentiy attached and the
4-1 can taxi ashore under its own
;c'wer. The SS-2A amphibian, on the
:--:er hand, has full tricycle landtng
;*'ar, and eight were delivered as US-
- *arch/rescue aircraft with a crew of
:-:e and room for either 20 seated sur-
r:;crs, 12 stretcher (litter) casualties or
:! rrdilary passengers.
Fcmerplant: four 228 I. B-ekW (3,060-
=c.l! I General
Electrlc T64-IHi-10
1gr-props (made ulder licence by
ilJdor*"o"", -""imum speed
14- ::nh(340 mph); rangteatlow Dimensions: sian 33. 14 m (108 ft four 149-kg (328ilb) AS bombs and A highly a dv anced wing and engine
aLfr:-lie wrth maximum weapons 8,7 in); length33.50 m(109 ft 10.9 tn); extensive search gear, two underwlng comhination gives the S hin Meisa
.l-:E kn(l,347miles) heiqht 9.71 m (31 ft 10.3 in); wing area pods for four Mk 44 or 46 homing AS PS- I and the amphibious US- I very
Tdqlns: empty 26300 kg (57,982 lb); 135.82 m'z(I,462 sq ft) torpedoes and fiple launcher under good STOL and low speed handlitrg
mar*um 43000 kq (94,799 lb) Armament: intemal weapon .bay for each wingtip icr I 27-mm (S-in) rockets capabilities.
ffi tritish Aerospace Nimrod
AIter many years studying other ideas,
the RAF picked the British Aerospace
Nimrod as itsreplacement for the Awo
Shackleton in the maritime patrol role,
and the first production Nimrod
MR.Mk I flew on 28 June 1968, Fea-
tures include an enormously capa-
cious fi:seiage with a very large un-
pressurized lower lobe housing the
radar, weapon bays and much systems
equipment. Flight is possible on any IVjrnrodS/atestMR.Mk2P wisehas ahempcoloursciemeand aninflight-refuellingprobe added.
one of the four fuel-elhcient turbofan
engnnes, the outers having reversers to Three Nimrod R.IvIk I aircraft sewe in Specification Armament 14.78 m(48 ft6 in)weapon
back up the antr-skid brakes on the the dedicated Elint role, From 1979 a NimrodMR.Mk2 bay carries six lateral rows ofstores
bogie main gears and enormous plain total of 32 Nimrod MR. Mk ls have been Type: maritime patrol aircralt including nine torpedoes as well as
flaps, The notmal crew comprise 12, rebuilt as Nimrod MR.Mk 2 with com- Powerplant: four 5507-kg (]2, I40-lb) bombs; provision for wing pylons for
who have an outstandingly complete pletely upgraded avionics, sensors thrust Rolls-Royce Spey 250 turbofans ASMs orotherstores; very
and well integrrated array of sensors, and data-processrng. A total of I i furth- Performance: maximum speed comprehersive ASW sensor systems
data processing and navigatior/com- er aircraft are being delivered as Nim- 926 lsn/it (575 mph); patrolspeedon
munication/identification systems for rod AEW.Mk 3 AWACS type aircraft, ftvo engines 370 lan/h (230 mph);
ASW SAR, Elint, reconnarssance and with Marconl pulsed-Doppler suweiil- range 9262 kn (5,755 miles); Nimrodsweregiven a limited selt-
other tasks for surface forces and even ance radar of extremely advanced endurance 18 hours de fe nce cap a bilif
during the
transport with accommodation for 45 type rising nose and taii aerials each Weishts: empty 39009 kg (86,000 Ib); F alklands campaign by the addition
passenqers in the rear compartment. scanning 180' wtth perfect vislbillty. maximum take-off 87090 kg of N M-9L Sidewinders under the
The 43 Nimrod MR.Mk I aucraft estab- The Nimrod AEW.Mk 3ls compatible (]92 000 lb) wingis; these were also lo be used
lished an outstanding record, only one wrth all E-3A Sentries and should enter Dimensions:span35.0 m(l l4 ft i0 in); against Argentine Boeing 707 s which
being lost in 10 years of intensive op- service with No. B Sguadron, RAF, in lengrth 38,63 m (126 ft 9 in); heisht were patrolling thesarne oceans.
eration, mainly in extremely adverse 1986. 9.06 m (29 ft 8.5 in): wing area 197 mz This aircraft is an MR.M k 2P with
conditrons and at very low levels. (2,121 sq ft) inllig h t- retu e I ling pr o be.
>K tit",,r, Britten-Norman Maritime Defender Modern Maritime Aircraft
The Brltrsh firm Britten-Norman flew a each srde, giving a search band of
prototype of the highly successful Brit- 111 km (69 miles) at optimum altitude.
ten-Norman BN-2 Islander nine- For day or night operations in coastal
passenqer light transport in 1965, A patrol, fishery protectlon and SAR
rugged aircraft with fixed landing roles, the aircraft carries a pilot, a co-
gear, it has also been produced in the prlot, a radar operator and two obser-
Philippines, Romania and Belgium, vers, together with such aids as Ome-
although the parent company at Bem- qa navigation, a radio altimeter and a
bndge, Isle of Wight, s now Swiss- transponder, Wing pylons are re-
owned. Several air arms adopted the tained for SAR kits as well as more
lslander for personnel and freight warlike loads such as BAe Sea Skua
transport, including five delivered to anti-ship missiles, Marconi Strngray
the Indian Navy in 1976, l,ater, these hominq torpedoes, self-defence AIM-
aircraft were modif,ed with a nose- 9 Sidewinder AAMs and a range of
mounted radar for maritime patrol ECIWESM pods, An optional search-
duties, being auqmented 1n 198 1-3 by a light and hand-held camera are avail-
further dozen to the same standard. able for flshery and other policing
Similarly, the Philippine nary operates tasks, Customers may opt for the Tur-
five locally-built Islanders in the sur- bine Defender version, powered by
veillance role, two 238,6-kW (320-shp) Allison 250-
The next stage in development was B17C turboprop engines,
the Defender, built to military stan-
dards and with optional fitments in-
cluding four underwing weapon Specification
pylons and weather radar in the nose
a Maritime Defender
to provide a simple maritime-search Type: armed maritime surverllance
capability, Low cost has resulted in aircraft
considerable sa1es, especially to Third Powerplant: two 193, 9-kW (260;hp)
Worid countries. To meet the special- Avco l,ycoming O-540-E4C5 flat-sx
ued maritime requirement more fully, piston enqines
t'he manufacturer has introduced the Performance: maximum speed, clean
Maritime Defender, the main feature of 280 km/h (17 4 mph); initial climb rate
-uhich is a Bendix RDR 1400 radar pro- 396 m (l,3OO ft) per minute; service optional; Iengrth 11.07 m (36 ft 3.75 in); P ilatus B titten- N om an's D efe n d e r
-nding an enhanced seatch- range: ceilinq 5 182 m ( 17,OOO ft); range with heiqht 4 IB m ( I3 ft 8.75 rn); winq area provides a low-cost alternative for a
a7 kn- (41.5 miles) for a 100-m'z ( 1,076- maximum payload 673 km (418 miles) 30, i9 m'z (325,0 sq ft)or 3i.31 m2 maritime aircratt. This example flies
sq ft) object rn sea state 4-5, The nose Weights:empty 1823 kg (4,020 lb); (337,0 sq ft) with the Benin Defence Force on
:adome increases fuselage length maxrmum take-off2994 kg (6,600 ]b) Armament: various missiles and m aritime du ties, arm e d with
:rom the standard 10.86 m (35 ft Dimensions: span 14,94 m (49 ft O in) bombs on four underwing pylons torpe doe s under the w ing s.
-.75in), and the antenna scans 60" to standard, or 16,15 m (53 ft 0 in)

I tfiyasistrchev M-4 'Bison'

]iow in the twiiight of its operational
career, the Myasishchev M-4 'Bison'
entered the design stage in l95l and
;ras first seen airborne in a May Day
ilpast over Moscow in 1954. Servrce
ieliveries began in 1956, and with
-'ckname'Molot' (hammer) it gai
distinction of being the USSR's first
:lerational f^.,,
--^-^ri^-^l l^+ -+-^+^^:^
four-jet strategic L^*L^-
I{. Myasishchev had previously
:een a leadinq liqht in the Tupolev 'Bison-C'is themainmaritimeversionof the M-4,whichfeatures anelongatednose containing more capable rada:
::eau, and this product emerged as a 'Bison-B' was the earlier maritime version.
:: r'rst, yet innovative aircraft whrch
::: most aspects of an extremely de- gun-aiming position were added to
:,-iing strategic bomber specifica- each side ofthe fuselage, although the
r:- Srmilar in many respects to early belly retained the same modificatton
:::,:els of the Boeing B-52, the 'Bison- as the 'Bison-B', As such, the 'Bison-C'
l. :'-rnbered amonq its achlevements version is available for reconnaiss-
. rr::ld record speed 1028 lar/tt (639 ance, Elint, electronic warfare and
:;i. Ln a 1000-lan (62l-mile) closed mid-course guidance of long-range
:::::t carrying a 27000-kg (59,525-lb) anti-ship missiles, The 'Brson-A' and
:a1,:ad. Perhaps 200 of the type were perhaps a small number of 'Bison-Bs'
: ''- of which 40 remain as bombers and 'Bison-Cs' of the Soviet naval au
.-: 30 have been fitted as inflight- force remain in use.
::r-:11h9 tankers,
-l-::aritrme version, the 'Bison-B' was Specification
:=r :i:sewed in 1964, being disting- M-4'Bison-C'
:.::i by a solid nose radome with Type: maritime reconnaissance
r -,::'ed idlight-refuelling probe, a bomber
;' -r the forward portlon of the cen-
,_-- Powerplant: four 13000-kg (28, 6601b)
n= :'::-c bay doors, and a compre- thmst Soloviev D- 15 turbojets
rrn:s,= sensor fit betrayed by several Performance: maxrmum speed
:rur=r :=irings beneath the fuselage. 1005 km,/h (624 mph) or Mach fr945 at
l:= ::--3:tnal upper and lower reat I 1000 m (36,089 ft); unretuelled radius
'-u'rer:;: giut turets were removed, of action 5600 km (3,480 miles)
.::,-:: sx NR-23 cannon for self- Weights: empty about 83900 kg
::ei:,.:! The improved'Bison-C' con- ( 184, 968 1b); maximum take-off
'rr-.=r --:: MR theme, but its improved 210000 ks(462,971 lb)
re*r:i -:ar was contained rn a new, Dimensions: span 52,50 m ( 172 ft
! rr;E: ::se and a prone bombing 2,9 in); length excludingprobe 49,38 m The Mysasishchev M-4 heavy radius of over 5 600 km ( 3, 484 niles t "

:iisr::: iii-rn an optically flat wind- (162 ftO in); heiqht 14.24 m(46 ftB.7 in); bomber, known by the NATO itproved suitable for the maritime
r'ii:,=. i;F:,s added in the floor of the wingarea 320.0 m'z(3.444,6 sq fD reporting name'Bison', was the first reconnaissance and attack roles" at.d,
:::':r:r: ::t addition, more small win- Armament: sx NR-23 23-mm cannon in Soviet four-jet operational heavy two dedicated MR versions were
:rriln ::-i a domed obsewation and dorsal, tail andventral barbettes bomber. With an unrefuelled combat produced.
I i*pot"u Tu-16'Badger'
'Kipper', ('Badger-G') two AS-5 'Kelt'or
Beanng the T\.rpolev desiqnation Tu- craft with primary chaff-dispensing Powerplant: hvo 8700-kg ( 19, 2001b)
88, this strategic jet bomber first flew in function,'Badger-J' specialist electro- Mikulin AM-3M turbojets one AS-6'Kingflsh' air{o-surface
late i952.'Badger-A' bomber versions mc jammrnq aircraft and 'Badger-K' Performance: maximum speed missiles; bomber versions have
were in service by 1954 and these electronic reconnaissance aircraft, All 1000 km/h (620 mph); cruisingspeed provision for 6000 kg (13,000 ]b) of
were followed by'Badger-B' and'Bad- these versions are widely seen around 850 km/h (530 mph); servrce ceillng intemalstores
ger-G', whrch could carry two stand-off Western naval forces, and also make 14000 m(46,000 ft); maximumrange
air-to-surface missiles under the electronic intelligence flights around 6400 lcn (4,000miles)
wings.'Badger-C' is an antrshipping the coasts of NATO countries, eaves- Weights: empty 3600 ks (80,000 lb);
version with a 'Kippe/ misstle carried dropping on communications. Support maximum take-of 72000 kg
in a recess under the fuselage (some is provided by T\r-16 tankers, which (158,500 rb)
now have pylons for'Kingfish' missiles refuel other 'Badgters' by the winefiip- Dimensions: wing span 34.54 m (1 13 ft
under the wings). There have been to-wingrtip method. About 400 Tu-16s 3 in); length 36.5 m ( I20 ft); height
many maritime reconnaissance, Elint remain in service with the AV-MF 10,8 m (35 ft 6 in); wing area 170 m' An ti- shipping and reconnais s ance
and ECM variants: the 'Badger-D' (naval aviation). (1,820 sq ft) versions of the Tu- I 6 are widely seen
maritime reconnaissance platform Armament: dll versions have seven 23- around NATO ships and coastlines.
with large undernose radal, 'Badger-E' Specification mm NR-23 cannon: one fixed in This'Badger-C' carries a large radar
with cameras rn bomb bay, 'Badger-F' Tlpe: strate gdc bomber, missile forward fuselaqe, two in tatl turret and under the nose, and has pylons
with Elint pods carried under the platform, maritime reconnaissance, hvo each in ventral and dorsal under thewings for anti-shiP
urngs, tsadger-H' specralist ECM air- ECM and E[nt aircraft barbettes; ('Badger-C') one AS-2 missi,les.

I tlpot"u Tu-20 (Tu- 142) 'Bear' ?ear-F'r's tlre sp ecialkt anti-submarine version of
the Tu- 142. Most examples lack the nose radar ot
the'Bear-D' but sport a magnetic anomaly
detector (MAD) boom projecting from the top of

Desigrned as a strategTic nuclear bom- a propeller driven aircraft of its size. D'aircraft with a large I-band radome Specification
ber, the T\rpolev Tu-20 first flew in 1954 Main production of the 'Bear' ended under the belly; a small number of Tu-20 (Tu- 142)'Bear-F'
and was initially regarded in the West in 196I-2 after approximately 300 air- 'Bear-E' aircraft equipped wrth camer- Type: long-range maritime
as an aircraft of little promise, Havtng craft, although a dozen or so were pro- as in the bomb bay; and 50 'Bear-F' reconnaissance atrcraft
the desigm bureau project number Tu- duced annually for the next 20 years to arrcraft for antr-submarrne duties, The Powerplant: four I 1032,6-kW (14,795-
95. it was essentially a swept-wing ver- maintain force levels, Currently, the last-mentioned is a revised desiqn shp) Kuznetsov NK- 1 2MV turboprops
sron of the Tu-85 with four turboprop Soviet air force (V-VS) has about ll5 with changes inciuding a 2.00 m (6 ft Performance: maximum speed
engdnes drivinq contra-rotating fow- Tu-20s (a little more than half the re- 6.75in) fuselage extension forward of 925 kn/h (575 mph) at 12500 m
blade propellers of massive 5,6 m (18 ft maining arrcraft) of the 'Bear-A , 'Bear- the winqs, Other 'Bears' have been (4 1,010 ft); maximum unretuelled

4.5in) diameter. At a time when tur- B', 'Bear-C' and 'Bear-G variants for noted with a variety of special sensor range (bomber) 12550 km (7,798
bojet bombers were proliferating, the free{all bombrng or carrying cruise equrpment fitments and three, destg- miles)
engine confiqnrration caused the de- missiles. Production of new 'Bear-H' nated Tu-142M, are due for delivery to Weight: maximum take-off about
sigm to be assessed as obsolescent, aircraJt at the Taganrog plant beenn the Indian Navy in 19BS for ASW duties lBB000 ks (414,469 1b)
and not until later did the West recently in order to provide a carrier as the sole exports of the Tu-20 series, Dimensions: span 51, l0 m ( 167 ft
appreciate the remarkable range and for the AS-15 crurse mtssile, Despite its age. the Bear' remains an 7,8 in); lensth 49,50 m (I62 ft 4,8 in);
bombload capabilities of the aircraft. Mantime reconnaissance versions effective reconnaissance aircraft and height 12, I2 m (39 ft 9.2 in); wing area
Accommodating up to 16 Personnel, ofthe 'Bear'have the bureau destgna- will continue to sewe Sovietnavalavia- 3I0.5 mz (3,342,3 sq ft)
comprising hvo crews, the Tu-20 re- tion Tu-142, this number having been tion (AV-MF) for some time to come. Armament: two NR-23 23-mmself-
reived the NATO reporting name revived and used in preference to Tl-t- Western observers speculate that its defence cannon in tail turret, pltts
tsea/ and was found to be capable of 20 rn order to identify naval models 'replacement' could prove to be a depth charqes, bombs and torpedoes.
flying over 160 km/h (99 mph) faster exempt from the 1979 SALT-2 arms- prop-fan version ofthe same bastc de-
than the supposed maxmum speed for control talks. These comprise 45'Bear- srgn,

Shcdowof fheBeclr
Inproduc tion for over 30 year s, the giant Tupolev design known as fft e' B ear' h as Below: A plan view of the'Bear-D' shows the
become a familiar sight over the oceans of the world. There can be few sailorswho unique configuration of sweptwing and massive
have taken part in a large exercise who have not felt the shadow of the'Bear'. turboprop engines driving four enorrnous sels or:
con tr a- r o tating pr o pe I le r s.

]e bear is, in rts animal form, often used to

:.:present the Soviet Union, and so tt was
:erhaps fittrng that NATO allocated the report-
-:rg name 'Bear' to Tupolev's Tu-20 bomber
-.','aen rt first appeared in the mid-1950s. Like
:e USSR, the 'Bear' is a giani; and in apparent
::nfirmation of Western opinrons of its country
,- origin, it appeared to be a backward design
Lcw, over three decades later, the immense
r.ange capability of the 'Bear', even without use
,- its inflight refuelling probe, has pressed
j-rme the fact that it is still a valuable asset in
:::aritime reconnaissance, Like Soviet influ-
=rce, 'Bears' wrli be found throughout the
;-cbe and, indeed, the aircraft is partly re-
:pcnsible for the USSR's current presence at
: rategic points on and under the world's
, leans.
Although used by the Soviet air force from
-.e 1956 as a strategic bomber (and later as a
,:rise missile carrier) the 'Bear' was not posi
',-ely identified in naval guise until 1967, when
,','c overflew US Coast Guard vessels in the
:,:ctic, Designated 'Bear-D', these were seen
.: irave an immense I band search radar scan
,.-=r beneath the belly, thrs berng christened
:.9 Bulge' by the NATO Air Standards Co
,:'iinating Committee. The name was
.:propriate, ior this was the largest radar car-
-=C aloft until the advent of AWACS aircraft,
.:::cnq a plethora of other electronic sensors
...i aerials, the 'Bear-D' has a 'Short Horn'
.. -gation (wrth bombing capabrlity) l-band to plnpoint targets for missiles launched by Below: 'Bear-D 'is tfte mosf seen version over
international waters, and frequently undertakes
. . i:r
below the extreme nose, while tn some ships or aircraft too far away to locate the flights in the North Atlantic, flying from ils bases on
,: - uariants the tarl turret is replaced by furth- enemy with therr own radars. the Kola Peninsula to airfields in Cuba. These are
=- :lectronic equipment. About 45 'Bear-Ds' The 'Bear E' is a rebuild of the 'Bear-A' for frequently intercepted by the F-4E Phantoms of the
-.:-arn in service, one oltheir main tasks being' strategic reconnaissance, incorporating an in- 57th Fighter Interceptor Squadron from Iceland.
Shadow of the Bear

flight-refuelling probe, six (occasionally seven) Fleet includes the waters olf Norway as its form half the South Atlantic surveillance force,
cameras in the bomb bay, and electrontc sen- training ground, while elements regnrlarly en- the balance coming from the African mainland
sors. Finally, rn 1973 the 'Bear-F' was iden- ter the North Atlantic via the lceland-Faroes at Luanda in Angola. Together, the two 'Bear'
trfled, This is a long-range antt-submarine ver- gap, thls being the fleet's expected matn thrust units can watch the ocean from the Mediterra-
sion featuring a lengthened fuselage, a revised hne in wartime, 'Bears' flying from bases on the nean approaches to the US coast and down as
flightdeck with raised canopy, a smaller l-band Kola peninsula as part of the 42S-strong naval far as the Cape of Good Hope. Luanda-based
radome mounted further forward than on the air element of the Northern Fleet suppolt these 'Bears' conducted iimited monitoring of the
'Bear-D', only optional frtment of J-band radar in operations. The position in the Paciflc is much British task force and its relnforcements during
a modified undernose housing, and a compre- the same, with patrols being regularly under- the Falklands war of i982,
hensive array ol sontc processing equipment taken of the Bertng and Okhotsk Seas as well as Soviet ships have increased their activities in
Some 50 of this version are in use. the more sensttive Sea of Japan, Some 440 naval the Indian Ocean where, inevitabiy, the 'Bear'
With its immense size, long range and re- aircraft of all types are based in thls area, is expected to appear in due course, augment-
spectable turn of speed, the 'Bear' was ideally 'Bears' rncluded, ing ihorter-range 'Mays' flovrn from Ethiopia
suited to the patrol of vast ocean tracts far from But 'Bears' are also to be seen over waters and South Yemen, If 'Bear-Ds'were deployed
base. The foundation of this work was laid in not immediately relevant to defence of the at Aden ln South Yemen, they could recon-
Nlklta Khrushchev's announcement ln January Soviet Union, Surveillance of shipping move- noitre the waters as far as the American rapid
1960 of a new military doctrtne in which the ments and gathering electronic intelligence deployment base at Diego Garcia. Perhapq
submarine would take pride of place amongst over a wide area are essential activities for any more-qalling to the USA is the fact the 'Bears'
navalweaponry, followed by the AV-MF (Nav- major power, as is the tangible provtsion of are now flying from its former base at Cam
al Aviation), with surface vessels and other un- support for frrendly Marxrst states in Central Ranh, Vietnam, in support of the 25 or so Soviet
its assigned lesser importance, As the fleet has America, Africa and South East Asia. When shrps operating in the South China Sea. First
gnown from a coastal protection force into a RAF fighters are scrambled to intercept an arrlvalsin this region, at Da Nang in April 1979,
'blue water navy', so has the 'Bear' increased its unknown aircraft flytng towards the North Sea were two 'Bear-Ds' lor survelllance, followed in
surveillance activities from an ever larger num- or through the lceland-Faroes gap, the target is lanuary of the next year by two ASW'Bear-Fs',
ber of bases. as likely as not to be identified as a 'Bear' on a these four aircraft moving to Cam Ranh in June
regular survelllance fllght. Special sorties are 1980 This was the first occasion on which the
Defensive patrols flown when there is a NATO naval exercise to two complementary 'Bear' models were seen
In the defensrve role, however, 'Bears'patroi be observed, while other intercepts may be of operating together outside the USSR, although
the waters around the Soviet Union on the look- 'Bears' going to and from rotational duty in the pattern was soon to be repeated in Cuba.
out for foreign shrps and submarines, just as Cuba. The importance of the 'Bear' deployment
.urrould any naval air force, The aircraft also The Castro regime in Cuba has provided the was stressed in November 1983 when i0
keep watch over the regular exercise areas of USSR wrth an ideal location from which to Tupolev Tu-i6 'Badger' jet bombers arrived at
the Soviet navy, although possrbly they have observe the eastern seaboard of the Umted Cam Ranh Tasked with anti-shipping strike,
little to do wtth the Black Sea and Baitic Fleets States and to support Marxist movements in the 'Badgers' would rely on their compatriots
which operate in the restricted home waters Central America. On average, six 'Bears' are for target location, and there has been specula-
ftat canbe covered by the Ilyushtn 11-38 'May' based at San Antonio, south of Havana, from tion that a regiment of 25 'Badgers' wlll even-
More extensive operational areas are enjoyed where they can co-operate with Sovtet shlps tually be based in Vietnam. Reinforcement or
by the Pacific and Northern Fleets, the latter regularly deployed in the Gulf of Mexico, replacement of these aircraft cauSed a dip-
being responsrble for the 12000-km (7 456- 'Bear Ds' arrived in November 1981, beinq lomatic lncident late in November 1984, when
mrle) Arctic coastline and operation of the joined by the ASW 'Bear-Fs' from early-1983 numbers of both types passed through
qreater proportion of the USSR's nuclear sub- onwards, The latter are deployed to the area Japanese airspace during their ferry flights
marlnes. apparently to track US nuclear-armed sub- Few areas of naval importance are now out-
Operating from Murmansk, the Northern marines leaving eastern ports, These aircraft side the reach of 'Bears' flying from home terri-

The Shadow Strikes

The'Bear-C' is a strike version of the Tu-95 design,
easily identifiable from the maritime
recomarsance versions by the much larger chin
radame. lts primary maritime function in time o!
war would be to attack high'value naval targets,
s'uch as a carrier battlegroup, in coniunction with
surtace and submarine forces.
Modern Maritime Aircraft

.rry or from the arrfields of countries lriendly to from satellites, ships and submarrnes Aerial Above: Intercepted in 1978, this
l"4oscow, In the absence of aircralt operating surveillance is essential for the proteclion and 'Bear-D' has a faired-in tailcone in
.rom large carrrers, 'Bears' have provrded the effective operations of a modern naval force place of the rear gun turret. This
JSSR wrth the means to observe the world's and in that sense the'Bear'may be said to have fairing is thought to house yet more
electronic sensors for its role of
-.ripping lanes and rts mllrtary traffic, provldlng led the Soviet navy out into the oceans of the
maritime surve illa n ce and over- the-
.-Ltal rntelligence to augmeni that gathered world. harizon missile targeting.
Left: AS-4'Kitchen'
missiles arm both theTu-
20 'Bear' and the Tu-22M
'Backfire' bombers. The
AS-4 seems to be one af the
most advancedSoviet
missiles in service with a
r ange v ar iou s Iy e s tim a te d
at from 300 km ( I BS miles)
at low level to over 800 km
(500 miles) athigh leve|"
Guidance is inertial until
final approach, when an
active radar homing
system takes over.

Right: Soviet missiles have a range of

options when approaching a target.
Some may be programmed to atteck
at low level, althoughfew have
gen uine sea-skirh ming ability. A
favourite tactic, hawever, is a high-
speed high-level run diving
vertically down on the target. For a
high-value target such as an aircraft
carrier it is probable that a low-yield
nuclear warhead would be used, .

r tseriev Be-12 Tchaika 'hltrai}' .i-;

i. i'

lne of the world's few rematntng I

:mphLbrous aircraft, the Beriev Be-12 .. ...,.,,,,i!.-€#
redrum-ranqe patroller is a record- a .:t
./':: iiti:l::=:€:€
i ir ,. a .^ -'r..-eI
::oider par excellence, having swePt
.:,e board ol all 22 drsiinctions rn FAI !.J
' -- I .

lLass C2 (turboprop flyrng-boats) and

arrther 22 in Class C3 (turboProP
...--::ibtans' Desplte'hese acht^ve
:-enis the arrcraft is not a spectal trials Rnown to the Soviets as the M- I2, the
:;rdei, but tn reqular service wtth the aviation wrth a valuable asset. Promln- marn unrts of which fold upwards into
ent equipment lor the main atlti- the hult although the tips of the wheeis Beriev Tchaika (SeaguJ/) is one of tile
S:'.-Let Northern and Black Sea Fleets,
l=rng responsible for anti-submartne subinarine role are the Short Horn'J- remaln .rrsibie. Stabilizing floats las t amphibians lo see./arge-sca/e
band radar tn the nose for lonq-lange rnc'unted closr lo the tips ate military use, fctr purposes from ASW
a:1 suweLllance duttes out to some
:. I km (230 miles) from shore An un- search and bombing, and a tail- flxed Be-l2s ceased operation from to e I e ctranic inte I lige nce.
atrcraft, the Be-12 was approp- mounted MAD boom DePtlL chargtes Egypt 1n EAF insrgnia when that coun
;rLlly tiy drstanced rtself lrom the USSR, but
:-ately named Tchaika (seagull) bY and other stores can be released
::ason of rts qrull wtnqt mountinq the through a hatch in the iower irull be- since l98l up to a dozen have been
hjnd the step Other eguipment, such dehvered to Vietnam (apparently still 910 m (2,986 ft) per mrnutel servtce
::g:nes at the hlghest Point to keeP ce-[-rg I lzB0 n (]7 00d rl r maxjmun
.:= propellers clear of spray at take-olf as torpedoes, may be attaciled exter- Soviet-crelved) for missions over the
::i lanciing. nally bn two pylons outl:oard of each South China Sea, The type is also range 4000 km (2,485 miles)
engine, At ieast flve crew members known as the M-i2, Weights: empty about 20000 kg
Developments took place during the (44,092 lb)t maximum take off about
-ate l95Os with the intention oi replac- are carried comprtsing a pllot co-
pilot engineer, radar/ESN{ operator Specifieation 29450 kq (64,926 1b)
rg the Be-6, and the NATO name Be-i2'Mail' Dimensions: span 29 7I m (97 ft 5. 7 in);
'Mail' was bestowed followinq the and ASW operator (and uP to ntne
when a vrsual search is to be under' Type: amphrbtous maritime patrol tength30, 17 m (98 ft I 1.8 in) hetght
.:res debut at the 1961 Aviation DaY T,AAmQZ ft 11,6 in)t winqarea 105.0
:isoiay at Tushrno Moscow. Servrce taken) The arrcraft also appears 1c be aircraft
Powerplant:two 3124.8-ekW (4 190- m2 (1 130 2 sg f0
::i.ri'took place around 1965 and at -sed tor electron-c intr li-qel'ct' ntLs Armament depth charqtes, torpedoes
,:asl 100 were dehvered before pro- srons, parttcularly over the Baltic, ehp) Ivchenko AI-2OD turboprops
Operating fuom coastal bases, the Be- Performance: maximum speed and bombs carried tnternallY or on
:..ctrcn ended iri the early 1970s, about
:: 3f them conttnuing to provide naval 12 uses a tariwheel landrng qtear, the 608 km/h (378 mph); initial climb rate fcrurwingpylons


Ilyushin ni-38 'May'

been in order to leave the long rear (Soviet naq) arrcraft, whrch fly from l0 17 m (33 ft 4,4 tn); wtngarea
lly-rshin's Il-18 turboprop was one of it)
:-e most successful Sovtet passenger Iuselaqte oevotd ot petal lo lnprov€ Goa wrth No 315 Sqn. 140,0 mz (1,507.0 sq
performance olthe MAD stinqer in the Armament: not known but certainlY
.-:ers with enormous productton and inciudes numerous sonobuoys and AS
=rports including manY used bY air extended tailcone. It cannot be Specification
accounted for merelY bY the weight, II-38'May' lorpedo-s houseo trt' rnally: wj'tq
:::es. In about 1967 his design bureau haidpoints have been rePorted but
-- ,'. the firsr Il-38 ASW converston under the forward fuselage, of the sur- Type:maritime patrol and ASW
'.-:r"l similar to that effected by Lock- veiliance radar, which resembles that aircraft remain unconflrmed
:-:ed to produce the P-3 Orion though of some Ka 25 hehcoPters. The abs- Powerplant: four 3169.2-ekW (4 250-
ence of wtnq pylons ls noteworthy ehp) Ivchenko AI-20M turboprops Like its slightly earlier
-:- Illrushin's case the internal equip- contemparary, theOrion, the II-38
::::t resulted in a remarkable forward Crew is reported to number 12, erght Performance: (es .ra rcd, cru.sir.g
being missrcn operators in the main speed 645 krL/h (401 mph); ranqe was evolved from a civilian airiiner.
::,r:t cf the wing, The ongtnal circular-
tac'tCal compartmen Prociuclton w". 7250 km (4 505 miies) Some 60 arebelieved to be
.::i.on pressurized fuselage is sllghtly operatianalwith the Soviet navy and
.::gthened and the windows rePlaced probably about 100 completed in the Weights: (estimated) empty 36300 kg
early 1970s. In 1972 several operated (80 028 Ib) maximumtake-off64000 kq can be faund over the.Atlantic,
:'.- a few small ports, and shallow M e diterr anean and, incre asinglY,
'.:apon bays are added ahead of and from Eqiypt and in 1979 Il-3Bs (called (141 096 lb)
:-=lnd the low-mounted wingr The 'May' by NATO) oPerated frorn the Ye- Dimensions: 37.40 m ( 122 ft 8.4 in ); over the Indian Ocean. Three ex-
men. Indra bought three ex-AV-MF lensth 39,60 m ( 129 ft I I 1 in); hetght Sovietmodels a re in Indian service'
-:r-,.iard shrft of the winqJ may have

Armed Forces of the Tl/orld

For centuries lraq has been one o; tne
'rosi tJrbu-
lent of all the nations in the Midd e East. and has
line operations or airborne missions. There are nine
reserve brigades, and to these can be added 15
been beset by a tradition of intemal ..:nrest and an People's Army and other volunteer infantry bri-
aggressive foreign policy. Historically. rr l;tary ac- gades, not all of which are for front-line use.
tion has followed a cycle of victory and tnen defeat ln recent years lraq has deliberately tried to get
leading to expansion followed by occupation, and away f rom a reliance on the Soviet Union for all arms
the nature of the population is such tnat it has a supplies, but the army is still largely equipped with
reputation for ungovernability. ln recent years this Soviet weapons. There are over 2,1 00 tanks in ser-
latter problem has been partially conected by the vice including T-54, T-55, T-62 and T-72 main battle
imposition of a rigid military autocrary leading to a tanks (MBTs). To these can be added about 100
period of relative stability, but for the armed forces PT-76 amphibious tanks and an undefined number
this period has been marked by a constant war of ex-Chinese T-69 tanks. Captured equipment has
against the Kurds, a warlike minority seeking auton- also been impressed for use (including numbers of
omy. This Kurdish war has now been going on for Chieftain MBTs), and other equipment has been
over 1 5 years but in recent times has been oversha- passed to lraq by supportive Arab nations such as
dowed by the now stalemated lran-lraq conflict. Kuwait. Other armour includes virtually the entire
Although this war has now settled down into a range of Soviet armoured personnel carriers and
state of virtual immobility, it still occupies most of light armoured vehicles, but in recent years more
:ne lraqi armed forces' resources and manpower. have arrived from Brazil. Brazil is now one of lraq's
-nlike their opponents, the lraqis do at least have majorweapon suppliers and in lraqiservice are EE-3
:re advantage that their armed forces are still in a armoured cars, EE-9 Cascavel light armoured vehi-
:shesive state and new weapons and supplies are cles and EE-1 1 Urutu armoured personnel carriers.
3otainable, The air force is still active and the small Other equipment has come from France (Panhard
-avy is still operating. However the lraqis simply M-3 armoured cars) and Switzerland (MOWAG
ec< the strength to overcome their opponents who wheeled armoured vehicles). Czechoslovakia has
:'e still numerically superior, in men if not in mat6r- been another weapons supplier.
e When lraq invaded lran back in September 1980 The lraqiartillery is a powerfularm with wellover
i d/ent well, though only at first. The subsequent 3,500 pieces of towed and self-propelled ordnance.
='.an counteroffensives pushed the lraqis back
Most of the weapons are of Soviet origin and include
raqi territory, but the two sides are now unable large numbers of FROG rockets and even heavy
:: -ake any marked impact upon each other. lran mortars. Anti-tank weapons include Soviet guns,
-es already resorted to chemical warfare in an Austrian tank destroyers and missiles including the
m:-ot to make a breakthrough and the lraqis are Soviet 'Sagger', French SS.1 1 , HOT and Milan, and
using their air force to attack the oil tankers British Swingfire weapons. Air defence weapons
a-r: : that shore up lran's shaky eco- include all the usual Soviet missiles, large and small,
rar, Throughout this war, as in the Kurdish war, it along with numbers of Soviet anti-aircraft guns. As
s :-e r-aqi army that is bearing the brunt of the with the armour, many ex-lranian weapons are in The poster on this T-55 commemorates the great
j61:,9, and to date casualties have been heavy (but service. Arab victory over f/rePersrbnslh 637 at Qadisiya.
ur:ra'. 'npossible to quantify). But the army, like The main point to bear in mind at the moment is President Hussein gambled he could win another,
fir* 3-=.'ce and navy, remains a cohesive body. that lraq is still obtaining supplies of weapons from a but hk attack stalled, embroiling lraq in a war of
number of sources while lran ls not. Weapons con- attrition against a country withfiree fimes jts
popula6on ruled by uncompromising fanatics.
Tfrrc lraqi Army tinue to be sent to lraq from Brazil, France and many
:r* :-e : n-:e the lraqi army is some 475,000
,iti other nations; for example, a new weapon recently
sr:trrq ::€ -ea/ great maiority of these men being delivered by France has been the 155-mm (6.1-in) ing the early days of the war with lran many political
lmrTisi::trr: ::^scr;pts normally serve a two-year GCT self-propelled gun. Many Arab nations support differences were set aside and for a period even the
mrrn-, :r-: i-€ ,'r3r nas meant that many have to lraq in the conflict with lran, and even if they do not Kurds ceased their small war, but as the war con-
mnnarr r -- =:- -lch longer. Many of the army's provide weapons they donate funds for arms pur- tinues and no results are to be seen, the army is
Misn!€€ ;i ' l'l lg! -er have also been recalled for chases. being used lncreasingly to maintain internal stability.
@rrdlmg -*E ?-* S c.ganized into a number of Anotherpointto bearin mindwith the lraqiarmyis and at times combat units have had to be withdrawn
'mrw* - : *3xe .,;p +rom six armoured divi-
tr-r *a:r-a-z€a that it remains an organized fighting force. even from the front for internal security duties. ln theory
$rrmrrnn tr*' nfantry divisions and six after four years and more of constant war, to say the People's Army is used for this purpose, but the
llfrlli nTrtrr 3-r: -:----: - : .'s ons. Tnere are also two nothing of the war against the Kurds that still sput- fact that it is found necessary to employ combat
iiffimuruu,,Lra- :-ar: ar*:--eC br;gades, mainly re- ters away in the mountains to the north. But set units for the task speaks volumes in itself.
r,mnillriw@ .ltr fl*l; le-s:ra -se o' tne president, and against this is the fact that the lraqi regime is a
ttlliffimi s0imsa-r:F::= :.;a:s-s 'A r'3n, as their name military dictatorship that retains its hold on power to The lraqi Navy
liltt'Il@Irm. Irt* ;**:'i:-:--:':s:: :-:^ as behind-the- great extent by the imposition of military force. Dur- The lraqi navy is an integral part of the army, anci
numbers only about 4,000 men. The main naval
bases are at Umm Oasr and Basra. The largest lrac'
ship is a single training frigate, the main comba:
strength being formed by a number of small attac<
craft or coastal vessels, During the war with lran the
lraqi navy has been engaged in some spirited scraps
wlth the lranian navy, and has suffered accordingr
in men and vessels. ln time, however, these losses

I raqi gunners pound the I ranian oil city of

Khoramshahr with Russian M 1931 /37 (A- I 9) I 22-
mm gans. Iraq has about 3,500 gans, mostly of
Soviet origin, varying from theseWorldWat ll
models to the latest Soviet equipment. Holding
positions against lranian human wave attacb. the
Iraqi forces rely heavily on such long-range
Armed Forces of the World Iraq H
in the Persian Gulf . The lraqi air force at present has
air superiority over the remains of the lranian air
force, and as supplies of new mat6riel continue to
arrive it seems set to retain this superiority for some
time to come. lt has certainly been one of the major
reasons why the lranian army is unabie to use its
manpower to 'steamroller' through the lraqi army

Iraqi infantry use a bewildering variety of Souiet' A T-62 crosses the Karoun river in October I 980 , as Order of battle
French, Brazilian and, in this case, Czech APCs; the advance into lran continues. Until the invasion lraqi Army
these are OT-64Cs, capable of carrying up to I 5 of I ran, I raqi tanks were more usu ally seen on the. - 6 armoured divisions (T-54, T-55,f -62,1-72and
men in addition to their two-man crew. The tunet streets of Baghdad or surrounding the Presidential Chieftain MBTs. PT-76 lighttanks, and numerous
mounts a 1 4'5-mm KPW machine-grun with a palace during the frequent coups d'6tat. armoured cartypes)
co-axial7.62-mmMG. 4 mechanized infantry divisions (B RDM, FUG-70,
combination of Dassault-Breguet Super Etendards ERC-90, MOWAG, EE-9 and EE-3 armoured cars,
will be more than compensated by the arrival of four
and Exocet missiles. and BMP, BTR-50, BTR-60, BTR-70, 0T-62,
frigates and six corvettes currently on order from
The main striking force of the air force is its two 0T-64, Panhardand EE-1 1 APCs)
Italy. These will have logistical backing from a new
bomber squadrons, one with the Tupolev Tu-22 6 infantry and mountain divisions
support ship. ln the meantime the main striking
'Blinder' and the other with venerable llyushin ll-28 2 Republican Guard armoured brigades
force of the navy is invested in about six or seven
'Beagle' bombers. Combat has cut down the num- 3 special forces brigades
ex-Soviet 'Osa' class missile-armed fast attack craft
bers of these to perhaps seven and five respective- 9 reserve brigades (mostly infantry)
ly, but these two squadrons are still able to provide a 1 5 People's Army and volunteer brigades
The lraqiAir Force
various security troops
The lraqf airforce ls a separate arm from the army, powerful raiding potential. There are no fewer than
and has a numerical strength of 38,000 men, includ- 11 fighter/ground attack squadrons with a mix of some 10,000 volunteers from otherArab countries
ing air-defence personnel. lt is still organized very Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23BM' Flogger', Sukhoi Su-
much along Royal Air Force lines, a legacy of the 7'Fifier' and Sukhoi Su-20'Fitter' aircraft along with
period when the UK occupied lraq, but much of the the few remaining Hunters. The five interceptor lraqiNavy
squadrons have an even more varied mix of MiG-19 1 training frigate
equipment is Soviet in origin. However, determined
efforts have been made to diversify supply sources 'Farmer', MiG-21'Fishbed' and MiG-25'Foxbat' air- 8'Osa' missile attack craft
and thus some French aircraft are used along with craft along with the f irst of the Mirage F.1 s to arrive. 3'SO-1 'large patrol craft
The MiG-19s and MiG-21s come from both Soviet 6 'P-6'torpedo attack craft
the remaining few Hawker Hunters (and Westland
and Chinese sources. 6 coastal patrol craft
Wessex helicopters) from many years back.
The lraqi air force is one of the most powerful in The advanced MiG-25'Foxbat'also equips a sing- 5'T-43' minesweepers
the N/iddle East, and despite combat losses it re- le reconnaissance squadron, and there are two 3 tank landing craft
mains an effective operational force still. lt includes transport squadrons, again with a varied mlx of
among its aircraft some of the most sophisticated Antonov transports, llyushin ll-76 'Candid' heavy
Sovlet warplanes available, and it still manages to transports (including some impressed civilian exam- lraqi Air Force
ples), llyushin ll-14'Crate' light transports and two 2 bomber squadrons (Tu-22 'Blinder' and ll-28
obtain the latest types from the Soviet Unlon, 'Beagle')
although aircraft from France have been among the Tupolev fu-124s. More transport capability is sup-
most recent aircraft arrivals ; these include Dassbult- plied by 1 t
helicopter squadrons. The range of 11f ighter/ground attack squadrons (MiG-238M
equipment used by these squadrons is wide, and 'Flogger', Su-7 and Su-20'Fitter', and Hunter)
Breguet Mirage F.1 fighters and the well-known
covers all the usual Soviet Mil designs, French 5 interceptor squadrons (MiG-25 'Foxbat', MiG-1 9
46rospatiale Super Frelons and Gazelles, West Ger- 'Farmer', MiG-21 'Fishbed'and Mirage F.1 )
A Hawker Hunter FGA.Mk 59 of the lraqi air torce man MBB BO105s, and the last of the ex-British 1 reconnaissance squadron (MiG-25'Foxbat')
is seen at Dunsfold before delivery. Iraq received Wessex helicopters. 2 transport squadrons (An-2 'Colt', An-1 2 'Cub',
its frrst Hunters in 1957, and large numbiers of A great deal of equipment is on order for the air An-24'Coke', An-26 'Curl', ll-76 'Candid', ll-14
refurbished aircratt, like this ex-Belgian example, force, some of it combat replacements, but much of 'Crate' and Tu-1 24'Cookpot')
have been procared subsequently. Thanks to the 1 t helicopter squadrons (Mi-4'Hound', Mi-6
Bitish occupation of lraq, the modern lraqi air it new. A portion of this new equipment, including
missiles, is already to hand and has been used in Mi-8'Hip', Mi-24'Hind', Alouette lll Super Frelon,
force owes muchot its organization and doctrine
action against the lranian oil installatlons and tankers Gazelle. Puma, BO1 05 andWessex)
toRAF practice.